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“I need to teach length to my students but I don’t really know where to start. I don’t really know what’s important for them to understand and what I should focus my teaching on.”

HEIDI BUSH presents three different tasks that can be used to assess children’s understanding of the length concepts of transitivity, use of identical units and iteration.

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his comment was made by an experienced and highly effective teacher; it illustrates an issue faced by many teachers when approaching mathematics, and in this case, length measurement. What are the important concepts for students to understand? How can I develop this understanding and how can students demonstrate their understanding? Three important measurement concepts for students to understand are transitive reasoning, use of identical units, and iteration. In any teaching and learning process it is important to acknowledge students’ existing knowledge and focus teaching on moving students on from this point. Assessment tasks that provide insight into students’ current understanding of or misconceptions about these concepts is, therefore, vitally important. The tasks presented here were developed to assess students’ understanding of transitive reasoning, identical units and iteration. The Early Numeracy Interview (Department of Education, Employment and Training, 2001) is acknowledged as an excellent tool for assessing students’ mathematical understanding and the tasks presented here are structured and scripted to align with this clinical interview process. The insights gained from these tasks can be used to inform future teaching and learning.

APMC 14 (4) 2009

29

Say to the child – [Point to straw on left hand side of the barrier. Which straw is the longest? Tell me how you used this straw to check. [Point to the straw on the right side of the barrier.” “shorter than. 1992. the straw on the left must be longer. they may be encouraged to decide what sort of object may be used. Understanding this idea can be challenging for young children and is a skill that develops over time. For example. For example. 1992. Ask the students to suggest how the lines could be compared if they cannot be moved. If the student is having difﬁculty arriving at a solution. it is possible to gain important insight into their understandings of transitivity. a length of stick or string may be provided as a prompt. or transitivity. p. draw chalk lines of different lengths and some distance apart outside. is a concept based on comparison. How might we use this to ﬁnd out which line is longer? Figure 1 30 APMC 14 (4) 2009 .Bush Transitive reasoning Transitive reasoning. The above task may be replicated with larger objects that are not as easily visible or comparable. The following task may be used to determine children’s understanding of transitive reasoning.” etc.] Which straw do you think is the longest? [Place the loose 15 cm straw on the table in Asking students to check using the loose straw ensures that even if the answer was obtained by using a direct comparison of the appearance of the two straws or transitive reason with reference to the width of the card. Important observations • Does the student give a reasonable estimate of which straw is longer? • Does the student accurately use the loose straw to compare the lengths of the two straws? • Does the student place the loose straw beside each straw in order to make a comparison? • Does the student’s explanation show evidence of transitive reasoning? (For example. if the loose straw is longer than the straw on the right but shorter than the straw on the left. 102) Materials required • 1 piece of A4 card • 20 cm straw glued in a vertical position on the left hand side of the card • 10 cm straw glued in a vertical position on the right hand side of the card • 15 cm straw • 1 piece of A4 card folded in half widthways Activity Take the card with the straws glued down each side and stand the folded card between the two straws to create a barrier between them (see Figure 1). Here is another straw. if three lines (A. The Straws and the Barrier (Modiﬁed from Wilson & Osborne. p.? Ideas for teaching and learning Teachers need to provide opportunities for students to use objects for direct and indirect comparison in order to make judgements about length. front of the child. 102).] Here is a straw.) • Does the explanation include language such as “longer than.] Please use this straw to check. If student arrive at a solution involving a third object for comparison. then we can also say that A is longer than C (Wilson & Osborne. Place the card with straws and barrier in front of the child. B and C) are different lengths and A is longer than B which is longer than C.

