PROIECT: POSDRU 62665 - Formarea continuă a cadrelor didactice pentru utilizarea resurselor informatice moderne în predarea eficientă a limbii

engleze şi evaluarea la nivel european a competenţelor lingvistice

Programul de formare „Dimensiuni europene moderne în predarea-învățarea limbii engleze”

Suport de curs
Autori
Maria Bujan: modulele 5, 8, 9, 10,11, 12 Carmen Georgescu: modulele 1, 3, 6 Ruxandra ic!i"a: modulele 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 #lorina $ %asmine iculescu: modulele &, ',13 (r)*nca $ Mariana +egulescu: modulele 2, 1&

1

Cupri s PREZENTAREA GENERALĂ A PROGRAMULUI DE FORMARE........................11 MODULE 1 – COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING..................................16
Activity 1: Characteristics of the Communicative Approach....................................18 Activity 2: The Communicative Approach and other language teaching methods. 20

A.The Grammar-Tran !a"#$n Me"h$%....................................................................&' E. C$(n#"#)# m.........................................................................................................&1
Activity 3: Communicative approach vs. grammar-translation method...................21

*"e+ ,.1-In%e+en%en" -$r. ...................................................................................&,
Activity : !ost Communicative "anguage Teaching #!ost C"T$.............................23 Activity %: curriculum online.......................................................................................2%

/. U e $0 Te1hn$!$(2 #n "he 1!a

r$$m...............................................................&3

&eferences ................................................................................................................... 2'

MODULE & – TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGE* COMMUNICATIVEL4-A COMMON EUROPEAN FRAME5OR6 APPROACH............................................&7
Activity %:Tas( )ased language teaching#T*"T$.......................................................2+ Activity +: The ,uropean !ortfolio and !assport......................................................2+ -).ectives..................................................................................................................... 2+ Activity 1: The communicative language competence..............................................28 Activity 2: Cooperative learning..................................................................................30 Activity 3: /ultiple 0ntelligences: 1ardner2s Theory..................................................31

/. M8!"#+!e In"e!!#(en1e Char"..............................................................................,&
Activity : 3euro-linguistic programming #3"!$........................................................3% Activity .114- 1o to...................................................................................................3' and develop an activity similar to the ones descri)ed at .........................................3' multiple intelligences tests..........................................................................................3' Activity %: Tas( )ased language teaching #T*"T$.....................................................3' 5o6 can 0 use T*" in the classroom7 5ere are the stages of T*"T:.......................3' Activity ': 3euro-linguistic programming #3"!$.......................................................38 Activity +: The ,uropean !ortfolio and !assport...................................................... 0 The ,uropean !ortfolio and !assport........................................................................ 0 &eferences....................................................................................................................

MODULE ,- THE EUROPEAN PROFILE OF TEACHER TRAINING....................96
Activity 1: 0dentifying the ,uropen profile for language teacher education............ +

2

*. 0nitial teacher training ............................................................................................. +

*TRUCTURE.....................................................................................................9: 6NO5LEDGE AND UNDER*TANDING ..............................................................9: VALUE* ..................................................................................................................9;
Activity 2: 5o6 to /a(e ,nglish "essons /ore ,ffective and 8uccessful.............. 9 Activity 3: ,ducational Technology standards for teachers.....................................%1 The 3et6or(ed Teacher...............................................................................................%2 &eferences.................................................................................................................... %3

MODULE 9- T4PE* OF LEARNING ACTIVITIE* FOR TEACHING GRAMMAR.33 A1"#)#"2 1< G$a! an% Te1hn#=8e 0$r Tea1h#n( Grammar.................................36 A1"#)#"2 &< De)e!$+#n( Grammar A1"#)#"#e .........................................................36 A1"#)#"2 9< T#+ 0$r "ea1h#n( (rammar..................................................................36 A1"#)#"2 3< Grammar !e)e! ....................................................................................36 A1"#)#"2 6< E%81a"#$na! !#n. ..................................................................................36 A1"#)#"2 7< *am+!e $0 a1"#)#"#e 0$r "8%en" .....................................................36
Activity 1: 1oals and Techni:ues for Teaching 1rammar........................................%' Activity 2: ;eveloping 1rammar Activities................................................................%9 Activity 3: Teaching 1rammar 0nductively vs. ;eductively......................................'1 Activity : Tips for teaching grammar........................................................................'3 Activity %: 1rammar levels of accuracy #C,<&$.........................................................' Activity ': ,ducational lin(s........................................................................................' &eferences ................................................................................................................... '

MODULE 3 - TEACHING VOCA/ULAR4..............................................................66
Activity 1: Teaching voca)ulary: 1oals......................................................................'+ Activity 2: Approaches to teaching voca)ulary.........................................................'8 Activity 3: Teaching voca)ulary techni:ues=4ays of conveying meaning ............+1 Activity : 0ngredients of good voca)ulary 6or(.......................................................+% Activity %: The right time to teach voca)ulary...........................................................+8 Activity ': "esson planning and introduction of ne6 language items.....................+9 &eferences.................................................................................................................... 81

MODULE 6 – TEACHING READING......................................................................:&
Activity 1: 1oals and Techni:ues for Teaching &eading..........................................83 Activity 2: ;eveloping &eading Activities..................................................................8'

3

Activity 3: ;ifferent (inds of reading-e>tensive vs. intensive...................................89 Activity : Authentic vs. non-authentic materials......................................................90 Activity %: Tips for effective reading...........................................................................92 Activity ': ,ducational lin(s........................................................................................93 &eferences.................................................................................................................... 93

MODULE 7< T4PE* OF LEARNING ACTIVITIE* FOR TEACHING LI*TENING.;3
Activity 1: 1oals and Techni:ues for Teaching "istening........................................9' Activity 2: ;eveloping "istening Activities...............................................................101 Activity 3: ;ifferent (inds of listening -e>tensive vs. intensive..............................10' Activity : Authentic vs. non-authentic materials....................................................109 Activity %: Tips for effective listening.......................................................................112 Activity ': "istening levels........................................................................................112 Activity +: ,ducational lin(s......................................................................................11 &eferences..................................................................................................................11

MODULE : - ORAL PRODUCTION......................................................................116
Activity 1: ?Teaching spea(ing@: 1oals.....................................................................11+ Activity 2: Approaches to teaching spea(ing..........................................................119 Activity 3: Activities to promote spea(ing ...............................................................120 C&0T,&0A <-& ,<<,CT0A, !&,8,3TAT0-38........................................................122 0.C-3T,3T-&,"AT,;................................................................................................122

II.ORGANI*ATION-RELATED..............................................................................1&& III.DELIVER4-RELATED.......................................................................................1&&
Activity : 0deas for planning spea(ing activities ...................................................123 Activity %: Correction and 1iving <eed)ac(.............................................................12% &eferences ................................................................................................................. 12%

MODULE ; – 5RITING.........................................................................................1&7
Activity 1: Approaches to Teaching 4riting ............................................................128 Activity 2: 4hy Teach 4riting7 ................................................................................130 Activity 3: !rinciples of Teaching 4riting................................................................131 Activity : Activities to !romote !rocess 4riting ..................................................133

5h2 1$n #%er 1$!!a>$ra"#)e -r#"#n( a

#(nmen" ?..........................................1,6

Activity %: 4riting to "earnB <unctional 4ritingB Creative 4riting..........................13+

*TEP 3.1 PAIR 5OR6@< 5RITING AOURNAL....................................................1,7 4

..............: IN*TRUCTION*............................: IN*TRUCTION*.......................................................................................................1%9 Activity 3: 0ntercultural Competence .....1........1+0 Activity 2: /ethodology around the cloc(.....................INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION............................& DGROUP 5OR6@< LETTER*.................................................................................................................1%3 Activity +: 4ays to improve teaching and learning )y using modern technology1% &eferences...................................................................1%8 Activity 2: !ro)lems of 0ntercultural Communication ....19& Activity 2: Teacher@s &oles .....1 9 Activity : !lanning !atterns of 0nteraction in Class...................................................................................................................1.................................................................................................: IN*TRUCTION*............................................................................................................139 MODULE 1' ..IN*TRUCTION*.................eveloping the 0ntercultural ................................ducation......................................................................................................................1%1 Activity %: 8tudents@ attitudes to different patterns of interaction.....................ADAU*TING CLA**ROOM MANAGEMENT TO THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT.............................................................................................................................................................................1.................................................1......imension in "anguage Teaching....................: In (r$8+ B %e1#%e $n h$..........1 + Activity 3: Teacher@s "anguage: 0nstructions..... De1#%e $n "he 0$rma"B "he "a ...7 In +a#r B %e1#%e $n -ha" 1an ($ #n"$ a -r#"#n( C$8rna!.........................................................................................................................1%' MODULE 11 .......1'' MODULE 1& ..........................................................1 DINDIVIDUAL 5OR6@< In%#)#%8a! "a ..............................................."$ "ea1h 2$8r "8%en" < 0$rma!E#n0$rma! !e""er -r#"#n(Ear"#1!e -r#"#n(E+r$+$ a! -r#"#n(................1..1%9 Activity : ................1'3 Activity %: Culture as a <ifth 8(ill....1 2 C!a r$$m Mana(emen" G$a! are<...........................1............................................16: Activity 1: /otivating tas(s..................1..................................................191 Activity 1: Classroom /anagement: 1oals..........1%2 Activity ': Autonomy and learning.........................................1' &eferences........................... an% "he !en("h re=8#remen"...........................................1+3 *TEP &..............................................: &eferences.......................................................17...................................................................................................................................................7 *TEP 3.....TEACHING AID*B *TRATEGIE*B METHODOLOG4B MODERN TECHNIFUE* AND TOOL* U*ED TO FACILITATE GUIDED AND AUTONOMOU* LEARNING OF ENGLI*H A* A FOREIGN LANGUAGE.....................................137 Activity 1: 0ntercultural ... 5 .

...........1.........................."a(e %e 1r#+"#$n $0 "he #n"en%e% +r$1e%8re 0$r "he !e $n.............................................................................................................................................................6 a 1!ear "a"emen" $0 a++r$+r#a"e a#m 0$r "he -h$!e !e a 1!ear !# " $0 "a(e #n "he !e $nB -#"h a %e 1r#+"#$n $0 a1"#)#"#e B "he#r a#m an% e "#ma"e% "#m#n(G............179 Activity 3: "anguage learning and communication strategies.....1 Pre................1..............................................................6 $n +!an...177 Activity %: /odern techni:ues and tools...............192 Activity 2: 8tages in "esson !lanning ............... The 0$rma! !e $n a1"#)#"#e ...............................1...............................& A1"#)#"2 3< E%81a"#$na! !#n.....................6 >a1........................1.1.................6 M$ " 0$rma! !e $n +!an nee% "$ #n1!8%e<.................1+8 &eferences................1.........................................173 Activity : Csing authentic materials..........................1..........................1.................6 !an(8a(e ana!2 # $0 #"em "ha" -#!! >e -$r......................& $n +!ann#n(.......................................1........ – LE**ON PLANNING.....1........1++ *TEP 9......................1.................. Ea1h 6 ........................................................................................................1.. Th# mean -r#"#n( a !# " $0 e+ara"e "a(e 1$n"a#n#n( #n%#1a"#$n $0 -ha" "he "ea1her an% "8%en" -#!! %$B "he %8ra"#$nB #n"era1"#$nB "he a#m $0 "he "a(e e"1..................................................................................& $n +!an ............(r$8n% #n0$rma"#$n a>$8" "he 1!a B "he "ea1herB "he ma"er#a! an% "he $)era!! a#m $0 "he !e $nG.....................................................................................................7 A0"er -r#"#n( "he >a1...6 A11$r%#n( "$ *1r#)enerDLearn#n( Tea1h#n( &''3@B 0$rma! !e $n +!an are $0"en %#)#%e% #n"$ "hree e1"#$n <.....193 &.....@........................................6 a %e"a#!e% 1hr$n$!$(#1a! "a(e-"$............&........................................................1.....& A1"#)#"2 6< *am+!e $0 !e Activity 1: 1oals and Techni:ues for "esson !lanning......................& $n P!ann#n( .1.......................................................................................................................& DGROUP 5OR6@< *HARING..........................1+% *TEP .............................1.................................6 $nG..*TEP &.............6 a !# " $0 +e1#0#1 "ar(e" !an(8a(e #"em D#0 #" # a !an(8a(e "ha" #n1!8%e !an(8a(e 2 "em -$r......1 A1"#)#"2 1< G$a! an% Te1hn#=8e 0$r Le A1"#)#"2 &< *"a(e #n Le A1"#)#"2 9< T#+ 0$r !e $n P!ann#n(.........................................................1....+!ann#n( !e &...............................1 DINDIVIDUAL 5OR6EGROUP 5OR6@< *TRATEGIE*...............e% $n #n "he 1!a G...........(r$8n% #n0$rma"#$nB an #m+$r"an" +ar" $0 "he +!an # a H "a"emen" $0 "he #n"en%e% +r$1e%8re $0 "he !e $nID*1r#)ener@.....................1 DINDIVIDUAL 5OR6EGROUP 5OR6@< AUTHENTIC MATERIAL*............................................... .....18+ MODULE 1..

............................"a(e 1an >e n8m>ere% $r name% a men"#$ne% ear!#er D-arm-8+B #n"r$%81"#$nB +re en"a"#$nB +ra1"#1eB e)a!8a"#$nE 0ee%>a1......................................................................................................1.................................................................................................................................1......................................: Gre"a..................................................................................................1..........7 I"J n$" a%)# a>!e "$<...1....................en 0r$m *1r#)enerJ HLearn#n( Tea1h#n(I.....................................................................7 Tea1herJ name..........: 8 e "he )er> H"$ ha)eI #n %# 18 #$n a>$8" "he#r "#me"a>!e an% 1$m+are #" -#"h $"her +8+#! J..............: I -an" "$ ha)e m2 +8+#! m$"#)a"e% an% a1"#)eB $ IJ!! "r2 "$ 8 e a (ame -#"h 1h$$! 8>Ce1" an% a%Ce1"#)e ..................................................: 3"h /-E!emen"ar2.....(......................................1..7 "he e en"#a! "e+ $0 ea1h "a(eG..............................................................................................................: $n "ar" "#me..................1......@G............................................ H "an% 8+I e"1...............1....@......................1..1............................................1.......................................1......G.................................................1.......................... e"1............................................................................. 0$rm # "a...............................1........................................................................................: Len("h $0 !e Ma#n !e 3' m#n8"e ..........B (r$8+--$r..1..................................1.........7 The +!an h$8!% (#)e #m+!e an% 1!ear $8"!#ne 0$r ea1h "a(e an% h$8!% #n1!8%e D*1r#)ener@<..........7 a 8m+"#$n re(ar%#n( 1er"a#n +r$>!em .............................................................1..........................: Per $na! ($a! .....................................1........................: $n....................................................................1.......1...........................................: Da"eE Le 1&"h Ma2.......: $n "he +8+#! -#!! >e a>!e "$<..........................B #n%#)#%8a! B -h$ -#!! "a!.................................................7 (#)e -$r%-0$r--$r% "eK" $0 a!! "he #n "r81"#$n an% eK+!ana"#$n ...........: $n a#m ......................"he >!an....................1...1.............................................................................................................................................: 7 ..1.......................1...........7 (#)e !$n( %e 1r#+"#$n $0 e)er2"h#n( "ha" -#!! ha++enG....................: C!a name.1..........1....................................1..........................................................................7 1!a r$$m mana(emen" #n0$rma"#$nB 81h a +a#r--$r.....: 0$rm a118ra"e $ra! an% -r#""en en"en1e 8 #n( 1$m+ara"#)e an% 8+er!a"#)e 0$rm $0 !$n( a%Ce1"#)e .................................7 %e 1r#>e #n %e"a#! "he r$8"#ne a1"#$n De..: /2 "he en% $0 "he !e 1$m+are 1h$$! 8>Ce1" B 8 #n( "he !$n( a%Ce1"#)e #n "he 1$m+ara"#)e an% 8+er!a"#)e 0$rm ......................7 Here -e ha)e a am+!e $0 a 0$rma! !e $n +!an D h$r" )er #$n@...: In "h# !e $n IJm ($#n( "$ 8 e )# 8a! a#% "$ "ea1h %e(ree $0 1$m+ar# $n $0 !$n( a%Ce1"#)e a -e!! a a P$-er P$#n" +re en"a"#$n.

............................1..........1..........................1.................1....................... An eKam+!e $0 81h +er $na! a#m 1an >e rea% #n "he "a>!e a>$)e..................#n( a>$8" %e(ree $0 1$m+ar# $n $0 #rre(8!ar a%Ce1"#)e -#!! >e "he neK" "e+.................. An eKam+!e 1an >e 0$8n% #n "he "a>!e a>$)e.................................. A !e $n -#!! ha)e m$re "hen $ne a#mB 8 8a!!2 an $)era!! $>Ce1"#)e D0$r eKam+!e +ra1"#1#n( !# "en#n( ...............#!! an% !an(8a(e 0$18 < nam#n( "he "r81"8re B 08n1"#$n B )$1a>8!ar2 $r +r$n8n1#a"#$n........................1......................................: U #n( Hm$reI #n 8+er!a"#)e en"en1e an% H"he m$ "I #n 1$m+ara"#)e $ne .........................................................................................................: A 8m+"#$n ....................1..............................................1............ Per $na! a#m < "he e are -ha" "ea1her "r2 $8" D-h#1h "he2 ha)e ne)er %$ne >e0$re@ $r "r2 "$ #m+r$)e a "ea1h#n( "e1hn#=8e ......1................................................... T#me"a>!e 0#"< "h# mean "he !e $n -h#1h # a>$8" "$ >e "a8(h" nee% "$ >e +!a1e% #n a e=8en1e $0 1!a e B -ha" ha++en >e0$re an% a0"er #".................................: Ma"er#a! 8 e%......................#!! @ an% +e1#0#1 a#m D0$r eKam+!e !# "en#n( 0$r +e1#0#1 #n0$rma"#$nB (8e #n( $r +re%#1"#n( "he 1$n"en"@..........e% "he 1$rre1" #n0$rma"#$n #n a "a>!e 0$r eKam+!eB "he2 ha)e 0$rme% en"en1e -#"h %e(ree $0 1$m+ar# $n $0 h$r" a%Ce1"#)e B "he2 ha)e "8%#e% )$1a>8!ar2 re!a"e% "$ +h2 #1a! a++earan1e.............................1....................................................: Ta!..............................................: In1$rre1"!2 8 #n( "he -$r% H"hanI #n 8+er!a"#)e en"en1e ........... A#m h$8!% re+re en" -ha" a "ea1her h$+e "he +8+#! -#!! >e a>!e "$ %$ D>2 "he en% $0 "he !e $n@B n$" -ha" "he "ea1her # ($#n( "$ %$....................................1................................T#me"a>!e 0#".........................................n$-!e%(e a>$8" "he )er> H"$ ha)eIB $ %# 18 #n( an% 1$m+ar#n( "#me"a>!e 8 #n( "h# )er> h$8!% n$" >e a +r$>!em............. 1............................ hee" -#"h eKer1# e B 0!a h1ar% B "#me"a>!e $0 %#00eren" +8+#! #n U6...........................: Pre%#1"e% +r$>!em ..........1....................: On "he $"her han%B Harmer a2 #n h# HThe Pra1"#1e $0 En(!# h Lan(8a(e Tea1h#n(I "ha" n$ $ne 1an a2 eKa1"!2 -ha" a 0$rma! +!an h$8!% !$$............................... A 8m+"#$n < "ea1her h$8!% a 8me -ha" "he +8+#! .......: P8+#! a!rea%2 ha)e $me .....an% 1an %$..................n$.........................1................................... 8 ........................ !#................. H$-e)erB a 0$rma! +!an h$8!% ha)e "he 0$!!$-#n( D $me $0 "hem 1an >e een #n *1r#)enerJ )er #$n a>$)e@<.. ...................... The2 ha)e !# "ene% "$ a %e 1r#+"#$n $0 e)era! +er $n an% "he2 ha)e 1he1.....1.............1...........................1...............: A#m – "he re 8!" -h#1h -e -#!! "r2 "$ a1h#e)e.........: P$-er-P$#n" +re en"a"#$nB -$r............eB $r -ha" #n0$rma"#$n h$8!% >e (#)en..1.....: P8+#! ha)e >een +ra1"#1#n( %e(ree $0 1$m+ar# $n $0 h$r" a%Ce1"#)e 0$r "he +a " "-$ !e $n .................... *.

+$" $0 "he !e $nB -ha" "he +8+#! m#(h" 0#n% %#00#18!" an% h$8!% a! $ 1$me 8+ -#"h +$ #>!e $!8"#$n ... 0neffective.................................4hich of the three types of analysis normally preceeds a proficiency test# deficiencyB error or needs analysis7 4hy7....................203 3orm-referenced and Criterion-referenced assessment....1....................20 1........ Are "here "h#n( I 1$8!% ha)e %$ne %#00eren"!2?............................................................. P$ "-+!ann#n( 1$n #%era"#$n .............................21 &eferences................................ *$ "he !a " "e+ a "ea1her nee% "$ %$ # "$ ha)e a h$r" +$ "-!e $n re0!e1"#$n "#me >2 a ... H$......................... a -e!! a eK+e1"e% %8e "$ a n8m>er $0 eK"rane$8 1#r18m "an1e .......................................................1...211 Activity ': 8amples of tests.........................200 Activity %: ...................................20 Activity 3: !rinciples of testing. Tea1her h$8!% n$" (e" %# 1$8ra(e% – #" ha++en "$ e)en "he m$ " eK+er#en1e% $ne L N$ $ne 1an m$)e 0$r-ar% -#"h$8" $me re0!e1"#$n an% #m+r$)emen" an% a %e #re "$ e)$!)e..................................208 A..................................201 &eferences............................201 MODULE 19 ..............................................................................1......................................................................................................................................................................................................1..................203 8tep 1............................uropass "anguage !assport................................................. F$r eKam+!e "he +8+#! m#(h" 0#n% #" %#00#18!" "$ 8n%er "an% "he 8 e $0 Pre en" Per0e1" *#m+!eB #n -h#1h 1a e "he "ea1her h$8!% >r#n( eK"ra eKer1# e -h#1h h$8!% 0$18 $n #"................ A !e $n +!an ma2 n$" -$r..........20' Activity : 8elf-assessment:The ...........................................................1.................................................e #n"$ 1$n #%era"#$n "he -ea..........1................................................................ &.........................................e 08"8re !e $n 811e 08!?.......A 8me% +r$>!em an% +$ #>!e $!8"#$n < E)er2 "ea1her h$8!% "a....................................................................................................................1.....2-04...........................8elf......Assessment ..................................208 Activity %: /ar(ing scales............... According to the purpose of testing there can )e:............................................200 Activity : Tips for lesson planning....................................#n( h#m e!0Eher e!0 =8e "#$n 81h a <..............1an I >8#!% $n "h# !e $n "$ ma.............................ffective vs..............20 Activity 2: Test types.........A**E**MENT.................................................................................. 5ha" +r$>!em %#% I eK+er#en1e?..............&'& Activity 1: Assessment purposes.....................ducational lin(s................................................... 5ha" -en" -e!! #n "he !e $n?.................. Activity 3: "esson !lanning .............................................................................21+ 9 ..........

PRE!E"T#RE# $E"ER#%& # PRO$R#'U%UI DE (OR'#RE 10 .

n noul con"ex" euro-ean.I troducere . de la o vârstă cât mai fragedă67Reuniunea Consiliului 2uro-ean de la Barcelona. -rogramul „Dimensiuni europene moderne în predarea-învă țarea limbii engleze” se cons"i"uie ca o excelen"3 o-or"uni"a"e de de90ol"are -ro5esional3 a -ro5esorilor de lim/a engle93.n -redarea$. iar e5or"urile de a moderni9a . -rin de90ol"area com-e"en:elor -ersonalului didac"ic de a u"ili9a "e!nologii moderne .n03:3m4n" din "oa"e regiunile de de90ol"are ale :3rii .n care unul din"re o/iec"i0ele 1niunii 2uro-ene es"e ca "o ți ce"3 țenii s3 s"3-4neasc3 5oar"e /ine „limba lor maternă şi alte două limbi străine. 89 de ore "umăr de credite: 25 Forma de învățământ: 9i #rupul ţintă Gru-ul "in"3 al -rogramului es"e 5orma" din &500 de cadre didac"ice care -redau lim/a engle93 7=@C2( 0$38 din "o"alul de 11880 exis"en"e la ni0el na:ional 7con5orm /a9ei de da"e na:ionale a educa:iei8) Cele &500 de cadre didac"ice incluse .i din "oa"e jude:ele) Scopul programului +rogramul 0i9ea93 .m/un3"3:irea cali"3:ii ca-i"alului uman din educa:ie.n -redarea e5icien"3 a lim/ii engle9e .i ins"rumen"e digi"ale . .n03țarea .n ce mai mare. corelând necesităţile de comunicare lingvistică cu $adrul $omun %uropean de &eferinţă al 'imbilor (trăine) să elaboreze programe de învăţare conform $adrului $omun %uropean de &eferinţă al 'imbilor (trăine) să stabilească obiectivele unor programe de formare a profesorilor de limbi străine care să se raporteze la profilul european) să utilizeze strategii pentru predarea gramaticii care vizează competenţele stabilite de $adrul $omun %uropean de &eferinţă) 11 . -e coordona"ele unor a/ord3ri moderne la ni0el euro-ean care includ u"ili9area <=C . Cadrul Comun 2uro-ean de Re5erin ț3 -en"ru ?im/i @"r3ine8) Eleme te de ide tificare a programului Denumirea programului „(imensiuni euro-ene moderne . 5ormarea aces"ei ca"egorii de -ro5esori ca-3"3 -e 9i ce "rece o im-or"an:3 din ce .n edi5icarea unei 2uro-e mul"iling0e) Ca urmare. -ar"ici-an:ii 0or 5i ca-a/ili: $ $ $ $ să utilizeze metodele şi abordările comunicative în predarea limbii engleze.n -rocesul de e0aluare a com-e"en țelor ling0is"ice con5orm unor documen"e im-or"an"e la ni0el euro-ean 7de ex).n aces" domeniu sun" "o" mai sus ținu"e la ni0elul "u"uror s"a"elor mem/re ale 1niunii 2uro-ene) (in aceas"3 -ers-ec"i03.n03țarea lim/ii engle9e6 !ipul programului acredi"a" C #+ ca -rogram lung. 20028 -ro5esorilor de lim/i moderne le re0ine un rol esențial .i e0aluarea s"andardi9a"3 a com-e"en:elor ling0is"ice) O)iecti*ele programului ?a 5inali9area -rogramului de 5ormare.n -rogram -ro0in din &000 de uni"3:i de .i o-"imi9a -redarea .i a unor ins"rumen"e so5">are .i .

n03:are -e /a93 de cri"erii genera"e de anali9a ne0oilor reale de . "asE /ased language learning. in"ercul"urali"3:ii ./ B-erarea cu documen"ele . co$-ar"ici-an" e"c)."erii -ro5ilului euro-ean -en"ru 5ormarea -ro5esorilor de lim/i moderne de5ine. >!ole learning iden"i5ic3 u"ili"a"ea cunoa.i -luriling0ismului e"c -roiec"ea93 ac"i0i"3:i de . com-e"ence /ased language "eac!ing."e conce-"ul de predare eficientă a limbii engleze iden"i5ic3 . counselor. "eac!erCs role as need analDs". lexical a--roac!es.n -redarea lim/ii engle9e iden"i5ic3 sc!im/3rile aduse de C2# .colare -en"ru s"udiul lim/ii engle9e cu ni0elurile de com-e"en:e men:iona"e de C2# -rin ac"i0i"3:i de .n03:are cen"ra"e -e ele0 2/ • • 12 . rece-"3rii mesajelor ci"i"e. mul"i-le in"elligences.n03:are adec0a"e -en"ru a/ordarea grama"icii. researc!er. 0oca/ularului. neurolinguis"ic -rogramming. -ronun:iei. audia"e.i scrise.-rocess manager.n -redarea lim/ilor s"r3ine cu -riori"3:i comunica"i0e 7learnerCs au"onomD. grou. in"erac:iunii. ad0isor. 5acili"a"or.nologia computerizată) să planifice lecţiile în raport cu obiectivele vizate şi nivelurile de pregătire ale elevilor) să utilizeze diverse tipuri şi instrumente de evaluare.n03:are /a9a"e -e a/ordarea in"egra"3 a de-rinderilor de comunicare selec"ea93 ac"i0i"3:ile de .n -redarea lim/ii engle9e com-ar3 .ate +rogramul de 5ormare le 0a 5ormaA de90ol"a cursan:ilor urm3"oarele com-e"en:e: U itatea de compete +Compete +e ge erale Compete +e specifice • • • • iden"i5ic3 elemen"ele carac"eris"ice ale me"odei comunica"i0e 5olosi"e . con"en" /ased ins"ruc"ion.i con"ras"ea93 me"oda comunica"i03 cu me"odele an"erior 5olosi"e .i descrie com-e"en:ele c!eie necesare -ro5esorului euro-ean -en"ru -redarea lim/ii engle9e ca lim/3 modern3 iden"i5ic3 "i-uri de ac"i0i"3:i de .n -redarea lim/ii engle9e -roduce scenarii meni"e sa an"ici-e9e e-oca -os"$comunica"i03 . -roducerii de mesaje orale . learnerCs cen"redness.i conce-"ele s-eci5ice -red3rii lim/ii engle9e • • • • Com-a"i/ili9area con:inu"urilor -re039u"e de -rogramele . corelate cu e+igenţele $adrului %uropean $omun de &eferinţă al 'imbilor (trăine Compete +e *i. coo-era"i0e learning.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ să identifice şi să utilizeze tipuri de activităţi de învăţare adecvate abordării vocabularului) să utilizeze tipuri de activităţi de învăţare adecvate pentru abordarea receptării mesa*ului citit) să utilizeze tipuri de activităţi de învăţare adecvate pentru predarea înţelegerii unui te+t audiat) să utilizeze tipuri de activităţi de învăţare adecvate pentru producerea de mesa*e orale) să utilizeze modalităţi prin care să-i înveţe pe elevi să producă diferite tipuri de mesa*e scrise pe bază de criterii generate de analiza nevoilor reale de comunicare) să practice un management al clasei care să favorizeze dezvoltarea competenţelor de comunicare ale elevilor) să dezvolte dimensiunea interculturală în predarea limbii engleze) să integreze în lecţie materiale autentice şi te.

me"odelor.i -ro-une o lis"3 de documen"e ce ar -u"ea 5i incluse .i me"odelor didac"ice moderne -roduce sec0en:e ale scenariului didac"ic ce in"egrea93 mijloacele ."e con:inu"ul ac"i0i"3:ii de .i a/ord3ri 5olosi"e -en"ru de90ol"area -ro-riilor de-rinderi de lim/3 .i re9ol03 si"ua:ii -ro/lem3 ce -o" a-3rea . "i-urile de ac"i0i"3:i de .U itatea de compete +- Compete +e ge erale Compete +e specifice comunicare ale ele0ilor 704rs"3.n -lani5icarea ac"i0i"3:ilor didac"ice 5/ *dec0area managemen"ului clasei .i ci"i".n domeniu ex-rim3 o-inia -ro-rie .n 5unc:ie de com-e"en:ele generale .n03:area dirija"3 . a celui scris .i u"ili9area resurselor . managemen" al clasei. in"erac:iuni.n03:3m4n" adec0a"e creea93 .i resurse su-limen"are selec"ea93 mijloacele de .i l3rgirea ex-erien:ei cul"urale 0/ 1"ili9area mijloacelor.n ac"i0i"a"ea la clas3 simulea93 gru-area ele0ilor -en"ru in"erac:iunea de gruiden"i5ic3 .n -redarea lim/ii engle9e C2# .i "ema"ic3: 'odul . rece-"area mesajului oral.i au"onom3 a lim/ii engle9e • • • • • • • • • • 1/ @elec"area . -luriling0ism . care includ de la as-ec"e re5eri"oare la me"oda comunica"i03.n03:are alege ma"eriale . -4n3 la elemen"e de -roiec"areA -lani5icare."e o/iec"i0ele o-era:ionale ale lec:iei s"a/ile. si"ua:ii de comunicare.i ma"erialelor de re5erin:3 .i -ro5esor re5lec"ea93 .i e0aluarea com-e"en:elor ling0is"ice con5orm Cadrului Comun 2uro-ean de Re5erin:3 7C2#8) +rogramul „Dimensiuni europene moderne în predarea-învă țarea limbii engleze” are urm3"oarea s"ruc"ur3 .n 5unc:ie de mediul educa:ional • • • • • 6/ 2la/orarea ins"rumen"elor de e0aluare s"andardi9a"3 con5orm ni0elurilor de com-e"en:3 -re039u"e de C2# • • • • 2/ #olosirea +?2 -en"ru au"oe0aluare • Tematic.i me"odele discu"a"e s"a/ile.i ni0el de9/a"e u"ili"a"ea +?2 -en"ru ele0 .n"r$un num3r de 89 de ore de 5ormare) <emele aco-er3 o gamă variată de conţinuturi .urare.i ./ 2) TematicM2<B(* CBM1 =C*<=FG 5olosi"3 .i s-eci5ice ela/orea93 o/iec"i0ele unui ins"rumen" de e0aluare -roduce un i"em -en"ru o anume com-e"en:3 .i in"er-re"ea93 di5eri"e roluri ale -ro5esorului descrie com-or"amen"ul -ro5esorului -en"ru di0erse "i-uri de ac"i0i"3:i de comunicare d3 5eed/acE re5eri"or la ac"i0i"3:ile -ro-use anali9ea93 modele de ins"rumen"e de e0aluare selec"ea93 me"ode de e0aluare .n03:are -en"ru a/ordarea grama"icii.i de9a0an"ajele 5olosirii mijloacelor . "e!nicilor . in"ercul"urali"a"e. de-rinderi 0i9a"e.i -redarea lim/ilor s"r3ine cu -riori"3:i comunica"i0e "r/ ore 6 ore 6 ore 13 . domeniu.3i module +rogramul de 5ormare o5er3 cadrelor didac"ice de lim/a engle93 1& module care 0or 5i -arcurse .n +?2 -re9in"3 me"ode . loc de des53.n leg3"ur3 cu u"ili9area <=C$ului la clas3 iden"i5ic3 a0an"ajele . 0oca/ularului.i -rocedeelor didac"ice moderne -en"ru a 5acili"a -redarea . s"ra"egii e"c8 -re9in"3 ex-erien:a -ro-rie .

i mediul educa:ional <i-uri de ac"i0i"3:i de .n03:are adec0a"e -en"ru a/ordarea = <2RC1?<1R*?=<GH== I= +?1R=?= GF=@M1?1= M*<2R=*?2 (=(*C<=C2.n03:are adec0a"e -en"ru a/ordarea R2C2+<GR== M2@*%1?1= C=<=< <i-uri de ac"i0i"3:i de .n03:are adec0a"e -en"ru a/ordarea GR*M*<=C== <i-uri de ac"i0i"3:i de . <2J =C= I= = @<R1M2 <2 moderne u"ili9a"e -en"ru a 5acili"a -redarea .ur3rii ac"i0i"3:ilor) 14 .n03:are adec0a"e -en"ru a/ordarea FBC*B1?*R1?1= <i-uri de ac"i0i"3:i de . 5iecare gru-3 5iind 5orma"3 din 15 de -ar"ici-an:i) Cursul 0a 5i li0ra" .are 3i e*aluarea de proces/ .n sec0ențe de 5ormare dis"ri/ui"e .i 0a include di0erse 5orme .n e"a-a de im-lemen"are a -rogramului accen"ul 0a 5i -us -e mo itori.i 5ormarea -ro5esorului de lim/i s"raine <i-uri de ac"i0i"3:i de .n03:area dirija"3 .i au"onom3 a lim/ii engle9e +?* =#=C*R2* ac"i0i"3:ilor didac"ice =ns"rumen"e de 2F*?1*R2 s"andardi9a"e con5orm ni0elurilor de com-e"en:3 -re039u"e de C2# & ore 8 ore ' ore ' ore 8 ore 6 ore ' ore ' ore 5 ore 6 ore 6 ore 6 ore %i*rarea programului de formare +rogramul se 0a derula -e -arcursul anului 2012 .n sine . -rogramul 0a /ene5icia de o ec.i .n03:are adec0a"e -en"ru a/ordarea R2C2+<GR== M2@*%1?1= *1(=*< <i-uri de ac"i0i"3:i de .i -rogramul de 5ormare .n03:are adec0a"e -en"ru a/ordarea +RB(1C2R== (2 M2@*%2 @CR=@2 M* *G2M2 <1? C?*@2= .ipă de monitori care 0or e5ec"ua 0i9i"e de moni"ori9are la locul des53. @<R*<2G==.n03:are adec0a"e -en"ru a/ordarea = <2R*CH=1 == I= +RB(1C2R== (2 M2@*%2 BR*?2 <i-uri de ac"i0i"3:i de .i modali"3:i de e0aluare) .n 11 9ile as"5el: Kiua 1: 8 ore de 5ormare $ & sesiuni cu dura"a de 2 ore 5iecare Kiua 2: 8 ore de 5ormare $ & sesiuni cu dura"a de 2 ore 5iecare Kiua 3: 8 ore de 5ormare $ & sesiuni cu dura"a de 2 ore 5iecare Kiua &: 8 ore de 5ormare $ & sesiuni cu dura"a de 2 ore 5iecare Kiua 5: 8 ore de 5ormare $ & sesiuni cu dura"a de 2 ore 5iecare Kiua 6: 8 ore de 5ormare $ & sesiuni cu dura"a de 2 ore 5iecare Kiua ': 8 ore de 5ormare $ & sesiuni cu dura"a de 2 ore 5iecare Kiua 8: 8 ore de 5ormare $ & sesiuni cu dura"a de 2 ore 5iecare Kiua 9: 8 ore de 5ormare $ & sesiuni cu dura"a de 2 ore 5iecare Kiua 10: 8 ore de 5ormare $ & sesiuni cu dura"a de 2 ore 5iecare Kiua 11: e0aluare 5inal3 'o itori.n aces" sens. M2<B(2. c4" .area și e*aluarea programului *sigurarea cali"3:ii -rogramului de 5ormare „Dimensiuni europene moderne în predareaînvățarea limbii engleze” se 0a reali9a -rin"r$un sis"em de moni"ori9are L e0aluare care 0a 0i9a a"4" com-e"en:ele do/4ndi"e de cursan:i.3) &) 5) 6) ') 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 1&) +RB#=?1? 21RB+2* .i 0a asigura -er5ec:ionarea a 044 de grupe de cursa +i.

e0aluare 5orma"i03. 5 CO''U"IC#TI6E %#"$U#$E TE#C7I"$ 15 .i a com-e"en:elor s-eci5ice -re039u"e -rin curriculum$ul -rogramului.+en"ru e0aluarea -rogresului cursan:ilor . 0or 5i u"ili9a"e 5orme . e0aluare suma"i03 și e0aluare 5inal3 ex"ern3 7C #+8) 'ODU%E .i ins"rumen"e de e0aluare di0erse: au"oe0aluare.

16 .

2nglis! "eac!ers !a0e /ecome more a>are "!a" "!e exclusi0e use o5 ei"!er "!e communica"i0e a--roac! or grammar$ "ransla"ion me"!od does no" mee" "!e real reNuiremen"s o5 real communica"ion) <eac!ers !a0e also 5ound ou" "!a" no single "eac!ing me"!od deals >i"! e0erD"!ing "!a" concerns "!e 5orm. as >ell as mul"i-le sources o5 in5orma"ion M • "o ge" "eac!er "rainers 5amiliar >i"! O learning s"ra"egies "!a" in0i"e learners O"o analDse and in"er-re" in5orma"ion in a 0arie"D o5 5orms 7eg "ex". -rojec"$/ased or some com/ina"ion o5 "!e "!ree ) =ns"ruc"ion in lis"ening and s-eaEing. and linEed PPP$si"es8M • "o a--lD "!e ideas "!eD de0elo. cri"ical "!inEing."o "!eir o>n curriculum and "eac!ing con"ex"s and -rac"icesM • "o !el."eac!er "rainers rela"e "o 21RB+*@@ com-e"ences) #cti*it8 . no" onlD on language /u" also on "!e learning -rocess i"sel5) &) +rimacD o5 oral in"erac"ion 5) 2rrors can some"imes occur in language learning 6) Grammar is usuallD "aug!" less sDs"ema"icallD ') 1se o5 "!e e0erDdaD language 8) <!e learning "asE is con"en"$/ased.#cti*it8 . "!e use. >!ic! in0ol0e learners >i"! language) 17 . "!eme$/ased. "eac!ers and s"uden"s "o reorien" curriculum and "eac!ing so "!a" "!e learning ex-eriences o5 sc!ool s"uden"s !el. 0alues and ci"i9ens!io/jec"i0es o5 educa"ion 5or a sus"aina/le 5u"ureM • "o ena/le "eac!er "rainers. and "!e con"en" o5 "!e "arge" language) Commu icati*e la guage teac:i g 7C?<8 is an a--roac! "o "!e "eac!ing o5 second and 5oreign languages "!a" laDs s"ress on in"erac"ion as /o"! "!e means and "!e ul"ima"e goal o5 learning a language) =n Communica"i0e ?anguage <eac!ing "!ere are some /asic c:aracteristics: 1) ?earning "o communica"e "!roug! in"erac"ion in "!e "arge" language) 2) <!e use o5 au"!en"ic "ex"s and "asEs in"o "!e learning con"ex") =" seeEs "o ada-" language "o "!e s"uden"sC in"eres"s 3) Gi0ing s"uden"s o--or"uni"ies "o 5ocus. diagrams. as >ell as reading and >ri"ing. is gi0en >i"!in "!e con"ex" o5 ac!ie0ing 0arious learning "asEs. "a/les.: C:aracteristics of t:e Commu icati*e #pproac: C:aracteristics of t:e Commu icati*e #pproac: Pi"! "!e ra-id de0elo-men" o5 2#? "eac!ing in non$2nglis!$s-eaEing coun"ries."!em mee" "!e demands o5 linguis"ic reali"ies no>adaDs and ac"i0elD -romo"e "!eir ca-aci"ies 5or "!inEing crea"i0elDM • "o -ro0ide "eac!ers and s"uden"s >i"! a model o5 com-u"eri9ed assis"ed language learning 7C*??8M • "o 5acili"a"e ease o5 na0iga"ion and use o5 "!e in"erne"M • "o de0ise a na0iga"ional s"ruc"ure >!ic! 5acili"a"es c!oice as "o "!e con"en"$5ocus and seNuence o5 "!eir learning ac"i0i"ies /D -ro0iding mul"i-le access -oin"s "o in5orma"ion.: C!arac"eris"ics o5 "!e Communica"i0e *--roac! #cti*it8 2: <!e Communica"i0e *--roac! and o"!er language "eac!ing me"!ods #cti*it8 0: Communica"i0e a--roac! 0s) grammar$"ransla"ion me"!od #cti*it8 1: +os" Communica"i0e ?anguage <eac!ing7+os" C?<8 #cti*it8 5: Curriculum on line O)9ecti*es: • "o ge" "eac!ers unders"and conce-"s and "!emes rela"ed "o sus"aina/le de0elo-men" and !o> "!eD rela"e "o "!e sc!ool curriculum and com-e"ences se" /D <!e Common 2uro-ean #rame>orE o5 ?anguages7C2#R8M • "o -resen" s"ra"egies "!a" underline "!e Eno>ledge.

re5erring "o e55ec"i0e learning and "eac!ing: 1) ?earning is al>aDs an ou"come o5 "eac!ingTTTT 18 . >!ic! used re-e"i"ion and -rac"ising /i"s o5 language or sEills se-ara"elD) Communica"i0e language "eac!ing is desig ed to promote t:e lear i g of a foreig la guage t:roug: i teractio a d co te. i" mig!" /e >or"! clari5Ding >!a" is mean" /D Scommunica"i0e ac"i0i"iesS) <!ese are "asE$/ased or -rojec"$/ased ac"i0i"ies) P!ile suc! ac"i0i"ies maD in0ol0e s"uden"s -rac"icing a -ar"icular gramma"ical 5orm. com-aring -ic"ures .o5 5riends discussing !olidaD -lans) Pi"!in "!is Eind o5 con"ex". in"er0ie>s. games./2-P<. "o a grou.(e5ine communica"i0e "asEs /D c!oosing "!e rig!" ans>er: 1) Commu icati*e tas=s are t8picall8: *) "eac!er$con"rolled B) 5ocused on accuracD C) sDn"!e"icA !olis"ic () analD"ic 2) >/Commu icati*e compete ce? i cludes grammatical compete ce as @ell as *) sociolinguis"ic com-e"ence B) discourse com-e"ence C) s"ra"egic com-e"ence () all o5 "!e a/o0e 3/ >Strategic compete ce? refers to t:e a)ilit8 to *) -roduce gramma"ical correc" u""erances B) -roduce co!eren" and co!esi0e u""erances C) sol0e communica"ion -ro/lems as "!eD arise () -roduce sociallD a--ro-ria"e u""erances &) Commu icati*e tas=s )ri g a)out *) im-ro0ed gramma"ical accuracD B) gra"er sociolinguis"ic a>areness C) increased sel5$correc"ion () im-ro0ed -ronuncia"ion Step. marEe"-lace "rading.communica"i0e com-e"ence.come "o a consensus. -lanning 5or "!e 5u"ure. 5ind common liEes AdisliEes) Be5ore de5ining "!e role o5 "!e "eac!er. role -laDs. language exc!ange. "!e s"uden"s s!ould /e reNuired "o nego"ia"e 5or meaning) <!is is liEelD "o reNuire mul"i-le "urn "aEing) Step . >!ic! is "!e a/ili"D "o use language Eno>ledge in a social con"ex" as >ell as sociolinguis"ic -ar"s o5 a language >ell enoug! "o /e a/le "o in"erac") <!is di55ers grea"lD 5rom "!e audio$lingual me"!od.Read more: !""-:AA>>>)ar"icles/ase)comAeduca"ion$ar"iclesA"!e$communica"i0e$a--roac!$"o$ language$"eac!ing$12&&891)!"mlQix991%rx@RlB0 9) <!e 5ocus is no" u-on lis"ening and s-eaEing /u" u-on using language "o communica"e and "o learn 10) 2ncouraging s"uden"s "o "aEe ad0an"age o5 "!eir o>n -ersonal ex-erience during "!e learning -rocess) 11) Ge""ing "!e s"uden"s maEe connec"ions /e">een learning >i"! language ac"i0i"ies ou"side "!e classroom) 12) Fisual s"imuli are o5"en used) ?earners are encouraged "o de0elo.-I<. -ro/lem sol0inng. learning /D "eac!ing. sur0eDs.and -air in"erac"ions) <!ere are also di55eren" ac"i0i"ies in C?<) @ome o5 "!e ac"i0i"ies are role$-laDing. "!eD are liEelD "o do more "!an "!is) <!e EeD elemen" is "!a" "!e ac"i0i"D is /ased around a realis"ic si"ua"ion) <!is could /e anD"!ing 5rom a s-eci5ic ac"i0i"D in a de-ar"men" s"ore. in "!is 5orm o5 ins"ruc"ion "eac!ers o5"en use grou./.MarE "!e 5ollo>ing sen"ences as "rue7<8 or 5alse7#8.t/ *s 5ar as "!e class managemen" is concerned.

doing >ri""en exercices. memori9ing 0oca/ularD. and o0erlearningM • +a""erns are seNuenced /D means o5 con"ras"i0e analDsisM • @"ruc"ures are "aug!" using re-e"i"i0e drillsM • <!ere is li""le or no gramma"ical ex-lana"ion) Grammar is "aug!" induc"i0elDM • Foca/ularD is s"ric"lD limi"ed and learned in con"ex"M • * lo" o5 language la/s and 0isual aids are usedM • +ronuncia"ion is a""ac!ed grea" im-or"anceM • FerD li""le use o5 "!e mo"!er "ongue /D "eac!ers is -ermi""edM • <!ere is a grea" e55or" "o ge" s"uden"s "o -roduce error$5ree u""erancesM • <!ere is a "endencD "o disregard con"en") D/ Ae:a*iourism <!e /e!a0iouris" 0ie> o5 learning relies on "!e re-e"i"i0e condi"ioning o5 learner res-onses) Be!a0iourism is rela"ed "o "!e idea "!a" /e!a0iour can /e researc!ed scien"i5icallD) ?earning is an au"oma"ic -rocess >!ic! does no" im-lD anD cogni"i0e -rocesses in "!e /rain) +a0lo0Cs URes-onden" Condi"ioning6 resul"s 5rom "!e associa"ion o5 ">o s"imuli. "ransla"ing "ex"s) * grea"er a""en"ion "o grammar 75ocus on 5ormA s"ruc"ure8 !as no> re$emerged as manD "eac!ers "rD "o in"egra"e s"ruc"ures in"o con"en" 5ocused lessons) Bu" "!e ex-lici" "eac!ing o5 gramma"ical rules in isola"ion is rare no>adaDs) A/T:e Direct 'et:od <!is me"!od -resen"ed discussion in "!e "arge" language as "!e major -riori"D)) Grammar learning /ecame induc"i0e in na"ure >i"!ou" s-eci5ic ex-lana"ions gi0en "o s"uden") <eac!erAs"uden" in"erac"ion /ecame con"inuous. and doing Uclo9e6 exercises >ere "!e order o5 "!e daD) *ccuracD in -ronuncia"ion and oral ex-ression /ecame 0i"al) 2xam-les "o /e 5ollo>ed /ecame "!e main in"en"ion) C/T:e #udio-'et:ods =n "!is me"!od. grounded in "!e !a/i" 5orma"ion model o5 /e!a0iouris" -sDc!ologD and on a @"ruc"ural ?inguis"ics "!eorD o5 language.2) P!a" s"uden"s learn is in5luenced /D "!eir exis"ing ideasTTTTTT 3) +rogression in learning is usuallD 5rom "!e a/s"rac" "o "!e concre"eTTTTTT &) +eo-le learn "o do >ell onlD >!a" "!eD -rac"ice doingTTTTT 5) 255ec"i0e learning /D s"uden"s reNuires 5eed/acETTTTTT 6) 2x-ec"a"ions do no" a55ec" -er5ormanceTTTTTTTT #cti*it8 2: T:e Commu icati*e #pproac: a d ot:er la guage teac:i g met:ods #/T:e $rammar-Tra slatio 'et:od =n "!e Classical or Grammar$<ransla"ion me"!od "!e 5ocus >as on s"udDing gramma"ical rules and mor-!ologD. "!e em-!asis >as on memorisa"ion "!roug! -a""ern drills and con0ersa"ion -rac"ice ra"!er "!an de0elo-ing communica"i0e a/ili"D) C!arac"eris"ics o5 "!e *udio$Me"!ods: • e> ma"erial is -resen"ed in dialogue 5ormM • @"ress is laid on memori9a"ion o5 se" -!rases. com-le"ing 5ill$ins. suc! as causing dogs "o sali0a"e a" "!e sound a "uning 5orE) @Einner de0elo-ed UB-eran" Condi"ioning6 >!ere "!e U@"imulus$Res-onse6 associa"ion is elici"ed "!roug! selec"i0e rein5orcemen" 7re>ards or -unis!men"s8 "o s!a-e /e!a0iour) 19 .

Be!a0iouris" ?anguage <!eorD is /ased u-on @"ruc"uralis" ?inguis"ics and is iden"i5ied >i"! "!e *udiolingualA *udio0isual me"!od) E/ Cog iti*ism *s a reac"ion "o /e!a0iourism, "!e Scogni"i0e re0olu"ionS in "!e 1950s com/ined ne> "!inEing in -sDc!ologD, an"!ro-ologD and linguis"ics >i"! "!e emerging 5ields o5 com-u"er science and neuroscience) Cog iti*e %a guage T:eor8 emerged 5rom "!e C!omsEDan Re0olu"ion >!ic! ga0e /ir"! "o Cogni"i0e Code ?earning, e"c Cogni"i0e learning goes /eDond "!e /e!a0iouris" learning o5 5ac"s and sEills, adding cogni"i0e -rocessus "o "!e learning -rocess) ?earners are asEed "o >orE ou" rules deduc"i0elD 5or "!emsel0es) =" 5ocuses on /uilding a learnerCs ex-eriences and -ro0iding learning "asEs "!a" can c!allenge, /u" also !el-s s"uden"s learn and -rogress "!roug! "!e curriculum) GenerallD s-eaEing, cogni"i0e "!eorD is in"eres"ed in !o> -eo-le unders"and ma"erial, and "!us i" can /e -laced some>!ere /e">een /e!a0ioural and cons"ruc"i0is" a--roac!) Cog iti*e Code %ear i g Pi"! "!e C!omsEDan re0olu"ion in linguis"ics, "!e a""en"ion o5 linguis"s and language "eac!ers >as dra>n "o>ards "!e Vdee- s"ruc"ureC o5 language and a more cogni"i0e -sDc!ologD) C!omsEDCs "!eorD o5 <rans5orma"ional$genera"i0e Grammar 5ocused a""en"ion again on "!e rule$go0erned na"ure o5 language and language acNuisi"ion ra"!er "!an !a/i" 5orma"ion) <!is ga0e rise in "!e 1960s "o Cog iti*e Code %ear i g >!ere learners >ere encouraged "o >orE ou" grammar rules deduc"i0elD 5or "!emsel0es) (educ"i0e ?earning =nduc"i0e ?earning Gramma"ical ex-lana"ions or rules are -resen"ed and "!en a--lied "!roug! -rac"ice in exercices ?earners are -resen"ed >i"! exam-les) <!eD "!en disco0er or induce language rules and -rinci-les on "!eir o>n

(/ Tas=-)ased la guage lear i g 7<B??8 Tas=-)ased la guage lear i g 7<B??8, also Eno>n as tas=-)ased la guage teac:i g 7<B?<8 or tas=-)ased i structio 7<B=8 laDs em-!asis on "!e use o5 au"!en"ic language and on ge""ing s"uden"s ac!ie0e meaning5ul "asEs using "!e "arge" language) @uc! "asEs can include going s!o--ing , re-or"ing an e0en", or reac!ing an agreemen") *ssessmen" 5ocuses mainlD on "asE ou"come ra"!er "!an on "!e accuracD o5 language 5orms) <!is maEes <B?? adeNua"e "o de0elo"arge" language 5luencD and s"uden" con5idence) Step 2/.- I di*idual acti*it8-P!a" are "!e ad0an"ages and disad0an"ages o5 "!e grammar$ "ransla"ion me"!odW Gi0e exam-les "o mo"i0a"e Dour ans>er) #cti*it8 0: Commu icati*e approac: *s/ grammar-tra slatio met:od *l"!oug! "!e grammar$"ransla"ion me"!od is ou"da"ed, s"uden"s accus"omed "o "!is me"!od maD s"ill ge" /ene5i" 5rom i") @ome"imes a--ro-ria"e grammar analDsis is essen"ial, es-eciallD 5or /eginners) Res"ric"ed u"ili9a"ion o5 "ransla"ion 5rom or "o "!e "arge" language is a necessarD -ar" o5 "eac!ing) Foca/ularD >orE and -a""ern drills are also >aDs o5 ge""ing "!e s"uden" 5amiliar >i"! sen"ence s"ruc"ures) <!is in5orma"ion !el-s learners acNuire linguis"ic com-e"ence)

20

=n "eac!ing grammar, in case "!ere are no au"!en"ic a0aila/le ma"erials, i" is im-or"an" "o maEe "!e language si"ua"ions and "ex" as realis"ic as -ossi/le) =mmedia"elD a5"er -ro0iding s"uden"s >i"! adeNua"e ex-lana"ions o5 grammar 5unc"ions, "!e "eac!er can gi0e "!em sui"a/le si"ua"ions "!a" encourage "!em "o e55ec"i0elD use "!e rules in real$li5e communica"ion) #/ #ccurac8 *s/ flue c8 =" is o/0ious "!a" /o"! accuracD and 5luencD are essen"ial in language learning) Jo>e0er, in 2nglis! "eac!ing domina"ed /D "!e grammar$"ransla"ion me"!od, more em-!asis is laid on "!e accuracD "!an on "!e 5luencD) @"uden"s in suc! classrooms are ex"remelD in"eres"ed in learning linguis"ic de"ails) <!eD are -ar"icular a/ou" -ro0iding correc" ans>ers) <!eD "end "o 5ocus on discre"e grammar -oin"s and s-eci5ic sDn"ac"ic cons"ruc"ions) @o "!e Nues"ion arises as "o "!e rela"ions!i/e">een accuracD and 5luencD and >!ic! one s!ould /e gi0en more im-or"ance) <!ese Nues"ions mus" /e examined in rela"ion "o >!a" is ex-ec"ed o5 "!e s"uden"s >!en "!eD gradua"e and >!a" "!e "eac!ing condi"ions are) B/0iouslD, 5luencD in language learning is more "!an "!a") @oon a5"er "!e s"uden"s !a0e mas"ered "!e language 5orms, "!eD oug!" "o /e gi0en -rac"ice "o de0elo- 5luencD) <!en, as con"rol decreases, s"uden"s can use "!e language more 5reelD) o>, errors s!ould some"imes /e acce-"ed, and "!e "eac!er s!ould em-!asi9e "!a" error$maEing can na"urallD occur) <eac!ers assess "!e s"uden"sC -er5ormances a" "!e end o5 eac! 5luencD -rac"ice so "!a" "!e s"uden"s are a>are o5 "!eir >eaEnesses and /ecome more and more conscious o5 "!eir errors) =n "!is >aD, accuracD and 5luencD are -rac"iced almos" simul"aneouslD, /eing in"erde-enden") A/ %i guistic compete ce *s/ commu icati*e compete ce *s i" is underlined in "!e Common 2uro-ean #rame>orE, "!e rela"ion /e">een linguis"ic com-e"ence and communica"i0e com-e"ence is im-or"an", "oo *" "!e 5ounda"ion s"age, linguis"ic com-e"ence is "!e s-on"aneous and correc" use o5 "!e language sDs"em) Bn "!e o"!er !and communica"i0e com-e"ence reNuires -rinci-les o5 a--ro-ria"eness and a readiness on "!e -ar" o5 "!e learner "o use rele0an" s"ra"egies in !andling cer"ain language si"ua"ions) <!a" is >!D linguis"ic com-e"ence re-resen"s "!e /asis o5 communica"i0e com-e"ence)<!ere can /e no communica"i0e com-e"ence >i"!ou" linguis"ic com-e"ence) Bu" communica"i0e com-e"ence does no" au"oma"icallD resul" 5rom linguis"ic com-e"ence) (i55eren" "D-es o5 classroom ac"i0i"ies suc! as role -laDing, simula"ions, and real$li5e in"erac"ions s!ould /e used "o -ro0ide -rac"ice 5or s"uden"s "o de0elocommunica"i0e com-e"ence >!ile -rac"icing linguis"ic com-e"ence) %ear er-ce tered orie tatio <o maEe language acNuisi"ion easier, s"uden"s need muc! -rac"ice) @o, "eac!ers mus" 5ind "!e /es" -rocedures "o manage in"erac"ions and maEe sure "!a" also s"uden"s ge" in0ol0ed in managing suc! ac"i0i"ies )<o a0oid /eing "!e cen"er o5 classroom in"erac"ions, "eac!ers s!ould arrange "!e desEs in suc! a >aD "!a" "!e s"uden"s can !a0e a 5ace$"o$5ace con0ersa"ion) <!is !el-s crea"e in"erac"ions among "!e s"uden"s) <!e "eac!er s!ould no" /e "!e leader o5 "!e class, /u" class leaders!i- emerges 5rom >i"!in "!e grou-) Teac:erBs role <!e "eac!er 5acili"a"es "!e communica"i0e -rocess among all "!e learners and /e">een "!e s"uden"s and "!e 0arious "asEs, gi0ing guidance and ad0ice >!en necessarD, ins"ead o5 /eing "!e cen"ral au"!ori"D in "!e classroom) Moreo0er, "eac!ers ac" as inde-enden" -ar"ici-an"s >i"!in "!e learning$"eac!ing grou-) Jo>e0er, "!is does no" mean "!a" once a "eac!ing ac"i0i"D is in -rogress, "!e "eac!er s!ould /ecome a -assi0e o/ser0er) =" is s"ill "!e "eac!erCs o/liga"ion "o moni"or "!e

21

s"uden"sC -o"en"ial "!roug! ex"ernal guidance) <!e "eac!er s!ould iden"i5D "!e dis"inc"i0e Nuali"ies in "!e s"uden"s and !el- "!e s"uden"s de0elo- "!em) Xe", in con"em-orarD 2nglis! "eac!ing, "!e "eac!erCs 5unc"ion is closelD rela"ed "o "!e o/jec"i0e o5 !isA!er role as communica"i0e ac"i0a"or) <!ese roles re5er "o a se" o5 secondarD roles 5or "!e "eac!er: 5irs", as a -ro0ider o5 resources and as a resourceM and second, as a guide and manager o5 ac"i0i"ies) <!e "eac!er s!ould also /e a researc!er and learner, maEing !isA!er con"ri/u"ion "o /ringing in "!e classroom "!e a--ro-ria"e Eno>ledge, a/ili"ies) Bne o5 "!e im-or"an" com-onen"s o5 communica"i0e com-e"ence is "!e a/ili"D "o selec" "!e linguis"ic 5orms "!a" are a--ro-ria"e 5or a s-eci5ic si"ua"ion )<odaD language !as /een rede5ined as an in"egral -ar" o5 "!e cul"ure i" is a -ar" o5) * good command o5 2nglis! grammar, 0oca/ularD, and sDn"ax are no" rele0an" 5or a good mas"erD o5 2nglis!) <!ere is a se" o5 social con0en"ions go0erning language 5orm and /e!a0ior >i"!in a communica"i0e grou-7C2##8 Step 0/.-I depe de t @or= P!ic! o5 "!e s"a"emen"s /elo> do Dou "!inE c!arac"eri9es communica"i0e language "eac!ing7 %acE C) Ric!ards,Communica"i0e ?anguage <eac!ing <odaD, 20068 1) +eo-le learn a language /es" >!en using i" "o do "!ings ra"!er "!an "!roug! s"udDing !o> language >orEs and -rac"icing rules) 2) Grammar is no longer im-or"an" in language "eac!ing) 3) +eo-le learn a language "!roug! communica"ing in i") &) 2rrors are no" im-or"an" in s-eaEing a language) 5) C?< is onlD concerned >i"! "eac!ing s-eaEing) 6) Classroom ac"i0i"ies s!ould /e meaning5ul and in0ol0e real communica"ion) ') (ialogues are no" used in C?<) 8) Bo"! accuracD and 5luencD are goals in C?<) 9) C?< is usuallD descri/ed as a me"!od o5 "eac!ing)

#cti*it8 1: Post Commu icati*e %a guage Teac:i g CPost C%TD #/ UEclecticism is a conce-"ual a--roac! "!a" does no" !old rigidlD "o a single me"!od, /u" ins"ead dra>s u-on mul"i-le "!eories, s"Dles, or ideas "o gain com-lemen"arD insig!"s in"o a su/jec", or a--lies di55eren" "!eories in -ar"icular cases))) -.%clecticism” in /i0ipedia1 S* so$called Y-os"$communica"i0eY 0ie> o5 language "eac!ing is said "o /e more eclec"ic) ?anguage "eac!ing is seen as an ada-"i0e -rocess ra"!er "!an as "!e use o5 an ideal me"!od or a--roac!) =n /roader and more com-lex communica"i0e con"ex"s >!ic! reNuire or 5a0our "!e learning o5 ac"ual a/ili"ies "o use a language, i" is use5ul 5or a "eac!er "o de0elo- a re-er"oire o5 :olistic acti*ities /elonging "o a 0arie"D o5 a--roac!es) * "eac!erYs re-er"oire o5"en includes ac"i0i"ies suc! as simula"ed con0ersa"ions in -airs and small grou-s, s-eec! maEing or s"orD "elling) *ll o5 "!ese !olis"ic ac"i0i"ies ac" as a 5rame>orE 5or "!e ado-"ion o5 di55eren" a--roac!es and roles, including cen"rallD con"rolled "eac!er$ in"erac"ion "o de0ol0ed in"erac"ion in >!ic! s"uden"s manage "!eir o>n discourse)S

A/ Pro9ect-)ased lear i g CPA%D

22

=" is /es" de5ined as ins"ruc"ion rela"ing Nues"ions and "ec!nologD rela"i0e "o "!e s"uden"sY e0erDdaD li0es "o classroom -rojec"s) @"uden"s carrD ou" "!eir o>n in0es"iga"ion o5 "!eir o>n grou>!ic! allo>s s"uden"s "o de0elo- researc! sEills) <!e s"uden"s ge" in0ol0ed in design, -ro/lem sol0ing and decision maEing) =" allo>s s"uden"s "o >orE in grou-s or /D "!emsel0es and ge"s "!em "o come u- >i"! ideas and realis"ic solu"ions) +B?: • • is orga i,ed arou d a ope -e ded Dri*i g Euestio or C:alle ge/ <!ese 5ocus s"uden"sC >orE and dee-en "!eir learning /D cen"ering on signi5ican" issues, de/a"es, Nues"ions andAor -ro/lems) creates a eed to = o@ esse tial co te t a d s=ills/ <D-ical -rojec"s 7and mos" ins"ruc"ion8 /egin /D -resen"ing s"uden"s >i"! Eno>ledge and conce-"s and "!en, once learned, gi0e "!em "!e o--or"uni"D "o a--lD "!em) +B? /egins >i"! "!e 0ision o5 an end -roduc" or -resen"a"ion >!ic! reNuires learning s-eci5ic Eno>ledge and conce-"s, "!us crea"ing a con"ex" and reason "o learn and unders"and "!e in5orma"ion and conce-"s) reFuires i Fuir8 to lear a dGor create somet:i g e@/ o" all learning !as "o /e /ased on inNuirD, /u" some s!ould) *nd "!is inNuirD s!ould lead s"uden"s "o cons"ruc" some"!ing ne> L an idea, an in"er-re"a"ion, a ne> >aD o5 dis-laDing >!a" "!eD !a0e learned) i corporates feed)ac= a d re*isio / @"uden"s use -eer cri"iNue "o im-ro0e "!eir >orE "o crea"e !ig!er Nuali"D -roduc"s) results i a pu)licl8 prese ted product or performa ce/ P!a" Dou Eno> is demons"ra"ed /D >!a" Dou do, and >!a" Dou do mus" /e o-en "o -u/lic scru"inD and cri"iNue) reFuires critical t:i =i gH pro)lem sol*i gH colla)oratio H a d *arious forms of commu icatio / @"uden"s need "o do muc! more "!an remem/er in5orma"ionZ"!eD need "o use !ig!er$order "!inEing sEills) <!eD also !a0e "o learn "o >orE as a "eam and con"ri/u"e "o a grou- e55or") <!eD mus" lis"en "o o"!ers and maEe "!eir o>n ideas clear >!en s-eaEing, /e a/le "o read a 0arie"D o5 ma"erial, >ri"e or o"!er>ise ex-ress "!emsel0es in 0arious modes, and maEe e55ec"i0e -resen"a"ions) <!ese sEills, com-e"encies and !a/i"s o5 mind are o5"en Eno>n as S21s" Cen"urD @EillsS) #or more in5o: !""-:AA>>>)/ie)orgAa/ou"A21s"Tcen"urDTsEills

• • • •

C/ * curren" major -riori"D in educa"ion is differe tiated i structio ) Recen" scien"i5ic researc! on learning demons"ra"es "!a" s"uden"s ac!ie0e a" !ig!er le0els >!en "eac!ers and s"uden"s dailD call 5or "!ese elemen"s o5 di55eren"ia"ed ins"ruc"ion: 1) RuicE and easD access "o a >ide 0arie"D o5 rele0an" learning resources 5or /o"! !is"oric and curren" "o-ics "!a" s"uden"s can read, 0ie>, and unders"and ) 2) ?earning assignmen" 5orma"s "!a" re5er "o "o-icsAissues "!a" are rele0an" "o s"uden"sY li0es and in"eres"s 3) =ns"rumen"s "!a" !el- s"uden"s organi9e, analD9e, and sDn"!esi9e in5orma"ion e55icien"lD 5or -ro/lem sol0ing and cri"ical "!inEing <!e good ne>s 5or "eac!ers "odaD is "!a" educa"ional "ec!nologD maEes i" -ossi/le "o im-lemen" di55eren"ia"ed ins"ruc"ion >i"! li""le o5 "!e e55or" needed in "!e -as") D) T:ese are t:e priorities of 2.st Ce tur8 %iterac8 a d S=ills:  +ro/lem$sol0ing and cri"ical "!inEing 0s) "radi"ional ro"e learning  Colla/ora"ion across ne">orEs and leading /D in5luence 0s) "radi"ional indi0idual e55or"  *gili"D and ada-"a/ili"D 0s) "radi"ional con5ormi"D "o norm  =ni"ia"i0e and en"re-reneurs!i- 0s) "radi"ional S"ried and "rueS  255ec"i0e >ri""en and oral communica"ion 0s) "radi"ional >orEs!ee"s and mul"i-le c!oice "es"s  *ccessing and analD9ing in5orma"ion 0s) "radi"ional remem/ering "!e Srig!"S ans>er  Curiosi"D and imagina"ion 0s) "radi"ional one >aD "o sol0e -ro/lems Step 1/.- I<- I *estigatio s: =n0es"iga"ions <asE Cards included 5or eac! "o-ic are designed "o mee" "!e needs o5 s"uden"s >i"! di55eren"ia"ed learning s"Dles)

23

as "!eD can /e used in com/ina"ion and -laD com-lemen"arD roles. *la0i.s"uden"s iden"i5D "!e "D-e o5 "asE "!eD mos" enjoD. "!e one mos" liEelD "o lead "o success5ul learning ex-eriences) =n0es"iga"ions encourage indi0idual s"uden"s "o >orE "o "!eir /es" a/ili"D "!roug! "!e Uc!oose Dour c!allenge le0el6 ex"ension ac"i0i"ies) Poem Tradi g Cards *sE eac! o5 Dour s"uden"s "o c!oose a card according "o !is a/il"i"ies and -re5erences) +rac"ice indi0iduallD eac! o5 "!ese ac"i0i"ies) Bn a c!ecElis" record "!e resul"s on a s!ee" o5 -a-er)) Re5er "o "!eir: 1)C2# le0el rela"ed "o "!e res-ec"i0e com-e"enceM2) <asE ac!ie0emen"M 3) Grammar accuracDM &) Foca/ularD rangeM 5)Co!esion and co!erence o5 "!e oral A>ri""en "ex") Step 1/2. s"uden"s Sen"erS a sel5$con"ained com-u"er$/ased en0ironmen" "o learn) <!ese micro>orlds maD /e su--or"ed /D a larger classroom en0ironmen". /u" "!eD are no" iden"ical a--roac!es 7Camille 2sc!. 19988) 2x-lain "!e di55erence /e">een "!em) #cti*it8 5: curriculum o li e #) O li e curriculum <!e ?anguage PorEs Bnline 2nglis! Curriculum A/ Use of Tec: olog8 i t:e classroom <eac!ers learn "o im-lemen" "ec!nologD in "!e classroom 5or en!ancing language sEills: <ord Processor: *" "!e earlD le0el c!ildren can recogni9e le""ers o5 "!e al-!a/e" /D using EeD/oard) <!e addi"ion o5 sound !as an audio 0isual im-ac") <!e "eac!er could mo0e on 5rom le""ers "o>ards using -!onics and -ic"ures) =n la"er s"ages "!e "eac!er could /e using >ords in sen"ences and a" "!e 5inal s"age "!e s"uden"s could learn "o com-ose crea"i0e s"ories. ideas e"c) Cog iti*e Co structi*ism: 'icro@orlds Pi"! micro>orlds. 1998 ci"ed in 7@c!neiderman. >ri"ing re-or"s) 'ultimedia prese tatio s: Mul"imedia ma"erials could /e used /D s"uden"s in "!e Eindergar"en s"age >!ere -ic"ures in"eres" "!em a lo") 20en a" a !ig!er le0el -ic"ures could /e used "o >ri"e essaDs."e@spaper Pai ti g Read Stor8 Sloga So g Speec: Timeli e #loud <riti g <!e ?earning @"Dles [eD "o di55eren"ia"ed ins"ruc"ion can !el. and "!e line /e">een "!em is 5reNuen"lD /lurred. as "!eD engage s"uden"s in au"!en"ic s"uden"$cen"ered "asEs "o en!ance learning.>i"! o"!er sc!ools in o"!er coun"ries and s!are /ooEs. s"ories and used "o learn o"!er crea"i0e as-ec" o5 languages) <orld <ide <e): <eac!ers can use V<alEing BooEsC "o "eac! reading) @"uden"s can see "!e "ex" and -ic"ures as >ell as !ear "!e "ex" /eing read) <!eD can linE u.Pe !a0e "o clari5D !ere. /u" maD also s"and alone 24 . \ orman. BorEo>sEi. "!a" >i"! "!e a//re0ia"ion o5 +B?. >e re5er "o Pro9ect-Aased %ear i g and no" "o Pro)lem-Aased %ear i g) <!eD /o"! !a0e roo"s in cons"ruc"i0ism.

I depe de t @or=5(e5ine "eac!erCcom-e"ences and Nuali5ica"ions7 @ee Common 2uro-ean +rinci-les 5or <eac!er Com-e"ences and Ruali5ica"ions8 Refere ces 1) #lpte=i H C/ 720028) <o>ards in"ercul"ural communica"i0e com-e"ence in 2?<) %'! 2ournal 34 718. *--roac!es "o @econd ?anguage (iscussion$2$ <!e 2clec"ic +aradigm. 5'$6&) 2) Da*id "u a $$*sian$2#?$%ournal$$@e-"em/er 5.S '728. <eac!ers and <eac!ing. 1&5$5&) &) EllisH R/H 720038) <asE$/ased ?anguage ?earning and <eac!ing) Bx5ord: Bx5ord 1ni0ersi"D +ress) 5) 7armerH J/ 720018) Jo> "o "eac! 2nglis!.5or 21s" Cen"urD @Eills -21)org 25 .Step 5/. <!e ?anguage PorEs *r"icles. 2$18$200') $ <!e +ar"ners!i. 2005 3) DolleH D/H I <illemsH $/ '/ 7198&8) <!e communica"i0e a--roac! "o 5oreign language "eac!ing: <!e "eac!erYs case) S2uro-ean %ournal o5 <eac!er 2duca"ion.73rd ed)8) ?ondon: ?ongman) 6) Ric:ardsH J/C/ a d T/ Rodgers 720008) *--roac!es and me"!ods in language "eac!ing) 72nd edi"ion8) e> XorE: Cam/ridge 1ni0ersi"D +ress) $ *--roac!es "o @econd ?anguage (iscussionL +os" C?< <imo"!D BrocEleD.

e %uropean 6ortfolio and 6assport !b"ectives <!e Common 2uro-ean #rame>orE se"s "!e -rinci-les o5 ela/ora"ing language sDlla/uses. examina"ions.: <!e communica"i0e language com-e"ence #cti*it8 2: Coo-era"i0e ?earning #cti*it8 0: Mul"i-le =n"elligences: GardnerYs <!eorD #cti*it8 1: euro$linguis"ic -rogramming 7 ?+8 Activity 5:!ask based language teaching-!5'!1 #cti*it8 6: <!e P!ole$+ar"$P!ole learning Activity : !.'ODU%E 2 5 TE#C7I"$ (OREI$" %#"$U#$ES CO''U"IC#TI6E%K-# CO''O" EUROPE#" (R#'E<ORL #PPRO#C7 #cti*it8 . e"c) across 2uro-e) =" -resen"s >!a" language learners mus" learn in order "o de0elo. curriculum guidelines. "ex"/ooEs.Eno>ledge and sEills "!eD need "o communica"e e55ec"i0elD) <!e descri-"ion also de5ines "!e cul"ural /acEground o5 "!e language) 26 .

e"c). s-eaEing and >ri"ing a" eac! le0el) <!e C2# is s"ruc"ured as 5ollo>s: #/ Communica"ion "!emes A) Communica"i0e "asEs and -ur-oses are7 *lso see C2#8 . 5or exam-le /D "!e use o5 a ges"ure or a >ord no" 5ullD unders"ood in "erms o5 conno"a"ion ) <!e C2#R descri/es >!a" a learner is su--osed "o /e a/le "o do in reading. lis"ening. "eac!er "rainers. V-ronuncia"ionC and grammar) Xe". "eac!ers. /u" also "!ose o5 o"!er coun"ries ) • Pragmatic • <!e C2# -resen"s "!is in "erms o5 discourse analDsis re5erring "o suc! "!ings as co!erence and co!esion)<!ere is also an in"erlocu"or >!o is im-liedL in o"!er >ords our s"uden" saDs some"!ing >!ic! can or canno" /e com-re!ended as in"ended: "!e s"uden" mig!" cause anger. "o ensure "!a" "!eD mee" "!e real needs o5 "!e learners 5or >!om "!eD are res-onsi/le) #cti*it8 ./ BR*? +RB(1C<=B 2/ PR=<<2 +RB(1C<=B 0/ BR*? R2C2+<=B 1/ F=@1*? R2C2+<=B 5/ @+B[2 = <2R*C<=B 6/ PR=<<2 = <2R*C<=B C/ Media"ing ac"i0i"ies and s"ra"egies a) oral media"ion: a) >ri""en media"ion: D/(2C?*R*<=F2 [ BP?2(G2 7@*FB=R8 27 . "!e o"!er areas descri/ed /D "!e C2# are -er!a-s less >ell Eno>n "o "eac!ers) • Socioli guistic Pe mig!" call "!em di55eren" cul"ures >i"! di55eren" norms o5 /e!a0iour >!ic! include social con0en"ions >i"! res-ec" "o -oli"eness. examining /odies.<!e Common 2uro-ean #rame>orE is in"ended "o o0ercome "!e /arriers o5 communica"ion among -ro5essionals >orEing in "!e 5ield o5 modern languages coming 5rom di55eren" educa"ional sDs"ems in 2uro-e) =" is a use5ul means "o adminis"ra"ors. class and social grou-s among o"!er "!ings) =n o"!er >ords C2# in0ol0es /ecoming 5amiliar >i"! cul"ure in "!e classroom L no" onlD our o>n cul"ure.: T:e commu icati*e la guage compete ce <!e communica"i0e language com-e"ence is usuallD a--roac!ed a" t:ree le*els CCE(D • %i guistic <!is is "!e area >e are 5amiliar >i"!. course designers. -!onological and sDn"ac"ical Eno>ledge) =n o"!er >ords 0oca/ularD. /eing de0ided in"o areas o5 lexical.