Here are some paper clips. This allows students’ understanding of identical units to be assessed.Assessing Children’s Understanding of Length Measurement Identical units This concept is an important one for students to understand when measuring with either standard or non-standard units. The Straw and Mixed Paper Clips (Modiﬁed from Department of Education. none of the students successfully used the paperclips to iterate and ﬁnd the width of the envelope. Which material did the student choose? Was it suitable for the object being measured? Did the student use identical units to measure the object? • Objects may also be included that are less suitable. counting each iteration in order to arrive at a measurement. 2001. such as small and large blocks. a single unit can be repeatedly moved. ask “5 (or 3) what?”] Important observations • Does the student use identical units to measure the straw. i. Please measure how long the straw is with paper clips. 42). to assess students’ understanding of appropriate units for length measurement. “5 paperclips” or “3 paperclips”? Iteration Iteration involves using a unit repeatedly in order to ﬁnd a measurement. should be provided with tasks that require them to choose an appropriate unit. 2 and 5. For example: • We need to measure how long our mat is. Ideas for teaching and learning Many tasks involving non-standard units require students to measure an object with a given unit. provide a container with mixed materials. or choose a unit from a collection of possibilities. What could we use to measure it? What else could we use? What could we use that might help us measure it more quickly? • When asking students to measure an object with non-standard units.” It is therefore APMC 14 (4) 2009 31 . When the envelope and three paperclips task was used with three students from Grades 1. This concept will not always come naturally to children and explicit teaching of it as a strategy for measuring will be necessary. Materials required • 15 cm plastic drinking straw • 8 large (5 cm) paper clips • 5 small (3 cm) paper clips Activity Place the straw and collection of mixed paper clips in front of the child. the units of length used to measure an object must be identical. such as beans or cotton balls. They chose to use estimation or declared the task “impossible. If an accurate measure is to be gained. however. therefore creating overlap? • Does the student give the correct unit of measure in their response. Rather than laying multiple units end to end (tiling). Employment and Training.. for example: “How many blocks long is your table/pencil case/foot…?” Students.e. paperclips. p. tiles and so on. all large or all small paperclips? • Does the student use a mixture of large and small paperclips to measure the straw? • Does the student accurately line the paperclips up with the beginning of the straw when measuring? • Does the student lay the paperclips beside the straw without gaps or overlap? • Does the student link the paperclips together. Say to the child: Here is a straw. i. [If the child hesitates] Use some paper clips to measure the straw.e. straws. What did you ﬁnd? [If correct answer is given (5 or 3) but no units. In length measurement this involves laying a unit repeatedly end to end along the length of an object. The Straw and Mixed Paper Clips task may be used to determine students’ understanding of the importance of using identical units when measuring an object..

Say to the child: Here is an envelope..g. “How many blocks long is your pencil case/desk/foot…?” and providing sufﬁcient blocks to allow a simple count along the length of the object. Early numeracy interview booklet. For example.bush@catholic. and not assume that it is a concept they will grasp independently. Foundational ideas in teaching about measure. P. Importantly they also represent opportunities for students to construct new understandings. including stating the unit in their measurement (5 paperclips)? Acknowledgement I would like to thank Ann Gervasoni for encouraging me to write this article. e. Employment and Training. “Five what?”] of the unit is provided and students merely count the number of units used. (2001). ask. [If the child hesitates. Needham Heights. Important observations • Does the student use the paperclips to iterate? That is.tas. In T. leading to explicit instruction in iteration as a measurement strategy. Melbourne: Author. A. Ideas for teaching and learning Generally when working with non-standard units. R. do they lay the three paperclips on the envelope end to end and then move a paperclip repeatedly.au> APMC 32 APMC 14 (4) 2009 . in which a sufﬁcient number Heidi Bush Catholic Education Ofﬁce (Tasmania) <heidi. Here are some paper clips. laying it at the end of the other paperclips. With this in mind. requiring units to be repeated through iteration. Students should also be provided with tasks in which too few of a unit are provided. that is. The concepts of transitive reasoning. students should be provided with too few blocks to make the length of the object. The tasks described here may be used as a starting point to determine students’ understanding of three important measurement concepts. They may then be encouraged to problem solve a solution. Vic. counting the moves each time until they reach the end of the envelope? • Does the student place the paperclips without gaps or overlap? • Does the student correctly measure the width.Bush important that we provide students with early opportunities to solve such problems.). It is important that we explicitly teach these concepts to students and not leave their acquisition to chance. are students aware that a single unit may be used repeatedly to measure a length? The Envelope and 3 Paper Clips (developed by the author) Materials required • B4 size envelope (25 cm in width) or a 25cm line drawn on a piece of card • 3 large (5 cm) paperclips.edu. Place 3 large (5 cm) paperclips beside the envelope or line. Post (Ed. References Department of Education. “There’s not enough. it is necessary to assess students’ current levels of understanding in order to plan effective learning experiences. rather than asking the question. S.”] Are you able to use these paperclips to measure how wide the envelope is? What did you ﬁnd? [If correct answer is given (5) but no units. students are exposed to a large number of tiling tasks. (1992). Please use the paperclips to measure how wide the envelope is. MA: Allyn and Bacon. Activity Place the envelope in front of the child in the portrait position. 89–121). Wilson. Teaching mathematics in grades K–8: Research-based methods (pp. & Osbourne. The Envelope and Three Paperclips task may be used to assess iteration. iteration and identical units are critical for students to understand when approaching measurement tasks.

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