E/ @BC=BC1?<1R*? [ BP?2(G2 (/= <2RC1?<1R*? [ BP?2(G2 $/+R*C<=C*? @[=??@ 7@*FB=R #*=R28 7/ = <2RC1?<1R*? @[=??@ I/ 2]=@<2 <=*? *<<=<1(2@ 7@*FB=R 2<R28 Commo Refere ce %e*els: glo)al scale
le*el descriptio Can unders"and and use 5amiliar e0erDdaD ex-ressions and 0erD /asic -!rases aimed a" "!e sa"is5ac"ion o5 needs o5 a concre"e "D-e) Can in"roduce !imA !ersel5 and o"!ers and can asE and ans>er Nues"ions a/ou" #. -ersonal de"ails suc! as >!ere !eAs!e li0es, -eo-le !eAs!e Eno>s and "!ings !eAs!e !as) Can in"erac" in a sim-le >aD -ro0ided "!e o"!er -erson "alEs slo>lD and clearlD and is -re-ared "o !el-) Can unders"and sen"ences and 5reNuen"lD used ex-ressions rela"ed "o areas o5 mos" immedia"e rele0ance 7e)g) 0erD /asic -ersonal and 5amilD in5orma"ion, s!o--ing, local geogra-!D, em-loDmen"8) Can #2 communica"e in sim-le and rou"ine "asEs reNuiring a sim-le and direc" exc!ange o5 in5orma"ion on 5amiliar and rou"ine ma""ers) Can descri/e in sim-le "erms as-ec"s o5 !isA!er /acEground, immedia"e en0ironmen" and ma""ers in areas o5 immedia"e need) Can unders"and "!e main -oin"s o5 clear s"andard in-u" on 5amiliar ma""ers regularlD encoun"ered in >orE, sc!ool, leisure, e"c) Can deal >i"! mos" si"ua"ions liEelD "o arise >!ils" "ra0elling in an area >!ere "!e A. language is s-oEen) Can -roduce sim-le connec"ed "ex" on "o-ics >!ic! are 5amiliar or o5 -ersonal in"eres") Can descri/e ex-eriences and e0en"s, dreams, !o-es \ am/i"ions and /rie5lD gi0e reasons and ex-lana"ions 5or o-inions and -lans) Can unders"and "!e main ideas o5 com-lex "ex" on /o"! concre"e and a/s"rac" "o-ics, including "ec!nical discussions in !isA!er 5ield o5 s-ecialisa"ion) Can in"erac" >i"! a degree o5 5luencD and s-on"anei"D "!a" A2 maEes regular in"erac"ion >i"! na"i0e s-eaEers Nui"e -ossi/le >i"!ou" s"rain 5or ei"!er -ar"D) Can -roduce clear, de"ailed "ex" on a >ide range o5 su/jec"s and ex-lain a 0ie>-oin" on a "o-ical issue gi0ing "!e ad0an"ages and disad0an"ages o5 0arious o-"ions) Can unders"and a >ide range o5 demanding, longer "ex"s, and recognise im-lici" meaning) Can ex-ress !imA!ersel5 5luen"lD and s-on"aneouslD >i"!ou" muc! o/0ious searc!ing 5or ex-ressions) Can use language C. 5lexi/lD and e55ec"i0elD 5or social, academic and -ro5essional -ur-oses) Can -roduce clear, >ell$s"ruc"ured, de"ailed "ex" on com-lex su/jec"s, s!o>ing con"rolled use o5 organisa"ional -a""erns, connec"ors and co!esi0e de0ices) Can unders"and >i"! ease 0ir"uallD e0erD"!ing !eard or read) Can summarise in5orma"ion 5rom di55eren" s-oEen and >ri""en sources, recons"ruc"ing argumen"s and accoun"s in a co!eren" -resen"a"ion) Can C2 ex-ress !imA!ersel5 s-on"aneouslD, 0erD 5luen"lD and -reciselD, di55eren"ia"ing 5iner s!ades o5 meaning e0en in "!e mos" com-lex si"ua"ions)

Common Reference Levels <!e 2uro-ass communica"i0e com-e"ences are included in "!e 2uro-ean CF )=" is /rie5lD -resen"ed /elo>: *1 *2 B1 B2 C1 C2 BreaE"!roug! PaDs"age Basic 1ser Fan"age <!res!old =nde-enden" 1ser 255ec"i0e -ro5iciencD Mas"erD +ro5icien"

28

Step./. - $roupGP< - +lan "!ree ac"i0i"ies corres-onding "o "!ree di55eren" language com-e"ences 5rom C2#) <!e ac"i0i"ies can /e concei0ed indi0iduallD or Dou can de0elo- "!em join"lD) Xou can >orE in -airs or small grou-s so "!a" Dou can exc!ange ideas and s!are "!e >orE) #cti*it8 2: Cooperati*e lear i g #/ Cooperati*e %ear i g ManD -rinci-les !a0e /een -ro-osed 5or coo-era"i0e learning) Belo> is one lis" o5 eig!" suc! -rinci-les) ./ 7eteroge eous $roupi g/ <!is -rinci-le means "!a" "!e grou-s in >!ic! s"uden"s ac!ie0e coo-era"i0e learning "asEs are made u- o5 a num/er o5 0aria/les including sex, e"!nici"D, social class, religion, -ersonali"D, age, language -ro5iciencD, and diligence) 2/ Colla)orati*e S=ills/ Colla/ora"i0e sEills, suc! as asEing 5or in5orma"ion, are "!ose needed "o >orE >i"! o"!ers) @"uden"s maD lacE "!ese sEills, "!e language in0ol0ed in using "!e sEills, or "!e a/ili"D "o a--lD "!e sEills) Mos" /ooEs and >e/si"es on coo-era"i0e learning sugges" "!a" colla/ora"i0e sEills /e ex-lici"lD "aug!" a" a "ime) 0/ $roup #uto om8/ <!is -rinci-le encourages s"uden"s "o looE 5or resources /D "!emsel0es ra"!er "!an relD onlD on "!e "eac!er) P!en s"uden" grou-s !a0e di55icul"D, "!e "eac!er "ends "o in"er0ene ei"!er in a -ar"icular grou- or >i"! "!e en"ire class) Pe maD some"imes >an" "o resis" "!is "em-"a"ion, /ecause as Roger %o!nson >ri"es, U<eac!ers mus" "rus" "!e -eer in"erac"ion "o do manD o5 "!e "!ings "!eD !a0e 5el" res-onsi/le 5or "!emsel0es6 7!""-:AA>>>)clcrc)comA-agesANanda)!"ml8) 1/ Simulta eous I teractio / =n "radi"ional classes in >!ic! grou- ac"i0i"ies are no" used, "!e normal in"erac"ion -a""ern is "!a" o5 "!e seNuen"ial "D-e in >!ic! one -erson a" a "ime L usuallD "!e "eac!er L s-eaEs) =n con"ras", >!en grou- ac"i0i"ies are used, one s"uden" -er grou- is s-eaEing) =n a class o5 &0 di0ided in"o grou-s o5 5our, "en s"uden"s are s-eaEing simul"aneouslD, i)e), &0 s"uden"s di0ided in"o & s"uden"s -er grou- ^ 10 s"uden"s 71 -er grou-8 s-eaEing a" "!e same "ime) 5/ EFual Participatio / * 5reNuen" -ro/lem in grou-s is "!a" one or ">o grou- mem/ers domina"e "!e grou- and, im-lici"elD in!i/i"s "!e o"!ers) Coo-era"i0e learning o55ers manD >aDs o5 -romo"ing more eNual -ar"ici-a"ion among grou- mem/ers) 6/ I di*idual #ccou ta)ilit8/ P!en >e -romo"e indi0idual accoun"a/ili"D in grou-s, >e gi0e a c!ance "o e0erD/odD "o "rD "o learn and "o s!are "!eir Eno>ledge and ideas >i"! o"!ers) 2/ Positi*e I terdepe de ce/ <!is -rinci-le lies a" "!e !ear" o5 C?) @"uden"s 5eel "!a" eac! mem/er o5 "!e grou- s!ares >i"! "!e o"!ers and de-end on one ano"!er) =" is "!is U*ll 5or one, one 5or all6 5eeling "!a" maEes grou- mem/ers >an" "o !el- eac! o"!er, and "!a" "!eD are all res-onsi/le 5or a common goal) M/ Cooperatio as a 6alue/ <!is -rinci-le means "!a" coo-era"ion is no" onlD a >aD "o learn, i)e), "!e !o> o5 learning, i" is also -ar" o5 "!e con"en" "o /e learned, i)e), "!e >!a" o5 learning) <!is s-rings 5rom "!e mos" crucial coo-era"i0e learning -rinci-le, "!e -osi"i0e in"erde-endence) Coo-era"ion as a 0alue in0ol0es "aEing "!e 5eeling o5 U*ll 5or one, one 5or all6 and ex-anding i" /eDond "!e small classroom grou- "o encom-ass "!e >!ole class and "!e >!ole sc!ool) *ddi"ional Coo-era"i0e ?earning in5orma"ion is a0aila/le a" "!e si"es lis"ed /elo>: • >>>)co$o-era"ion)orgA-agesAcl)!"ml • >>>)iasce)ne" • >>>)ncsu)eduA5elder$-u/licACoo-era"i0eT?earning)!"ml • >>>)Eaganonline)com • @earc! Google Step 2/.-$<$#ollo>ing "!e s"ages /elo>, de0ise a coo-era"i0e "D-e o5 ac"i0i"D corres-onding "o le0el *2 7C2#8

29

1. E;plai : Gi0e a descri-"ion o5 >!a" sEill "!eD >ill /e learning, associa"ing i" >i"! curren"
Eno>ledge)

2. Demo strate: @!o> !o> "!e -rocedure or -rocess >orEs /D demons"ra"ion) 3. Practice: Gi0e "!e s"uden"s "ime "o -rac"ice "!e -rocedure or -rocess) 4. Peer Coac:i g: Ja0e "!e s"uden"s coac! eac! o"!er) 7@ee +eer Coac!ing 5or more
de"ails)8 #cti*it8 0: 'ultiple I tellige ces: $ard erNs T:eor8 #/ 'ultiple I tellige ces: $ard erNs T:eor8 <!e t:eor8 of multiple i tellige ces >as -ro-osed /D Jo>ard Gardner in 1983 "o analD9e and /e""er descri/e "!e conce-" o5 in"elligence) Gardner de5ines in"elligence as S"!e ca-aci"D "o sol0e -ro/lems or "o 5as!ion -roduc"s "!a" are 0alued in one or more cul"ural se""ingS 7Gardner \ Ja"c!, 19898) 1sing /iological as >ell as cul"ural researc!, !e 5ormula"ed a lis" o5 se0en "D-es o5 in"elligences) <!is ne> ou"looE on in"elligence di55ers grea"lD 5rom "!e "radi"ional 0ie> >!ic! usuallD recogni9es onlD ">o in"elligences, 0er/al and com-u"a"ional) <!e se0en in"elligences Gardner de5ines are: 6er)al-%i guistic I tellige ce $$ >ell$de0elo-ed 0er/al sEills and sensi"i0i"D "o "!e sounds, meanings and r!D"!ms o5 >ords 'at:ematical-%ogical I tellige ce $$ a/ili"D "o "!inE conce-"uallD and a/s"rac"lD, and ca-aci"D "o discern logical or numerical -a""erns 'usical I tellige ce $$ a/ili"D "o -roduce and a--recia"e r!D"!m, -i"c! and "im/er 6isual-Spatial I tellige ce $$ ca-aci"D "o "!inE in images and -ic"ures, "o 0isuali9e accura"elD and a/s"rac"lD Aodil8-Li est:etic I tellige ce $$ a/ili"D "o con"rol oneYs /odD mo0emen"s and "o !andle o/jec"s sEill5ullD I terperso al I tellige ce $$ ca-aci"D "o de"ec" and res-ond a--ro-ria"elD "o "!e moods, mo"i0a"ions and desires o5 o"!ers) I traperso al I tellige ce $$ ca-aci"D "o /e sel5$a>are and in "une >i"! inner 5eelings, 0alues, /elie5s and "!inEing -rocesses "aturalist I tellige ce $$ a/ili"D "o recogni9e and ca"egori9e -lan"s, animals and o"!er o/jec"s in na"ure E;iste tial I tellige ce $$ sensi"i0i"D and ca-aci"D "o "acEle dee- Nues"ions a/ou" !uman exis"ence, suc! as "!e meaning o5 li5e, >!D do >e die, and !o> did >e ge" !ere) *l"!oug! "!e in"elligences are ana"omicallD se-ara"ed 5rom eac! o"!er, Gardner claims "!a" "!e se0en in"elligences 0erD rarelD o-era"e inde-enden"lD) Ra"!er, "!e in"elligences are used concomi"an"lD and com-lemen" eac! o"!er as indi0iduals de0elo- sEills or sol0e -ro/lems) #or exam-le, a dancer can excel in !is ar" onlD i5 !e !as

30

_ s"rong musical in"elligence "o unders"and "!e r!D"!m and 0aria"ions o5 "!e music, _ in"er-ersonal in"elligence "o unders"and !o> !e can ins-ire or emo"ionallD "ouc! !is audience "!roug! !is mo0emen"s, as >ell as _ /odilD$Eines"!e"ic in"elligence >!ic! -ro0ides !im >i"! "!e agili"D "o -er5orm "!e mo0emen"s success5ullD) <!is sim-le grid diagram illus"ra"es Jo>ard GardnerYs model o5 "!e se0en Mul"i-le =n"elligences a" a glance) i tellige ce t8pe %i guistic capa)ilit8 a d perceptio >ords and language

%ogical-'at:ematical logic and num/ers 'usical Aodil8-Li est:etic Spatial-6isual I terperso al I traperso al music, sound, r!D"!m /odD mo0emen" con"rol images and s-ace o"!er -eo-leYs 5eelings sel5$a>areness

A/ 'ultiple I tellige ces C:art Jere is a lis" o5 ac"i0i"ies "!a" s-eaE "o eac! in"elligence)
6er)al-%i guistic c!oral s-eaEing declari9ing s"orD"elling re"elling s-eaEing de/a"ing -resen"ing reading aloud drama"i9ing /ooE maEing non5ic"ion reading researc!ing lis"ening -rocess >ri"ing >ri"ing journals %ogical-'at:ematical -ro/lem sol0ing measuring coding seNuencing cri"ical "!inEing -redic"ing -laDing logic games collec"ing da"a ex-erimen"ing sol0ing -u99les classi5Ding using mani-ula"i0es learning "!e scien"i5ic model using moneD using geome"rD I terperso al 6isual-Spatial gra-!ing -!o"ogra-!ing maEing 0isual me"a-!ors maEing 0isual analogies ma--ing s"ories maEing 3( -rojec"s -ain"ing illus"ra"ing using c!ar"s using organi9ers 0isuali9ing sEe"c!ing -a""erning 0isual -u99les Aodil8-Li est:etic !ands on ex-erimen"s ac"i0i"ies c!anging room arrangemen" crea"i0e mo0emen" going on 5ield "ri-s -!Dsical educa"ion ac"i0i"ies cra5"s drama"i9ing using coo-era"i0e grou-s dancing

'usical

I traperso al

"aturalistic

31

sol0e deduc"i0e reasoning -ro/lems. (e(%cti&e !ea#oning.!umming ra--ing -laDing /acEground music -a""erns 5orm -laDing ins"rumen"s "a--ing ou" -oe"ic r!D"!ms r!Dming singing classroom -ar"ies -eer edi"ing coo-era"i0e learning s!aring grou. or indi0idual -rojec"s) =n "!e <or=i g Toget:er Ce ter 7=n"er-ersonal =n"elligence8. s"uden"s com-ose and sing songs a/ou" "!e su/jec" ma""er. !""-:AA>>>)com-u"er!is"orD)orgAex!i/i"sAin"erne"T!is"orDAindex)-age Step 0/.coo-era"i0e learning sEills as "!eD sol0e -ro/lems. maEe "!eir o>n ins"rumen"s. and learn in r!D"!mical >aDs) =n "!e #rt Ce ter 7@-a"ial =n"elligence8. ans>er Nues"ions. s"uden"s ex-lore "!e -resen" area o5 s"udD "!roug! researc!. crea"e learning games. drama"i9e e0en"s. mani-ula/les. all in >aDs "!a" rela"e "o "!e con"en" o5 "!a" daDYs su/jec" ma""er) =n "!e Readi g Ce ter 7Fer/alA?inguis"ic =n"elligence8. "!eD ex-lore a su/jec" area using di0erse ar" media. crea"e songs. read. s"uden"s read. and dance. "!eD de0elo. 20058 Teac:er Ce tered Stude t Ce tered 32 .. -u99les. maEe colla/ora"i0e decisions. #cience e'$e!iment#. /rains"orm ideas and discuss "!a" daDYs "o-ic colla/ora"i0elD) =n "!e 'usic Ce ter 7Musical =n"elligence8. mathematical conce$t#. dance. and learn in manD "radi"ional modes) <!eD analD9e and organi9e in5orma"ion in >ri""en 5orm) In the Math & Science Center (Logical/ Mathematical Intelligence). and illus"ra"e all in one sc!ool daD) @ome more s-eci5ic exam-les o5 ac"i0i"ies a" eac! cen"er 5ollo>: • • • • • • • =n "!e Perso al <or= Ce ter 7=n"ra-ersonal =n"elligence8. c!ar"s. >ri"e. an( $!o)lem #ol&ing. "!eD /uild models. >ri"e. and -ic"ures) =n "!e Auildi g Ce ter 7[ines"!e"ic =n"elligence8. re5lec"ion. mani$%lati&e#.>orE 5orming clu/s -eer "eac!ing social a>areness con5lic" media"ion discussing cross age "u"oring s"udD grou/rains"orming -ersonal res-onse indi0idual s"udD -ersonal goal se""ing indi0idual -rojec"s journal log Eee-ing -ersonal c!oice -rojec"s inde-enden" reading in reading ou"side cloud >a"c!ing iden"i5Ding insec"s /uilding !a/i"a"s iden"i5Ding -lan"s using a microsco-e dissec"ing going on a na"ure >alE /uild a garden s"udDing "!e s"ars /ird >a"c!ing collec"ing rocEs maEing /ird 5eeders going "o "!e 9oo Read more on <eac!erFision: me"!odsA220&)!"mlQix991%!Ex2R=3 !""-:AA>>>)"eac!er0ision)5en)comAin"elligenceA"eac!ing$ C/ <:at t8pes of lear i g acti*ities ta=e place at eac: ce terO *ll s"uden"s learn eac! daDYs lesson in se0en >aDs) <!eD /uild models.-$roup @or= $ Read "!e "a/le and com-le"e "!e second column >!ic! re5ers "o c!arac"eris"ics o5 s"uden" cen"ered ac"i0i"ies: Ta)le 2/ Mul"i-le =n"elligences: Classroom *--lica"ion 7<a/le added /D BrandD BellamD and Camille BaEer. they o!" ith math game#.

car"oons. o0er!eads.• • +resen" con"en" 0er/allD *sE Nues"ions aloud and looE 5or s"uden" 5eed/acE =n"er0ie>s +ro0ide /rain "easers or c!allenging Nues"ions "o /egin lessons) MaEe logical connec"ions /e">een "!e su/jec" ma""er and au"!en"ic si"ua"ions "o ans>er "!e Nues"ion S>!DWS 1se -ro-s during lec"ure +ro0ide "angi/le i"ems -er"aining "o con"en" 5or s"uden"s "o examine Re0ie> using s-or"s rela"ed exam-les 7"!ro> a /all "o someone "o ans>er a Nues"ion8 Fer/alA?inguis"ic • • • ?ogicalAMa"!ema"ical • • • BodilDA[ines"!e"ic • P!en -resen"ing "!e in5orma"ion. Gra-!s. 0ideos. • FisualA@-a"ial • +laD music in "!e classroom during re5lec"ion -eriods @!o> exam-les or crea"e musical r!D"!ms 5or s"uden"s "o remem/er "!ings • Musical • • Be a>are o5 /odD language and 5acial ex-ressions B55er assis"ance >!ene0er needed 2ncourage classroom discussion • =n"er-ersonal 33 . smar"/oards C!ar"s. use 0isuals "o ex-lain con"en":`A/ra +o>er+oin" @lides.

cD/erne"ic linEs /e">een a perso Ns i ter al e. demons"ra"e a dee-er le0el o5 consciousness: = smell a ra") #ollo> Dour nose) =" s"inEsb @!e >as ra"!er sni55D a/ou" i") B5 course. and "!eD "!inE "!eD are Dours "oo) People i =i aest:etic mode @ill pro)a)l8 tal= more slo@l8H a d t:e8Bll sa8 t:i gs li=e: Jo> do Dou 5eel a/ou" "!a"W =Cm com5or"a/le >i"! "!a") MD 5eeling is) =" >as !ear"$ >armingAmo0ingA"ouc!ing) Jold onb <!e language o5 5eelings needs "o s"ir some"!ing in Dou) Tastes a d smells also come i to la guage: 5ood 5or "!oug!". a /i""er -ill "o s>allo>M diges"ing a -ro-osi"ion.• • • 2ncourage journaling as a -osi"i0e ou"le" 5or ex-ression =n"roduce >e/ logging 7/logs8 MaEe indi0idual Nues"ions >elcome Crea"e a -osi"i0e en0ironmen") <aEe s"uden"s ou"side "o enjoD na"ure >!ile in learning -rocess 7lec"ure8 Com-are au"!en"ic su/jec" ma""er "o na"ural occurrences) Rela"e su/jec" ma""er "o s"ages "!a" occur in na"ure 7-lan"s. Bandler and Grinder 719'5a8. a /i""er argumen"M and smells. DouCll need "o 5ocus on "!e o0erall 34 . >ea"!er. coined /D "!e 5ounders. e"c8 =n"ra-ersonal • • • • a"uralis"ic #cti*it8 1: "euro-li guistic programmi g C"%PD "euro-li guistic programmi g C"%PD euro$linguis"ic +rogramming 7 ?+8 de0elo-ed in "!e 1@* in "!e 19'0Ys) =" !as /ecome 0erD -o-ular as a me"!od 5or communica"ion and -ersonal de0elo-men") <!e "i"le. re5ers "o -ur-or"ed sDs"ema"ic. >e all s>i"c! 5rom mode "o modeM /u" mos" o5 us -re5er one mode o5 -rocessing o0er o"!ers) #or exam-le. and imagining "!a" Dou are doing "!e same) <!eDCre -ro/a/lD also "alEing 0erD 5as") People i auditor8 mode @ill use p:rases li=e: ?is"enb <!a" rings a /ell) = !ear >!a" DouCre saDing) <!a" sounds rig!") * >ord in Dour ear) @-eaE soon) @ounds are "!eir medium. com/ining models and s"ra"egies 5rom a >ide range o5 sources) (i55eren" -eo-le !a0e di55eren" s"Dles and modes in di55eren" si"ua"ions) People i *isual mode @ill sa8 t:i gs li=e: ?ooEb =5 Dou see >!a" = mean) #rom mD -oin" o5 0ie>) Pa"c! i"b +ic"ure "!is) ?ooE !ereb = canC" see "!e -oin") @ee Dou soon) <!eDCre "!inEing in -ic"ures. i5 Dou >an" "o sell a car "o a 0isual -erson. t:eir la guage Cli guistic8 and "!eir patter s of )e:a*iour Cprogrammi gD/ =n essence ?+ is a 5orm o5 -lanning "!a" o55ers clues 5or a sDs"ema"ic and de"ailed unders"anding o5 -eo-leYs su/jec"i0e ex-erience) ?+ is eclec"ic.perie ce C euroD. in -ar"icular.

"!e Nuie" inside "!e car. "!e Nuali"D o5 "!e s"ereo. e"c) *nd. "!e 5eel o5 "!e s"eering >!eel."o similar real >orld ac"i0i"ies "asE com-le"ion is 0erD im-or"an" "!e assessmen" is /ased on "!e ou"comeA!o> >ell "!e "asE !as /een ac!ie0ed (o) can * use +.jus" a/ou" anD/odD /ecome jus" a/ou" anD"!ing) <!e 5ollo>ing is "D-ical: Activity #$%&'.#o to and develop an activit7 similar to t. "!eD are 5ree "o use anD language "!eD >an") +laDing a game.-+: Pre-tas= <!e "eac!er in"roduces "!e "o-ic and gi0es "!e s"uden"s clear ins"ruc"ions on >!a" "!eD >ill !a0e "o do a" "!e "asE s"age and mig!" !el. (ere are the stages o/ +. sol0ing a -ro/lem or s!aring in5orma"ion or ex-eriences. 5or "!e Einaes"!e"ic -erson: "!e com5or"..e ones described at multiple intelligences tests #cti*it8 5: Task based language teaching CTA%TD Tas=-)ased lear i g o55ers "!e s"uden" an o--or"uni"D "o do exac"lD "!is) <!e -rimarD 5ocus o5 classroom ac"i0i"D is "!e "asE and language is "!e ins"rumen" >!ic! "!e s"uden"s use "o com-le"e i") <!e "asE is an ac"i0i"D in >!ic! s"uden"s use language "o !a0e a s-eci5ic resul") <!e ac"i0i"D is /ased on real li5e si"ua"ions and learners 5ocus on meaning. and so on) Bne common c!arac"eris"ics in ?+ is "!e em-!asis laid on "eac!ing a 0arie"D o5 communica"ion and -ersuasion sEills. can all /e considered as rele0an" and au"!en"ic "asEs) 7ere are some of t:e mai features of TA%T: • • • • • -riori"D gi0en "o "!e meaning "!ere is a communica"ion -ro/lem "o sol0e "!ere is some sor" o5 rela"ions!i. "!e accessi/li"D o5 "!e 5unc"ions.e55ec" o5 "!e design: do "!eD liEe "!e colourW (o "!eD liEe "!e 0isual laDou" o5 "!e das!/oard) =5 "!e -erson is audi"orDM DouCll 5ocus on sound o5 "!e engine 75or a s-or"s car lo0er8."!e s"uden"s "o remem/er some language "!a" maD /e use5ul 5or "!e "asE) <!e -re$"asE s"age can also o5"en include -laDing a recording o5 -eo-le doing "!e "asE) <!is gi0es "!e s"uden"s a clear model o5 >!a" >ill /e ex-ec"ed o5 "!em) <!e s"uden"s can "aEe no"es and s-end "ime -re-aring 5or "!e "asE) Tas= <!e s"uden"s ac!ie0e a "asE in -airs or grou-s using "!e language resources "!a" "!eD !a0e as "!e "eac!er moni"ors and o55ers guidelines) Pla i g @"uden"s -re-are a s!or" oral or >ri""en re-or" "o "ell "!e class >!a" !a--ened during "!eir "asE) <!eD 35 . and using sel5$!D-nosis "o mo"i0a"e and c!ange onesel5) Mos" ?+ -rac"i"ioners ad0er"ising on "!e PPP maEe grand claims a/ou" /eing a/le "o !el.in the classroom.

a learner "aEe "!e nex" s"e.5luencD and maEe a no"e o5 use5ul language)) Com-ared "o "!ese "!ree essen"ial condi"ions i structio 7ex-lici" rule "eac!ing8 is ot esse tial/ =" maD !el-. /u" manD "eac!ers Nues"ion i"s use5ulness a" lo>er le0els) <!e me"!odologD reNuires a c!ange in "!e "radi"ional "eac!erYs role) <!e "eac!er does no" in"roduce and Y-resen"Y language or in"er5ere 7Y!el-Y8 during "!e "asE cDcle) <!e "eac!er is an o/ser0er during "!e "asE -!ase and /ecomes a language in5orman" onlD during "!e Ylanguage 5ocusY s"age) Jere are some exam-les o5 ac"i0i"ies: #cti*it8 ./ Pri"e "!e name o5 Dour 5a0ouri"e -ersonali"D /elo>) (o a searc! 5or "!em a" >>>)google)com) and 5ind ou" 5our in"eres"ing "!ings a/ou" "!em) Pri"e some no"es /elo>$ ame: TTTTTTTTTTTTTT TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT #cti*it8 2/ 'aga. i5 "!e ins"ruc"ion is >ell "imed in 5orm and con"en" "o !el.i e Euestio s/ C!oose a maga9ine 5rom >>>)google)com and ans>er "!e 5ollo>ing Nues"ions) Jo> manD 5amous -eo-le can Dou iden"i5DW P!a" do Dou Eno> a/ou" one o5 "!emW <ell Dour -ar"ner) Pri"e no"es /elo> i5 Dou >is!) TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT C!oose an ar"icle >!ic! in"eres"s Dou) P!a"Cs i" a/ou"W <ell Dour -ar"ner) Pri"e no"es /elo> i5 Dou >is!) TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT #cti*it8 0 I ter et Fuestio s Pri"e "!e name o5 Dour 5a0ouri"e -ersonali"D /elo>) (o a searc! 5or "!em a" >>>)google)com and 5ind ou" 5our in"eres"ing "!ings 36 . "!e "eac!er maEes a good selec"ion o5 "!e language issues "o -rac"ise /ased u-on "!e needs o5 "!e s"uden"s and >!a" came ou" 5rom "!e "asE and re-or" -!ases) <!e s"uden"s "!en -rac"ice ac"i0i"ies "o de0elo.in !erA!is language acNuisi"ion -rocess) <asE$/ased learning can /e 0erD e55ec"i0e a" =n"ermedia"e le0els and /eDond. !o>e0er."!en -rac"ise >!a" "!eD are going "o saD in "!eir grou-s) *ll "!is "ime "!e "eac!er is a0aila/le 5or "!e s"uden"s "o asE 5or clari5ica"ions using "!eir o>n language 5or Nues"ions "!eD maD !a0e) Report @"uden"s "!en re-or" /acE "o "!e class orallD or read "!e >ri""en re-or") <!e "eac!er maD gi0e "!e s"uden"s some NuicE 5eed/acE on "!e con"en") *" "!is s"age "!e "eac!er maD also -laD a recording o5 o"!ers doing "!e same "asE 5or "!e s"uden"s "o com-are) # al8sis <!e "eac!er "!en -oin"s ou" rele0an" -ar"s 5rom "!e "ex" o5 "!e recording 5or "!e s"uden"s "o analDse and com-are) <!eD maD asE s"uden"s "o no"ice in"eres"ing 5ea"ures >i"!in "!is "ex") <!e "eac!er can also !ig!lig!" "!e language "!a" "!e s"uden"s used during "!e re-or" -!ase 5or analDsis) Practice =n "!e end.

do>n Bld Belair Road and around cW B: Xea!) *nd "!en Dou go s"raig!" *: -as" "!e !os-i"alW B: Xea!. o55 "!e rounda/ou"W B: Xea!) *: Rig!") #cti*it8 6: "euro-li guistic programmi g C"%PD T:e <:ole-Part-<:ole lear i g 37 . no" reallD) =Cm jus" -assing "!roug!) B: Pell. *: 2xcuse me -lease) (o Dou Eno> >!ere "!e neares" /anE isW B: Pell. a con"ras" is dra>n /e">een Uau"!en"ic6 and Unon$au"!en"ic6 da"a) Read "!e ">o con0ersa"ions and iden"i5D "!e similari"ies and di55erences /e">een "!e ">o) Co *ersatio . -as" "!e racecourse "o "!e rounda/ou") Xou Eno> "!e /ig rounda/ou"W *: Xea!) B: *nd [ensing"on RoadCs o55 "o "!e rig!") *: P!a".-$<$ =n language "eac!ing. Dou go do>n #ullar"on Road c *: c >!a". jus" -as" "!e -os" o55ice) *: *ll rig!") <!anE Dou) B: XouCre >elcome) Co *ersatio 2 2 *: Jo> do = ge" "o [ensing"on RoadW B: Pell. 5irs" go do>n "!is s"ree" "o "!e "ra55ic lig!" )*: B[) B: <!en "urn le5" and go >es" on @unse" Boule0ard 5or a/ou" ">o /locEs) <!e /anE is on Dour rig!".a/ou" "!em) Pri"e some no"es /elo>$ ame: TTTTTTTTTTTTTT TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT #cti*it8 1 Aoo= Euestio s 7Graded Readers8 1) Pri"e 5our /ooE "i"les a" Dour le0el) a) /) c) d) 2) #ind a /ooE "!a" Dou >ould liEe "o read "!is Dear) P!a"Cs "!e "i"leW P!D does i" in"eres" DouW TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT Step 5/. "!e ci"D /anE isnC" 5ar 5rom !ere) (o Dou Eno> >!ere "!e main -os" o55ice isW *: o. Eee.going s"raig!".

-ro0ides "!e linEage o5 "!e -ar"s /acE "o "!e >!ole) <!is o5"en includes a--lica"ion o5 "!e ne> learning) <!e learner connec"s "!e -rior Eno>ledge "o "!e ne> learning and /uilds "!e ne> meaning o5 "!e con"en" u. lis"en "o o"!ersY in"er-re"a"ions 7including "!e "eac!erYs8. and >ri"e. and "!us. and ?e0 FDgo"sED) P!a" "!is means in -rac"ice is.<!e P!ole$+ar"$P!ole learning "!eorD is /ased on "!e assum-"ion "!a" learners rela"e ne> learning "o >!a" "!eD alreadD Eno>) <!e 5irs" -ar" o5 "!e learning C@:oleD /uilds "!e con"ex" and connec"s "!e learner >i"! "!e organi9a"ional 5rame>orE) #or s"uden"s.Doung c!ildren >ri"e le""ers "o re-resen" "!e sounds in >ordsM call a""en"ion "o in"eres"ing sound elemen"s liEe alli"era"ion and r!Dme in "ex"s "!eD !a0e read "oge"!er. legisla"ors.a ric!er unders"anding o5 "!e "ex") =n o"!er areas. and ex"ending >!a" "!eD Eno>) <!eD 5acili"a"e learning /D 5os"ering a communi"D o5 learners in >!ic! all mem/ers o5 "!e classroom communi"D s!are >!a" "!eD Ene> and !el. "!is is connec"ing "o -rior learning ex-eriences) #or adul" learners. "!eD c!allange s"uden"s in /rains"orming. c!ildren are asEed "o >ri"e 5rom -ersonal ex-eriences and "o dra> u-on "!eir ex-eriences >i"! li"era"ure "o >ri"e -oe"rD. "!e curriculum is -lanned so "!a" s"uden"s ac"i0elD cons"ruc" meaning) #or ins"ance. 5or exam-le. read. >ri"ing a sEi" on "!e -os"$Ci0il Par era and so 5or"!) #reNuen"lD. "!eD do "!eir o>n science ex-erimen"s ra"!er "!an sim-lD read a/ou" "!e resul"s o5 o"!ersY ex-erimen"s) @uc! ac"i0i"D encourages s"uden"s "o /e engaged in "!eir learning ) D/ Teac:ers pla8 *arious o traditio al roles i @:ole la guage classrooms/ =n addi"ion "o direc"lD "eac!ing in5orma"ion. en0ironmen"al organi9a"ions) A/ S=ills are taug:t i t:e co te. "oo. "!eD o5"en s!are "!eir Eno>ledge >!ile colla/ora"ing >i"! s"uden"s on -rojec"s: doing ex-erimen"s "o de"ermine e55ec"s o5 acid rain. "ec!niNues.eac! o"!er sol0e -ro/lems) 38 . memoir. c!ildren read real li"era"ure$$>!ole /ooEs and "ex"s "!a" a--eal "o "!em) P!ole language "eac!ers also a0oid asEing c!ildren "o 5ill in "!e /lanEs o5 >orE/ooEs. c!ildren "rD ou" "!eir in"er-re"a"ions o5 >!a" "!eDY0e read. -rocesses "!a" cons"i"u"e "!e ne> learning) Gi0en "!e 5rame>orE 5rom "!e >!ole. "eac!ers a0oid assigning sim-lied "ex"s 5or /asal readers) =ns"ead. "!eD do so 5or some communica"i0e 5unc"ion) =n >!ole language classrooms.t of c:ildre Ns i terestsH eedsH a d uses @"uden"s are no" asEed "o -rac"ice /i"s and -ieces o5 language in isola"ionM >!ole "ex"s in 5unc"ional con"ex"s are good o--or"uni"ies "o s"udD -ar"s and -ieces o5 language as needed 7>!ole$"o$-ar" a and /acE "o >!ole. s!aring. seco d @:ole. and !elc!ildren use -!onic cues along >i"! -rior Eno>ledge and con"ex" "o iden"i5D >ords as "!eD are reading) C/ %ear i g is tra sactio alP mea i g is acti*el8 co structed )8 t:e lear er/ <!is -rinci-le re5lec"s "!e >orE o5 researc!ers and educa"ors liEe %ean +iage". "!a" c!ildren discuss /ooEs ra"!er "!an ans>er -re$se" Nues"ions) =n "!e gi0e$and$"aEe o5 genuine discussion. ne>s-a-er edi"ors. "o merelD co-D >!a" o"!ers !a0e >ri""en. i" maD /e es"a/lis!ing "!e goals and o/jec"i0es 5or "!e learning and !o> "!eD su--or" "!e organi9a"ion)Mo"i0a"ion 5or "!e ne> learning maD /e es"a/lis!ed /D ge""ing learners -redic" "!e ou"comes "!eD !a0e in mind) T:e part is "!e in"roduc"ion "o "!e sEills. and o"!er Einds o5 li"era"ureM and "o >ri"e "o o"!er audiences ou"side "!e classroom: -en -als. or "o >ri"e on suc! "o-ics as S<!e daD = >as a -encil)S =ns"ead.perie ces are ce tral t:roug:out t:e curriculum/ <!a" means >!en s"uden"s "alE. s"uden"s are "aug!" "o use -unc"ua"ion >!en "!eD >an" "o maEe "!eir >ri"ing clearer and more reada/le. 5ic"ion. %o!n (e>eD. no" -ar"$"o$>!ole8) #or exam-le. no" in isola"ed lessons on -unc"ua"ion marEs) <eac!ers !el. learners maEe sense o5 "!e ne> learning as "!eD assimila"e i" in"o "!e sc!ema "!eD alreadD !a0e) <!e 5inal s"age. de0elo.again) #/ #ut:e tic la guage a d literac8 e.

5ood 5or "!e 5u"ure8 and se" some ideas "o guide s"uden"s in /rains"orming su/"o-ics and 5inallD in deciding u-on a s-eci5ic "o-ic "!eD >ould liEe "o -ursue indi0iduallD or in a small grou-) #cti*it8 2: T:e Europea Portfolio a d Passport +he 0uropean 1ort/olio and 1assport <:at is t:e Portfolio a d :o@ ca it )e usedO T:e Europea %a guage Portfolio72?+8 is aimed a" a""aining -ur-oses: 5irs".<!eD su--or" learning /D crea"ing an en0ironmen" in >!ic! s"uden"s can "aEe "!e risEs necessarD 5or signi5ican" learning. i" is an e0idence o5 "!e learnerCs language learning !is"orD and can include "es" scores. "!eD gi0e a ric! documen"a"ion o5 s"uden"sY -rogress) @"uden" sel5$e0alua"ion is also rele0an" in >!ole language classrooms) @uc! records -reser0e da"a 5or /o"! "eac!er e0alua"ion and s"uden" sel5$e0alua"ion) P!ole language "eac!ers Eno> "!a". assessmen" relies !ea0ilD on "!e "eac!erYs dailD o/ser0a"ions) P!en o/ser0a"ions are recorded 5reNuen"lD. cer"i5ica"es. reading and >ri"ing >orEs!o-s.. and -ersonal e0idence. "eac!ers and s"uden"s o5"en colla/ora"e in maEing curricular decisions) <eac!ers "oo "aEe risEs. "eac!ers learn >!a" Einds o5 assis"ance "!e s"uden"s need and !o> "!eD mig!" ada-" "!eir o>n "eac!ing accordinglD (/ #ssessme t is co ti uousH i termi gled @it: lear i g a d teac:i g/ =n >!ole language classrooms. sam-les o5 s"uden"sC>orE. "rDing ne> ma"erials 7e)g). "!eme s"udD8. !o>e0er im-er5ec" "!e s"uden"sY e55or"s maD /e /D adul" s"andards) ) E/ Teac:ers a d stude ts are all lear ersH ris=-ta=ersH a d decisio ma=ers/ =n >!ole language classrooms. ne> >aDs o5 organi9ing "!e curriculum 7e)g). ne> >aDs o5 !el-ing s"uden"s learn and ne> >aDs o5 res-onding "o s"uden"sY e55or"s) BD o/ser0ing "!eir s"uden"s. "aEen "oge"!er. suc! as "a-es or re5lec"i0e s"a"emen"s) 2?+ is also a -edagogical "ool mean" "o increase learner au"onomD "!roug! sel5$assessmen" and re5lec"ion)) 39 . "rade /ooEs8.Pair @or=. se0eral suc! means are 5ar more 0alid as indica"ors o5 s"uden" -rogress "!an s"andardi9ed "es"s) :ttp:GG@@@/educatio alto8spla et/com) Tas= 6/.Pi"! Dour -ar"ner de"ermine a /road "o-ic 7e)g). and -er!a-s mos" im-or"an" o5 all.

no" "o ins"i"u"ions or "eac!ers _ <!eD are easD "o unders"and.<!e 2uro-ean ?anguage +or"5olio 72?+8 con"ains "!ree -ar"s: a ?anguage +ass-or". more and more jo/ a--lican"s >ill -resen" "!e +ass-or" as a record o5 "!eir language sEills) 2m-loDers s!ould s"ar" /D looEing a" "!e -ro5ile o5 language sEills Europass %a guage Passport SUR"#'ECSD (IRST "#'ECSD (a"e o5 /ir"! 7d8 Mo"!er "ongue7s8 B"!er language7s8 40 . s"andardised le0el) *s "!e use o5 "!e 2?+ /ecomes more and more 5amiliar . a ?anguage Biogra-!D and a (ossier) T:e %a guage Passport gi0es an o0er0ie> o5 "!e !olderCs le0el o5 language sEills and !isA!er learning and in"ercul"ural ex-eriences) =" !as a re-or"ing 5unc"ion) T:e %a guage Aiograp:8 documen"s "!e !olderCs -ersonal language learning !is"orD and in"ercul"ural ex-eriences) =" also con"ains ins"rumen"s 5or sel5$assessmen" o5 language com-e"ence) T:e Dossier is a collec"ion o5 >orE "!a" illus"ra"es >!a" "!e learner !as done and is a/le "o do in di55eren" languages *ll 2?+s "!a" !a0e /een 0alida"ed /D "!e Council o5 2uro-e can /e 5ound on "!e >e/si"e) <!eD all res-ec" "!e 5ollo>ing -rinci-les: _ <!eD are /ased on "!e s"andardised 2uro-ean le0els and descri-"ors "o /e 5ound in "!e Common 2uro-ean #rame>orE o5 Re5erence _ <!eD !a0e /o"! re-or"ing and -edagogic aims and 5unc"ions _ <!eD include /o"! assessmen" and sel5$assessmen" _ <!eD are mul"ilingual and >ill al>aDs include a" leas" one o5 "!e Council o5 2uro-eCs o55icial languages L 2nglis! or #renc! _ <!eD /elong "o "!e !older. descri/ing >!a" a learner can ac"uallD do >i"! a s-eci5ic language sEill a" a -ar"icular.

perie ceCsD (escri-"ion (*) #rom <o Self-assessme t of la guage s=ills U dersta di g ?is"ening Reading (**) Spea=i g @-oEen in"erac"ion <riti g @-oEen -roduc"ion DiplomaCsD or certificateCsD (*) <i"le o5 di-loma7s8 or cer"i5ica"e7s8 *>arding /odD (a"e 2uro-ean le0el 7ddd8 %i guistic e.perie ceCsD (escri-"ion (*) #rom <o Self-assessme t grid Receptio %iste i g Readi g I teractio Spo=e I teractio <ritte I teractio Productio Spo=e Productio <ritte Productio 41 .Self-assessme t of la guage s=ills U dersta di g ?is"ening Reading (**) Spea=i g @-oEen in"erac"ion <riti g @-oEen -roduc"ion DiplomaCsD or certificateCsD (*) <i"le o5 di-loma7s8 or cer"i5ica"e7s8 *>arding /odD (a"e 2uro-ean le0el 7ddd8 %i guistic e.

descri-"ions o5 >ell$s"ruc"ured com-lex su/jec"s "ex". mD dreams. smoo"!lD$ smoo"!lD 5lo>ing 5lo>ing descri-"ion"ex" in an or argumen" in aa--ro-ria"e s"Dle) s"Dle a--ro-ria"e "o = can >ri"e "!e con"ex" and >i"! com-lex le""ers. rela"ed language) un-re-ared in"oim-ressions) sc!ool. >!e"!er li0e or /roadcas". ex-ressing in"egra"ing su/$ -oin"s o5 0ie> a" "!emes. e0en >!en deli0ered a" 5as" na"i0e s-eed. >!ic! signi5ican" -oin"s) !el-s "!e reci-ien" "o no"ice and remem/er signi5ican" -oin"s) = can >ri"e summaries and re0ie>s o5 -ro5essional or li"erarD >orEs) = can -resen" clear. = can unders"and ex"ended s-eec! e0en >!en i" is no" clearlD s"ruc"ured and >!en rela"ions!i-s are onlD im-lied and no" signalled ex-lici"lD) = can unders"and "ele0ision -rogrammes and 5ilms >i"!ou" "oo muc! e55or") = can read >i"! = can "aEe -ar" ease 0ir"uallD alle55or"lesslD in anD 5orms o5 "!econ0ersa"ion or >ri""en language.good 5amiliari"D >i"! s"ruc"urallD oridioma"ic ex-ressions linguis"icallD and colloNuialisms) = com-lex "ex"scan ex-ress mDsel5 suc! as manuals. and li"erarD muc! o/0ious -ersonal s"Dle) "ex"s. = can unders"and = can read = can in"erac" >i"! a = can >ri"e ex"ended s-eec! ar"icles and degree o5 5luencD and le""ers and lec"ures and re-or"s s-on"anei"D "!a" maEes !ig!lig!"ing "!e 5ollo> e0en concerned >i"! regular in"erac"ion >i"! -ersonal com-lex lines o5 con"em-orarD na"i0e s-eaEers Nui"e signi5icance o5 argumen" -ro0ided -ro/lems in -ossi/le) = can "aEe an e0en"s and "!e "o-ic is >!ic! "!e >ri"ers ac"i0e -ar" in ex-eriences) reasona/lD 5amiliar) ado-" -ar"icular discussion in 5amiliar = can unders"and s"ances or con"ex"s. de"ailed descri-"ionsde"ailed "ex" on a on a >ide range o5 >ide range o5 su/jec"s rela"ed "osu/jec"s rela"ed "o mD 5ield o5 in"eres") = mD in"eres"s) = can can ex-lain a>ri"e an essaD or 0ie>-oin" on are-or". de0elo-ing some leng"!) = -ar"icular -oin"s can >ri"e de"ailed and rounding o55 ex-osi"ions o5 >i"! an a--ro-ria"e com-lex su/jec"s conclusion in an essaD or a re-or". -assing on "o-ical issue gi0ing in5orma"ion or "!e ad0an"ages andgi0ing reasons in disad0an"ages o5su--or" o5 or 0arious o-"ions) agains" a -ar"icular -oin" o5 0ie>) = can connec"= can >ri"e -!rases in a sim-les"raig!"5or>ard >aD in order "oconnec"ed "ex" on descri/e "o-ics. clear. discussion and !a0e a including a/s"rac". accoun"ing mos" <F ne>s and 0ie>-oin"s) = can 5or and sus"aining mD curren" a55airs unders"and 0ie>s) -rogrammes) = can con"em-orarD unders"and "!e li"erarD -rose) majori"D o5 5ilms in s"andard dialec") = can unders"and "!e= can unders"and = can deal >i"! mos" = can >ri"e main -oin"s o5 clear"ex"s "!a" consis" si"ua"ions liEelD "o arise -ersonal le""ers s"andard s-eec! onmainlD o5 !ig!>!ils" "ra0elling in an descri/ing 5amiliar ma""ers5reNuencD area >!ere "!e language ex-eriences regularlD e0erDdaD or jo/$is s-oEen) = can en"er and encoun"ered in >orE. or o5 e0en"s. = can ex-ress de"ailed mDsel5 in clear. leisure. underlining >!a" = consider "o /e "!e salien" issues) = can >ri"e di55eren" Einds o5 "ex"s in a s"Dle a--ro-ria"e "o "!e reader in mind) = can -resen" clear. -ro0ided = !a0e some "ime "o ge" 5amiliar >i"! "!e accen") C. and rela"e mD e0en >!en "!eD con"ri/u"ion sEil5ullD "o do no" rela"e "o "!ose o5 o"!er s-eaEers mD 5ield) A2 A.-ersonal in"eres") !o-es \ am/i"ions) = can /rie5lD gi0e 42 . e"c) = = can unders"and con0ersa"ion on "o-ics can unders"and "!e"!e descri-"ion o5 "!a" are 5amiliar. >!ic! are ex-eriences and5amiliar. an e55ec"i0e logical re-or"s or ar"icles. 5luen"lD and con0eD s-ecialised 5iner s!ades o5 ar"icles and meaning -reciselD) =5 = li"erarD >orEs) do !a0e a -ro/lem = can /acE"racE and res"ruc"ure around "!e di55icul"D so smoo"!lD = can ex-ress "!a" o"!er -eo-le are mDsel5 >i"! !ardlD a>are o5 i") clari"D and -recision. s"ruc"ure >!ic! >!ic! -resen" a !el-s "!e reci-ien" "o case >i"! an no"ice ande55ec"i0e logical remem/er s"ruc"ure.C2 = !a0e no di55icul"D in unders"anding anD Eind o5 s-oEen language. o5 = can -resen" a = can >ri"e clear. searc!ing 5or a--recia"ing ex-ressions) = can use dis"inc"ions o5 language 5lexi/lD and s"Dle) = can e55ec"i0elD 5or social unders"and and -ro5essional s-ecialised -ur-oses) = can ar"icles and 5ormula"e ideas and longer "ec!nical o-inions >i"! -recision ins"ruc"ions.rela"in g "o "!e addressee and = can unders"and = can ex-ress mDsel5 5lexi/lD long and 5luen"lD and e55ec"i0elD in an com-lex 5ac"ual s-on"aneouslD >i"!ou" assured.= can >ri"e clear.

and learning >i"! adolescen"s) +or"smou"!. main -oin" o5 manDe0en"s. local menus and Eee.. -ros-ec"uses. li0ing U6and6.MaEe a lis" o5 sel5$assessmen" ma"erials s"uden"s can include in "!eir -or"5olios Step 2/2$I<$ #ill in "!e 2uro-ass >i"! Dour in5orma"ion a/ou" Doursel5) Refere ces 1) #*er8H C/ 719938) *nd >i"! a lig!" "ouc!) +or"smou"!.me 5ormula"e 5ill in 5orms >i"! -eo-le s-eaE -os"ers or in >!a" =Ym "rDing "o saD) = -ersonal de"ails. "ra0el and curren" can narra"e a s"orD "o-ics o5 -ersonal or e0en"s8) or rela"e "!e -lo" o5 a -ro5essional in"eres" /ooE or 5ilm and >!en "!e deli0erD is descri/e mD rela"i0elD slo> and reac"ions) clear) = can unders"and = can read 0erD = can communica"e in = can >ri"e = can use a series o5 = can >ri"e a series -!rases and "!e s!or". 43 . mDU/ecause6) 0erD /asic -ersonal ma"erial suc! as social exc!anges. U/u"6 and rele0ance 7e)g) sim-le e0erDdaD can !andle 0erD s!or" o5 immedia"e condi"ions. and direc" exc!ange o5 messages descri/e in sim-le linEed >i"! sim-le "o areas o5 mos" -redic"a/le in5orma"ion on 5amiliar rela"ing "o "erms mD 5amilD and connec"ors liEe immedia"e -ersonal in5orma"ion in "o-ics and ac"i0i"ies) = ma""ers in areas o"!er -eo-le. !o//ies. 5orsen"ences "o and sen"ences concerning mDsel5. "!oug! = canY" usuallD >ri"e a 0erD /acEground and mD in5orma"ion. 19'5 &) $ard erH 7) <!e "!eorD o5 mul"i-le in"elligences. -ersonal le""ers some"!ing) sim-le messages and announcemen"s = can recognise = can unders"and = can in"erac" in a = can >ri"e a = can use sim-le = can >ri"e sim-le.#2 #. 5or recen" jo/ geogra-!D. unders"and enoug! "o sim-le -ersonal -resen" or mos" s!o--ing. sim-le -re-ared "o re-ea" or exam-les descri/e >!ere = mD 5amilD and sen"ences. J: Jeinemann) 2) #t@ellH "/ 7198'A19988) =n "!e middle: Pri"ing. sim-le -!rases ando5 sim-le -!rases !ig!es" 5reNuencD "ex"s) = can 5ind "asEs reNuiring a sim-le no"es and sen"ences "oand sen"ences 0oca/ularD rela"ed s-eci5ic. sim-le >aD -ro0ided s!or". C*: *merican @c!ool +u/lis!ers 6) Laga H Spe cer and !is associa"es a" [agan +u/lis!ing and +ro5essional (e0elo-men") Class *c"i0i"ies "!a" use Coo-era"i0e ?earning. e0en need) = can educa"ional and 5amilD ad0er"isemen"s. 1983 5) $oodma H L/H AirdH %/ A/H I $oodma H K ) 719918) <!e >!ole language ca"alog) @an"a Rosa. sim-le sim-le and rou"ine s!or".$roup @or=. 5or re-!rase "!ings a" a sending !olidaDli0e and -eo-le = immedia"e concre"e exam-le on slo>er ra"e o5 s-eec! gree"ings) = canEno>) surroundings >!en no"ices and and !el."!e con0ersa"ion le""er. "ime"a/les and = going mDsel5) exam-le em-loDmen"8) = can can unders"and "!anEing ca"c! "!e main s!or" sim-le someone 5or -oin" in s!or". o-inions and -lans) = curren" a55airs or >orE. 5eelings-ersonal in"eres" or reasons and radio or <Fand >is!es in-er"inen" "o e0erDdaD li5e ex-lana"ions 5or -rogrammes on-ersonal le""ers 7e)g) 5amilD. clear. reading. 5amiliar >ords and 5amiliar names. na"ionali"D need or on 0erD 5amiliar and address on a "o-ics) !o"el regis"ra"ion 5orm) Step 2/. slo>lD and clearlD) ca"alogues) can asE and ans>er 5or exam-le sim-le Nues"ions in en"ering mD areas o5 immedia"e name. sim-le-!rases and isola"ed -!rases 0erD /asic -!rases >ords and 0erD "!e o"!er -erson is -os"card. J: Jeinemann 3) Aa dler a d $ri der/ eurolinguis"ic$-rogramming.

*ssessmen" 44 . <!ailand ?exical *--roac! <o @econd ?anguage <eac!ing. %une 2001 $ =*<2#? 2011: (o>nload "!e !andou" 5or %aneYs =*<2#? -resen"a"ion: T:e trut: a)out <asE$/ased learning: MD"! and Reali"D $ <asE$Based *c"i0i"ies: MaEing "!e ?anguage ?a/ora"orD =n"erac"i0e) 2R=C (iges". $ <!e Common 2uro-ean #rame>orE o5 Re5erence 5or ?anguages: ?earning. <eac!ing.') %e@isH ') =m-lemen"ing "!e ?exical *--roac!: +u""ing <!eorD in"o +rac"ice 8) 'oudraiaH O)PalailaE) 1ni0ersi"D.

T7E EUROPE#" PRO(I%E O( TE#C7ER TR#I"I"$ 45 .'ODU%E 0.

and de0elo.$ *nitial teacher training Co ti uous Professio al De*elopme t CCPDD is "!e -rocess /D >!ic! "eac!ers 7liEe o"!er -ro5essionals8 c!ecE u.>i"! sc!ools and local >orE en0ironmen"s) . coac!ing.: =den"i5Ding "!e 2uro-en -ro5ile 5or language "eac!er educa"ion #cti*it8 2: Jo> "o MaEe 2nglis! ?essons More 255ec"i0e and @uccess5ul #cti*it8 0: 2duca"ional <ec!nologD s"andards 5or "eac!ers #cti*it8 . main"ain "!em u."!eir com-e"ences. a good Eno>ledge o5 -edagogD."!eir ac"i0i"ies in -ar"ners!i. "!e sEills and com-e"ences reNuired "o su--or" learners) 2 * -ro5ession o5 lifelo g lear ers: "eac!ers are encouraged "o con"inue "!eir -ro5essional de0elo-men" "!roug!ou" "!eir careers) 3 * mo)ile -ro5ession: mo/ili"D is "!e core o5 "!e ini"ial and con"inous "eac!er educa"ion -rogrammes) <eac!ers are gi0en o--or"uni"ies "o >orE or s"udD in o"!er 2uro-ean coun"ries "o raise "!eir -ro5essional le0el) * -ro5ession /ased on part ers:ip: "eac!er educa"ion ins"i"u"ions de0elo.#cti*it8 . and • res-ond "o "eac!ersC needs) =ni"ial "raining o5 5oreign languages "eac!ers re-resen"s "!e res-onsi/ili"D o5 Mem/er @"a"es: "!eD -laD a EeD role in ensuring an adeNua"e le0el o5 "raining o5 all "eac!ers) <!ere is a signi5ican" num/er o5 -ersonal sEills and resources reNuired "o "eac! a 5oreign language >ell) =ni"ial language "eac!er s!ould iden"i5D communica"ion sEills and "ec!niNues "!roug! classroom "raining) & 46 ."o da"e. C+( ac"i0i"ies s!ould: • /e con"inuous • use colla/ora"i0e "ec!niNues • a--lD ac"i0e learning • /e -rac"iced >i"! grou-s o5 "eac!ers • include -eriods o5 -rac"ice."!em 5ur"!er) <!e ex"en" "o >!ic! educa"ion au"!ori"ies su--or" "!is -rocess 0aries. and 5ollo>$u• -romo"e re5lec"i0e ac"i0i"ies • encourage ex-erimen"a"ion.: Ide tif8i g t:e Europe profile for la guage teac:er educatio Ide tif8i g t:e Europea profile for la guage teac:er educatio #/ T:e future Europea teac:i g professio <!e Common 2uro-ean +rinci-les 5or <eac!er Com-e"ences and Ruali5ica"ions descri/es "!e -ers-ec"i0e o5 "!e 5u"ure 2uro-ean "eac!ing -ro5ession as 5ollo>s: 1 * @ell-Fualified -ro5ession >!ere "eac!ers are gradua"es 5rom !ig!er educa"ion ins"i"u"ions ) 20erD "eac!er !as ex"ensi0e su/jec" Eno>ledge. as does "!e e55ec"i0eness o5 "!e di55eren" a--roac!es) * gro>ing researc! sugges"s "!a" "o /e mos" e55ec"i0e.

de0elo-men" and -rac"ical use o5 resources. exc!anges or =C< linEsM ') +eriods o5 >orE or s"udD in a 5oreign coun"rD ) 8) C!ances "o -ar"ici-a"e in "eac!ing in more "!an one coun"rDM 9) * 2uro-ean 5rame>orE 5or ini"ial assessmen". !e.s"ra"egies 5or inde-enden" language learningM Main"aining "!e ongoing de0elo-men" o5 "eac!ersC sEills 47 .%n(e( a #t%(y entitle( -*%!o$ean .!ame o. including 0isi"s. "eac!ing aids and ma"erialsM 22) 23) 2&) 25) <raining in "!e con"inuous use o5 learning me"!ods M <raining 5or "!e de0elo-men" o5 re5lec"i0e -rac"ice and sel5$e0alua"ionM <raining "o de0elo.ile . the *%!o$ean +ommi##ion .e!ence ) <!e re5erence in "!e -ro-osed %uropean 6rofile for language teac.o! Lang%age /eache! *(%cation 0 1 .er training 5ocuses on: 1) T:e structure o5 educa"ional courses 2) L o@ledge a d compre:e sio o5 "!e underlDing language "eac!ing 3) * range o5 strategies a d teac:i g s=ills a d lear i g &) <!e t8pes of *alues "!a" "!e sDs"em o5 language "eac!ing s!ould -romo"e ) <!is 5rame>orE is designed "o ser0e as a c!ecElis" 5or "eac!er "raining -rograms in -rogress and a" "!e same "ime as guidelines 5or "!e -rograms curren"lD in de0elo-men" s"age) STRUCTURE 1) * curriculum "!a" com/ines academic s"udD >i"! "eac!ing -rac"iceM 2) *n ini"ial con"inuous and modular "raining ) 3) 2x-lici" -rinci-les o5 "eac!ing -rac"iceM &) P!a" is men"oring and !o> "o >orE >i"! a men"orM 5) =n"ercul"ural and mul"icul"ural en0ironmen" Eno>ledge: 6) +ar"ners!i-s a/road.!o.C/ EU i itiati*es o trai i g foreig la guage teac:ers =n order "o in"roduce a 5rame>orE "o su--or" "!e !armoni9a"ion o5 Nuali5ica"ions 5or "eac!ers o5 5oreign languages across 2uro-e. o/jec"i0es and ex-ec"ed resul"sM STR#TE$IES #"D SLI%%S 20) <raining in ada-"ing "eac!ing a--roac!es "o "!e educa"ional con"ex" and s"uden"sCneeds: 21) <raining in cri"ical assessmen". allo>ing accredi"a"ion and mo/ili"DM 10) Con"inuous im-ro0emen" o5 "eac!ing sEills as -ar" o5 li5elong learningM 11) Con"inuous "raining o5 "rainersM 12) <raining men"ors in -rac"ice men"oring: 13) ?inEs /e">een -rac"i"ioners >!o are "rained "o "eac! o"!er languagesM L"O<%ED$E #"D U"DERST#"DI"$ 1&) <raining me"!odologD "o "eac! 5oreign languages and mos" ad0anced "ec!niNues and ac"i0i"ies o5 class "imeM 15) #orming a cri"ical and Nues"ioning "eac!ing a--roac!M 16) <!e ini"ial "raining course >!ic! reNuires linguis"ic -ro5iciencD and e0alua"es "raineesC linguis"ic com-e"enceM 1') <raining in "!e use o5 in5orma"ion "ec!nologD in "eac!ingM 18) <raining in "!e a--lica"ion o5 di55eren" assessmen" -rocedures: 19) <raining in a cri"ical e0alua"ion o5 "!e curriculum ado-"ed a" na"ional le0el in "erms o5 curricular areas.

/. colla/ora"ion and ne">orEing >i"!in "!e la/ and ou"side "!e sc!ool en0ironmen"M 38) <raining "o 0alue "!e im-or"ance o5 li5e$long learning) Step . some s"uden"s maD 5eel i" as an im-or"an" -ar" o5 "!e course) @"uden"s maD "!inE "!eD !a0e -aid 5or "!e language course.>orE gi0e s"uden"s more inde-endence "o organi9e "!eir lesson) B"!er ad0an"ages o5 -air >orE include: s"uden"s o5 "!e same language can use "!eir o>n language "o ac!ie0e "!e "asE more e55ec"i0elD) Jo>e0er.Bne o5 "!e -riori"ies 5or 21 Mem/er @"a"es is "o im-ro0e "eac!er Nuali"D and "eac!er educa"ion) P!a" are "!e areas "!eD co0erW Step ./2$<-2x-lain >!a" "!e %uropean 6rofile for language teac.si9e and mix"ure -lanning mo"i0a"ion disci-line assessmen" #/ Pair a d group @or= +air and grou. limi"a"ions o5 grou-A-air >orE maD re5er "o ignoring >!o "!eD are grou-edA-aired >i"! or one s"uden" domina"ing "!e o"!ers >!o remain silen" and !a0e di55icul"D ex-ressing "!emsel0es) A/ Importa ce of 7ome@or= i %a guage Classes @ome"imes !ome>orE is no" >ell recei0ed: ne0er"!eless .>orE and -air >orE !ome>orE grou. >!ic! re-resen" -ar" o5 e55ec"i0e classroom managemen" sEills) <!ese include : • • • • • • • grou.26) <raining in "!e -rac"ical a--lica"ion o5 curriculum and sDlla/usM 2') <raining in "ec!niNues o5 o/ser0a"ion and 5eed/acEM 28) <raining in de0elo-ing rela"ions!i-s >i"! ins"i"u"ions -ro0iding educa"ion in coun"ries c!osen /D "!e "rainersM 29) 30) 31) 32) <raining "o -romo"e researc! >orEM <raining in in"egra"ing researc! in"o "eac!ingM <raining in con"en" and language$in"egra"ed learning7C?=?8 <raining in "!e use o5 2uro-ean ?anguage +or"5olio 5or sel5$ e0alua"ionM 6#%UES 33) <raining "o -romo"e social and cul"ural 0aluesM 3&) <raining in "!e -romo"ion o5 di0ersi"D o5 languages and cul"uresM 35) <raining in "!e im-or"ance o5 "eac!ing and learning o5 5oreign languagesM 36) <raining "o increase a>areness o5 2uro-ean ci"i9ens!i-M 3') <raining -rac"ice "eam>orE.$Pair-@or=.er training means and >!a" are "!e main -oin"s i" 5ocuses on) #cti*it8 2: 7o@ to 'a=e E glis: %esso s 'ore Effecti*e a d Successful 7o@ to 'a=e E glis: %esso s 'ore Effecti*e a d Successful <!ere are se0en EeD areas 5or <2#? "eac!ers "o Eee.in mind. "!ere5ore 48 .

perie ce of success -ro0ides s"uden"s >i"! more -o>er "o 5ollo> a ne> goal) =" allo>s language learners "o unders"and "!e -ur-ose o5 "rDing and !a0e -leasure in communica"ing >i"! o"!ers) @ome -eo-le mig!" gain con5idence >!en "!eD can communica"e "!eir "!oug!"s "o -eo-leM o"!ers mig!" 5eel "!e sense o5 success >!en "!eD com-le"e a c!allenging "asE in a "arge"ed language) (/ Discipli e i %a guage Classes Jarmer 719988 !ig!lig!"s "!e im-or"ance o5 disci-line in e55ec"i0e classroom managemen" in s"a"ing. u"ilising 0arious di55eren" ma"erials) <!e same ma"erial maD also /e used. "!ree s-eci5ic elemen"s are s"ronglD /elie0ed "o /uild mo"i0a"ion "o>ards language$learning: sel5$con5idence. /u" >i"! di55eren" "asEs. -resen"a"ion.S di0iding "!e class in !al5 "o -rac"ice dialogues. ex-eriencing success and sa"is5ac"ion.si9e s!ould /e used "o i"s ad0an"ageM >orEs!ee"s maD /e used "o ac!ie0e "asEs >!ic! >ould !a0e /een used as >!ole class ac"i0i"ies i5 "!e class >ere smaller) +air and grou. gi0ing "!e lesson a clear organi9a"ion)and co!erence) [eD areas "o /e included >!en -lanning re5er "o "!e aim. suc! as a >!ole class lis"ening or reading ac"i0i"D. e0alua"ion me"!ods 7e)g) 5eed/acE sessions8 and rele0an" !ome>orE s!ould also /e included in "!e lesson -lan) E/ 'oti*atio Mo"i0a"ion in language$learning -laDs a 0i"al role) =" is mo"i0a"ion "!a" -roduces e55ec"i0e second$language communica"ors /D -lan"ing in "!em "!e seeds o5 self-co fide ce/ =" also success5ullD crea"es learners >!o con"inuouslD engage "!emsel0es in learning e0en a5"er "!eD com-le"e a -ur-ose5ul goal) */o0e all. Nues"ions and ans>ers) Mixed a/ili"D classes maD /e !andled /D di0iding "!e class in"o grou-s. S?earning !o> "o manage s"uden"s and !o> "o con"rol /ois"erous classes is one o5 "!e mos" 5undamen"al sEills o5 "eac!ing)S *l"!oug! disci-line is no" suc! an im-or"an" issue among adul" s"uden"s. including >armer."oo muc! "ime /u" i" s!ould no" "aEe u.!ome>orE s!ould /e re>arding) @ome learners maD indeed >elcome "!e o--or"uni"D "o re0ie> a" !ome >!a" !as /een "aug!" in class) Jome>orE s!ould no" "aEe u."oo li""le ei"!er) C/ $roup Si. and good "eac!er$learner rela"ions!i-s as >ell as -osi"i0e rela"ions!i-s /e">een learners) =" is >idelD /elie0ed "!a" once s"uden"s gain sel5$con5idence. -rac"ice and 5ollo>$u-A>arm do>n maD -ro0e !el-5ul) Ma"erials. a" "!e same "ime >i"! ac!ie0ing success and sa"is5ac"ion as >ell as good rela"ions!i-s) E. i" -rogressi0elD ex-ands. ac"i0i"ies "o ac!ie0e "!e aim and -ossi/le -ro/lems) <!e "!ree necessarD elemen"s o5 anD "eac!ing seNuence are e gageH stud8 a d acti*ate) * lesson -lan "em-la"e o5 s"ages. le" i" /e "!e im-or"ance o5 -lanning in order "o crea"e e55ec"i0e language lessons) ?esson -lanning gi0es "!e "eac!ers "!e -ossi/ili"D "o logicallD 5ollo> -rogression. s"udD.>orE s!ould /e encouraged "o increase s"uden" -ar"ici-a"ion) @-eaEing -rac"ice maD /e done using a Sc!orus reac"ion.e <!e grou. i" can /e di55icul" "o "eac! i5 s"uden"s are "alEing or doing some o"!er ac"i0i"ies >!ile "!e 49 . >i"! /asic or more c!allenging Nues"ions) D/ Pla i g %esso s =5 Dou "aEe one "!ing !ome >i"! Dou 5rom reading "!is ar"icle. class dDnamics. re-e"i"ion.

. >i"! "!e circle arrangemen" crea"ing a sense o5 eNuali"D) * EeD ad0an"age is "!a" all s"uden"s can see eac! o"!er.o! /*3L Le##on# 0 *ngli#h Le##on . c!ildren and "eenage grou-s reNuire s"ric" and 5irm s"andards o5 acce-"a/le /e!a0iour) @im-le EeD >ords s!ould /e "aug!" earlD on. "!e "eac!erYs -osi"ion is more domina"ing) Circle or !orses!oe arrangemen"s maD /e more sui"a/le 5or smaller class si9es.3ill in the cha!t to highlight the a(&antage# an( (i#a(&antage# o. >!ic! include orderlD ro>s. >i"! s"uden"s 5irs" /eing asEed "o iden"i5D anD -ro/lems) Pri"ing maD /e correc"ed using sDm/ols suc! as @+ 5or s-elling mis"aEe and PP 5or >rong >ord) @ome incorrec" sen"ences maD also /e >ri""en on "!e /oard. "eac!ers s!ould correc" in "!e 5eed/acE session.lanning Lang%age 4oo"# to 5el$ 6t%(ent# Lea!n 4%#ine## *ngli#h $/ Classroom %a8out for Successful %esso s <!ere are 5our main arrangemen"s 5or lessons.e!ent #t%(ent g!o%$ing# to ma"e the le##on mo!e e. gi0ing all s"uden"s "!e o--or"uni"D "o correc" "!em) B"!er me"!ods o5 correc"ion. >!ole class >orE and disci-line. so as no" "o des"roD "!e con0ersa"ional 5lo>) Mis"aEes s!ould /e deal" >i"! >i"!ou" iden"i5Ding >!o made "!em) Mis"aEes could /e ex-lained in a 5eed/acE "ime.. is ideal 5or lec"uring . se-ara"e "a/les. >aDs o5 communica"ion) 7/ Correctio i t:e la guage class =" is im-or"an" 5or "eac!ers "o /e a/le "o correc" s"uden"s >i"!ou" in!i/i"ing "!em) <ac" is 0i"al and as iden"i5ied /D Jarmer 719988.icient an( #%cce##. as >ell as non$0er/al.%l. suc! as s!aEing "!e !ead. >ri""en on "!e /oard. as com-ared "o "!e circle or !orses!oe arrangemen". (i. #d*a tages P!ole$class grou-ing Grou->orE +air>orE @olo>orE Disad*a tages #cti*it8 0: Educatio al Tec: olog8 sta dards for teac:ers 50 . suc! as Y@"o-. maEing i" easier 5or e55ec"i0e 0er/al.lesson is /eing "aug!") Main"aining con"rol and ensuring lessons are >ell -lanned is liEelD "o /e su55icien" "o Eee. discussion8.s"uden"s mo"i0a"ed "o learn and remain in"eres"ed) <:8 Discipli e 'atters i C:ildre a d Tee age %a guage %esso s =n con"ras" "o adul" language classes.Y YFerD GoodY and oY in "!e case o5 monolingual grou-s) Xounger grou-s maD /ene5i" 5rom re>ard sDs"ems >!ere -oin"s maD /e gained or los") Read o • • +!eating 2a!me!# . >i"!in a s-eci5ic en0ironmen") =n s-eaEing -rac"ice 7role -laD. s"uden"s a" "!e /acE o5 "!e room maD !a0e less o--or"uni"D 5or con"ac" >i"! "!e "eac!er and 5eel de"ac!ed 5rom "!e class) *lso. asEing 5or "!e sen"ence "o /e re-ea"ed de-end on a/ili"D and "!e s"uden"A"eac!er ra--or") Step 2. circle and !orses!oe sea"ing) P!ile sea"ing in ro>s allo>s all s"uden"s "o see "!e "eac!er and 0ice$ 0ersa.1. i" is "!e "eac!erYs role "o iden"i5D >!a" is adeNua"e 5or a s-eci5ic s"uden".

and local and glo/al communi"ies) <eac!ers mus" /e -ro5icien" in "!ese sEills in order "o de0elo.o! /eache!#) <!ese s"andards include 21s" cen"urD sEills suc! as 5inding and managing resources.st Ce tur8 S=ills for Teac:ersC 7ne">orEed"eac!er)>e"-ain")comA-ageA#cti*itiesD <!e Inte!national 6ociety . s"uden"s. and connec"ing >i"! colleagues. -u/lis!ing on "!e >e/.Educatio al Tec: olog8 sta dards for teac:ers 2.s"uden"s include "!ese sEills during "!e learning -rocess) <!ese ac"i0i"ies >ill gi0e Dou a c!ance "o ac"i0elD -ar"ici-a"e in using some o5 "!e >e/$/ased "ools "!a" are commonlD used in classrooms and "o discuss au"!en"ic ideas 5or using "!ese "ools) +he 2et)orked +eacher <eac!ers also need "o engage in con"inuing -ro5essional de0elo-men" in order "o /e an e55ec"i0e and re5lec"i0e -rac"i"ioner) <!ese mig!" /e ar"icula"ed in a -rogramme o5 s"udD as 5ollo>s: • • • unders"anding -u-ilsC -rogression in learning /eing a/le "o linE "!eorD >i"! -rac"ice cri"ical "!inEing 51 .o! /echnology *(%cation !as re$released i"s *(%cational /echnology 6tan(a!(# .good -rac"ices in "!eir s"uden"s and "o !el. -aren"s.

-ro/lem$/ased learning "ec!niNues me"!ods 5or de0elo-ing language sEills 7including grammar and 0oca/ularD acNuisi"ion8 use o5 ne> "ec!nologies 5or language learning including com-u"er assis"ed language learning Step 0/. "eac!er s"uden"s are "aug!" "o engage in re5lec"ion in a s"ruc"ured >aD. * #rame o5 Re5erence 52 .5or #ree Ruali"D 2duca"ion Resources $ ?o"e "eac!er com-e"encies 5or -ro5essional de0elo-men" $ 2uro-ean +ro5ile 5or ?anguage <eac!er 2duca"ion.@!o.and indi0idual -rojec"s. re5lec"ion on -rac"ice and rela"ing "!eorD "o -rac"ice) @"uden"s >ill consider 7and ex-erience8 "!e 5ollo>ing "eac!ing and learning a--roac!es2duca"ional <ec!nologD @"andards 5or <eac!ers) • • • • • • • • • • • • • use o5 re5lec"i0e "ools suc! as -or"5olios) #rom "!e s"ar" o5 "!e "eac!er educa"ion -rogramme.• • • unders"anding "!e social con"ex" o5 communica"ion unders"anding causes and e55ec"s "eac!ing "!roug! inNuirD <!e language "eac!er educa"ion curriculum con"ains /o"! "!eore"ical and -rac"ical elemen"s >!ic! laD em-!asis on learner$cen"redness and "asE$ /ased learning) Muc! o5 "!e learning >ill /e done "!roug! -rac"ical ex-erience.-<!inE o5 ">o good "eac!ers 5rom Dour -as") P!a" -ersonal Nuali"ies doAdid "!eD s!areW Refere ces 1) #)ruda Caciora Simo a 6ero ica: Mo"i0a"ion in language learning 2) "orris-7oltH J/: Mo"i0a"ion as a Con"ri/u"ing #ac"or in @econd ?anguage *cNuisi"ion 3) Smit:H S/'/ C.QQ1D/ @econd ?anguage ?earning: <!eore"ical #ounda"ions) ?ondon and e> XorE: ?ongman $ <!e Ga"e>aD "o 21s" Cen"urD @Eills$ a <eac!erCs Bne @"o. using se0eral ins"rumen"s suc! as: a -rac"ice diarD discussion sessions >i"! "u"ors and -eers a/ou" signi5ican" "eac!ing -rac"ices) sel5$moni"oring >i"! "!e re5lec"ion circle 15 su-er0ision mee"ings in small grou-s a/ou" -ersonal "eac!ing ex-eriences in5ormed re5lec"i0e -rac"ice cons"ruc"i0is" models o5 learning learner au"onomD cogni"i0e models suc! as language learning s"ra"egies con"en" and ?anguage =n"egra"ed ?earning 7see sec"ion 6)1)&8 "asE$/ased learning "!roug! grou.

53 .

TKPES O( %E#R"I"$ #CTI6ITIES (OR TE#C7I"$ $R#''#R 54 .'ODU%E 1.

-romo"ing s"uden"s ca-aci"D 5or "!inEing crea"i0elDM • "o de0elo. "!e >ord SgrammarS is associa"ed >i"! a 5ixed se" o5 rules o5 usage) <!e goal o5 s"udDing grammar is "o maEe s"uden"s a>are no" onlD o5 "!e language sDs"em and o5 "!e "D-ical cons"ruc"ions in a language. "a/les.ac"i0i"ies "!a" mee" /o"! "!e curriculum reNuiremen"s and "!e com-e"ences se" /D <!e Common 2uro-ean #rame>orE o5 ?anguages7C2#R8M • "o de0elo.ac"i0i"ies in0ol0ing "!e men"al a/ili"ies o5 reasoning and correc" o/ser0a"ion. /u" also o5 "!e >aD "!e language 5orms are used) <eac!ers maEe a clear dis"inc"ion /e">een S good grammar6 7 e) g) 5ormal language used in >ri"ing and in oral -resen"a"ions8. cri"ical "!inEing. "!eD !a0e s"uden"s >!o can -roduce correc" 5orms o5 language. diagrams. /ecause "!ese drills 1 a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD 55 . "!a" is."!e a/ili"D "o use grammar correc"lD in oral and >ri""en in"erac"ions /D doing mec!anical drills.: $oals a d Tec: iFues for Teac:i g $rammar =" is /elie0ed "!a" grammar is "!e mos" im-or"an" issue in "eac!ing and learning a 5oreign language) =" is also one o5 "!e mos" di55icul" as-ec"s >!en i" comes "o "eac!ing i") 1suallD.sEills in using a >ide range o5 in"erac"i0e and learner$cen"red "eac!ing and learningM • "o -resen" s"ra"egies "!a" ena/le s"uden"s "o assimila"e "!e correc" -a""erns o5 "!e language."eac!er "rainers rela"e "o 21RB+*@@ com-e"ences) #cti*it8 . 0alues and ci"i9ens!io/jec"i0es o5 educa"ion 5or a sus"aina/le 5u"ureM • "o de0elo. and linEed PPP$si"es8M • "o a--lD "!e ideas "!eD de0elo."eac!ing s"ra"egies "!a" em/ed grammar ins"ruc"ion >i"!in con"ex"s "!a" are meaning5ul "o "!e learners."o "!eir o>n curriculum and "eac!ing con"ex"s and -rac"icesM • "o !el.#cti*it8 . as >ell as mul"i-le sources o5 in5orma"ionM • "o de0elo.: Goals and <ec!niNues 5or <eac!ing Grammar #cti*it8 2: (e0elo-ing Grammar *c"i0i"ies #cti*it8 0: <eac!ing Grammar =nduc"i0elD 0s) (educ"i0elD #cti*it8 1: <i-s 5or "eac!ing grammar #cti*it8 5: Grammar le0els #cti*it8 6: 2duca"ional linEs 1 #cti*it8 2: @am-les o5 ac"i0i"ies 5or s"uden"s O)9ecti*es • "o -resen" s"ra"egies "!a" underline "!e Eno>ledge. correla"ing "!em "o "!e demands o5 linguis"ic reali"ies no>adaDs /D -ro0iding mul"i-le access -oin"s "o in5orma"ion. /u" >!o maEe errors >!en "!eD "rD "o use "!e language in con"ex") <!ere5ore. and S bad grammar6 7 e) g) language used in e0erDdaD con0ersa"ion8) @uc! "eac!ers "eac! grammar /D ex-laining "!e 5orms and rules and "!en drilling s"uden"s on "!em) *s a resul". s"uden"s do no" de0elo. "o "eac! grammar communica"i0elDM • "o -ro0ide "eac!ers and s"uden"s >i"! a model o5 com-u"eri9ed assis"ed language learning 7C*??8M • "o 5acili"a"e ease o5 na0iga"ion and use o5 "!e in"erne"M • "o ge" "eac!er "rainers 5amiliar >i"! learning s"ra"egies "!a" in0i"e learners "o analDse and in"er-re" in5orma"ion in a 0arie"D o5 5orms 7eg "ex".

/u" acNuiring a language s"ruc"ure "!a" is -ar"icular "o a cer"ain si"ua"ion) Error Correctio P!en i" comes "o "!is issue. "eac!ers can !el"!eir s"uden"s /D using error correc"ion >!en s"uden"s are doing ac"i0i"ies "!a" 5ocus on de0elo-men" o5 ne> language sEills /u" no" >!en "!eD are engaged in communica"i0e ac"i0i"ies) Step . and >ill -ro/a/lD de"ermine s"uden"s no" "o communica"e anD more 5or 5ear "!eD >ill maEe mis"aEes) <!us "!eD >ill 5ocus more on "!e gramma"ical s"ruc"ures and no" on "!e con"en" o5 "!eir communica"ionM and "!is does no" ac!ie0e a communica"i0e -ur-ose) <!ere is disagreemen" among "eac!ers a/ou" >!a". 5 I di*idual @or= Commen" on "!e 5ollo>ing L U<!e goal o5 s"udDing grammar is "o maEe s"uden"s a>are no" onlD o5 "!e "D-ical cons"ruc"ions in a language. using "!e 5ollo>ing -ic"ure and sen"ences $ !""-:AA1x)comA-!o"osAe0erDdaDA318'6A 56 ./. al"!oug! error correc"ion needs "o /e done in order "o im-ro0e language acNuisi"ion) Jo>e0er. learning grammar means 5ocus on "!e language o5 >!ic! grammar is a -ar") =" does no" mean learning /D !ear" rules and a--lDing "!em. ex-lana"ions and ins"ruc"ions gi0en "o "!e s"uden"s u-on di55eren" language 5orms) <!e goal is 5or s"uden"s "o acNuire gramma"ical com-e"ence /D 5ollo>ing "!e se" o5 "!e "arge" language rules) =" is a 5ormal ins"ruc"ion "!a" learners 5ollo> in order "o a""ain accuracD) <!is "ec!niNue ena/les s"uden"s "o unders"and and assimila"e gramma"ical s"ruc"ures in a 5oreign language) @"uden"s s!ould /e -ro0ided >i"! accura"e and a--ro-ria"e exam-les) <!e exam-les s!ould /e rela"ed "o -ar"icular "o-ics so "!a" s"uden"s >ould /e a/le "o maEe "!e connec"ion /e">een grammar and 0oca/ularD) Rele*a ce of $rammar I structio <!is issue rela"es "o "!e Communica"i0e *--roac! >!ic! 5ocuses on language 5unc"ions.se-ara"e 5orm 5rom meaning and use) =5 >e see language as a s"ric" se" o5 rules "!ere >ill /e disconnec"ions /e">een Eno>ing "!e rules o5 grammar and /eing a/le "o a--lD "!em) <!ere5ore. >!en. "eac!ers need "o /e care5ul no" "o 5ocus on error correc"ion "o "!e de"rimen" o5 communica"ion. as "!is >ill Us!aEe6 "!e s"uden"sY con5idence in "!eir a/ili"D "o use "!e language. grammar s!ould /e "aug!" in order "o ena/le s"uden"s "o communica"e -ro-erlD. no" language as a se" o5 rules) <!e ac"i0i"ies are cen"ered on learnersC a/ili"D "o use language "o communica"e./2 L =ndi0idual >orE +lan an ac"i0i"D "eac!ing -as" "ense sim-le. "o -roduce and unders"and sen"ences "!a" are a--ro-ria"e "o a -ar"icular si"ua"ion) <!us. "!a" is "o use >i"! accuracD di55eren" grammar s"ruc"ures in "!eir e0erDdaD in"erac"ions) O*ert $rammar I structio <!is "ec!niNue 5ocuses on rules. /u" also o5 "!e con"ex" in >!ic! "!e language 5orms are used) Step . and !o> "o correc".

/1 5 $roup @or= $ +lan an ac"i0i"D "eac!ing 5u"ure sim-le.8not.e selected message to t.is t9ea0 is called 8uto&esponder and it 9ill ma0e sure t. in a movie.at 7ou receive 9.a) <!ere 7/e8 cccccc))a grea" 5ire las" nig!" in an a-ar"men" /uilding near ?ondon) /) <!e 5ire 7"ra-8cccccc))5i0e -eo-le in "!eir a-ar"men"s) c) <!e 5ire5ig!"ers 7"rD8ccccc)) "o rescue "!em) d) 1n5or"una"elD. it 9ill ma0e sure t.ile in deep sleep? /ell if 7ou .at an7one 9. t. !. 'ets s9itc.at 7ou are unable to respond and 9ill get bac0 to t.ing or . "!e 5i0e -eo-le 7die8 ccccc))/ecause "!e 5lames 7/e8ccccc)"oo /ig) e) <!e 5ire las" nig!" also 7Eill8cccccc))a 5ire5ig!"er) 5) Jis colleagues 7no" /e a/le "o8cccccccccccc))sa0e !im) g) <!e -olice 7come8ccccccc))and 7collec"8ccccccccc)e0idence) !) <!e man in "!e -ic"ure 7/e8cccccccc)de0as"a"ed) i) j) E) Jis /ro"!ers 7li0e8ccccccccc))in "!a" /uilding "oo) #or"una"elD. over to some <uestions= >ave 7ou ever gotten te+ts 9. using "!e 5ollo>ing "ex" $!""-:AA>>>)ijail/reaE)comAWs^*u"oRes-onder .o te+ts 7ou 0no9s t.ile it is enabled and send t.ave 8uto&esponder.as built in messages for common activities.e person and 7ou donAt even .ool.at no one 9./0 5 $roup @or= $ +lan an ac"i0i"D "eac!ing 5u"ure sim-le.ave to do an7t.em as soon as possible@ 8uto&esponder .it an7 send button. /it.ile in a meeting.o te+ts 7ou 9ill ever feel ignored again.at : find to be a ver7 cool concept if 7ou find 7ourself a9a7 from 7our i6. "!eD 7lea0e8ccccccccc5or Cairo ">o daDs ago) Bu" "!e man 7no" Eno>8cccccccca/ou" "!eir lea0ing) Step . >o9 does 8uto&esponder 9or0? /ell 8uto&esponder 9ill repl7 to an7 te+t t. in sc.” Step .is t9ea0 7ou can ma0e sure 7our friends and famil7 never feel ignored again.one a lot. or even 9.er ne9 t9ea0 9as released into $7dia toda7 t. or 7ou can even 9rite 7our o9n responses. using "!e 5ollo>ing -!o"os !""-:AA>>>)smas!inga--s)comA2008A09A10A39$mas"er-ieces$o5$crea"i0e$ad0er"isemen"s)!"ml !""-:AA>>>)!emmD)ne"A2006A10A15Acrea"i0e$ad0er"isemen"s$around$"!e$>orld !""-:AA>>>)smas!inga--s)comA2008A09A10A39$mas"er-ieces$o5$crea"i0e$ad0er"isemen"s)!"ml 57 .

grammar in con"ex". courses and "ex"/ooEs are organi9ed in a specified seFue ce o5 gramma"ical "o-ics) P!en "!is is "!e case. and gi0e exam-lesM *sE s"uden"s "o -rac"ice "!e grammar s"ruc"ure in communica"i0e drillsM =n0ol0e s"uden"s in communica"i0e "asEs.ac"i0i"ies "!a" rela"e di55eren" "o-ics "o meaning and 5orm) ?anguage s"ruc"ures s!ould /e s!o>n in au"!en"ic con"ex"s so "!a" "!eD >ill ca"er 5or "!e learnersC di55eren" needs) @uc! courses de0elo. classroom ac"i0i"ies need "o re5lec" "!e grammar -oin" "!a" is /eing in"roduced or re0ie>ed) Bn "!e o"!er !and. "alEing a/ou" 5orm. "eac!ers need "o de0elo. -ro0iding o--or"uni"ies "o use "!e grammar s"ruc"ureM #or "!ose courses "!a" 5ollo> a seFue ce of topics. and use.#cti*it8 2: De*elopi g $rammar #cti*ities 1suallD.ac"i0i"ies "!a" rela"e 5orm "o meaning and use) • • • (escri/e "!e grammar s"ruc"ure. s"uden"s >!o in"end "o a--lD 5or a jo/ >ill need "o Eno> !o> "o ans>er cer"ain Nues"ions in a jo/ in"er0ie>) <eac!ers can use audio"a-es "o simula"e real si"ua"ionsM moreo0er. reading selec"ion8 "!a" rela"e "o "!e "o-ic) • • • Re0ie> "!e grammar s"ruc"ure. and -ro/a/lD "!e /es" >aD "o do i" is "o ge" "!e s"uden"s a""en"ion on a s-eci5ic linguis"ic 5ea"ure in a "ex" "!a" !as /een alreadD -rocessed 7as 5ar as meaning is concerned8M "!is !el-s s"uden"s unders"and and consolida"e "!eir Eno>ledge o5 a 5oreign language) <eac!ers need "o -ro0ide oral or >ri""en ma"erials 7audio"a-e. meaning. using exam-les 5rom "!e ma"erialsM *sE s"uden"s "o -rac"ice "!e grammar s"ruc"ure in communica"i0e drills Eee-ing "o "!e "o-icM *sE s"uden"s do a communica"i0e "asE on "!e "o-ic) #or exam-le. grammar s"ruc"ures >ill /e s"udied as "!eD come u-) #or "!ose courses "!a" 5ocus on gramma"ical 5orms in a specified seFue ce. "eac!ers need "o de0elo. "eac!ers need "o "eac! "!e gramma"ical 5orms "!a" "D-icallD occur in suc! si"ua"ionsM and "!en asE s"uden"s "o -rac"ice /D asEing and ans>ering Nues"ions "!a" rela"e "o "!e "o-ic) 58 . >!en a course curriculum is organi9ed on a topic seFue ce.

and de0elo. and use) =n suc! drills s"uden"s /ecome a>are o5 "!e men"ioned rela"ions!i. as "!e su-reme goal is acNuiring 5luencD) Jo>e0er."!eir a/ili"D "o use language 5or communica"i0e -ur-oses) *no"!er ad0an"age is "!a" mul"i-le correc" res-onses are -ossi/le and s"uden"s use "!e grammar -oin" under considera"ion 5ocusing on "!eir o>n con"en" and ex-erience) • Step 2/. "!e EeD$ >ord 5or "!e de0elo-ed ac"i0i"ies is practice) @"uden"s s!ould do "!is in order "o /e a/le "o use "!e language "!eD !a0e /een ex-osed "o.ample of mec:a ical drillsD 5 Put t:e *er)s i to Prese t Perfect SimpleP use affirmati*e form: a) <!eD 7do8cccccccc))"!eir !ome>orE) /) MarD 7>as!8cccccccc))"!e dis!es) c) d) Mum 75eed8ccccccc))"!e ca") <!e "eac!er 7come8cccccccccin"o "!e classroom) e) = 7guess8cccccccc)"!e correc" ans>er) 5) Mr) %ones 7arri0e8cccccccccccc)!ome 5rom >orE) g) Pe 7read8cccccccccc)a con"em-orarD no0el) !) <!eD 7mee"8cccccccc))!er a" "!e s"a"ion) i) = 7!a0e8ccccccc)dinner) Step 2/2 .i di*idual @or= Desig a mea i gful drill for Prese t Simple/ • Ca e.=n /o"! cases. so "!eir resem/lance "o real communica"ion is limi"edM Commu icati*e drills L "!a" 5ocus on "!e rela"ions!i-s among 5orm. "eac!ers s!ould Eee. meaning.in mind "!e "!ree "D-es o5 drills: • • 'ec:a ical drills L "!a" 5ocus on -a""erns or rulesM "!eD are no" 0erD use5ul as "!eD do no" resem/le a real communica"ion si"ua"ion) ?earners do no" need "o unders"and or communica"e anD"!ing so suc! lessons are /oringM 'ea i gful drills L "!a" 5ocus on "!e correla"ion /e">een 5orm and meaningM 5rom "!is -oin" o5 0ie> suc! drills can !el. /u" "!e im-edimen" is "!a" "!eD !a0e onlD one correc" ans>er.ample of mea i gful drillD 5 C:oose t:e correct a s@er i eac: se te ce: a) Xou donC" A arenC" lis"ening "o me) /) *na and <om are A is >ai"ing 5or us) c) <!e girls in our classroom didnC" A arenC" enjoDing "!e 5ilm) d) P!a"Cs "!a" noiseW <!e ca" is A are me>ing in "!e garden/ 59 . 5i di*idual @or= (esign a mec!anical drill 5or +as" +er5ec" @im-le/ • Ca e.s"uden"s unders"and "!e grammar rules.

i di*idual @or= Consider "!is -!o"ogra-! and se" "asEs 5or communica"i0e drills) • Ca e. "!e learners are gi0en "!e gramma"ical rule and "!eD are su--osed "o a--lD "!e rule "o ne> sen"ences) <!eD are "D-icallD ex-ec"ed "o memorise "!e rule) <!e ad0an"ages o5 "!is Eind o5 "eac!ing are: =" is "ime$sa0ing. 5rom "rDing di55eren" "!ings. as i" 5ocuses on a s-eci5ic grammar -oin"M =" in0ol0es a cogni"i0e -rocess in language acNuisi"ionM <!is "D-e o5 "eac!ing can /e rela"ed "o "!e "radi"ional >aD o5 "eac!ing) I ducti*e grammar teac:i g or rule-disco*er8 teac:i g is /ased on ex-erimen"s) =" rejec"s "!e idea o5 gi0ing "!e learners a readD$made rule) <!e learners learn 5rom disco0ering.e) =Cm no" A amnC" drinEing -i99a) 5) =" isnC" A arenC" sno>ing !ea0ilD) g) Xou isnC" A arenC" >a"c!ing "!e 5ilm) !) <!e /oDs are A does s>imming in "!e laEe) i) <ommD is A am slee-ing in "!e car) Step 2/0 . 5rom care5ullD selec"ed in"elligi/le linguis"ic da"a in con"ex". usuallD in "!e 5orm o5 a "ex" illus"ra"ing "!e use o5 "!e -ar"icular gramma"ical s"ruc"ure) Bn "!e /asis o5 "!e model "!eD are su--osed "o 5ormula"e "!eir o>n ex-lana"ion o5 "!e rules go0erning "!e -resen"ed ma"erial) <!roug! • • 60 . "o "!eir a--lica"ion "o concre"e ? 2 re-resen"a"ions and -rac"ice "asEs) <!a" is.ample of commu icati*e drillD 5 <:at are t:e c:ildre i t:is picture doi gO L !""-:AA/oDls"on)//rsd)sc!ool5usion)usAmodulesAgrou-sA!ome-age5ilesAcmsA1390030A=mageAB oDls"onA@"ar"+ageAEids$-laDing$in$"!e$-arE)j-g 1se -resen" con"inuous "o maEe sen"ences re5erring "o "!is image: #cti*it8 0: Teac:i g $rammar I ducti*el8 *s/ Deducti*el8 Deducti*e grammar or rule-dri*e teac:i g is /ased on 5ac"s and s"a"emen"s and i" 5ocuses on "!e learnersC logic) =" leads 5rom an ex-lici" -resen"a"ion o5 a se" o5 isola"ed language rules 7"oge"!er >i"! model sentences8.

/e correc"ed /D "!e "eac!er.ex-erimen"ing "!eD 5igure ou" "!e gramma"ical rules all /D "!emsel0es) <!e elici"ed s"uden"sC rules >ill "!en. -rac"ice "!e -resen"ed grammar -oin"M com-le"e "!e /lanEs >i"! @BM2 or * : Model = dranE @BM2 milE) = a"e * a--le) a) /) c) d) e) 5) g) !) i) Je asEed 5orccccccc)in5orma"ion) <!e c!ildren -laDed >i"! cccccccccs"icE) <!eD decided "o gi0e mecccccccccad0ice) = recogni9edccccccc))old man in "!e s"ree") <!e s"uden"s !a0ecccccc)*merican car) = !a0ecccccccc)a--oin"men" "!is e0ening) <!e C!inese -eo-le a" our "a/le a"e ccccccc)rice and 0ege"a/les) = readccccc)-a-er on "!e /us) MarD go" on "!e car) @!e didnC" !a0eccccc)"icEe") Step 0/2 5 i di*idual @or= (esign ac"i0i"ies 5or di55eren" grammar s"ruc"ures $ 7"!e ac"i0i"ies s!ould /e a--ro-ria"e 5or induc"i0e grammar "eac!ing8M consider "!is -!o"ogra-!) !""-:AA>>>)ge""Dimages)comAde"ailA1122519&5AGe""D$=mages$@-or" 2]*M+?2: a) /) c) d) @e0en /lacE$and$>!i"e -!o"ogra-!s o5 "!e Bea"les @ill )e sold nex" >eeE) @!aEira @ill )e a@aited /D !er 5ans a" "!e air-or") <!e arres"ed man @ill )e i terrogated in ">o >eeEsC "ime) <!eD @ill )e persuaded "o go "o "!a" 5ancD -ar"D) 7o@ is t:is structure formedO <:at mome t does t:is structure refer toO Cprese tH past or futureD <:at does t:is structure mea O 61 . >!en. >!ere and !o> "o use a gramma"icallD correc" sen"ence) *n exam-le could /e: • !o> "o asE 5or direc"ionsM • !o> "o address -eo-le in di55eren" real Lli5e si"ua"ionsM • !o> "o res-ond "o di55eren" reNues"s. i5 necessarD. maEe sure Dou -ro0ide s"uden"s >i"! 0arious -rac"ical classroom ideas and -rocedures) Bu" Eee.in mind "!a" s"uden"s do /es" in classes >!erein "!e "eac!er 0aries "!e a--roac! in order "o accommoda"e all learning s"Dles) Step 0/. in0i"a"ions. and "!e language s"ruc"ure -rac"ised) <eac!ing grammar induc"i0elD is 5a0ora/le "o communica"i0e acNuisi"ion and ena/les "!e learner acNuire communica"i0e com-e"ence) ?earners need "o Eno> !o> "o use language in con"ex". or a-ologies) (isco0erD "ec!niNues can maEe grammar lessons enjoDa/le) P!a"e0er me"!od 5or "eac!ing grammar Dou ul"ima"elD c!oose. 5 i di*idual @or= 5 (esign ac"i0i"ies 5or di55eren" grammar -oin"s $ 7a--ro-ria"e 5or deduc"i0e grammar "eac!ing8$ !ere are ">o model sen"ences 7e) g) 5ocusing on coun"a/le and uncoun"a/le nouns8) 1sing a se" o5 rules 5or "!is -ar"icular grammar s"ruc"ure.

ard in t.e garden@ : s.li=ed Stud8 studied Ca 8ou deri*e t:e rules for addi g5 edO #cti*it8 1: Tips for teac:i g grammar @"uden"s s!ould /e a>are o5 "!e 5ac" "!a" grammar a55ec"s meaning.ouse@ : 9or0ed .er in t.e plants@ : polis. accura"e and !el-5ul >aD) Jere are some "i-s Dou can 5ollo> >!en "eac!ing grammar: • • • • • • • • • P!en "eac!ing grammar. meaning.en@ !.ample: Read (a0eCs sen"ences a/ou" >!a" !e did Des"erdaD) 1nderline "!e 0er/s in +as" @im-le and "!en com-le"e "!e c!ar" /D -lacing "!e regular 0er/s in "!e correc" column: : .Step 0/0 5 i di*idual @or= Consider "!e 5ollo>ing "ex" and design an ac"i0i"D 5or "eac!ing 7induc"i0elD8 +as" @im-le) E. m7 brot.en 9e decided to go . a "eac!er needs "o gi0e clear exam-les and ex-lana"ions.opped and : also telep.ome@ : cancelled t. !e or s!e mus" -resen" a s"ruc"ureYs 5orm and meaning in a sim-le.e 0itc.en : cleaned t.e meeting 9it. so incorrec" grammar can lead "o con5usion) <o a0oid suc! si"ua"ions 7as 5ar as "!e s"uden"s are concerned8. and con"ex"M MaEe sure Dou maEe use o5 "!e mo"!er "ongue >!ile ex-lainingM 2x-lana"ions mus" /e sim-le and clearM +ro0ide s"uden"s >i"! -len"D o5 exam-les o5 "!e gramma"ical s"ruc"ureM MaEe sure "!e learners unders"and >!en and !o> "o use "!e -resen"ed gramma"ical -oin"M 2x-lana"ions mus" co0er "!e majori"D o5 ins"ances /ecause s"uden"s are sure "o encoun"er exce-"ions along "!e >aDM Gi0e "!e learners "!e o--or"uni"ies "o com-are "!e grammar -oin" "o "!e same grammar s"ruc"ure in "!eir mo"!er "ongueM (o no" o0erdo "!e "eac!ing o5 "oo manD gramma"ical s"ruc"ures in one grammar lessonM i" >ill /e con5using 5or "!e s"uden"sM Gi0e s"uden"s "!e c!ance o5 -rac"icing /D U-laDing6 >i"! "!e sen"ences so "!eD can ge" a 5eel 5or "!e languageM 62 . a "eac!er needs "o "aEe in"o considera"ion a /ound /e">een exam-les and 5orm.oned m7 friends 7esterda7@ /e pla7ed tennis and t.er because : 9as too tired@ : 9atc.ed m7 s.ed !B and tried to fall asleep@ E 9o8 e 9o8ed Coo= coo=ed Tra*el 5 tra*elled Stop stopped %i=e .e .ad a ver7 bus7 da7 7esterda7@ : tidied m7 room and : 9atered t. and mus" 5ind a /alance /e">een accuracD and sim-lici"D in exam-les.oes and : .elped m7 mot.

/u" i" is clear >!a" !eAs!e is "rDing "o ex-ress) #2 1ses some sim-le s"ruc"ures correc"lD. /u" s"ill sDs"ema"icallD maEes /asic mis"aEes L 5or exam-le "ends "o mix u. de"ailed "ex" on com-lex su/jec"s.• ?anguage games can /e 5un and gi0e s"uden"s "!e o--or"uni"D "o use a gramma"ical s"ruc"ure -rac"icallD) #cti*it8 5: $rammar le*els of accurac8 CCE(RD C2 Main"ains consis"en" gramma"ical con"rol o5 com-lex language. academic and -ro5essional -ur-oses) C. /u" i" is clear >!a" !eAs!e is "rDing "o ex-ress) A. >ell$s"ruc"ured. 5luencD and s-on"anei"D in 5amiliar con"ex"sM generallD good con"rol "!oug! >i"! no"icea/le mo"!er "ongue in5luence) 2rrors occur. 1ses reasona/lD accura"elD a re-er"oire o5 5reNuen"lD used Vrou"inesC and -a""erns associa"ed >i"! more -redic"a/le si"ua"ions) Can -roduce sim-le connec"ed "ex" on "o-ics >!ic! are 5amiliar or o5 -ersonal in"eres") Communica"es >i"! reasona/le accuracD in 5amiliar con"ex"sM generallD good con"rol "!oug! >i"! no"icea/le mo"!er "ongue in5luence) 2rrors occur. de"ailed "ex" on a >ide range o5 su/jec"s and ex-lain a 0ie>-oin" on a "o-ical issue gi0ing "!e ad0an"ages and disad0an"ages o5 0arious o-"ions)Communica"es >i"! reasona/le accuracD. in moni"oring o"!ersC reac"ions8) Can unders"and >i"! ease 0ir"uallD e0erD"!ing !eard or read) Can summarise in5orma"ion 5rom di55eren" s-oEen and >ri""en sources. Consis"en"lD main"ains a !ig! degree o5 gramma"ical accuracDM errors are rare and di55icul" "o s-o") Can -roduce clear. connec"ors and co!esi0e de0ices)Good gramma"ical con"rolM occasional Vsli-sC or non$sDs"ema"ic errors and minor 5la>s in sen"ence s"ruc"ure maD s"ill occur. i" is usuallD clear >!a" !eAs!e is "rDing "o saD) Can descri/e in sim-le "erms as-ec"s o5 !isA!er /acEground. recons"ruc"ing argumen"s and accoun"s in a co!eren" -resen"a"ion) Can ex-ress !imA!ersel5 s-on"aneouslD. /u" "!eD are rare and can o5"en /e correc"ed in re"ros-ec") A2 @!o>s a rela"i0elD !ig! degree o5 gramma"ical con"rol) (oes no" maEe mis"aEes >!ic! lead "o misunders"anding) Can -roduce clear. e0en >!ile a""en"ion is o"!er>ise engaged 7e)g) in 5or>ard -lanning. @!o>s onlD limi"ed con"rol o5 a 5e> sim-le gramma"ical s"ruc"ures and sen"ence -a""erns in a learn" re-er"oire) Can in"erac" in a sim-le >aD -ro0ided "!e o"!er -erson "alEs slo>lD and clearlD) #cti*it8 6: Educatio al li =s • • • • • • Refere ces !""-:AA>>>)ego&u)comAenAcram$u-AgrammarM !""-:AA>>>)englisc!$!il5en)deAenAexercisesTlis"AalleTgrammar)!"m !""-:AAidioms)"!e5reedic"ionarD)com !""-:AA>>>)englis!clu/)com !""-:AA>>>)"eac!ingenglis!)org)uE !""-:AA>>>)eslgold)comAgrammarA"eac!ing)!"ml 63 . di55eren"ia"ing 5iner s!ades o5 meaning e0en in "!e mos" com-lex si"ua"ions) Can use language eexi/lD and e55ec"i0elD 5or social. immedia"e en0ironmen" and ma""ers in areas o5 immedia"e need) #. 0erD 5luen"lD and -reciselD."enses and 5orge" "o marE agreemen"M ne0er"!eless. s!o>ing con"rolled use o5 organisa"ional -a""erns.

1996M $ !""-:AA>>>)coe)in"A<A(G&A+or"5olioAWM^AmainT-agesAle0els)!"ml $ !""-:AAeuro-ass)cede5o-)euro-a)euA?anguage@el5*ssessmen"GridAen $ !""-:AA>>>)eslgold)comAgrammarA"eac!ingT"i-s)!"ml $ !""-:AAesl)a/ou")comAcsA"eac!ing"ec!niNueAaAaT"eac!grammar)!"m Grammar . Macmillan +u/lis!ing Jouse. ?ongman +u/lis!ing Jouse. Cam/ridge 1ni0ersi"D +ress. Macmillan +u/lis!ing Jouse. Macmillan +u/lis!ing Jouse. 2002M 2/<ea*erH Co sta ce L U<eac!ing Grammar in Con"ex"6. 200& 1/ 6i ceH 'ic:ael L U=n"ermedia"e ?anguage +rac"ice6./'urp:8H Ra8mo d L U2ssen"ial Grammar in 1se6. ?ondon./7armerH Jerem8 L U<!e +rac"ice o5 2nglis! ?anguage <eac!ing6. Cam/ridge. Cam/ridge. ?ondon. 199& $ !""-:AA>>>)nons"o-englis!)comA $ !""-:AA>>>)englis!$online)org)uEA $ !""-:AA>>>)eslgold)comAgrammarA!ig!Tin"ermedia"e)!"ml 64 . Cam/ridge. BoDn"onACooE +u/lis!ers. ?ondon. 2006 2/'urp:8H Ra8mo d L U2nglis! Grammar in 1se6.<!eorD . Cam/ridge 1ni0ersi"D +ress. +or"smou"!. 2010 0/6i ceH 'ic:ael L U2lemen"arD ?anguage +rac"ice6. 200& 5/ 6i ceH 'ic:ael L U*d0anced ?anguage +rac"ice6.

TE#C7I"$ 6OC#AU%#RK 65 .'ODU%E 5 .

ad0er/. adjec"i0e. 5or exam-le a noun. reading and 9riting easier to perform@ 'earnersA gro9t.ment of vocabular7 0no9ledge./. but t.#cti*it8 .roug. CDDE. 0er/. ar"icle and so on) 2) Collec" "!e sli-s o5 -a-er and mix "!em u. vocabular7@ !. and no" a -re-osi"ion.e s0ills of listening.5rom "!e /ag) 2 3 a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD 66 .is fluenc7 can be partl7 ac.0oca/ularD s"ra"egiesM 5) "o de0elo. a lo9 cognitive load@ -"ation.e establis.ment and enric. CDEA#TED: 6OC#AU%#RK A#%%OO" = @<R1C<=B @ Foca/ularD /alloon de/a"e 7"alEing a/ou" "!e -rocess and cri"eria 5or selec"ing 0oca/ularD8 +RBC2(1R2@ 1) <!e "rainees >ri"e do>n one >ord on a sli. in vocabular7 must be accompanied b7 opportunities to become fluent 9it.at lead to t. spea0ing.: <eac!ing 0oca/ularD: Goals #cti*it8 2: *--roac!es "o "eac!ing 0oca/ularD #cti*it8 0: <eac!ing 0oca/ularD "ec!niNuesAPaDs o5 con0eDing meaning #cti*it8 1: =ngredien"s o5 good 0oca/ularD >orE #cti*it8 5: <!e rig!" "ime "o "eac! 0oca/ularD #cti*it8 6: ?esson -lanning and in"roduc"ion o5 ne> language i"ems 2 #cti*it8 2: @am-les o5 class ac"i0i"ies #cti*it8 M: 20alua"ion O)9ecti*es • • • • • "o maEe "rainees a>are o5 di55eren" a--roac!es "o "eac!ing "!e meaning o5 language i"emsM "o -ro0ide "!em >i"! reasons 5or using a cer"ain a--roac! >!en dealing >i"! 0oca/ularDM "o gi0e "!em "ec!niNues 5or s!o>ing "!e meaning o5 ne> >ordsM "o de0elo.ieved t."raineesC lesson -lanning com-e"ence in 0oca/ularD "eac!ingM "o -ro0ide resources 5or "eac!ing 0oca/ularD) 3 #cti*it8 .in a /ag) 3) <rainees -icE one sli. vocabular7 ma0es t. p@ viii1 1) "o mee" ne> 0oca/ularD 5or "!e 5irs" "imeM 2) "o es"a/lis! -re0iouslD me" 0oca/ularDM 3) "o enric! -re0iouslD me" 0oca/ularDM &) "o de0elo. activities t.e essential element in developing fluenc7 lies in t.: Teac:i g *oca)ular8: $oals Bocabular7 is not an end in itself@ 8 ric.5luencD >i"! Eno>n 0oca/ularD STEP .o5 -a-er) =" s!ould /e a con"en" carrDing >ord.e opportunit7 for meaningful use of vocabular7 in tas0s 9it.

0oca/ularD games. so 0arie"D is essen"ial 5or 0oca/ularD "eac!ing) RecDcling and re0ie>ing 0oca/ularD is an im-or"an" -ar" o5 "!e lesson -lan as mos" ne> >ords are 5orgo""en i5 no" rein5orced) #or long$"erm re"en"ion.>ords in a dic"ionarD and using "!e >ords in a sen"ence) Bocabular7 is ac<uired incidentally t. indirect e+posure to 9ords and intentionally t. no more "!an 10$12 ne> >ords s!ould /e -resen"ed a" a "ime) • • 67 . -ro0ided suc! 5ac"ors are "aEen in"o considera"ion: • ?earners need "o come acrossA/e ex-osed "oA "!e >ords in a 0arie"D o5 con"ex"s) (e-endence on a single 0oca/ularD ins"ruc"ion me"!od >ill no" resul" in o-"imal learning) ?earners /es" remem/er >ords >!en "!eD !a0e used "!em in di55eren" >aDs. suc! as guessing meaning 5rom con"ex".roug./2 CP#IR <ORLD: #CTI6ITIES TO I"TRODUCE 6OC#AU%#RK = @<R1C<=B @ ?is" some ac"i0i"ies "!roug! >!ic! ne> 0oca/ularD can /e in"roduced) STEP .&) <!eD 5orm -airs and !a0e "o argue "!a" "!eir >ord is a more im-or"an" >ord "o Eno> in 2nglis! "!an "!eir -ar"nerCs) 5) *5"er one minu"e "!eD !a0e "o agree >!o !ad "!e s"ronger argumen") <!a" >ord >ins and goes in"o "!e nex" round) =n o"!er >ords. /u" also im-lies !o> "!a" >ord 5i"s in"o "!e >orld)C Foca/ularD Eno>ledge is no" some"!ing "!a" can e0er /e 5ullD mas"eredM i" is some"!ing "!a" ex-ands and dee-ens o0er "!e course o5 a li5e"ime) =ns"ruc"ion in 0oca/ularD in0ol0es 5ar more "!an looEing u. e"c) Foca/ularD can also /e acNuired "!roug! incidental learning) Muc! o5 a s"uden"Cs 0oca/ularD >ill !a0e "o /e learned in "!e course o5 doing "!ings o"!er "!an ex-lici" 0oca/ularD learning) Re-e"i"ion. s-ider grams. ma"c!ing exercises. "!ere is room 5or more direct teaching methods in "!e second language classroom. /o"! -eo-le 5rom "!e -air >ill argue 5or "!a" >ord) 6) <!eD 5orm ne> -airs and argue 5or "!e >ord "!a" >on "!e -re0ious round) ') <!e ac"i0i"D con"inues as a EnocE$ou" com-e"i"ion un"il onlD ">o or "!ree >ords remain) @"o"!e con"es" a" "!is -oin" and in0i"e argumen"s 5or and agains" "!e remaining >ords) * consensus maD emerge on "!e V>innerC) 8) Pri"e all "!e >ords on "!e /oard and asE "!e "rainees in >!a" order "!eD >ould "eac! "!em) *sE "!em >!D "!eD >ould -resen" "!e >ords in "!a" order) 9) 2lici" "!e ans>ers) STEP . VFoca/ularD Eno>ledge is Eno>ledgeM "!e Eno>ledge o5 a >ord no" onlD im-lies a de5ini"ion.roug. ric!ness o5 con"ex" and mo"i0a"ion maD also add "o "!e e55icacD o5 inciden"al learning o5 0oca/ularD) 2/ P!ile incidental learning is s"ill >!ere mos" 0oca/ularD acNuisi"ion "aEes -lace./0 CP#IR <ORLD: PRE6IOUS%K T#U$7T 6OC#AU%#RK = @<R1C<=B @ ?is" some >aDs "!roug! >!ic! -re0iouslD me" 0oca/ularD can /e es"a/lis!ed) #cti*it8 2: #pproac:es to teac:i g *oca)ular8 Foca/ularD is "!e Eno>ledge o5 >ords and >ord meanings) *s @"e0en @"a!l 720058 -u"s i". e+plicit instruction in specific 9ords and 9ord-learning strategies@ A$ Direct 3ocabulary +eaching %$ Direct vocabulary learning is a conscious e55or" made /D "!e learner "o remem/er ne> >ords) =" occurs >!en "eac!ers do exercises and ac"i0i"ies in class "!a" 5ocus "!e learnersC a""en"ion on 0oca/ularD.

e"c) Y#urni"ureY !as a general meaning >!ereas Yc!airY is more s-eci5ic) <!e meaning o5 a >ord liEe YgoodY is unders"ood in "!e con"ex" o5 a >ord liEe Y/adY) Pords !a0e o--osi"es 7antonyms8 and "!eD also !a0e o"!er >ords >i"! similar meanings ) 7synonyms8 $ e)g) Y/adY and Ye0ilY) P!a" a >ord means can /e c:a gedH stretc:ed or limited /D !o> i" is used and "!is is some"!ing s"uden"s need "o Eno> a/ou") BD /eing a>are s"uden"s >ill /e more rece-"i0e "o "!e con"ex"ual /e!a0iour o5 >ords >!en "!eD 5irs" see "!em in "ex"s. "o "!e s!or" loud sound "!a" a dog maEes. i)e). "a/les. "!eD jus" donC" !a0e "!e language "o unders"and "!e ex-lana"ion) 68 . 1) 2) 3) &) 5) 6) ') 8) 9) Recogni9e i" in i"s s-oEen or >ri""en 5orm) Remem/er i") Rela"e i" "o an a--ro-ria"e o/jec" or conce-") 1se i" in "!e a--ro-ria"e gramma"ical 5orm) +ronounce i" in a recogni9a/le >aD) @-ell i" correc"lD) 1se i" >i"! >ords i" correc"lD goes >i"!. re5ers "o "!e !ard su/s"ance "!a" co0ers a "ree.$ 'hat does it take to kno) a )ord. in "!e correc" colloca"ion) 1se i" a" "!e a--ro-ria"e le0el o5 5ormali"D) Be a>are o5 i"s conno"a"ions and associa"ions) 4$ 5eaning *s 5ar as meaning goes s"uden"s need "o Eno> a/ou" meaning in conte6t and "!eD need "o Eno> a/ou" sense relations@ <!e 5irs" "!ing "o realise a/ou" 0oca/ularD i"ems is "!a" "!eD 5reNuen"lD !a0e more "!an one meaning) P!en "!eD come across a >ord and "rD "o deci-!er i"s meaning "!eD >ill !a0e "o looE a" the conte6t in >!ic! i" is used) <!e >ord Y/arEY. e"c) and "!eD >ill /e /e""er a/le "o mani-ula"e /o"! "!e meanings and 5orms o5 "!e >ord) STEP 2/. 5or exam-le. s)Bs )ar= is @orse t:a t:eir )ites-/ @ome"imes >ords !a0e meanings in relation "o o"!er >ords) <!us s"uden"s need "o Eno> "!e meaning o5 Y5urni"ureY as a >ord "o descri/e anD one o5 a num/er o5 o"!er "!ings $ e)g) c!airs.• • • Foca/ularD learning is e55ec"i0e >!en i" en"ails ac"i0e engagemen" in learning "asEs) Foca/ularD "asEs s!ould /e res"ruc"ured as necessarD) =" is im-or"an" "o /e cer"ain "!a" s"uden"s 5ullD unders"and >!a" is asEed o5 "!em in "!e con"ex" o5 s-eaEingAreadingAlis"eningA>ri"ing. ra"!er "!an 5ocusing onlD on "!e >ords "o /e learned) Com-u"er "ec!nologD can /e used e55ec"i0elD "o !el."!e learners "o remem/er "!e meaning o5 ne> language) c) VGi0ingC a--roac!es are im-ossi/le >i"! lo> le0el classes unless Dou ex-lain in "!eir o>n language) B"!er>ise. CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: OPI"IO"S = @<R1C<=B @ 1) Consider "!e 5ollo>ing o-inions ex-ressed /D "eac!ers and learners) <o >!a" ex"en" do Dou agree >i"! "!emW a) VGi0ingC a--roac!es are /oring) /) VGi0ingC a--roac!es do no" !el. according "o one learnerYs dic"ionarD) Bu" "!e same dic"ionarD "!en goes on "o lis" more meanings o5 Y/arEY used in -!rases $ )ar=i g up t:e @ro g tree."eac! 0oca/ularD) . so5as.

d) VGuidedC a--roac!es >orE /es" >!en "!e meaning o5 some"!ing is com-lica"ed) e) <!e danger in using Vguided a--roac!esC is "!a" "!e learners maD ac"uallD >orE ou" "!e meaning ina--ro-ria"elD and "!us unders"and some"!ing >!ic! is inaccura"e) 5) VGuidedC a--roac!es encourage learners "o /ecome more au"onomous in "!eir learning. Brendab Pelcome /acEb Xou looE mar0ellous) BR2 (*: Rodb P!a" a sur-riseb ="Cs lo0elD "o see Dou again) RB(: @orrD = didnC" -!one Dou /e5ore Dou le5". /u" = didnC" !a0e "ime. isola"e an i"em o5 language Dou mig!" >an" "o "eac!) Pri"e do>n exac"lD !o> Dou mig!" VguideC s"uden"s "o Vdisco0erC "!e meaning o5 "!e i"em 7"!e i"em mig!" /e a >ord or a s"ruc"ure. and "!en "urning "!ese s"a"emen"s in"o Nues"ions) P!a" Nues"ions mig!" Dou use "o Vc!ecEC "!e meaning o5 "!e 5ollo>ingW a) sel5is! /) @!e used "o li0e in ?ondon) 7used "o f/are in5ini"i0e8 c) s!D d) @!e >is!es s!e >ere a" !ome) 7>is! f sim-le -as" or Vsu/junc"i0eC8 e) JeCs /een -ain"ing "!e ceiling) 7-resen" -er5ec" con"inuous8 5) Je managed "o o-en "!e >indo>) 7manage f in5ini"i0e8 g) Je "ooE i" ou" on "!e ca") 7-!rasal 0er/: "o "aEe i" ou" on ]8 2]*M+?2 a) (o sel5is! -eo-le enjoD gi0ing "!ings "o o"!er -eo-leW /) (oes s!e li0e in ?ondon no>W (id s!e li0e in ?ondon /e5oreW Pas "!is 5or a s!or" "imeW 2) (2F=@= G <*@[@ 1sing a -iece o5 ma"erials >i"! >!ic! Dou are 5amiliar or using "!e 5ollo>ing dialogue. and Dou mig!" VguideC "!e learners /D asEing Nues"ions orallD. or /D gi0ing "!em an accom-anDing >ri""en "asE8) (=*?BG12 RB(: Jello. and less de-enden" on "!e "eac!er) g) VGuidedC a--roac!es re5lec" more closelD "!e na"ural mec!anisms o5 language learning) 2) C!oose ei"!er o5 "!ese ">o a--roac!es and lis":   "!e reason 5or using i"M anD limi"a"ions or disad0an"ages in i"s use) STEP 2/2 CP#IR <ORLD: $UIDI"$ STUDE"TS = @<R1C<=B @ 1) VCB C2+< R12@<=B @C <!e "eac!er can use Nues"ions "o c!ecE "!a" s"uden"s !a0e unders"ood "!e meaning o5 an i"em o5 language) =" is o5"en an ad0an"age 5or "!ese "o /e sim-le and direc") <!eD can /e 5ormed /D s-eci5Ding "!e crucial. in 5ac") BR2 (*: B!b <!a"Cs all rig!") #orge" i"b 69 . de5ining com-onen"s o5 meaning in "erms o5 s"a"emen"s.

ne0er) =Cd reallD liEe "o go "o Rome) c) #cti*it8 0: Teac:i g *oca)ular8 tec: iFuesG<a8s of co *e8i g mea i g %$ 9ealia • -resen"ing >ords /D /ringing "!e "!ings "!eD re-resen" in"o "!e classroom :@ 1ictorial representations • /oard dra>ings. =C0e ne0er /een "!ere /e5ore) = "!oug!" i" >as /eau"i5ul) More /eau"i5ul "!an +aris. in 5ac") Ja0e Dou e0er /een "o ="alDW RB(: o. 5las!cards. >all -ic"ures and c!ar"s. Fto @@@@@@@@ 7our temperF -setGdoGma0eG lose1 @$ 4hangingA stretching and limiting the meaning o/ a )ord /unction ho) it is used a/ 'etap:ors: "!e meaning o5 some >ords can /e ex"ended. maga9ine -ic"ures and anD o"!er non$ "ec!nical 0isual re-resen"a"ion • used "o ex-lain "!e meaning o5 0oca/ularD i"ems .RB(: Pell.@ Demonstrating the )ord through acting or miming-+19 7+otal 1hysical 9esponse-8 • !a0e learners associa"e a 0er/ "o an ac"ion 7or an emo"ion "o a ges"ure8 /D -!DsicallD ac"ing ou" "!e >ord #$ <sing !pposites • sense relations can /e used "o "eac! meaning $ "!e meaning o5 Y/rig!"Y can /e -resen"ed /D con"ras"ing i" >i"! YdarEY$ • "!ese conce-"s maD /e -resen"ed >i"! -ic"ures or mime. "oo) RB(: *nd #lorenceW P!a" did Dou "!inE o5 #lorenceW BR2 (*: Pell. or "!e >ords "!eD "!inE >ill /e easD 7or di55icul"8 "o remem/er. "!e Doung ladD purred$ b$ Idioms: some"imes me"a-!ors are used so o5"en "!a" "!eD /ecome 5ixed in "!e language A e$g$: <!e de"ec"i0e liEes "o play cat and mouse >i"! !is sus-ec"s) 70 . and >!D @ 06planation • can /e used >i"! in"ermedia"e s"uden"s $ ex-laining "!e meaning o5 a >ord mus" include ex-laining anD 5ac"s o5 >ord use >!ic! are rele0an" $ ?$ &rouping )ords by collocations@ • mani-ula"ing and remem/ering ne> >ords /D joining "!em according "o "!e >ords "!eD are o5"en 5ound >i"! -i@e@. !o> >as ="alDW BR2 (*: #un. e)g): V= liEe i" >!en Dou /ring me je>elsC. /u" "iring) Milan >as in"eres"ing) ="Cs /igger "!an = ex-ec"ed) oisier and dir"ier. and /D dra>ing a""en"ion "o "!e o--osi"esAcon"ras"s in meaning 5$ &eneral=speci/ic meaning • sense relation $ general and specific >ords L >e can saD Y5urni"ureY and ex-lain "!is /D enumera"ing or lis"ing 0arious i"ems $ >@ 4onnecting )ords to a personal e6perience@ • learners can "!inE a/ou" "!e >aD "!eD res-ond "o ne> >ords /D ca"egori9ing "!em in"o grou-s: "!e >ords "!eD liEeAdisliEe.

conno"a"i0e or deno"a"i0e meanings. including: • $ame-li=e formats/ @uc! 5orma"s maD /e more e55ec"i0e a" ca-"uring s"uden"sC a""en"ion "!an "ex"/ooEs and >orE/ooEs) • 78perli =s/ ClicEa/le >ords and icons -laced in online "ex" can o55er s"uden"s o--or"uni"ies "o encoun"er ne> >ords in mul"i-le con"ex"s /D allo>ing "!em NuicE access "o "ex" and gra-!ics) P!en "!eD are >ell designed. suc! as "!ose o-era"ed /D *@*. allo> s"uden"s NuicE access "o -!o"ogra-!s. or mor-!emes $ suc! >ord -ar"s include roo" >ords. 2) e0en >!ere "ransla"ion is -ossi/le. i" maD maEe i" a /i" "oo easD 5or s"uden"s /D discouraging "!em 5rom in"erac"ing >i"! "!e >ords %:$ 3ocabulary games • maD /e used 5or rein5orcing "!e meaning and !el-ing "!e s"uden"s "o remem/er "!e ne> >ords "!eD !a0e learned /e5ore "!e 0oca/ularD game • e0erD"!ing >e learn >!ile relaxing and !a0ing 5un is assimila"ed a lo" easier and 5or a longer -eriod o5 "ime %. or e0en s!ared linguis"ic com-onen"s • • %%$ +ranslating the )ord into the studentsC native language • a NuicE and easD >aD "o -resen" "!e meaning o5 >ords /u": 1) i" is no" al>aDs easD "o "ransla"e >ords and. and numerous li/raries. -ar"icularlD in "!e area o5 con"en"$s-eci5ic >ords) • O li e dictio aries a d refere ce materials/ (e0ices "!a" allo> s"uden"s "o clicE on >ords "o !ear "!em -ronounced and de5ined maD ex"end s"uden"sC unders"andings o5 ne> >ords) • # imatio s/ *nima"ed demons"ra"ions o5 !o> "!e !uman /odD >orEs or >!a" li5e >as liEe in *ncien" <imes maD !old s"uden"sC in"eres". -re5ixes. "!eD o55er -o"en"ial 5or >ord learning) • #ccess to co te t-area-related @e)sites/ <!ese >e/si"es.is a gra-!ic organi9er "!a" is organi9ed around a >ord "!a" re-resen"s an im-or"an" conce-" 7e)g). ma-s. as >ell as "!e im-or"ance o5 c!oosing "!e a--ro-ria"e de5ini"ion "o 5i" "!e -ar"icular con"ex" %>$ <sing computer technology to help teach vocabulary <!e grea"es" -o"en"ial o5 com-u"er "ec!nologD lies in cer"ain ca-a/ili"ies "!a" are no" 5ound in -rin" ma"erials. "!e @mi"!sonian. and 0oice$o0er narra"ion and "ex" "!a" maD /o"! rein5orce con"en"$area 0oca/ularD and rela"e ne> >ords "o exis"ing conce-"s) 71 . movement8M on "!e ma-.%B$ Semantic Maps-Teaching Multiple-Meaning Words• • can /e used as a s"ra"egD 5or s"uden"s "o disco0er "!e rela"ions!i-s /e">een 0oca/ularD >ords seman"ic ma--ing is an ac"i0e 5orm o5 learning as i" /uilds on -rior Eno>ledge a seman"ic ma. and su55ixes $ %5$ Dictionary use • "eac!es s"uden"s a/ou" mul"i-le >ord meanings. and >!en com/ined >i"! audio narra"ion or "ex" ca-"ions and la/els. suc! ex"ensions can add de-"! "o >ord learning.$ 4onte6tual analysis • in0ol0es in5erring "!e meaning o5 an un5amiliar >ord /D scru"ini9ing "!e "ex" surrounding i" %#$ 5orphemic analysis • "!e -rocess o5 deri0ing a >ordYs meaning /D analD9ing i"s meaning5ul -ar"s. 0arious museums. rela"ed >ords are clus"ered around "!e "arge" >ord according "o cri"eria "!a" "eac!ers or s"uden"s c!oose "!ese cri"eria mig!" include suc! 5ea"ures as similar or dissimilar a""ri/u"es.

"!e "rainer can maEe "!e resul"s a0aila/le 0ia "!e /lacE/oard or o0er!ead -rojec"or) $Ja0e -ar"ici-an"s com-are resul"s) #or an o0er0ie> o5 gra-!ic organi9ers "!a" can !el. C$ROUP <ORLD: CO"TERTU#% #"#%KSIS = @<R1C<=B @ a) P!a" do Dou "!inE are "!e mos" a--ro-ria"e >aDs o5 "eac!ing 0oca/ularD a" di55eren" le0elsW Jo> use5ul is con"ex"ual analDsisW *" >!a" le0elW /) ?ooE a" "!e 5ollo>ing lis" o5 >ords and ans>er "!e Nues"ions >!ic! 5ollo>: a guis:ed astou ded depressed glad )ored misera)le t:rilled a .and "!en -er!a-s -os" "!em on "!e >alls 5or o"!ers "o read) =5 s!or".>i"! "!e -rocess in com-are$con"ras" ac"i0i"ies. asE "!e 5ollo>ing Nues"ions) 2lici" mul"i-le ans>ers) 1) P!ic! o5 "!e "!ings on Dour lis" did Dou 5ind mos" in"eres"ingW Mos" enjoDa/leW 2) P!ic! o5 "!e "!ings on Dour lis" did Dou 5ind mos" use5ul in !el-ing Dou learn "!e languageW 3) P!a" >as "!e source o5 "!e "!ings on Dour lis"W P!ere did Dou 5ind "!emW 1se "!emW =5 "!e lis"s are liEelD "o /e long.ious )ored disma8ed :eart)ro=e er*ous upset appalled co cer ed ecstatic :orrified pleased appre:e si*e pleased cross frig:te ed irritated scared asto is:ed delig:ted furious li*id terrified • *" >!a" le0el >ould i" /e a--ro-ria"e 5or s"uden"s "o concen"ra"e on "!ese 0oca/ularD i"emsW • Jo> could Dou maEe s"uden"s unders"and "!e meaning and conno"a"ion o5 "!e >ordsW • P!a" ac"i0i"ies >ould Dou de0ise "o maEe s"uden"s use "!e ne> >ordsW ?is" 5i0e ac"i0i"ies) STEP 0/2 CP#IR <ORLD: #CTI6ITIES (OR TE#C7I"$ IDIO'S = @<R1C<=B @ (e0ise ">o ac"i0i"ies "o "eac! "!e 5ollo>ing idioms: t:e tip of t:e ice)erg )e gree fair a d sFuare :a*e t:e c:ee= pla8 o eBs cards rig:t STEP 0/0 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLGP#IR <ORLG$ROUP <ORLD: USI"$ #UT7E"TIC '#TERI#%S PRE-6IE<I"$ # = @<R1C<=B @ $Ge" in"o grou-s and lis" au"!en"ic ma"erials "!a" Dou !a0e used or !ad access "o as Dou learned 2nglis!) <!e ma"erials can /e >ri""enM some"!ing Dou !a0e lis"ened "oM "oDs or o"!er "angi/le o/jec"sM or some"!ing Dou !a0e seen or mani-ula"ed in "!e Ureal6 >orld) Bnce "!e "rainees !a0e crea"ed a lis".grorg/:tm 72 .ersGcompareco trast/:tml Gra-!ic Brgani9ers *u"!or: or"! Cen"ral Regional 2duca"ional ?a/ora"orD Pe/ si"e: :ttp:GG@@@/ crel/orgGsdrsGareasGissuesGstude tsGlear i gGlr.STEP 0/. -ar"ici-an"s can use a gra-!ic organi9er suc! as a Fenn diagram or conce-" ma. see one or more o5 "!e 5ollo>ing) Com-are and Con"ras" Gra-!ic Brgani9ers 5rom Pri"e (esign Pe/ si"e: :ttp:GG@@@/@ritedesig o li e/comGorga i.

"!en s!are >i"! o"!er grou-s) P!a" o"!er "o-ics and ma"erials could Dou use in suc! a -rojec"W 3) o>. ad0er"isemen"s. ads. la/els. /ring in"o "!e discussion "!e manD Einds o5 resources "!a" can /e au"!en"ic ma"erials.Gra-!ic Brgani9ers 5or Con"en" =ns"ruc"ion *u"!or: %udie JaDnes Pe/ si"e: :ttp:GG@@@/e*er8t:i gesl/ etGi ser*icesGgrap:icSorga i. -os"ers. "!inE a/ou" Dour o>n "eac!ing si"ua"ion) P!a" are some similar -rojec"s and "o-ics "!a" Dour s"uden"s could "rDW =n Dour grou-. and sources 5or ma"erials) <!inE a/ou" goals Dou andAor Dour s"uden"s >ould se" 5or "!emsel0es. 5or >!a" -ur-ose7s8W T#SL A: Fideo @egmen" 2. Realia <7I%E-6IE<I"$ T#SL # :ttp:GG@@@/8outu)e/comG@atc:O*TMmg@<:<a4EM = @<R1C<=B @ ?ooE 5or "!e 5ollo>ing as Dou 0ie> "!e 0ideo) 1) (escri/e "!e realia in as muc! de"ail as -ossi/le) 2) o"ice !o> "!e "eac!er is using "!e realia) ?is" >!a" Dou "!inE "!e -ur-ose is 5or "!is lesson and 5or using "!is "D-e o5 realia) 3) o"ice "!e age and -ro5iciencD le0el o5 "!e s"uden"s) ?ooE 5or /e!a0iours "!a" "ell Dou >!e"!er or no" "!is ac"i0i"D is a good ma"c! 5or "!ese s"uden"s) &) ?ooE 5or /e!a0iours "!a" "ell Dou >!e"!er or no" s"uden"s are enjoDing "!is ac"i0i"D and >!e"!er or no" "!eD are learning "!e >ords and "!eir meanings) #(TER-6IE<I"$ T#SL # 1) Jo> old are "!e s"uden"sW P!a" is "!eir 2nglis! -ro5iciencD le0elW =s "!e realia a--ro-ria"e 5or "!is le0elW Jo> did "!eD demons"ra"e unders"andingW 2) Jo> do Dou "!inE "!e "eac!er go" "!e dollsW Could "!e "eac!er conduc" "!is lesson >i"!ou" "!e dollsW P!a" are "!e ad0an"ages and c!allenges o5 using "!is "D-e o5 realia and "!e realia "!a" "!e older c!ildren /roug!" "o classW 3) P!a" are s"uden"sC reac"ions "o "!e dollsW <o "!e s!o>$and$"ell i"ems 5rom !omeW P!a" are some "!ings "!e "eac!er mig!" do in su/seNuen" lessons "o /uild on eac! o5 "!ese lessonsW P!a" are some real$li5e i"ems Dou mig!" 5ind in a classroom 5or "eensW #or adul"sW &) (o Dou "!inE "!e realia 5or eac! class e55ec"i0elD me" "!e -ur-ose o5 "!e lessonW P!D or >!D no"W Could "!e "eac!er use "!e realia againW =5 Des. s-eec!es. maEe a lis" o5 -ossi/le -rojec"s. songs. suc! as ma-s. "ele0ision. "o-ics. >ere collec"ed 5or "!is and o"!er -rojec"s liEe i") P!a" s"uden" ac"i0i"ies >en" in"o -re-aring "!e -rojec"W 3) P!o is in0ol0ed in "!e crea"ion and "!e use o5 "!e -rojec"W P!ere is i" s"oredW #(TER-6IE<I"$ T#SL A 1) Jo> >ould Dou descri/e "!e s"uden"sC le0el o5 language -ro5iciencDW P!a" language sEills are s"uden"s liEelD "o use in a -rojec" suc! as "!is oneW 2) Com-are Dour in5orma"ion >i"! someone in Dour grou-. gra-!s and c!ar"s. +rin"ed <ex" <7I%E-6IE<I"$ T#SL A 1) ?is"en "o "!e Doung menCs descri-"ion o5 "!e s"uden" -rojec". and so 5or"!) Bring as manD -!Dsical exam-les as Dou can "o "!e "raining e0en") T#SL #: Fideo @egmen" 1. and su/jec"s "!a" are mos" liEelD "o in"eres" "!em) Jo> >ill Dou and Dour s"uden"s e0alua"e "!eir >orE in "!e -rojec"sW 73 . /roc!ures. ne>s. 0ideo. menus.ers/p:p *s -ar" o5 "!e de/rie5ing. "arge" audiences. sc!edules. according "o "!e s-eaEers. and "!en descri/e i" in Dour o>n >ords) 2) ?is" "!e di55eren" ma"erials "!a". radio -rograms.

clines. ()C) 5rom maga9ines) <!en "!eD made -os"ers s!o>ing >!a" "!eD -lanned "o do "!ere) %e*el G S=ills =n"ermedia"e =n"egra"ed sEills B C ( #(TER-6IE<I"$ T#SL C 1) Com-are Dour lis" o5 ma"erials and ac"i0i"ies >i"! a -ar"ner) Com/ine Dour lis"s "o /e sure Dou !a0e lis"ed all "!e ma"erials and ac"i0i"ies s!o>n) Be sure "!a" "!e ac"i0i"D lis" includes "!e "o-ics o5 "!e ac"i0i"ies) 2) P!a" >ere "!e ages o5 "!e s"uden"sW (o Dou "!inE "!a" "!e ma"erials and ac"i0i"ies >ere a--ro-ria"e "o eac! o5 "!e age grou-sW Jo> could Dou ada-" "!e ma"erials and ac"i0i"ies 5rom "!e 0ideo "o o"!er "o-ics in Dour curriculumW <o o"!er age grou-sW 3) P!a" are some au"!en"ic ma"erials "!a" could /e /roug!" in"o Dour classroomW =n small grou-s or as a >!ole grou-. mime e"c) E gageme t <!e meaning >orE is engaging >i"! learners in0ol0ed in "!e -rocess o5 con0eDance) <!e con0eDance me"!od includes a range o5 "ec!niNues e)g) mime.a ma. -ic"ures. and reasons 5or s"udDing 2nglis!W &) o> "!inE o5 ac"i0i"ies "!a" Dou could do >i"! some o5 "!ose ma"erials) =5 some o5 "!e ma"erials are no" Nui"e a--ro-ria"e 5or Dour s"uden"s. -ic"ures. gi0e "!e -ro5iciencD le0el and "!e Einds o5 language sEills "!a" Dou "!inE are -ar" o5 eac! exam-le) Xou maD 5ind an organi9a"ional c!ar" suc! as "!e 5ollo>ing "o /e use5ul 5or recording Dour in5orma"ion) *dd as manD de"ails as Dou can) <!e 5irs" class exam-le 7*8 is 5illed in as an exam-le) * 'aterials Pall maMaga9ines +ic"ures #cti*it8 G Topic @"uden"s -lanned a "ri. ()C) <!eD -u" u.o5 "!e "ri. so "!a" in "!e 5u"ure i" can /e easilD re"rie0ed and used) <!e Vingredien"sC o5 good 0oca/ularD >orE include: 'emora)le prese tatio s <!e language is -resen"ed in suc! a >aD "!a" learners can -ull on "!e con"ex" de0elo-ed /D "!e "eac!er "o !el."!e learner re"ain "!e in5orma"ion in "!eir long "erm memorD. /rains"orm ma"erials "!a" Dou mig!" /e a/le "o access 5or Dour s"uden"s) P!ic! ones on Dour lis" >ould /e a--ro-ria"e 5or Dour s"uden"s in "erms o5 "!eir age. con"ex"ual s"ories) Diag osis 74 . !o> could Dou ada-" "!em or modi5D ac"i0i"ies "o maEe "!em more a--ro-ria"eW #cti*it8 1: I gredie ts of good *oca)ular8 @or= <!e aim o5 good 0oca/ularD >orE is "o -resen" and -rac"ise ne> language in >aDs "!a" !el. =mages <7I%E-6IE<I"$ T#SL C Xou >ill see exam-les o5 di55eren" Einds o5 au"!en"ic ma"erials in image 5orma"s) 1) (escri/e in as muc! de"ail as -ossi/le "!e ma"erials "!a" Dou seeM and. language -ro5iciencD.rou"e) <!eD cu" -ic"ures o5 Pas!ing"on.T#SL C: Fideo @egmen" 3. 2) (escri/e "!e ac"i0i"D "!a" goes >i"! "!em) 3) =n addi"ion. realia. "imelines."o Pas!ing"on."!em remem/er "!e >orE) <!is can /e done "!roug! con"ex"uali9a"ion.

e most contentious@ !.e discussion about t. se"8 /u" "!e meaning "aug!" needs "o /e "!e one used in "!e lesson ma"erial) Co firmatio of U dersta di g ?earners !a0e "!eir Eno>ledge c!ecEed and con5irmed "!roug! "!e use o5 meaning c!ecE Nues"ions 7MCRCs8. manD >ords !a0e mul"i-le meanings 7lig!".e ans9er lies in appropriac7 and effectiveness@ TE#C7I"$ 6OC#AU%#RK EUESTIO""#IRE -ook at the teacher statements belo) and decide i/ you agree or disagree 75 .is 9a7W6 <!is s!o>s "!a" "!eD are "es"ing ou" !o> "o use "!e language 5or "!emsel0es and i" gi0es "!e "eac!er a c!ance "o diagnose "!eir Eno>ledge and -ro0ide "arge"ed su--or") (ull Co*erage =n order "o use ne> 0oca/ularD "!e learners are going "o need "o Eno>: Heaning P!a" is "!e exac" meaning o5 "!e >ord as i" is -resen"ed in "!e con"ex"W P!a" is "!e a--ro-riacD. elici"ed exam-les and diagnos"ic "asEs) <!e learners !a0e -rac"ice and "!e o--or"uni"D "o -rac"ise "!e language in meaning5ul and -ersonalised "asEs) =n "!is >aD "!eD can "es" "!eir o>n !D-o"!esis) #or exam-le: * grea" scenario is >!en learners s"ar" asEing "!e "eac!er U $an : sa7 it t. 5oo". 0er/ e"cW (oes i" !a0e a de-enden" -re-osi"ionW 6ronunciation Jo> is "!e >ord saidW STEP 1/. CP#IR <ORLD: RE(%ECTIO" *=M <o deal >i"! some o5 "!e EeD issues <o es"a/lis! common ground +RBC2(1R2@ = @<R1C<=B @ 'aterial L Rues"ionnaire on <eac!ing Foca/ularD <eac!ers >orE "!roug! "!e s"a"emen"s in -airs L (o "!eD agree or disagree >i"! "!e s"a"emen"s and >!DA>!D no"W Possi)le co clusio s from t:e discussio : <!e /es" "eac!ing s"ar"s >i"! diagnos"ic >orE "o 5ocus "!e in5orma"ion on >!a" "!e learners reallD need • <!ere are manD >aDs "o con0eD meaning) • Foca/ularD needs c!ecEing) • Foca/ularD "eac!ing "aEes -lanning) • ?earners can gi0e eac! o"!er ex-lana"ions) M*<2R=*?@ACBMM2 < !. regis"er e"cW Form P!a" is "!e 5orm 7grammar8 o5 "!e >ordW =s i" a noun. conno"a"ion.(uring con0eDance diagnosis o5 >!a" learners alreadD Eno> and de0elo-ing "!eir Eno>ledge 5rom "!a" -oin" is essen"ial ra"!er "!an assume "!e learners Eno> no"!ing o5 "!e meaning) <!e "eac!er >orEs "o elici" 5rom a con"ex" >!a" is Eno>n /D "!e learners /e5ore V"ellingC "!e meaning) #ccurac8 <!e meaning -resen"ed is accura"e so learners are con5iden" and can use "!e language) #or exam-le.e use of translation G dictionaries ma7 be t.

ot boiling@ <!e line is "!e cline) ="Cs a 0erD good >aD o5 76 . 9arm.ot and boiling ) *sE meaning "eac!ers "o -u" "!em in "!e rig!" -lace on a line freezing cold cool 9arm .TTTTTTTTTTTT 9) *u"o/iogra-!D TTTTTTTTTTTT 10) <o ge" o0er some"!ing TTTTTTTTTTTT 11) Conscien"ious o/jec"or TTTTTTTTTTT 12) Jumilia"ed TTTTTTTTTTTT 13) Blended 5amilD TTTTTTTTTTTT 1&) Re0ol"ing TTTTTTTTTTTT 15) Beer TTTTTTTTTTTT 'et:ods of co *e8i g a8 +ic"ure7s8 /8 MimeAges"ure c8 (e5ini"ion d8 =n "!e con"ex" o5 a s"orD e8 @DnonDm 58 2x-lana"ion g8 2xam-les o5 "D-e !8 Realia i8 (ic"ionarD j8 Conce-" Nues"ions E8 (ra>ing on /oard l8 #amous name m8 Pord analDsis n8 Cline o8 *n"onDm -8 Con"ex" sen"ence '#TERI#%SGCO''E"T Xou can demons"ra"e good -rac"ice and c!ecE "eac!ers Eno> "!e "erminologD /D con0eDing some o5 "!e meanings in "!e rig!" !and column and STEP 1/0 CP#IR <ORLD: USI"$ C%I"ES #I' PROCEDURES I"STRUCTIO"S <o 5ocus on =n -airs "eac!ers com-le"e ma"c!ing "asE) <eac!ers di55eren" maD !a0e -ro/lems >i"! VclineC) (emons"ra"e meaning >aDs "o /D -u""ing "!e 5ollo>ing >ords on "!e /oard in random con0eD order: freezing. cold. . cool.1) = al>aDs use "ransla"ion >!en "eac!ing 0oca/ularD) (isagree s"ronglD 1 TTT 2 TTT 3 TTT & TTTT 5 TTT agree s"ronglD 2) 1sing ex-lana"ion7s8 is "!e /es" >aD "o "eac! 0oca/ularD (isagree s"ronglD 1 TTT 2 TTT 3 TTT & TTTT 5 TTT agree s"ronglD 3) Pe s!ould "eac! all "!e meanings o5 a >ord a" "!e same "ime (isagree s"ronglD 1 TTT 2 TTT 3 TTT & TTTT 5 TTT agree s"ronglD &) ="Cs a good idea "o asE learners i5 "!eD unders"and or no" (isagree s"ronglD 1 TTT 2 TTT 3 TTT & TTTT 5 TTT agree s"ronglD 6) ="Cs a good idea "o elici" learners unders"anding o5 0oca/ularD /D asEing V>!a" does xD9 meanWC (isagree s"ronglD 1 TTT 2 TTT 3 TTT & TTTT 5 TTT agree s"ronglD STEP 1/2 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: '#TC7I"$ T#SL-TE#C7I"$ 6OC#AU%#RK = @<R1C<=B @ Consider "!e 0oca/ularD i"ems lis"ed on "!e le5") P!a" >ould /e "!e mos" e55icien" >aDs o5 con0eDing "!eir meaning "o learners o5 2nglis!W Ma"c! "!e i"ems "o "!e me"!ods /elo>) <!ere maD /e more "!an one o-"ion) 6oca)ular8 Item 1) * /edroom TTTTTTTTTTTT 2) Jead-!ones TTTTTTTTTTTT 3) <o /ur.TTTTTTTTTTTT &) @u-er/ TTTTTTTTTTTT 5) Medicine TTTTTTTTTTTT 6) Jard$>orEing TTTTTTTTTTTT ') #ilm s"ar TTTTTTTTTTTT 8) <o lim.

con0eDingAc!ecEing meaning 5or se"s o5 >ords "!a" rela"e. as "!ere are mul"i-le meanings $) elici"ing "!e correc" ans>ers) e)g) /lacE and >!i"e."!e learners >i"! a "asE in >!ic! "!eD use "!e 0oca/ularD) <o ensure learners unders"and "!e EeD lexis in order "o /e a/le "o com-le"e "!e reading or lis"ening "asEs) <o su--or" learners "o com-le"e "!e "asEs) o" "o ensure "!a" "!eD unders"and e0erD >ord o5 "!e "ex") <o 5ocus on "!e 0oca/ularD as language in-u" once "!e general and de"ailed meaning o5 "!e "ex" !as /een unders"ood) =deallD learners >ould "!en go on "o use "!e language 5rom "!e "ex" in a con"rolled or 5reer -rac"ice ac"i0i"D) <!e "eac!er maD no"ice "!a" learners needed cer"ain 0oca/ularD >!en "!eD >ere doing a -roduc"ion "asE and "eac!es i" once "!e "asE is o0er) =" is also liEelD "!a" "!e 0oca/ularD -rac"ised and -resen"ed is s"ill /eing a0oided /D "!e learners so "!eD need addi"ional consolida"ion >orE) o "eac!er can an"ici-a"e e0erD -ro/lem "!a" learners >ill !a0e so 0oca/ularD Nues"ions can arise a" anD -oin" in "!e lesson) <!e "eac!er can res-ond in a 0arie"D o5 >aDs.H T7E RI$7T TI'E TO TE#C7 6OC#AU%#RK STEP 5/.t 'id te. !ea0D and lig!" are an"onDms) #cti*it8 5: T:e rig:t time to teac: *oca)ular8 P!en deciding >!a" 0oca/ularD "o "eac! "!e EeD Nues"ion o5 V>!a" is "!e aim o5 "!e lessonWC !as "o /e addressed) <!is >ill dic"a"e >!en and i5 "o "eac! 0oca/ularD) <!e aim also dic"a"es >!a" "o "eac!.t Post te.as !ome>orE "o s"o--ing "!e >!ole class "o do meaning >orE and c!ecEing unders"anding) <!e "eac!erCs decision s!ould /e /ased on "!e 5ollo>ing: 1) =s "!e >ord EeD "arge" languageW =5 i" is "!en i" needs a""en"ion and i5 i" is no" "!en can "!e learner /D-ass i" 5or "!e "ime /eingW 2) =s "!e >!ole class s"ruggling >i"! "!e same >ord or is "!is jus" one learner no" unders"anding "!e >ordW T#A%E . i"Cs /e""er "o use more "!an one me"!od o5 con0eDance a" a "ime i5 5easi/le) • */s"rac" language needs more con"ex"ual in5orma"ion) • ="Cs di55icul" "o "eac! "!e >ords i5 "!eD are no" >i"!in a con"ex" $ 5or exam-le V"o ge" o0er some"!ingC. o5"en ad0er/s) +ossi/le conclusions 5rom "!e "asE: • =n order "o a--eal "o di55eren" "D-es o5 learner.te. 5rom "elling "!e learner "o looE "!e >ord u. "oo) ManD lessons go as"raD and lose 5ocus /ecause "!e "eac!er ge"s side"racEed in"o ex-laining non$essen"ial language "!a" is unnecessarD "o mee" "!e main aim o5 "!a" -ar"icular s"age o5 "!e lesson) <!e "a/le /elo> demons"ra"es -ossi/le aims 5or dealing >i"! 0oca/ularD a" di55eren" -oin"s in "!e lesson: At the beginning o/ the lesson Pre . C$ROUP <ORLD: 7U"T (OR <ORDS 77 .t #fter a productio tas= Ra doml8 <!is maD !a--en >!en "!ere is no" a su--or"ing "ex") <!e "eac!er maD "eac! a range o5 0oca/ularD in order "o !el.

!as no res-ec" 5or au"!ori"D 5igures. do !is !ome>orE. "!eD >ill an"ici-a"e and selec" "!e i"ems o5 language "!e s"uden"s mig!" no" /e 5amiliar >i"!) <!eD !a0e "o come u. >!ic! can ge" con5using) <!e >orE 5or "!e learners is increased as "!eD "rD "o >orE ou" one se" o5 meanings and "!en ano"!er) 78 .= @<R1C<=B @ <rainees are asEed "o iden"i5D "!e le0el o5 s"uden"s >!o mig!" /e -resen"ed >i"! "!is "ex") <!en. or clean !is room) Jis mo""o."!e same con"ex" >!en "!eD -re$"eac! /u" "!ere are "eac!ers >!o "aEe 0oca/ularD 5rom a "ex" a/ou" -ersonal rela"ions!i-s and use "!e con"ex" o5 a drug >ar "o con0eD meaning. in grou-s. P!o "!e Jell *re XouWS >ere -rin"ed on <$s!ir"s "!a" >ere eagerlD /oug!" and >orn /D millions o5 Eids across "!e coun"rD) @ome -aren"s and educa"ionalis"s !a0e /een 0oci5erous in "!eir o--osi"ion "o c!arac"ers liEe Bar" >!o do no" con0eD "!e 0alues o5 o/edience.>i"! sugges"ions as "o >!en "o in"roduce "!e in0en"orD lis" >ri""en -re0iouslD and >!ic! me"!ods o5 con0eDing meaning "o use) Jo> and "o >!a" ex"en" do "!e media in5luence "!e /e!a0iour o5 c!ildrenW P!en de/a"ing "!is issue manD -eo-le !a0e -oin"ed "o !ugelD -o-ular -rogrammes suc! as T:e Simpso s 7a car"oon series "!a" "ooE o55 in 1989 in "!e 1@8) <!is >as one o5 "!e -rogrammes "!a" reallD /roEe "!e mould) =" com-le"elD rejec"ed "!e idea "!a" a <F s!o> s!ould -or"raD -osi"i0e role models and -romo"e >!olesome 5amilD 0alues) <!e son o5 "!e 5amilD. !ones"D and !ard >orE >!ic! -aren"s !o-e "o ins"il in "!eir im-ressiona/le c!ildren) STEP 5/2 CP#IR <ORLD: PRE-RE#DI"$ = @<R1C<=B @ Consider "eac!ing 0oca/ularD in a -re$reading ac"i0i"D) Men"ion: • • • !o> -re$"eac!ing 0oca/ularD can !el. c!ea"s.S "oge"!er >i"! exclama"ions liEe S=Ym Bar" @im-son. jus" "!ose "!a" ena/le "!e "asEs "o /e com-le"ed) Bnce "!e learners unders"and "!e main ideas in "!e "ex" "!e lesson 5ocus can s!i5" "o "!e more de"ailed 0oca/ularDAlanguage meaning) 3) <!e "!ird is "o -re$"eac! all or man7 of "!e ne> >ords in "!e "ex" so "!a" learners >ill "!en /e a/le "o 5ocus on "!e meaning o5 "!e "ex" and no" ge" dis"rac"ed /D indi0idual >ord meanings) <!eD >ill also !a0e increased ex-osure "o "!e ne> language "!roug! "!e -re$"eac!ing and "!en seeing i" again in "!e "ex") T:e =e8 issues @it: pre-teac:i g t:at eed to )e ta=e i to co sideratio : • +re$"eac!ing 0oca/ularD means "!a" "!e meaning in "!e con"ex"ual in5orma"ion surrounding i" in "!e "ex" can /e los") Good "eac!ers "rD "o Eee."!e learners and "!e "eac!erM "!e "ec!niNues Dou >ould useM "!e "ime Dou >ould allo" "o "!is -re$reading sec"ion o5 "!e lesson) i g a d i troductio of e@ la guage items #cti*it8 6: %esso pla <!ere is muc! !ea"ed de/a"e on -re $ "eac!ing 0oca/ularD) BroadlD "!ere are "!ree main sc!ools o5 "!oug!") 1) <!e 5irs" is no" "o -re$"eac! anD language /u" "o use "!e "ex" and "asEs as a diagnos"ic "ool. "es"ing "!roug! "!e "asEs >!a" "!e learners maD alreadD Eno>) =n su--or" o5 "!is "!e learners mee" "!e ne> language alreadD con"ex"ualised so maD /e a/le "o deduce meaning 5rom "!e con"ex") Foca/ularD is "!en onlD "aug!" as i" is needed in order "o do "!e "asEs or as i" arises) 2) <!e nex" line o5 reasoning is "!a" i" is im-or"an" "o -re$"eac! anD 0oca/ularD "!a" >ill ena/le learners "o do "!e com-re!ension "asEs@ <!e aim o5 -re$"eac!ing is no" "o "eac! all "!e unEno>n >ords in "!e "ex". does no" o/eD !is -aren"s. Sunderac!ie0er and -roud o5 i". Bar" 7a name >!ic! is ac"uallD an anagram o5 S/ra"S8.

selec" "!e correc" >ord 5rom a /ox.• • +re$"eac!ing can Vgi0e "!e game a>aDC in "erms o5 c!ecEing com-re!ension) #or exam-le. 0er/."!em "o /e sure o5 "!e meaning o5 >ords) C:oosi g )et@ee differe t @ords: s"uden"s are asEed "o c!oose /e">een ">o di55eren" meanings or ">o di55eren" >ords e)g) olderAelder) . >ords or ex-ressions >i"! meanings) Searc:i g for @ord mea i g: 5ind in "!e "ex" >ords >!ic! !a0e a cer"ain meaningM use a dic"ionarD "o !el. dialogues. i5 >e -re$"eac! Vdis"rus"5ulC "!en i" is di55icul" "o asE a gis" Nues"ion suc! as V!o> >ould Dou descri/e "!eir rela"ions!i-WC BD -re$"eac!ing >e are maEing "!e assum-"ion "!a" "!e language is no" Eno>n. ad0er"s. e"c8 in "!e /lanEs) 'atc:i g: one se" o5 "!ings >i"! ano"!er. "!ere are endless >aDs o5 in"egra"ing i" in "!e 5lo> o5 ac"i0e s-eec!) P!a" >e s!ould care5ullD consider /e5ore -lanning our lessons is "!e logical s"e-s "o /e "aEen in "asE$/ased ac"i0i"ies: . e"c) STEP 6/. noun.mean" "o gi0e s"uden"s an o--or"uni"D "o use >ords >!ic! !a0e /een s"udied) • • Telli g stories: >ords s"udied are used in ei"!er oral or >ri""en s"ories) <riti g tas=s: >ords s"udied are used "o >ri"e descri-"ions. >i"!ou" 5irs"lD seeing i5 "!e learners can unders"and "!e meaning >i"!in "!e "ex") @o a lo" o5 "ime maD /e >as"ed on -re $ "eac!ing "asEs 5or language "!a" "!e learners alreadD Eno>) Steps i teac:i g *oca)ular8 o ma""er >!en >e "eac! 0oca/ularD or >!e"!er >e -re$"eac! i". e"c) (ill-i s: 5ill in "!e /lanEs in sen"ences or -aragra-!s L using >ords "!eD !a0e /een s"udDing$.mean" "o engage "!e in"eres" o5 "!e s"uden"s in "!e "o-ic and i"s rela"ed 0oca/ularD) • • • # te.t: ="s -ur-ose is "o arouse "!e s"uden"sC in"eres" as >ell as "o in"roduce "!e 0oca/ularD and conce-"s >!ic! are "o /e s"udied) =" also -ro0ides a 5ocus 5or general in"egra"ed sEill >orE) # discussio Gi teractio : MaD -ro0ide an o--or"uni"D 5or s"uden"s "o consider "!e "o-ics in "!e lig!" o5 "!eir o>n ex-erience) # @ord tas=: s"uden"s do a ma"c!ing ac"i0i"D as a >aD o5 in"roducing "!e "o-ic area and gi0ing "!em "!e in5orma"ion "!eD need 5or a discussionAin"erac"ion) :$DEtudyD activities $ mean" "o ex-lore "!e >ords >!ic! "!e "o-ic !as in"roduced in more de"ail) • • • • • Completi g c:arts: c!ar"s >!ic! 5ocus on >ord 5orma"ion. a se" o5 >ords >i"! a se" o5 -ic"ures. on >ords >!ic! go "oge"!er. selec" a >ord and use "!e correc" 5orm 7adjec"i0e.$DActivateD activities ./E gage 2/Stud8 0/#cti*ate %$D0ngagementD activities . C$ROUP <ORLD: %ESSO" ST#$ES = @<R1C<=B @ <!e 5ollo>ing are some o5 "!e -ossi/le s"ages o5 a lesson or -ar" o5 a lesson in >!ic! "!e "eac!er is concerned "!a" "!e s"uden"s s!ould learn !o> "o use "!is ne> i"em o5 language) ?ooE a" "!e lis" and ans>er "!e Nues"ions >!ic! 5ollo>) a) @"uden"s su--lD exam-les o5 language rela"ing "o "!eir o>n ex-erience) /) <!e "eac!er maEes "!e 5unc"ion o5 "!e language i"em clear) 79 .

#oreign ?anguage <eac!ing Me"!ods $ !""-:AA>>>)>ri"edesignonline)comAorgani9ersAcom-arecon"ras")!"ml $ !""-:AA>>>)ncrel)orgAsdrsAareasAissuesAs"uden"sAlearningAlr1grorg)!"m $ !""-:AA>>>)e0erD"!ingesl)ne"Ainser0icesAgra-!icTorgani9ers)-!$ !""-:AA>>>)Dou"u/e)comA>a"c!W0^8mg>P!Pa0R8 $ !""-:AA>>>)Dou"u/e)comA>a"c!W0^liR?dRE0Ki>ea"ure^-laDerTem/edded) 80 .c) @"uden"s re-ea" "!e exam-le or VmodelC sen"ence exem-li5Ding "!e language i"em) d) <!e "eac!er maEes "!e meaning o5 "!e ne> language clear) e) <!e "eac!er uses 0isual or >ri""en -rom-"s "o elici" 5rom "!e s"uden"s Vsu/s"i"u"ionsC$5ur"!er sen"ences using "!e same language) 5) @"uden"s do a >ri""en exercise 5ocusing on "!e correc" and a--ro-ria"e use o5 "!e language i"em) g) <!e "eac!er dra>s a""en"ion "o "!e 5orm) !) <!e "eac!er asEs Nues"ions "o "es" "!e s"uden"sC unders"anding o5 "!e meaning andAor 5unc"ion o5 "!e language i"em) i) <!e "eac!er >ri"es a modelAexam-le o5 "!e language on "!e /oard) 1) <!e order o5 "!ese s"ages is jum/led) um/er "!e s"ages according "o "!e order in >!ic! "!eD mig!" occur in a lesson) Xou maD >an" "o maEe ">o se-ara"e lis"s. exem-li5Ding ">o di55eren" a--roac!es) Xou maD also omi" or add s"ages i5 Dou >is!) Be5ore com-aring "!ese lis"s >i"! "!ose o5 o"!er grou-s decide >!a" ra"ionale underlies "!e seNuence7s8 Dou !a0e c!osen) 2) MaEe a lis" o5 >aDs in >!ic! "!e "eac!er mig!" accom-lis! s"age 7d8) 2xam-le 7Foca/ularD8 +ic"ure "!e o/jec" 3) P!ic! ">o com-le"ed di55eren" o/jec"i0es mig!" s"age 758 /e used "o ac!ie0e 7simul"aneouslD or se-ara"elD8W Refere ces 1) Duppe t:alerH P)Foca/ularD *cNuisi"ion: <!e Researc! and ="s +edagogical =m-lica"ions 2) 7armerH J)<!e +rac"ice o5 2nglis! ?anguage <eac!ing 3) "atio H P)<eac!ing and ?earning Foca/ularD &) "istH %/S/H 'o:rH C/ =m-ro0ing Foca/ularD @Eills 5) Sta:lH S)<eac!ing Pord Meanings ) $!""-AA>>>)coerll)u"exas)eduAme"!ods.

'ODU%E 6 5 TE#C7I"$ RE#DI"$ 81 .

ex-er" readers reco struct mea i g >i"! a "ex") <!e researc! da"a s!o> "!a" reading is liEe a "ransac"ion in >!ic! "!e reader /rings -ur-oses and li5e ex-eriences "o co-e >i"! "!e "ex") <!is mee"ing o5 "!e reader and "!e "ex" resul"s in "!e meaning "!a" is com-re!ension) Com-re!ension s"ands 5or @:at is coded or :idde i t:e te.: $oals a d Tec: iFues for Teac:i g Readi g <eac!ers >an" "o model s"uden"s >!o can co-e >i"! di55eren" communica"ion si"ua"ions e0en i5 "!eD do no" !a0e com-le"e con"rol o5 "!e grammar or an ex"ensi0e 0oca/ularD) =n "!e case o5 reading. and needs) <!a" is >!D >e can read "!e same /ooE or s"orD ">ice and i" can !a0e di55eren" meanings 5or us) Pe. are an eNual and ac"i0e -ar"ner >i"! "!e "ex" in "!e meaning$maEing -rocess o5 com-re!ension) Pe maEe a i teracti*e co ectio @it: t:e te. ad0er"ismen"s.s"uden"sY a>areness o5 "!e reading -rocess and reading s"ra"egies /D ge""ig s"uden"s "!inE and "alE a/ou" !o> "!eD read in "!eir na"i0e language) 82 . "o 5ollo> direc"ions. "eac!ers 5ocus on "!e -rocess o5 reading ra"!er "!an on i"s -roduc") • <!eD de0elo. /u" i" is also closelD connec"ed >i"! "!e readerYs /acEground ex-eriences. as readers.#cti*it8 .: Goals and <ec!niNues 5or <eac!ing Reading #cti*it8 2: (e0elo-ing Reading *c"i0i"ies #cti*it8 0: (i55eren" Einds o5 reading$ex"ensi0e 0s) in"ensi0e #cti*it8 1: *u"!en"ic 0s) non$au"!en"ic ma"erials #cti*it8 5: <i-s 5or e55ec"i0e reading #cti*it8 6: 2duca"ional linEs O)9ecti*es • "o read 5luen"lD and clearlD a 0arie"D o5 "ex"s 5or a 0arie"D o5 -ur-oses • "o assess s"reng"!s and >eaEnesses in reading and se" goals 5or 5u"ure gro>"! • "o reading as a means o5 learning and enjoDmen" • "o read 5or a 0arie"D o5 -ur-oses : "o ga"!er in5orma"ion.t/ *u"!en"ic "ex"s 7 re-or"s."!e s"uden"sg sEills in reading and s-eaEing /D connec"ing -rior ex-eriences "o "!e reading) #/ T:e Readi g Process <o accom-lis! "!is goal. essaDs8 are mean" "o de0elo. "!is means -roducing s"uden"s >!o can use reading s"ra"egies "o maximi9e "!eir com-re!ension o5 "ex" and iden"i5D rele0an" and non$rele0an" in5orma"ion) Recen" s"udies !a0e s!o>n "!a" de0elo-ing reading sEills re0eals "!a" "!is issue is more com-lica"ed "!an i" seems)Com-re!ension reNuires "!e reader "o /e an ac"i0e /uilder o5 meaning$ Reading researc! !as demons"ra"ed "!a" readers do no" sim-lD unders"and "!e meaning "!a" is in a "ex") *s a ma""er o5 5ac". "o 5orm an o-inion. 5eelings.t. "o unders"and in5orma"ion • "o read a range o5 con"em-orarD and classical "ex"s a--ro-ria"e "o "!eir in"eres"s and learning needs • "o /ecome a>are "!a" reading is an ac"i0e -rocess in >!ic! "!e reader in"erac"s >i"! "!e "ex" "o cons"ruc" meaning rela"ig !imsel5A!ersel5 "o !isA !er ex-eriences RE#DI"$ C6ISU#% RECEPTIO"D #cti*it8 . ar"icles. s"ories. "o gi0e a res-onse. -ur-oses.

/o"! "!e a/ili"D and "!e con5idence "o co-e >i"! communica"ion si"ua"ions "!eD maD encoun"er /eDond "!e classroom) =n "!is >aD "!eD gi0e "!eir s"uden"s "!e 5ounda"ion 5or communica"i0e com-e"ence in "!e ne> language) A/ I tegrati g Readi g Strategies =ns"ruc"ion in reading s"ra"egies is an in"egral -ar" o5 "!e use o5 reading ac"i0i"ies in "!e language classroom) <eac!ers can !el. /e">een "!e main idea o5 a "ex" and s-eci5c de"ail M "!eD are reNuired "o remaEe "ex" s"ruc"ure and deduce meaning and lexical re5erence and "o loca"e in5orma"ion in cer"ain sec"ions o5 "!e "ex") 83 . and /D "eac!ing "!em reading s"ra"egies. "!eD s!o> s"uden"s "!e s"ra"egies "!a" >ill >orE /es" 5or "!e reading -ur-ose and "!e "D-e o5 "ex") <!eD ex-lain !o> and >!D s"uden"s s!ould use "!e s"ra"egies) <!eD !a0e s"uden"s -rac"ice reading s"ra"egies in class and asE "!em "o -rac"ice ou"side o5 class in "!eir reading assignmen"s) <!eD encourage s"uden"s "o /e conscious o5 >!a" "!eDYre doing >!ile "!eD com-le"e reading assignmen"s) BD raising s"uden"sY a>areness o5 reading as a sEill "!a" reNuires ac"i0e in0ol0men". during."!eir s"uden"s /ecome e55ec"i0e readers /D "eac!ing "!em !o> "o use s"ra"egies /e5ore. ins"ruc"ors !el. and a5"er reading) Be5ore reading: Pla for t:e readi g tas= • • @e" a -ur-ose or decide in ad0ance >!a" "!e reason 5or reading is (ecide i5 more linguis"ic or /acEground Eno>ledge is needed (uring and a5"er reading: 'o itor compre:e sio • • • • C!ecE u."!eir s"uden"s de0elo.i5 necessarD *5"er reading: E*aluate compre:e sio a d strateg8 use • • • • 20alua"e com-re!ension in a cer"ain area 20alua"e -rogress in reading and in -ar"icular "D-es o5 reading "asEs (ecide i5 "!e s"ra"egies used >ere a--ro-ria"e 5or "!e -ur-ose and 5or "!e "asE C!ange s"ra"egies i5 necessarD C/ Usi g #ut:e tic 'aterials a d #pproac:es T:e Commo Europea (rame@or= of %a guages laDs s"ress on "!e im-or"ance o5 au"!en"ic "ex"s >!ic! con"ain in"eres"ing "o-ics rela"ed "o "!e s"uden"sg e0erDdaD li5e) <!ere are reading ac"i0i"ies suc! as: Readi g for gistH Readi g for detailed i formatio H Readi g to u dersta d te.t structureH Readi g for specific i formatio / @"uden"sg unders"anding o5 >ri""en "ex"s s!ould go /eDond /eing a/le "o c!oose i"ems o5 5ac"ual in5orma"ion : "!eD s!ould /e a/le "o dis"inguis! /e">een main idea and !idden -oin"s.-redic"ions MaEe a good selec"ion o5 >!a" is im-or"an" or unim-or"an" Read "o c!ecE com-re!ension *sE 5or !el.• • • <!eD allo> s"uden"s "o -rac"ice "!e 5ull re-er"oire o5 reading s"ra"egies /D using au"!en"ic reading "asEs) <!eD encourage s"uden"s "o read in order "o learn 7and !a0e an au"!en"ic -ur-ose 5or reading8 /D gi0ing s"uden"s some c!oice o5 reading ma"erial) P!en >orEing >i"! reading "asEs in class.

) T:e readi g material must )e aut:e tic: =" mus" /e "!e Eind o5 ma"erial "!a" s"uden"s >ill need and >an" "o /e a/le "o read >!en "ra0eling. s"udDing a/road. maEes i" more a--roac!a/le /D elici"ing s"uden"sY exis"ing Eno>ledge in -re$reading discussion. and reading aloud /ecomes >ord calling: sim-lD -ronouncing a series o5 >ords >i"!ou" regard 5or "!e meaning "!eD carrD indi0iduallD and "oge"!er) Step . suc! as sEimming "o ge" "!e main idea or scanning 5or s-eci5ic in5orma"ion. and encourage "!em "o use "!e li/rarD. classroom and !ome>orE reading ac"i0i"ies mus" resem/le 7or /e8 real$li5e reading "asEs "!a" in0ol0e meaning5ul communica"ion) <!eD mus" "!ere5ore /e au"!en"ic in "!ree >aDs) . re0ie>ing ne> 0oca/ularD /e5ore reading. "!e =n"erne". or using "!e language in o"!er con"ex"s) @im-li5Ding a "ex" /D c!anging i"s language. and end u. "ooW a8 84 . /e5ore "!eD /egin in"ensi0e reading) 2) T:e readi g tas= must )e aut:e tic: @"uden"s mus" /e reading 5or reasons "!a" maEe sense and !a0e rele0ance "o "!em) SBecause "!e "eac!er assigned i"S is no" an au"!en"ic reason 5or reading a "ex") <o iden"i5D rele0an" reading needs. asE s"uden"s !o> "!eD -lan "o use "!e language "!eD are learning and >!a" "o-ics "!eD are in"eres"ed in reading and learning a/ou") ?e" "!em c!oose "!eir reading assignmen"s./.-I< @aD >!a" Eind o5 au"!en"ic "ex"s "!e 5ollo>ing ones areM are "!e "asEs au"!en"ic. and !a0ing s"uden"s -er5orm "asEs "!a" are >i"!in "!eir com-e"ence.#or s"uden"s "o de0elo.communica"i0e com-e"ence in reading. and "!e >aD -eo-le normallD read) <!is means "!a" reading aloud >ill "aEe -lace onlD in si"ua"ions >!ere i" >ould "aEe -lace ou"side "!e classroom. "!e "D-e o5 "ex".no" /eing a/le "o remem/er elemen"s) 1suallD "!e dro--ed elemen" is com-re!ension. suc! as reading 5or -leasure) <!e majori"D o5 s"uden"sY reading s!ould /e done silen"lD) D/ Readi g #loud i t:e Classroom @"uden"s do no" learn "o read /D reading aloud) * -erson >!o reads aloud and unders"ands "!e meaning o5 "!e "ex" is coordina"ing >ord recogni"ion >i"! com-re!ension and s-eaEing and -ronuncia"ion a/ili"D in !ig!lD com-lex >aDs) @"uden"s >!ose language sEills are limi"ed are no" a/le "o -rocess "!e in5orma"ion a" "!is le0el. and 5oreign language ne>ss"ands and /ooEs"ores "o 5ind o"!er "!ings "!eD >ould liEe "o read) 0/ T:e readi g approac: must )e aut:e tic: @"uden"s s!ould read "!e "ex" in a >aD "!a" ma"c!es "!e reading -ur-ose.

!anding ou" "!e assignmen" and sending s"uden"s a>aD "o do i") * 5ullD$de0elo-ed reading ac"i0i"D su--or"s s"uden"s as readers "!roug! prereadi gH @:ile-readi gH a d post-readi g acti*ities/ 85 .)D <!is is -ar" o5 a le""er Dou recei0ed 5rom an 2nglis! 5riend: Fou )onDt believe )hat *Dm about to tell you$ -ast )eek * came home /rom school and * /ound a )ounded pigeon sitting right in /ront o/ my door$ 'hat )ould you do i/ something like that happened to you.S >ri"ing a se" o5 com-re!ension Nues"ions 5or s"uden"s "o ans>er a5"er reading. ans>ering !is Nues"ion) 7200 >ords8 #cti*it8 2: De*elopi g Readi g #cti*ities (e0elo-ing reading ac"i0i"ies in0ol0es more "!an iden"i5Ding a "ex" "!a" is Sa" "!e rig!" le0el. o> >ri"e a le""er "o 2d>ard.

ma-s.in mind "!a" com-le"e recall o5 all "!e in5orma"ion in a "ex" is an unrealis"ic ex-ec"a"ion e0en 5or na"i0e s-eaEers) Reading ac"i0i"ies "!a" are mean" "o increase communica"i0e com-e"ence s!ould /e success5ullD orien"ed and /uild u.o5 s"uden"s) • Jo> is "!e in5orma"ion organi9edW (oes "!e s"orD line.t <!e 5ac"ors lis"ed /elo> can !el. guess "!e meanings o5 unEno>n >ords. enjoD a s"orD. or ins"ruc"ion con5orm "o 5amiliar ex-ec"a"ionsW <ex"s in >!ic! "!e e0en"s are -resen"ed in na"ural c!ronological order.*s Dou design reading "asEs. and >!ic! -resen" "!e in5orma"ion 5ollo>ing an o/0ious organi9a"ion 7main ideas 5irs". narra"i0e. >!ic! !a0e an in5orma"i0e "i"le. or decide >!e"!er or no" "o read more) Recogni9ing "!e -ur-ose 5or reading >ill !el.Dou judge "!e rela"i0e ease or di55icul"D o5 a reading "ex" 5or a -ar"icular -ur-ose and a -ar"icular grou.s"uden"sY con5idence in "!eir reading sEills) #/ Auild up t:e readi g acti*it8 arou d a tas= t:at is sig ifica t for t:e stude ts / MaEe sure s"uden"s unders"and >!a" "!e -ur-ose 5or reading is: "o ge" "!e main idea.or colla/ora"i0e >orE and 5or class discussion ac"i0i"ies @am-le -re$reading ac"i0i"ies: 86 . Eee.in reading com-re!ensionW Fisual aids suc! as -!o"ogra-!s. suc! as -rac"icing or re0ie>ing s-eci5ic gramma"ical cons"ruc"ions. or 5amiliari9ing s"uden"s >i"! "!e "D-ical s"ruc"ure o5 a cer"ain "D-e o5 "ex") C/ C:ec= t:e le*el of difficult8 of t:e te. /u" s"uden"s >i"! !ig!er -ro5iciencD /ene5i" 5rom "!e na"ural redundancD o5 au"!en"ic language) (oes "!e "ex" !a0e 0isual su--or" "o !el. sim-le messages easier "o -rocess. an ac"i0i"D can also !a0e one or more ins"ruc"ional -ur-oses. o/"ain s-eci5ic in5orma"ion. de"ails and exam-les second8 are easier "o 5ollo>) Jo> 5amiliar are "!e s"uden"s >i"! "!e "o-icW Remem/er "!a" cul"ural di55erences can crea"e major com-re!ension di55icul"ies) =s "!e "ex" redundan" W *" "!e lo>er le0els o5 -ro5iciencD. in"roducing ne> 0oca/ularD. and c!ecE com-re!ension >!ile reading) • • • Remem/er "!a" "!e le0el o5 di55icul"D o5 a "ex" is no" "!e same as "!e le0el o5 di55icul"D o5 a reading "asE) D/ 'a=e a good selectio of some pre-readi g acti*ities to prepare stude ts for readi g <!e ac"i0i"ies Dou use during -re$reading can !a0e a -re-ara"orD role in se0eral >aDs) (uring -re$reading Dou maD: • • • • 20alua"e s"uden"sY /acEground Eno>ledge o5 "!e "o-ic and linguis"ic con"en" o5 "!e "ex" Gi0e cul"ural in5orma"ion >!ic! maD /e necessarD "o com-re!end "!e -assage MaEe s"uden"s a>are o5 "!e "D-e o5 "ex" "!eD >ill /e reading and "!e -ur-ose7s8 5or reading Crea"e o--or"uni"ies 5or grou. unders"and mos" or all o5 "!e message.s"uden"s -re0ie> "!e con"en" o5 "!e "ex". and diagrams !el.s"uden"s selec" a--ro-ria"e reading s"ra"egies) A/ Defi e t:e additio al i structio al goals a d t:e appropriate t8pe of respo se =n addi"ion "o "!e main -ur-ose 5or reading. lis"eners maD 5ind s!or".

and -laces) =" mig!" /e used "o re0ie> gra-!s. and illus"ra"ions) Consider reading "!e 5irs" sen"ence o5 eac! -aragra-!) @Eimming >orEs >ell "o 5ind da"es. 5irs". ins"ead DouYre scanning "!e "ex") @Eimming is 5as"er "!an normal reading) +eo-le o5"en sEim >!en "!eD !a0e lo"s o5 ma"erial "o read in a limi"ed amoun" o5 "ime) 1se sEimming >!en Dou >an" "o see i5 an ar"icle maD /e o5 in"eres" in Dour researc!) Xou mig!" read "!e "i"le. or nex") ?ooE 5or >ords "!a" are /old 5aced. su/"i"les. so DouYre concen"ra"ing on 5inding a -ar"icular ans>er) P!en scanning. le""ers. ma-s. s"Dle. DouYre -ro/a/lD no" reading i" >ord$/D$>ord. linE i" >i"! >!a" "!eD alreadD Eno>. or color) @ome"imes "!e au"!or >ill -u" EeD ideas in "!e margin) (/ #fter readi g aci*ities @"uden"s -ar"ici-a"e in -os"$reading s"ra"egiesM consolida"e or re0ie> "!eir unders"anding o5 >!a" "!eD !a0e read. Dou >ill /e a/le "o reduce "!e amoun" o5 guided -re$reading and allo> s"uden"s "o do "!ese ac"i0i"ies "!emsel0es) E/ 'atc: @:ile-readi g acti*ities to t:e purpose for readi g =n >!ile$reading ac"i0i"ies. searc!ing 5or one or more isola"ed -ieces o5 in5orma"ion) Road signs and no"ices are also in"en"ed 5or ins"ruc"ion or ad0ice) S=immi g a "ex" is used "o NuicElD iden"i5D "!e main ideas o5 a "ex") P!en Dou read a maga9ine. looE 5or "!e au"!orYs use o5 organi9ers suc! as num/ers. or in a di55eren" 5on" si9e. au"oma"ise as-ec"s o5 i" "o ac!ie0e 5luencD in i"s use and "o res-ond "o i" >i"! a -osi"i0e a""i"ude) Read more: !""-:AA>>>)ne>s)com)auAen"er"ainmen"Acele/ri"DAgi/neD$sells$!er$island$!omeAs"orD$ e65r5mNr$1226036889528Qix991%8s]"d/a 87 . >ri"ing s"Dle. or "!e >ords. su/"i"les. second. s"uden"s need "o asE "!emsel0es. iden"i5D ne> li"eracD Eno>ledge. and c!ar"s) Sca i g "!e "ex" is a "ec!niNue Dou o5"en use >!en looEing u. s"e-s.• • • • • 1sing "!e "i"le. "ele-!one direc"orD. and usual "o-ics @Eimming "o 5ind "!e "!eme or main idea and elici"ing rela"ed -rior Eno>ledge Re0ie>ing 0oca/ularD or gramma"ical s"ruc"ures +re$reading ac"i0i"ies are mos" im-or"an" a" lo>er le0els o5 language -ro5iciencD and a" earlier s"ages o5 reading ins"ruc"ion) *s s"uden"s /ecome more -ro5icien" a" using reading s"ra"egies. s"uden"s c!ecE "!eir com-re!ension as "!eD read) <!e -ur-ose 5or reading de"ermines "!e a--ro-ria"e "D-e and le0el o5 com-re!ension) • • • P!en reading 5or i formatio . diagrams. "a/les. (o = unders"and "!e s"orD lineAseNuence o5 ideas >ell enoug! "o enjoD reading "!isW P!en readi g for refere ce >e >an" "o Eno> onlD a small -ar" o5 "!e "ex"$airline "ime"a/les. !a0e = o/"ained "!e in5orma"ion = >as looEing 5or or do = unders"and eac! main idea and !o> "!e au"!or su--or"s i"W P!en readi g for pleasure. i"alics. and di0isions >i"!in "!e "ex" "o -redic" con"en" and organi9a"ion or seNuence o5 in5orma"ion ?ooEing a" -ic"ures. su/!eading. s"uden"s need "o asE "!emsel0es.a >ord in "!e "ele-!one /ooE or dic"ionarD) Xou searc! 5or EeD >ords or ideas) =n mos" cases. or gra-!s and "!eir ca-"ions <alEing a/ou" "!e au"!orYs /acEground. names. Dou Eno> >!a" DouYre looEing 5or.

a "as"e 5or reading) =ncreasing "o"al com-re!ension ena/les s"uden"s "o ac!ie0e inde-endence in /asic sEill de0elo-men") Bo"! in"ensi0e and ex"ensi0e reading are necessarD "o -re-are s"uden"s 5or "!e "asE and "ex"s "!eD encoun"er in college) =n"ensi0e reading >i"! a 5ocus on sEillsAs"ra"egies ins"ruc"ion !as /een s!o>n "o Dield -osi"i0e e55ec"s on second language reading) *" "!e same "ime. enric! 0oca/ularD.te si*e *s/ i te si*e #/ I te si*e readi g =" is rela"ed "o -rogress in language learning under "!e "eac!erYs guidance) =" -ro0ides a /asis for e. s-eec! and >ri"ing)) =n"ensi0e reading is generallD done a" a lo>er s-eed and reNuires a !ig!er degree o5 unders"anding "o de0elo.Step 2/. Dou >ould scan /ecause Dou are no" in"eres"ed in ge""ing a general idea o5 "!e o"!er -eo-leYs names) 88 . and ne> i"ems o5 0oca/ularD >ill /e in"roduced slo>lD in suc! a >aD "!a" "!eir meaning can /e deduced 5rom con"ex") @"uden"s are usuallD encouraged "o guess "!e meaning o5 unEno>n i"ems) Ma"erials consis" o5 au"!en"ic s!or" s"ories and -laDs.(o Dou "!inE "!ese Nues"ions /elong "o "!e -re reading or a5"er reading s"age o5 a "ex"W 2x-lain >!D 1) 2) 3) &) P!a" is "!e -!armacis"gs main 5ea"ure o5 -ersonali"DW Ja0e Dou e0er go" ou" o5 a si"ua"ion in an un/elie0a/le >aDW Jo> did i" !a--enW Can 5ai"! /e decisi0e in 5inding solu"ions 5or di55icul" circums"ancesW Jo> do Dou 5eel >!en Dou are a/le "o !el. or in5orma"i0e or con"ro0ersial ar"icles 5rom ne>s-a-ers and maga9ines) =" means reading in Nuan"i"D and in order "o gain a general unders"anding o5 >!a" is read) =" is in"ended "o de0elo. s"ruc"ures in "ex"s 5or ex"ensi0e reading >ill /e alreadD 5amiliar.plai i g difficulties of structure a d for e. allo>s s"uden"s "o acNuire rele0an" sEills and s"ra"egies in "!e con"ex" o5 "asEs "!eD >ill e0en"uallD encoun"er in academic courses) See also @-eed Reading Re0ie>>>>)<o-<enRe0ie>s)com Step 0/. rein5orce sEills rela"ed "o sen"ence s"ruc"ure. looEing 5or Dour name in a lis" o5 names. re-or" >ri"ing8. >!ic! 5ocuses on s-eci5ic "asEs./ S=immi g #/ looEing NuicElD o0er "!e "ex" looEing 5or a s-eci5ic >ord7s8 or meaning)#or exam-le.someoneW #cti*it8 0: Differe t =i ds of readi g-e. 7e)g) "es""aEing. s"uden"s need "!e -rac"ice o5 ex"ensi0e reading in order "o coordina"e and a--lD in"ensi0elD acNuired sEillsAs"ra"egies o0er "!e larger "ex"s and mul"i-le reading sources "!a" are reNuired in all academic course >orE) <asE$Based ?anguage <eac!ing 7 <B?<8. gi0ing de"ails and -ro0iding sociocul"ural insig!"s) A/ E. "o /uild u.te di g = o@ledge of *oca)ular8 and idioms) =" -ro0ides ma"erial 5or de0elo-ing con"rol o5 "!e language.te si*e readi g =" de0elo-s a" "!e s"uden"Ys o>n -ace according "o indi0idual reading sEills) =" is selec"ed a" a lo>er le0el o5 di55icul"D "!an "!a" 5or in"ensi0e reading) Ma"erial >!ose c!oice o5 s"ruc"ure is !a/i"uallD less com-lex and >!ose 0oca/ularD range is less ex"ensi0e is selec"ed) <!e -ur-ose o5 ex"ensi0e reading is to trai t:e stude ts to read directl8 a d flue tl8 i t:e target la guage 5or enjoDmen" >i"!ou" "!e !el.Eno>ledge o5 0oca/ularD and s"ruc"ure and "o de0elo.o5 "!e "eac!er) P!ere graded "ex"s are a0aila/le.-I<. increase ac"i0e 0oca/ularD.and rein5orce >ord s"udD sEills.good reading !a/i"s.-I<$ Ma"c! "!e 5ollo>ing reading s"ra"egies "o "!eir de5ini"ions: .

ave been produced to fulfil some social purpose in t. Dou mig!" 0erD NuicElD sEim "!e s"ories "o see i5 "!eD seemed liEe some"!ing Dou >ould liEe "o read in more de"ail) C/ s"udDing minu"e de"ails and "rDing "o >ring a/solu"elD e0erD dro. concen"ra"ing on some"!ing "!a" !as "o /e "aug!" and o5"en con"aining a series o5.e language communit7@” -6eacoc0 -CDDJ1. ge"s a 5ull ans>erM $ re-e"i"ion o5 s"ruc"uresM $ 0erD o5"en does no" Uread6 >ell) <!e ar"i5icial na"ure o5 "!e language and s"ruc"ures used.o5 in5orma"ion ou" o5 a sec"ion o5 "ex") D/ "rDing "o co0er 0as" amoun"s o5 ma"erials.o0er "!e -ar"s Dou donY" Eno> and "rD "o ge" "!e general gis" o5 "!ings) ="Ys all a/ou" con"ex" and "!e /ig -ic"ure) 0/ I te si*e readi g 1/ E. songs and li"era"ure) Bne o5 "!e mos" use5ul is "!e =n"erne") P!ereas ne>s-a-ers and anD o"!er -rin"ed ma"erial da"e 0erD NuicElD. /u" jus" sEi. in con"ras" "o non$au"!en"ic "ex"s "!a" are es-eciallD designed 5or language learning -ur-oses) <!e language in non$au"!en"ic "ex"s is ar"i5icial and un0aried. maEe "!em 0erD unliEe anD"!ing "!a" "!e learner >ill encoun"er in "!e real >orld and 0erD o5"en "!eD do no" re5lec" !o> "!e language is reallD used) <!eD are use5ul 5or "eac!ing s"ruc"ures /u" are no" 0erD good 5or im-ro0ing reading sEills 75or "!e sim-le 5ac" "!a" "!eD read unna"urallD8) <!eD can /e use5ul 5or -re-aring "!e learner 5or "!e e0en"ual reading o5 Ureal6 "ex"s) <!e sources o5 au"!en"ic ma"erials "!a" can /e used in "!e classroom are in5ini"e. maga9ines. mo0ies. more 0isuallD s"imula"ing as >ell as /eing in"erac"i0e.false-te+t indicators” "!a" include: $ -er5ec"lD 5ormed sen"ences 7all "!e "ime8M $ a Nues"ion using a gramma"ical s"ruc"ure.te si*e readi g #cti*it8 1: #ut:e tic *s/ o -aut:e tic materials *u"!en"ic "ex"s !a0e /een de5ined as . /u" "!e mos" common are ne>s-a-ers. <F -rograms.2/ Sca i g A/ looEing NuicElD o0er a sec"ion o5 "ex" "o ge" a general idea o5 "!e meaning) #or exam-le.=materials t. "!ere5ore -romo"ing a more ac"i0e a--roac! "o reading ra"!er "!an a -assi0e one) Jere are some au"!en"ic "ex"$rela"ed ac"i0i"ies: • reading ads • !ouse!old i"ems • reading dri0erCs manual • reading c!ildrenCs /ooEs • reading "rucE licensing • reading 5ic"ion manual • com-le"ing 0o"er regis"ra"ion • reading /ooE on -lum/ing • cards • com-le"ing 5ood !andlerCs • reading a menu • -ermi" • reading /roc!ures • reading ins"ruc"ion manuals • reading e$mails 5or 89 . "!e =n"erne" is con"inuouslD u-da"ed.at . not 9ritten for pedagogic purposes” -/allace CDDI CE31 <!eD are "!ere5ore >ri""en 5or na"i0e s-eaEers and con"ain Ureal6language) <!eD are . i5 Dou >ere in a s!odeciding >!e"!er "o /uD a ne>s-a-er.=real-life te+ts.

• • • • • using =n"erne" searc! engines reading and >ri"ing le""ers "o 5riends reading "!e ne>s-a-er reading maga9ines reading e$mails 90 .

sEills and ex-erience $ Re@ards L "!e salarD. com-anD car. deadline.a cons"ruc"i0e a""i"ude "o>ards reading) <!e more Dou read "!e more mo"i0a"ed Dou >ill /e) _ [ee. e"c) #cti*it8 5: Tips for effecti*e readi g ) _ MaEe sure Dou are a>are o5 >!a" Dour reason 5or reading is) _ =" is al>aDs im-or"an" "o 5ocus on !o> Dou read and no" on !o> muc! Dou read _ Build u. no"ices. regula"ions./usiness le""ers."!e a/ili"D "o -ara-!rase "!e con"en"s) .<F guides.-$roup @or=/ (e0ise an ad0er"isemen" -ro0iding e)g) -osi"ion. ins"ruc"ions.re-or"s.<!e selec"ed ma"erials. mo/ile -!one. de-end on suc! 5ac"ors as: • "o-ic • "arge" language area • sEills • s"uden"s needs and in"eres"s <!e main ad0an"ages o5 using au"!en"ic ma"erials in "!e classroom "!ere5ore include: $ !a0ing a -osi"i0e e55ec" on s"uden" mo"i0a"ionM $ -ro0iding au"!en"ic cul"ural in5orma"ionM $ ex-osing s"uden"s "o real languageM $ rela"ing more closelD "o s"uden"sC needsM $ su--or"ing a more crea"i0e a--roac! "o "eac!ing) Step 1/. e"c () (irec"ories. e"c) B) <ex"/ooEs. /onus e"c) $ 'et:ods of applicatio L ins"ruc"ion !o> one s!ould a--lD ?earners >orE in -air and "rD "o iden"i5D -ar"s o5 "!e "ex" and -u" "!em in "!e correc" order Tas= 1/2$GP <!e reading -ur-ose de"ermines nearlD all "!e o"!er 5ac"ors in "!e reading -rocess including "!e c!oice o5 "!e ma"erials) Ma"c! "!e "D-e o5 "ex" >i"! i"s corres-onding ma"erials: 1) leisure "ex"s 2) ins"ruc"ional "ex"s 3) re5erence "ex"s &) 5ac"ual "ex"s *) Manuals. descri-"ion o5 "!e jo/ e"c) <!en !a0e "!e s"uden"s >ri"e do>n "!e -ar"s o5 "!e ad0er"isemen": $ T:e compa 8 L i"s name and a s!or" descri-"ion $ T:e 9o) L an indica"ion o5 "!e jo/ and main du"ies $ T:e perso L "!e Nuali5ica"ion. !olidaDs. -rice lis"s. >ill o5 course.journal ar"icles. -ersonal le""ers. "ime"a/les. ca"aloNues. address."!e dic"ionarD /eside >!en Dou s"ar" reading) =5 "!e meaning o5 a >ord is no" Eno>n looE i" uonlD i5 i" is essen"ial "o unders"and "!e -aragra-!) _ #ocus on "!e meaning o5 "!e EeD >ords) =n "!is >aD i" >ill /e easier "o unders"and and memori9e "!e ma"erial) _ Read a grea" 0arie"D o5 ma"erials) _ ?earn "o underline "!e EeD -ar"sA>ords 5or 5ur"!er re5erences) _ (e0elo. ne>s-a-er ar"icles. e"c C) o0els. maga9ines.

21 %ulD 2009 o Smit:H A)BreaEing <!roug! "o College Reading._ =5 "!e "asE reNuires i" "rans5er "!e ma"erial 5rom "!e "ex"/ooE "o "!e no"e/ooE so "!a" "!e /es" -ar" o5 "!e ma"erial is >i"! Dou)) _ <!ere are no 5ixed s"ra"egies 5or reading and "!e me"!odologD c!anges >!en Dou read "ex" /ooEs. 200' Jaco)so H E/H Dege erH S/H Purcell-$atesH 6 )*u"!en"ic Ma"erials and *c"i0i"ies for t.e*dul" ?i"eracD Classroom. 2008 o 'o e8@ort:H S)@e0en <i-s 5or 255ec"i0e Reading. 28 *-r 2005 o o 92 . Brenda @mi"!. 2003 o %ouc=8H J/P)Com/ining 2x"ensi0e and =n"ensi0e Reading s"ra"egies >i"! Coo-era"i0e and communica"i0e ac"i0i"ies. 1999) $ 255ec"i0e Reading and o"e$maEing. ne>s-a-ers. journals and more >!en Dou sur5 online con"en") _ (ailD 5ix some amoun" o5 "ime exclusi0elD 5or reading and o0er a -eriod o5 "ime i" >ill /ecome a -rac"ice) #cti*it8 6: Educatio al li =s 2x"ernal linEs "o reading -rac"ice • • • • • • • #ilm @cri-"sA<F @cri-"s 7@cri-"$o$rama8 Reading Com-re!ension 2xercises 5or all le0els #unnD e>s @"ories 7Jold "!e 5ron" -age8 (ic"ionarD o5 @lang 7<ed (ucE>or"!8 =n"erne" <2@? %ournal <eac!ing2nglis!)org)uE 2nglis!Clu/)com Refere ces 7ug:esH J)<!e reading -rocess. maga9ines.

93 .

'ODU%E 2: TKPES O( %E#R"I"$ #CTI6ITIES (OR TE#C7I"$ %ISTE"I"$ 94 .

"!ere !as /een a lacE o5 researc! in"eres" in"o lis"ening) @ome o5 "!e reasons 5or "!is lacE o5 researc! in"eres" are caused /D "!e 5ac" "!a" s-eaEing >as al>aDs considered a more S-reciousS sEill "o 5ocus on in "!e classroomM "!a" researc!ers and "eac!ers !a0e o5"en considered "!a" lis"ening >as some"!ing >!ic! could jus" /e U-icEed u-6) *l"!oug! lis"ening !as /een a rela"i0elD ignored sEill. in -ar". >!ereas a considera/le amoun" o5 researc! !as /een conduc"ed in"o reading.: Goals and "ec!niNues 5or "eac!ing lis"ening #cti*it8 2: (e0elo-ing lis"ening ac"i0i"ies #cti*it8 0: (i55eren" Einds o5 lis"ening #cti*it8 1: *u"!en"ic 0s) non$au"!en"ic ma"erials #cti*it8 5: <i-s 5or e55ec"i0e lis"ening #cti*it8 6: ?is"ening le0els 7C2#R8 #cti*it8 2: 2duca"ional linEs 4 #cti*it8 M: @am-les o5 ac"i0i"ies 5or s"uden"s O)9ecti*es • "o maEe "rainees a>are o5 di55eren" a--roac!es "o "eac!ing lis"eningM • "o -ro0ide "!em >i"! reasons 5or using a cer"ain a--roac! >!en de0elo-ing lis"ening sEillsM • "o -ro0ide resources 5or "eac!ing lis"eningM • "o ge" "eac!ers unders"and conce-"s and "!emes rela"ed "o sus"aina/le de0elo-men" and !o> "!eD rela"e "o "!e sc!ool curriculum and com-e"ences se" /D <!e Common 2uro-ean #rame>orE o5 ?anguages7C2#R8M • "o de0elo.learners de0elo. "o "!e 5ac" "!a". i" is no> /eginning "o recei0e more a""en"ion) <!ere is no> a grea"er a>areness among "eac!ers "o !el.#cti*it8 ."o "!eir o>n curriculum and "eac!ing con"ex"s and -rac"icesM • "o !el."eac!er "rainers rela"e "o 21RB+*@@ com-e"ences) <!e course also -ro0ides linEs "o numerous =n"erne" si"es in order "o -ro0ide mul"i-le -ers-ec"i0es or al"erna"i0e 0ie>-oin"s) <!ese linEs can /e used: • as ex"ra sources o5 in5orma"ionM • "o enric! cri"ical "!inEing a/ou" "!e emerging conce-"s o5 sus"aina/le de0elo-men" and educa"ion 5or a sus"aina/le 5u"ureM • as addi"ional and al"erna"i0e sources o5 -ro5essional de0elo-men"M and • "o enric! con"en" and -ro0ide in5orma"ion in non$-rin" modes 5or de0elo-ing learning #cti*it8 . and linEed PPP$si"es8M • "o a--lD "!e ideas "!eD de0elo. ra"!er "!an relD on "!e sEill de0elo-ing i"sel5) 4 1&aila)le on the +7 0ersion onlD 95 . "eac!ers and s"uden"s "o reorien" curriculum and "eac!ing so "!a" "!e learning ex-eriences o5 sc!ool s"uden"s !el.: $oals a d Tec: iFues for Teac:i g %iste i g ?is"ening !as /een -laced on a secondarD -osi"ion in "!e 2nglis! language "eac!ing classroom 5or a 0erD long "ime) <!is is due."!em mee" "!e demands o5 linguis"ic reali"ies no>adaDs and ac"i0elD -romo"e "!eir ca-aci"ies 5or "!inEing crea"i0elDM • "o -ro0ide "eac!ers and s"uden"s >i"! a model o5 com-u"eri9ed assis"ed language learning 7C*??8M • "o ge" "eac!er "rainers 5amiliar >i"! learning s"ra"egies "!a" in0i"e learners O"o analDse and in"er-re" in5orma"ion in a 0arie"D o5 5orms 7eg: "ex"."!eir lis"ening sEills.lis"ening sEills in using a >ide range o5 in"erac"i0e and learner$cen"red "eac!ing and learningM • "o ena/le "eac!er "rainers. >ri"ing and s-eaEing$researc! >!ic! !as in5luenced "!e a--roac!es "o "eac!ing language and !as also in5luenced !o> "ex"/ooEs !a0e /een >ri""en. "a/les. diagrams.

"eac!ers need "o "eac! no" onlD 2nglis!. iden"i5D rele0an" and non$rele0an" in5orma"ion. !o> "!ese >ords are s"rung "oge"!er in longer "ex"s 7discourse8 and so on) 1sing "!e language sDs"em in0ol0es !o> >e a--lD "!is Eno>ledge o5 "!e language sDs"em "o unders"and or con0eD meaning and !o> >e a--lD -ar"icular sEills "o unders"anding and con0eDing meaning) ?is"ening >as "radi"ionallD seen as a -assi0e -rocess /D >!ic! "!e lis"ener recei0es in5orma"ion sen" /D a s-eaEer) More recen" models 0ie> lis"ening as a muc! more ac"i0e and in"er-re"i0e -rocess in >!ic! "!e message is no" 5ixed /u" is crea"ed in "!e in"erac"ional s-ace /e">een -ar"ici-an"s) Meanings are s!a-ed /D con"ex" and cons"ruc"ed /D "!e lis"ener >!o interprets meaning ra"!er "!an recei0es i" in"ac") ?is"ening sEills are o5"en di0ided in"o ">o grou-s: )ottom-up and top-do@ lis"ening sEills) Bo""om u. /u" also need "o "eac! !o> i" is used) Bo"! "!e language sDs"em 7grammar and 0oca/ularD e"c)8 and "!e use o5 "!e language sDs"em. e0en i5 "!eD do no" !a0e com-le"e con"rol o5 "!e grammar or a ric! 0oca/ularD. !o> "!ese >ords are said in connec"ed s"reams 7-!onologD8. "o language in-u") =" in0ol0es "!e lis"enerYs a/ili"D "o /ring an"erior in5orma"ion "o rela"e "o "!e "asE o5 unders"anding "!e S!eardS language) 2xam-les o5 suc! sEills are: • • • • • • • • • discrimina"ing /e">een emo"ions ge""ing "!e gis" recogni9ing "!e "o-ic using discourse s"ruc"ure "o en!ance lis"ening s"ra"egies iden"i5Ding "!e s-eaEer e0alua"ing "!emes 5inding "!e main idea 5inding su--or"ing de"ails maEing in5erences 96 .sEills are sEills >!ic! !el. >!ic! means "!e lis"eners >orE ou" "!e unders"anding o5 "!e U!eard6 language 5rom sounds "o >ords "o gramma"ical rela"ions!i-s in lexical meanings) 2xam-les o5 suc! sEills are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • discrimina"ing /e">een in"ona"ion ou"lines in sen"ences discrimina"ing /e">een -!onemes lis"ening 5or >ord endings recogni9ing sDlla/le -a""erns /eing a>are o5 sen"ence 5illers in in5ormal s-eec! recogni9ing >ords. discrimina"e /e">een >ord /oundaries -icEing ou" de"ails di55eren"ia"ing /e">een con"en" and 5unc"ion >ords /D s"ress -a""ern 5inding "!e s"ressed sDlla/le recogni9ing >ords >i"! >eaE or cen"ral 0o>els recogni9ing >!en sDlla/les or >ords are dro--ed recogni9ing >ords >!en "!eD are linEed "oge"!er in s"reams o5 s-eec! using 5ea"ures o5 s"ress. in"ona"ion and -rominence "o !el. "!is means -roducing s"uden"s >!o can use lis"ening s"ra"egies "o maximi9e "!eir com-re!ension o5 aural in-u". !o> "!ese >ords are -ro-erlD -u" in order 7sDn"ax or grammar8.iden"i5D im-or"an" in5orma"ion <o-$do>n sEills re5er "o "!e a""ri/u"ion o5 meaning. in "!is case lis"ening) Bur Eno>ledge o5 "!e language sDs"em includes our Eno>ledge o5 >ords. 7"!e sEills o5 language use8 need "o /e "aug!") <!e -ro/lem >i"! mos" lis"ening classes is "!a" "!eD seem "o 5ocus on "!e language sDs"em) <oo manD classes concen"ra"e on "eac!ing "!is and miss "!e sEills o5 language.<eac!ers >an" "o -roduce s"uden"s >!o. can manage on "!eir o>n in communica"ion si"ua"ions) =n "!e case o5 lis"ening.in decoding. dra>n 5rom oneYs o>n >orld Eno>ledge. and "olera"e less "!an >ord$/D$>ord com-re!ension) P!en lis"ening is "aug!".

and -eriodicallD re0ie> !o> and >!en "o use -ar"icular s"ra"egies) <!eD encourage "!e de0elo-men" o5 lis"ening sEills and "!e use o5 lis"ening s"ra"egies /D using "!e "arge" language "o conduc" classroom /usiness: maEing announcemen"s. during. "!eD s!o> s"uden"s "!e s"ra"egies "!a" >ill >orE /es" 5or "!e lis"ening -ur-ose and "!e "D-e o5 "ex") <!eD ex-lain !o> and >!D s"uden"s s!ould use "!e s"ra"egies) <!eD !a0e s"uden"s -rac"ice lis"ening s"ra"egies in class and asE "!em "o -rac"ice ou"side o5 class in "!eir lis"ening assignmen"s) <!eD encourage s"uden"s "o /e conscious o5 >!a" "!eDYre doing >!ile "!eD com-le"e lis"ening "a-e assignmen"s) <!eD encourage s"uden"s "o e0alua"e "!eir com-re!ension and "!eir s"ra"egD use immedia"elD a5"er com-le"ing an assignmen") <!eD /uild com-re!ension c!ecEs in"o in$class and ou"$o5$class lis"ening assignmen"s. descri/ing "!e con"en" and 5orma" o5 "es"s) <!eD do no" assume "!a" s"uden"s >ill "rans5er s"ra"egD use 5rom one "asE "o ano"!er) <!eD ex-lici"lD men"ion !o> a -ar"icular s"ra"egD can /e used in a di55eren" "D-e o5 lis"ening "asE or >i"! ano"!er sEill) • • BD raising s"uden"sY a>areness o5 lis"ening as a sEill "!a" reNuires ac"i0e engagemen"./o"! "!e a/ili"D and "!e con5idence "o !andle communica"ion si"ua"ions "!eD maD encoun"er /eDond "!e classroom) =n "!is >aD "!eD gi0e "!eir s"uden"s "!e 5ounda"ion 5or communica"i0e com-e"ence in "!e ne> language) A/ I tegrati g 'etacog iti*e Strategies =ns"ruc"ion in lis"ening s"ra"egies is an in"egral -ar" o5 "!e use o5 lis"ening ac"i0i"ies in "!e language classroom) <eac!ers can !el."!eir s"uden"s /ecome e55ec"i0e lis"eners /D "eac!ing "!em !o> "o use s"ra"egies /e5ore. and /D ex-lici"lD "eac!ing lis"ening s"ra"egies.• unders"anding organi9ing -rinci-als o5 ex"ended s-eec! #/ T:e %iste i g Process <o accom-lis! "!is goal. assigning !ome>orE.-redic"ions and c!ecE 5or inaccura"e guessesM 97 ."!eir s"uden"s de0elo. ins"ruc"ors !el. "eac!ers 5ocus on "!e -rocess o5 lis"ening ra"!er "!an on i"s -roduc") • • • • • • <!eD de0elo.s"uden"sY a>areness o5 "!e lis"ening -rocess and lis"ening s"ra"egies /D asEing s"uden"s "o "!inE and "alE a/ou" !o> "!eD lis"en in "!eir na"i0e language) <!eD allo> s"uden"s "o -rac"ice "!e 5ull re-er"oire o5 lis"ening s"ra"egies /D using au"!en"ic lis"ening "asEs) <!eD /e!a0e as au"!en"ic lis"eners /D res-onding "o s"uden" communica"ion as a lis"ener ra"!er "!an as a "eac!er) P!en >orEing >i"! lis"ening "asEs in class.do>n or 5rom "!e /o""om u-) +re-are Dour s"uden"s /D in"roducing "!e "o-ic and 5inding ou" >!a" "!eD alreadD Eno> a/ou" i") * good >aD "o do "!is is "o !a0e a /rains"orming session and some discussion Nues"ions rela"ed "o "!e "o-ic) <!en -ro0ide anD necessarD /acEground in5orma"ion and ne> 0oca/ularD "!eD >ill need 5or "!e lis"ening ac"i0i"D) (uringA >!ile and a5"erA-os" lis"ening: 'o itor compre:e sio • C!ecE u. and a5"er lis"ening) Be5ore or -re$lis"ening: Pla for t:e liste i g tas= • • • @e" a -ur-ose or decide in ad0ance >!a" "o lis"en 5orM (ecide i5 more linguis"ic or /acEground Eno>ledge is neededM (e"ermine >!e"!er "o en"er "!e "ex" 5rom "!e "o.

dic"a"ion. in"ona"ion. s-eed. and 0oca/ularD) <eac!ers maD need "o ex-lain reduc"ions 7liEe YgonnaY 5or Ygoing "oY8 and 5illers 7liEe YumY or Yu!$!u!Y8) Recordi g Kour O@ Tape *no"!er idea 5or "!e "eac!ers >ould /e "o >ri"e a--ro-ria"e "ex" 7or use some"!ing 5rom "!e "ex"/ooE8 and read i" on"o "a-e) <!eD could co-D "!e recording "!ree "imes so "!eD donY" need "o re>ind) <!e "ex" s!ould no" sim-lD /e read "!ree "imes.• • • (ecide >!a" is and is no" im-or"an" "o unders"andM ?is"enA0ie> again "o c!ecE com-re!ensionM *sE 5or !el-) Be s-eci5ic a/ou" >!a" s"uden"s need "o lis"en 5or) <!eD can lis"en 5or selec"i0e de"ails or general con"en". or a >orEs!ee" "o com-le"e) • • • • • C/ Usi g #ut:e tic 'aterials a d #pproac:es T:e Commo Europea (rame@or= of %a guages laDs s"ress on "!e im-or"ance o5 au"!en"ic lis"ening ma"erials >!ic! con"ain in"eres"ing "o-ics rela"ed "o "!e s"uden"sg e0erDdaD li5e) <!ere are 98 . e"c) and "rD "o >ri"e do>n >!a" "!eD !eard) <!eD could also /e "old "!e "ele-!one num/er o5 a cinema and asEed "o >ri"e do>n "!e -laDing "imes o5 a s-eci5ic mo0ie) Gi0e "!em a "a-e recording o5 Doursel5 >i"! Nues"ions. /us s"a"ions. or 5or an emo"ional "one suc! as !a--D.maEe lis"ening ac"i0i"ies success5ul) • • "oise (is"rac"ions and noise during "!e lis"ening segmen" need "o /e reduced) <eac!ers maD need "o close doors or >indo>s or asE c!ildren in "!e room "o /e Nuie" 5or a 5e> minu"es) EFuipme t <eac!ers s!ould c!ecE "!e Nuali"D o5 "!e sound 7>!ic! s!ould /e acce-"a/le8 i5 a casse""e -laDer is used) * coun"er on "!e mac!ine >ill aid "remendouslD in cueing u. no" jus" "!e >ords) 6ideo <eac!ers can -laD a 0ideo cli. sur-rised."a-es) 2x"ra /a""eries or an ex"ension cord need "o /e /roug!" also) Repetitio <eac!ers s!ould read or -laD "!e "ex" a "o"al o5 2$3 "imes and "ell s"uden"s in ad0ance "!eD >ill re-ea" i") <!is >ill reduce "!eir anxie"D a/ou" no" ca"c!ing i" all "!e 5irs" "ime) <!eD can also /e asEed "o lis"en 5or di55eren" in5orma"ion eac! "ime "!roug!) Co te t 1nless "!e lis"ening "ex" is merelD a lis" o5 i"ems. "ell "!em a!ead o5 "ime >!a" >ill /e reNuired a5"er>ard) *5"erA-os" lis"ening: E*aluate compre:e sio a d strateg8 use • • • • 20alua"e com-re!ension in a -ar"icular "asE or areaM 20alua"e o0erall -rogress in lis"ening and in -ar"icular "D-es o5 lis"ening "asEsM (ecide i5 "!e s"ra"egies used >ere a--ro-ria"e 5or "!e -ur-ose and 5or "!e "asEM C!ange s"ra"egies i5 necessarD) <!e 5ollo>ing ideas >ill !el. or angrD) =5 "!eD are no" marEing ans>ers or o"!er>ise res-onding >!ile lis"ening. su-ermarEe"s. and -ace. and s!o> "!e 0ideo a5"er s"uden"s !a0e guessed >!a" is going on) 7ome@or= <eac!ers can gi0e s"uden"s a lis"ening "asE "o do /e">een classes and encourage "!em "o lis"en "o -u/lic announcemen"s in air-or"s. /ecause s"uden"s >an" "o !ear exac" re-e"i"ion o5 "!e -ronuncia"ion.>i"! "!e sound o55 and asE s"uden"s "o maEe -redic"ions a/ou" >!a" dialog is "aEing -lace) <!en -laD i" again >i"! sound and discuss >!D "!eD >ere rig!" or >rong in "!eir -redic"ions) <!eD can also -laD "!e sound >i"!ou" "!e 0ideo 5irs". "eac!ers >ill "alE a/ou" "!e con"en" as >ell as s-eci5ic language used) <!e ma"erial s!ould /e in"eres"ing and a--ro-ria"e 5or "!e class le0el in "o-ic.

no" -ar" o5 i")6 Step . "!e lis"ener 5ocuses on "!e s-eaEerYs meaning ra"!er "!an "!e s-eaEerYs language) <!e 5ocus s!i5"s "o language onlD >!en meaning is no" clear) Step . /u" also "o "!e 5eeling o5 >!a" is /eing con0eDed.$ +)o-'ay 4ommunication =n au"!en"ic ">o$>aD communica"ion. a""en"i0elD. 5 i di*idual @or= ./2 5 group @or= (e0ise a -re$lis"ening ac"i0i"D 5or "!e 5ollo>ing audio "ex": !""-:AA>>>)//c)co)uEA>orldser0iceAlearningenglis!AradioAs-ecialsA1128TlondonTli5eA-age3')s!"ml Source of t:e picture: :ttp:GG@@@/marlamallett/comG@issa@as2/:tm +apestry TR#"SCRIPTU 2 a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD 99 .s"uden"s ou"line -redic"a/le seNuences in >!ic! in5orma"ion maD /e -resen"ed: >!o$ >!a"$>!en$>!ere 7ne>s s"ories8M >!o$5lig!" num/er$arri0ingAde-ar"ing$ga"e num/er 7air-or" announcemen"s8M S5or h5unc"ioni.s"uden"s iden"i5D "!e lis"ening goal: "o o/"ain s-eci5ic in5orma"ionM "o decide >!e"!er "o con"inue lis"eningM "o unders"and mos" or all o5 "!e message) Jel. com-le"elD.lis"ening ac"i0i"ies suc! as: %iste i g for gistH %iste i g for detailed u dersta di gH %iste i g for specific i formatio / @"uden"sg unders"anding o5 audio ma"erials s!ould go /eDond /eing a/le "o c!oose i"ems o5 5ac"ual in5orma"ion: "!eD s!ould /e a/le "o dis"inguis! /e">een main idea and !idden -oin"s. "o "!e >!ole o5 i". s"ores8 @-eec!es and lec"ures <ele-!one cus"omer ser0ice recordings +rocedure: • • • Jel.Commen" on "!e 5ollo>ing6 U@o >!en Dou are lis"ening "o some/odD.s"uden"s iden"i5D EeD >ordsA-!rases "o lis"en 5or) . /e">een "!e main idea o5 an audio "ex" and s-eci5ic de"ailM "!eD are reNuired "o deduce meaning and lexical re5erence and "o discrimina"e /e">een "rue or 5alse ideas rela"ed "o "!e audio ma"erial) *u"!en"ic ma"erials and si"ua"ions -re-are s"uden"s 5or "!e "D-es o5 lis"ening "!eD >ill need "o do >!en using "!e language ou"side "!e classroom) A$ !ne-'ay 4ommunication Ma"erials: • • • • Radio and "ele0ision -rogrammes +u/lic address announcemen"s 7air-or"s. "!en Dou are lis"ening no" onlD "o "!e >ords. -ress hnum/eriS 7"ele-!one recordings8) Jel./. "rainA/us s"a"ions.

s"uden"s =den"i5ica"ion: Recogni9ing or discrimina"ing s-eci5ic as-ec"s o5 "!e message./0 5 pair @or= $ @aD >!a" Eind o5 au"!en"ic ma"erials "!e 5ollo>ing ones areM are "!e "asEs au"!en"ic.tuali. /u" /e care5ul no" "o o0er/urden "!e a""en"ion o5 /eginning or in"ermedia"e lis"eners) Recogni9ing "!e goal7s8 o5 lis"ening com-re!ension selec" a--ro-ria"e lis"ening s"ra"egies) • • • in eac! lis"ening si"ua"ion >ill !el.7one >aD8 or exc!anging name and address in5orma"ion 7">o >aD8) *" an in"ermedia"e le0el s"uden"s could 5ollo> direc"ions 5or assem/ling some"!ing 7one >aD8 or >orE in -airs "o crea"e a s"orD "o "ell "o "!e res" o5 "!e class 7">o >aD8) A/ Defi e t:e acti*it8Ns i structio al goal a d t8pe of respo se 3 a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD 2ac! ac"i0i"D s!ould !a0e as i"s goal "!e im-ro0emen" o5 one or more s-eci5ic lis"ening sEills) * lis"ening ac"i0i"D maD !a0e more "!an one goal or ou"come. !anding ou" "!e assignmen" and sending s"uden"s a>aD "o do i") * 5ullD$de0elo-ed lis"ening ac"i0i"D su--or"s s"uden"s as lis"eners "!roug! pre-liste i gH @:ile-liste i gH a d post-liste i g acti*ities/ P!en designing lis"ening "asEs. mor-!ological dis"inc"ions Brien"a"ion: (e"ermining "!e major 5ac"s a/ou" a message. se""ing Main idea com-re!ension: =den"i5Ding "!e !ig!er$order ideas 100 . "ooW TR#"SCRIPTV C!""-:AA>>>)esl$la/)comAair-or"Aair-or"rd1)!"m D ?is"en and com-le"e "!e sen"ences) 1) 2) 3) &) <!e announcemen" is 5or "!e TTTTTTTTTTTTTo5 5lig!" 1' 5or Caracas) <!ere !as /een a c!ange o5 "!e TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTga"e) <!e cold >ea"!er >as "!e cause o5 "!e de-ar"ureTTTTTTTTTTT) <!e air com-anD is o55ering com-limen"arD round$"ri.ed tas= Con"ex"uali9ed lis"ening ac"i0i"ies a--roxima"e real$li5e "asEs and gi0e "!e lis"ener an idea o5 "!e "D-e o5 in5orma"ion "o ex-ec" and >!a" "o do >i"! i" in ad0ance o5 "!e ac"ual lis"ening) * /eginning le0el "asE >ould /e loca"ing -laces on a ma.TTTTTTTTTTTT "o some o5 "!e -assengers) <!eD s!ould s"ar" TTTTTTTTTTTTa/ou" a Nuar"er "o "!e !our) 5) #cti*it8 2: De*elopi g %iste i g #cti*ities (e0elo-ing lis"ening ac"i0i"ies in0ol0es more "!an iden"i5Ding a lis"ening "ex" "!a" is Sa" "!e rig!" le0el. "eac!ers s!ould Eee.in mind "!a" com-le"e recall o5 all "!e in5orma"ion in an aural "ex" is an unrealis"ic ex-ec"a"ion "o >!ic! e0en na"i0e s-eaEers are no" usuallD !eld) ?is"ening exercises "!a" are mean" "o "rain s!ould /e success$orien"ed and /uild us"uden"sY con5idence in "!eir lis"ening a/ili"D) #/ Co struct t:e liste i g acti*it8 arou d a co te.S >ri"ing a se" o5 com-re!ension Nues"ions 5or s"uden"s "o ans>er a5"er lis"ening.Step . suc! as "o-ic. suc! as sounds. ca"egories o5 >ords. "ex" "D-e.

e interpretation of 9. sim-le messages easier "o -rocess. and "!e -ur-ose7s8 5or >!ic! "!eD >ill /e lis"ening -ro0ide o--or"uni"ies 5or grou. or instruction conform to familiar e+pectations? <ex"s in >!ic! "!e e0en"s are -resen"ed in na"ural c!ronological order.e te+t offer visual support to aid in t.t <!e 5ac"ors lis"ed /elo> can !el. "!e more marEed "!e di55erences.at t. /u" s"uden"s >i"! !ig!er -ro5iciencD /ene5i" 5rom "!e na"ural redundancD o5 "!e language) E@ Does t. ma-s.e topic? Remem/er "!a" misa--lica"ion o5 /acEground Eno>ledge due "o cul"ural di55erences can crea"e major com-re!ension di55icul"ies) K@ Does t.• • (e"ail com-re!ension: =den"i5Ding su--or"ing de"ails Re-lica"ion: Re-roducing "!e message orallD or in >ri"ing C/ C:ec= t:e le*el of difficult8 of t:e liste i g te. diagrams. >!ic! !a0e an in5orma"i0e "i"le. -ic"ures.e listeners .e te+t involve multiple individuals and ob*ects? 8re t. lis"eners maD 5ind s!or". "!e role "!eD >ill -laD. or "!e images in a 0ideo !el.con"ex"uali9e "!e lis"ening in-u" and -ro0ide clues "o meaning) D/ Use pre-liste i g acti*ities to prepare stude ts for @:at t:e8 are goi g to :ear or *ie@ <!e mos" im-or"an" "!ing in "!is s"age is "o -ro0ide su55icien" con"ex" "o ma"c! >!a" >ould /e a0aila/le in real li5e and "o crea"e mo"i0a"ion) <!is can /e reali9ed /D !el-ing learners /ecome conscious o5 "!e -ur-ose o5 "!e u-coming lis"ening in-u") <eac!ers s!ould !el. and >!ic! -resen" "!e in5orma"ion 5ollo>ing an o/0ious organi9a"ion 7main ideas 5irs". and i" is e0en easier i5 "!eD are o5 "!e o--osi"e sex) =n o"!er >ords.ear? Fisual aids suc! as ma-s.e information organized? Does t. or gra-!s 101 . narrative. de"ails and exam-les second8 are easier "o 5ollo>) I@ >o9 familiar are t. diagrams. t.e stor7 line.e7 clearl7 differentiated? =" is easier "o unders"and a "ex" >i"! a doc"or and a -a"ien" "!an one >i"! ">o doc"ors. >!ere learners canno" ex-ec" "o !a0e unEno>n >ords ex-lained in ad0ance) <!e ac"i0i"ies c!osen during -re$lis"ening maD ser0e as -re-ara"ion 5or lis"ening in se0eral >aDs) (uring -re$lis"ening "!e "eac!er maD • • • • • assess s"uden"sY /acEground Eno>ledge o5 "!e "o-ic and linguis"ic con"en" o5 "!e "ex" -ro0ide s"uden"s >i"! "!e /acEground Eno>ledge necessarD 5or "!eir com-re!ension o5 "!e lis"ening -assage or ac"i0a"e "!e exis"ing Eno>ledge "!a" "!e s"uden"s -ossess clari5D anD cul"ural in5orma"ion >!ic! maD /e necessarD "o com-re!end "!e -assage maEe s"uden"s a>are o5 "!e "D-e o5 "ex" "!eD >ill /e lis"ening "o.e students 9it.Dou judge "!e rela"i0e ease or di55icul"D o5 a lis"ening "ex" 5or a -ar"icular -ur-ose and a -ar"icular grou.lis"eners narro> do>n "!eir a""en"ion 5or "!e u-coming in-u" and 5ocus "!eir a""en"ion on "!e rele0an" -ar" so as "o lessen "!e load o5 lis"ening) <!is s"age s!ould /e res"ric"ed "o a 5e> minu"es) 2xcessi0e discussion o5 "!e "o-ic maD mean "!a" "oo muc! o5 "!e con"en" o5 "!e lis"ening "ex" !as /een an"ici-a"ed) =" maD onlD /e necessarD 5or "!e "eac!er "o -resen" ">o or "!ree EeD >ords >i"!ou" >!ic! unders"anding o5 "!e "ex" >ould /e im-ossi/le) <!is >ill ma"c! real li5e si"ua"ion. "!e easier "!e com-re!ension) 3@ Does t.or colla/ora"i0e >orE and 5or /acEground reading or class discussion ac"i0i"ies 2xam-les o5 -re$lis"ening ac"i0i"ies: • looEing a" -ic"ures.e te+t contain redundanc7? *" "!e lo>er le0els o5 -ro5iciencD.o5 s"uden"s) C@ >o9 is t.

• • • • • • • • • • • re0ie>ing 0oca/ularD or gramma"ical s"ruc"ures reading some"!ing rele0an"$ -ro0ide Eno>ledge in-u" "o /uild con5idence 5or dealing >i"! lis"ening /D gi0ing a rela"ed "o read. t. e"c) cons"ruc"ing seman"ic >e/s 7a gra-!ic arrangemen" o5 conce-"s or >ords s!o>ing !o> "!eD are rela"ed8 ac"i0a"ing curren" Eno>ledge$ >!a" do Dou Eno> a/ou"cW: o"!er Nues"ions liEe: >!ere are "!eDW P!a" are "!eDW P!a" -ro/lems do "!eD 5aceW P!D are "!eD im-or"an"W. e"c) -redic"ing "!e con"en" o5 "!e lis"ening "ex" going o0er "!e direc"ions or ins"ruc"ions 5or "!e ac"i0i"D doing guided -rac"ice /rains"orming discussing "!e "o-ic o5 "!e lis"ening "ex" -re$"eac!ingA learning 0oca/ularD$ selec" some 0oca/ularD 5or "!e s"uden"s "o s"udD /e5ore lis"ening c!ecEingA unders"anding "!e lis"ening "asEsM gi0e s"uden"s -len"D o5 "ime "o read and unders"and "!e main lis"ening com-re!ension "asEs E/ 'atc: @:ile-liste i g acti*ities to t:e i structio al goalH t:e liste i g purposeH a d stude tsN proficie c8 le*el P!ile$lis"ening is no" onlD a s"age "o encourage lis"eners "o demons"ra"e "!eir com-re!ension and "o maEe "!eir -ro/lems -lain "o "!e "eac!er ra"!er "!an !ide "!em. and se""ing >i"! selec"i0e lis"ening ac"i0i"ies "!a" 5ocus on de"ails o5 con"en" and 5orm) E@ Nse <uestions to focus studentsF attention on t.ole@ Be5ore "!e lis"ening ac"i0i"D /egins. "o-ic. a Nui9. it before listening@ @"uden"s need "o de0o"e all "!eir a""en"ion "o "!e lis"ening "asE) Be sure "!eD unders"and "!e ins"ruc"ions 5or "!e >ri""en "asE /e5ore lis"ening /egins so "!a" "!eD are no" dis"rac"ed /D "!e need "o 5igure ou" >!a" "o do) I@ Leep 9riting to a minimum during listening@ Remem/er "!a" "!e -rimarD goal is com-re!ension.at t. "!e "asE can /e more demanding) K@ Mrganize activities so t.e elements of t.eir compre.ension of t. /u" also a s"age 5or "eac!ers "o "eac! and !el. allo9 t.roug.ension as t. no" -roduc"ion) Ja0ing "o >ri"e >!ile lis"ening maD dis"rac" s"uden"s 5rom "!is -rimarD goal) =5 a >ri""en res-onse is "o /e gi0en a5"er lis"ening. !a0e s"uden"s re0ie> Nues"ions "!eD >ill ans>er orallD or in >ri"ing a5"er lis"ening) ?is"ening 5or "!e ans>ers >ill !el.learners /uild u.e te+t crucial to compre."!eir lis"ening sEills and s"ra"egies so as "o increase lis"enersC c!ances o5 success in lis"ening "asEs) P!ile$lis"ening ac"i0i"ies rela"e direc"lD "o "!e "ex".e 9.em to read t."!ese -oin"s in mind >!en -lanning >!ile$lis"ening ac"i0i"ies: C@ :f students are to complete a 9ritten tas0 during or immediatel7 after listening.e te+t ) Com/ine glo/al ac"i0i"ies suc! as ge""ing "!e main idea.s"uden"s recogni9e "!e crucial -ar"s o5 "!e message) 3@ Nse predicting to encourage students to monitor t.e7 guide listeners t. and remind s"uden"s "o re0ie> >!a" "!eD are !earing "o see i5 i" maEes sense in "!e con"ex" o5 "!eir -rior Eno>ledge and >!a" "!eD alreadD Eno> o5 "!e "o-ic or e0en"s o5 "!e -assage) 4@ #ive immediate feedbac0 9.enever possible@ 2ncourage s"uden"s "o examine !o> or >!D "!eir res-onses >ere incorrec") 2xam-les o5 >!ile$lis"ening ac"i0i"ies: 102 .e7 listen@ (o a -redic"ing ac"i0i"D /e5ore lis"ening.roug. and s"uden"s do "!em during or immedia"elD a5"er "!e "ime "!eD are lis"ening) [ee.

ma-s. -lans e"c) 5ollo>ing a rou"e on a ma"icEing o55 i"ems in a lis" lis"ening 5or "!e gis" searc!ing 5or s-eci5ic clues "o meaning com-le"ing 5ill$in exercises discrimina"ing /e">een 5ormal and in5ormal regis"ers ma"c!ing de"ec"ing di55erences or mis"aEes 5rom a lis"ening -assageM s"uden"s res-ond onlD >!en "!eD encoun"er some"!ing di55eren" or con"rarD "o >!a" "!eD alreadD Ene> a/ou" "!e "o-ic or "!e s-eaEers selec"ing o/eDing ins"ruc"ionsM >!ere s"uden"s are gi0en cer"ain ins"ruc"ions and s!o> "!eir unders"anding /D a -!Dsical res-onse 7"!eD dra>.learners "o co-e >i"! "!eir -ro/lems "!eD come across in "!e -rocess o5 lis"ening) (/ Use post-liste i g acti*ities as a mea s of rei forci g *c"i0i"ies suc! as -ro/lem sol0ing. simula"ions. underline. encourage "!em "o disagree >i"! eac! o"!er. drama"i9a"ion e"c) as a 5ollo>$uexerciseM • asEing s"uden"s "!oug!"$-ro0oEing Nues"ions "o encourage discussionM • se""ing s"uden"s "o >orE in -airs "o crea"e dialogues /ased on "!e lis"ening "ex"M 103 . role$-laDs. "!e "eac!er can asE s"uden"s "o -ro0ide e0idence "o su--or" "!eir 0ie>s) =n "!is >aD lis"ening /ecomes a muc! more in"erac"i0e ac"i0i"D) *" "!e end o5 "!e s"age. "!e "eac!er can -laD "!e >!ile "ex" again and asE "!e s"uden"s "o com-are "!eir unders"anding o5 i" in -airs or in grou-s. >e "aEe -os"$ lis"ening as a means o5 rein5orcing recen"lD learned ma"erial) =5 necessarD. in"er0ie>s. "asE$/ased exercises can encourage s"uden"s "o use di55eren" Einds o5 lis"ening sEills and s"ra"egies "o ac!ie0e unders"anding in an ac"i0e >aD) <asE$/ased ac"i0i"ies o5 "!is Eind re5lec" muc! more closelD "!e "D-e o5 res-onse "!a" mig!" /e gi0en "o a lis"ening ex-erience in real li5e) <!eD also -ro0ide a more relia/le >aD o5 c!ecEing unders"anding and "!e "asE o5 5illing 5orms. discussions. mo0e e"c)8 seNuencingM >!ere s"uden"s are asEed "o gi0e "!e rig!" order o5 a series o5 -ic"ures in5orma"ion searc!M "!a" is lis"ening 5or s-eci5ic i"ems. s"uden"s can re0ise "!eir 0ie>s) =ns"ead o5 "elling "!em >!o is rig!" and >!o is >rong. si". >alE. la/elling diagrams on maEing c!oices o/lige e0erD learner "o "rD "o maEe some"!ing o5 >!a" "!eD are !earing) *5"er>ards "eac!ers s!ould -ro0ide necessarD clues suc! as con"ex"ual in5orma"ion o5 "!e s-eaEers o5 "!e rela"ions!i. "icE.discussion and >ri"ing as 5ollo>$u. or ma"c!ing "!e -ic"ures >i"! "!e descri-"ions !eard) P!ile$lis"ening s!ould /e a s"age a" >!ic! lis"ening is accom-anied /D care5ullD designed ac"i0i"ies and ex-erience "!e -leasure o5 success) <asE$/ased ac"i0i"ies are encouraged. lis"s.are necessarD) =ns"ead o5 s-ending "ime examining "!e grammar o5 "!e lis"ening "ex". >!ere s"uden"s !a0e "o 5ill grids. suc! as "!ose men"ioned a/o0e) ?earners are reNuired "o 5inis! some "asEs >i"! "!e in5orma"ion "!eD !a0e ex"rac"ed 5rom "!e "ex") Com-ared >i"! "radi"ional mul"i-le c!oice Nues"ions. e)g) ans>er a -ar"icular Nues"ion 5rom "!e -re$lis"ening s"age c!oosing "!e /es" ans>er 5or eac! Nues"ion 5rom "!e 5our o-"ions ma"c!ing "!e i"ems >!ic! !a0e "!e same or o--osi"e meaning as "!ose "!e s"uden"s !ear. and increase "!eir mo"i0a"ion 5or a second lis"ening) *5"er -laDing "!e "ex" 5or "!e second "ime.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • lis"ening >i"! 0isuals in5orma"ion "rans5er. grou. 5orms.among s-eaEers e"c "o !el. and ne>lD "aug!" sEills and s"ra"egies >ill /e rein5orced /D encouraging learners "o a--lD "!em in "!eir ou"$o5$class lis"ening -rac"ice) 2xam-les o5 -os"$lis"ening ac"i0i"ies: • discussing s"uden"sC reac"ions "o "!e con"en" o5 "!e lis"ening selec"ion) @-eaEing in a 5orm o5 de/a"es. >ri"e. summari9ing. "eac!ers s!ould maEe sure "!a" necessarD 5eed/acE "o learnersC -er5ormance is o55ered and recei0ed) ?earnersC -ro/lems are summari9ed and deal" >i"! /D re0ie>ing "!e di55icul" -ar"s.

-5D are true CTD or false C(D/ ./ (uring "!e 5irs" daD "!e "ouris"s >en" "o <aranaEi #alls)TTTTTTT 2) (uring "!e second daD "!eD clim/ed u.• ans>ering mul"i-le$c!oice or "rueA5alse Nues"ions "o s!o> com-re!ension o5 messagesM • -ro/lem sol0ing ac"i0i"ies during >!ic! s"uden"s !ear all "!e in5orma"ion rele0an" "o a -ar"icular -ro/lem and "!en "rD "o sol0e i" /D "!emsel0esM • summari9ing."o lis"ening ac"i0i"ies) Step 2/. 5 pair @or=$ !""-:AA>>>)englis!clu/)com @elec" a -re$lis"ening ac"i0i"D 5or a lis"ening "ex" on Step 2/2 5 group @or=."o a -lace >i"! a 0ie> o5 Moun" <aranaEi) TTTTTT 3) <!e 2merald ?aEes >ere called so /ecause "!eD once !ad emeralds a" "!e /o""om)TTTTTT &) <!e "!ird daD "!e "ouris"s >en" "!roug! a 5ores")TTTTTTTT 104 .:ttp:GGimages/sc:olastic/co/u= 8 II/ %iste to t:is audio diar8 a d decide @:ic: of t:e stateme ts C. "o descri/e a lis"ening exercise during >!ic! di55eren" grou-s o5 s"uden"s lis"en "o di55eren" /u" connec"ed -assages and "!en "!e grou-s exc!ange in5orma"ion in order "o com-le"e a s"orD "o -er5orm a cer"ain "asEM • >ri"ing le""ers. "elegrams. messages e"c) as a 5ollo>$u. -os"cards.?ooE a" "!e seNuences o5 "!is lis"ening ac"i0i"DM consider ano"!er lis"ening "ex" 5rom "!e educa"ional linEs and se" "!e "asEs 5or eac! seNuence) "e@ !eala d. s"uden"s are gi0en se0eral -ossi/le summarD sen"ences and are asEed "o saD >!ic! o5 "!em 5i" a recording) @ummari9ing can also /e done /D ela/ora"ing "!e no"es made /D s"uden"s "!emsel0es during "!e >!ile$lis"ening ac"i0i"iesM • jigsa> lis"ening.$reat @al=s C!""-:AAmarDglasgo>-lus)com D I/ %oo= at t:e map/ 'a=e a predictio )8 mar=i g t:e route t:e tourists @ill :a*e/ 7@ource o5 "!e ma.

e denied all 0no9ledge of t. >as /uil" as a -lace o5 res" 5or los" "ouris"s) TTTTT III/ %iste for @ords @it: t:e same mea i g as t:e follo@i g: 1) -anoramaTTTTTTTTT 2) >oodsTTTTTTTTTTT 3) c!ale" TTTTTTTTTTT &) region TTTTTTTTTTT 5) carriages TTTTTTTTTTT 6) s"ar"edTTTTTTTTTTT ') -a"! TTTTTTTTTT I6/ # s@er t:e Fuestio s: 1)P!a" is "!e leisure ac"i0i"D descri/ed in "!e audio diarDW 2)Pould Dou go on a "ri.e=?1 or re-!rasing and seeing i5 "!e s-eaEer con5irms "!e re-!rasing 7Oou mean s. "!en "eac!ers s!ould re$-laD i" ">o$"!ree "imes. re-ea"ing u.e didnAt li0e t. !ard disE or memorD s"icE >!en "!eD >an" "o "eac! lis"ening) *ccording "o %eremD Jarmer. /ecause eac! lis"ening >ill !el.te si*e *s/ i te si*e #/ I te si*e liste i g is >!en s"uden"s lis"en "o a "ex" L usuallD on "a-e or a C( L and discuss de"ailed as-ec"s o5 meaning as >ell as s"udDing language and "ex" cons"ruc"ion.e affair1 7#ield 2000: 3&8 *no"!er ad0an"age is "!a" s"uden"s can saD i5 "!e s-eaEer is going "o slo>lD or "oo 5as") 2xam-les o5 Vli0eC lis"ening: 5 a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD 105 ."o "!e -oin" >!ere communica"ion /reaEdo>n occurred. e0en "!oug! "!ese recordings are some"imes onlD >ri""en dialogues and ex"rac"s 5rom -laDs) • *udio ma"erials are -or"a/le and easilD a0aila/le) <eac!ers can -laD recorded "racEs in class direc"lD 5rom com-u"ers 7ei"!er s"and alone or on a sc!ool ne">orE8 Disad*a tages • *udi/ili"D o5 audio "ex"s in /ig classrooms >i"! -oor acous"ics o5"en causes concern) o" all s"uden"s in "!e classroom can !ear eNuallD >ell) • @uc! an ac"i0i"D$ si""ing around and lis"ening "o a "a-e recorder or C( -laDer$is no" na"ural) =5 s"uden"s are "o ge" "!e maximum /ene5i" 5rom a lis"ening.similar "o "!e one descri/ed in "!e audio diarDW P!D 7no"8W 3)Pould Dou acce-" a jo/ as a "our guide in a moun"ainous areaW P!D 7no"8W &)P!D do Dou "!inE -eo-le go "o "!e moun"ainsW TR#"SCRIPT 5 #cti*it8 0: Differe t =i ds of liste i g -e. suc! as using 5ormulaic ex-ressions 7(orr7? /. "!e -lace "!eD reac!ed on "!e 5our"! daD./ Usi g audio material <eac!ers usuallD use audio ma"erials on a C(. t.e said s.s"uden"s unders"and more "!an "!eD did -re0iouslD) 2/ W%i*eB liste i g <!is "D-e o5 lis"ening is a -o-ular >aD o5 ensuring real communica"ion. "a-e. >!ere "!e "eac!er andAor 0isi"ors "o "!e class "alE "o "!e s"uden"s) <!is -ro0ides lis"ening -rac"ice in 5ace$"o$5ace in"erac"ion and allo>s s"uden"s "o -rac"ice lis"ening Vre-airC s"ra"egies.at 9as t.5) Pai!o!onu Ju". usuallD under "!e "eac!erYs guidance) .e didnAt 0no9 an7t. as 5ollo>s: #d*a tages • Recordings con"ain a >ide 0arie"D o5 0oices and si"ua"ions.ing? i5 "!e s-eaEer saDs some"!ing liEe (.at 1 . using a rising in"ona"ion 7 (.at? : didnAt <uite catc. "!is U!a/i"6 !as ad0an"ages and disad0an"ages.

5ill in re-or" 5orms. "!eD >ill 5eel "!eD !a0e con"ri/u"ed "o "!e -rogress o5 "!e >!ole grou-) Bo"! in"ensi0e and ex"ensi0e lis"ening are necessarD "o -re-are s"uden"s 5or "!e "asE and "ex"s "!eD encoun"er in college) =n"ensi0e lis"ening >i"! a 5ocus on sEillsAs"ra"egies ins"ruc"ion !as /een s!o>n "o Dield -osi"i0e e55ec"s on second language lis"ening) *" "!e same "ime. -re-ared in ad0ance /D "!e "eac!ers. si"es and asE s"uden"s "o "alE a/ou" "!e ones "!eD enjoDed "!e mos") =n order "o encourage ex"ensi0e lis"ening s"uden"s can /e asEed "o do 0arious "asEs) <!eD can record "!eir ans>ers "o >!a" "!eD !a0e lis"ened in a -ersonal journal."!e Nues"ions) <eac!ers could /e "!e su/jec" o5 "!e in"er0ie>s or !a0e o"!er -ersonsA s"rangers 0isi" "!e class and ge" in"er0ie>ed) <o maEe "!e >!ole in"er0ie> more in"eres"ing "eac!ers could "aEe on a di55eren" -ersona) 0/ T:e roles of t:e teac:er i i te si*e liste i g <eac!ers need "o mo"i0a"e and engage s"uden"s "!roug! "!e >aD "!eD se" u. "!en "eac!ers !a0e "o -aD a""en"ion "o "!e s"uden"s$!o> easilD "!eD can unders"and "!em L and adjus" "!e >aD "!eD s-eaE according "o "!e si"ua"ion) (eed)ac= orga iser: once "!e lis"ening "asEs are com-le"ed /D s"uden"s . and >!ic! s"uden"s o5"en lis"en "o 5or -leasure) 2x"ensi0e lis"ening ma"erial is o5"en sourced 5rom -odcas"s. asEing "!em "o lis" "!e main ideaA"o-ic. res-onses on large class lis"ening -os"ers e"c) *ll "!ese "asEs !a0e "!e -ur-ose o5 mo"i0a"ing s"uden"s "o lis"en more) =5 "!eD can s!are "!eir in5orma"ion >i"! o"!er colleagues.• • • Readi g aloud: "!e "eac!er reads aloud "o "!e class) <!e s"uden"s !ear a clear s-oEen 0ersion o5 a >ri""en "ex" and can /e enjoDa/le i5 "!e "eac!er reads >i"! con0ic"ion and ex-ression) <!is also a--lies in "!e case o5 reading or ac"ing ou" dialogues) Stor8-telli g: s"ories . "eac!ers s!ould gi0e 5eed/acE on >!a" "!eD !a0e com-le"ed) <!is could /e done in di55eren" >aDs: /D !a0ing "!e s"uden"s com-are "!eir ans>ers in -airs and "!en asE 5or ans>ers 5rom "!e class. le0el o5 di55icul"D and >ri"e a s!or" summarD o5 "!e con"en"s o5 "!e recording) <!eD can also /e asEed "o >ri"e commen"s on cards or a s"uden" >e/si"e. "eac!ers encourage s"uden"s "o c!oose 5or "!emsel0es >!a" "!eD >an" "o lis"en "o and "o do so 5or -leasure and general language im-ro0emen") <!is ac"i0i"D >ill "aEe -lace ou"side "!e classroom and >ill increase s"uden"sC mo"i0a"ion "o lis"en /ecause "!eD can c!oose >!a" "!eD >an" "o lis"en) <eac!ers can recommend cer"ain C(s.te si*e liste i g is audio ma"erial >!ic! is longer "!an a "D-ical classroom lis"ening "ex". -ro0ide excellen" lis"ening ma"erial) @"uden"s can /e asEed "o -redic" >!a" is coming nex". 2nglis! language /roadcas"s online e"c) Pi"! "!is "D-e o5 lis"ening."!eir con5idence /D !el-ing "!em "o lis"en /e""er and no" "o "es" "!eir lis"ening a/ili"ies )<!eD also need "o de"ec" "!e di55icul"ies s"uden"s mig!" !a0e and -ro0ide su--or" and solu"ions "o "!em) • • Orga iser: <eac!ers !a0e "o "ell s"uden"s >!a" "!eD are lis"ening 5or 7"!e -ur-ose8 and gi0e clear ins"ruc"ions) <!eD !a0e "o gi0e "asEs "!a" can /e ac!ie0ed as >ell as com-re!ensi/le audio "ex"s "o lis"en) 'ac:i e operator: "eac!er !a0e "o /e e55icien" >!en using "!e "a-e recorder. "eac!ers need "o "es" "!e recording ou" /e5ore "aEing i" in"o class so "!a" no" "o >as"e "ime) =5 li0e lis"ening is in0ol0ed. in "!is case "old /D "eac!ers. 5or exam-le) Prompter: "eac!ers can -rom-" "!em "o lis"en "o "!e audio "ex" again >i"! "!e -ur-ose o5 no"icing a 0arie"D o5 language and s-oEen 5ea"ures) 7%eremD Jarmer8 • • A/ E. C( or (F() <o Eno> "!is. >!ic! >ill increase language com-e"ence I ter*ie@s: mo"i0a"e s"uden"s. es-eciallD i5 "!e s"uden"s "!emsel0es "!inE u. s"uden"s need "o -rac"ise ex"ensi0e lis"ening in order "o coordina"e and a--lD in"ensi0elD acNuired sEillsAs"ra"egies o0er "!e larger audio "ex"s and mul"i-le lis"ening sources "!a" are reNuired in all academic course >orE) 106 . "o descri/e -eo-le in "!e s"orD or re$"ell "!e s"orD . -odcas"s.lis"ening "asEs) <!eD also need "o /uild u. elec"ronic /ooEs. C( -laDer e"c) <!is means Eno>ing >!ere "!e 5ragmen" "!eD >an" "o use on "!e "a-e.

Step 0/.-5D i t:e te. 5 pair @or= *re "!ese ">o "asEs 7* and B8 rela"ed "o in"ensi0e or ex"ensi0e lis"eningW P!DW*) ?is"en and commen" on "!e 5ollo>ing -odcas" : :ttp:GGacupofe glis:/li)s8 /com # Cougar i To@ TR#"SCRIPT #or more -odcas"s $ :ttp:GGacupofe glis:/li)s8 /com A/ I/ Pre-liste i g: <:at do 8ou = o@ a)out Scotla dO <:ere is it situatedO <:at la guage do people spea= t:ereO II/ %iste a d matc: t:e pictures C#-ED to t:e @ords C.t: # I teresti g Cou tr8 TR#"SCRIPT6 C@@@/mar8glasgo@plus/com D 5 a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD 6 a&aila)le on the +7 &e!#ion only @ources o5 "!e -!o"os:* !""-:AA>>>)lindacli55ord)comM !""-:AAc!ris"c!urc!ci"Dli/raries)com C) !""-:AAas"ai/una)5iles)>ord-ress)com M !""-:AA0)"Nn)com M 2) !""-:AAc!icagois")com B) () 5 *) B) C) () 2) 1$/ag-i-e 2$ !aggis 3$Eil" &$U<reasure =sland6 5$?oc! ess Mons"er III/ Decide @:ic: of t:e follo@i g se te ces are trueCTD or false C(D/ 107 .

and 5ilms) Bne o5 "!e mos" use5ul is "!e =n"erne") P!ereas ne>s-a-ers and o"!er ma"erials da"e 0erD NuicElD. ins"ruc"ion on a "a-e or C( D/ "rDing "o guess EeD in5orma"ion con"ained in "!e recording /e5ore lis"ening E/ lis"ening 5or -ar"icular in5orma"ion a" >ord le0el. s-eec!. more 0isuallD s"imula"ing as >ell as in"erac"i0e) Jere are some exam-les o5 au"!en"ic lis"ening ma"erials: • radioA <F commercials • Nui9 s!o>s • car"oons • ne>s 108 . <F and radio /roadcas".1) Ro/er" Burns >as a @co""is! -oe" >!o !as !is o>n cele/ra"ion in @co"land)TTTTT 2) Bag-i-es are -laDed onlD a" 5unerals)TTTTT 3) @co""is! -eo-le donC" !a0e anD "radi"ional 5ood) TTTTT &) <!e in0en"or o5 "!e "ele-!one >as @co""is!) TTTTT 5) @imon lo0es "!e "radi"ional @co""is! dance) TTTTT I6/ # s@er t:e Fuestio s: 1) Pould Dou 0isi" @co"landW P!D 7no"8W 2) P!a" do Dou "!inE a/ou" "!e na"ional @co""is! cos"umeW P!a"Cs Dour o-inion a/ou" men >earing "!ese Eil"s >!ic! looE liEe sEir"sW 3) (o Dou "!inE "!ereCs reallD a mons"er in ?oc! essW Gi0e argumen"s ) &) P!a" >ould Dou liEe "o ex-erience i5 Dou go "o @co"land 75rom "!e "!ings men"ioned in "!e lis"ening 5ragmen"8W Step 0/2 5 pair @or=$ Ma"c! "!e 5ollo>ing lis"ening sEills "o "!eir de5ini"ions: . eg) lis"ening "o a con0ersa"ion. dailD con0ersa"ions. eg) lis"ening "o a -odcas" or an e$ /ooE) RarelD accom-anied /D "asEs) C/ lis"ening "o a "ex" 5ollo>ed /D com-le"ing "asEs suc! as >ri"ing de"ailed as-ec"s o5 meaning as >ell as s"udDing language and "ex" cons"ruc"ion. o5"en 5or -leasure. "!ere are a large amoun" o5 au"!en"ic ma"erials in our li5e suc! as ne>s-a-er and maga9ine ar"icles. /u" 5or "!e s-eaEers o5 "!e language in Nues"ion) unan 71989 : 5&8 "!inEs "!a" an au"!en"ic ma"erial anD ma"erial >!ic! !as no" /een s-eci5icallD -roduced 5or "!e -ur-oses o5 language "eac!ing) @o au"!en"ic ma"erials re-resen" real languageM -roduced 5or "!e na"i0e s-eaEersM designed >i"!ou" "!e "eac!ing -ur-oses) =n "!is sense. "!e =n"erne" is con"inuouslD u-da"ed. mee"ings./ %iste i g for specific i formatio #/ lis"ening >i"! "!e -ur-ose o5 iden"i5Ding "!e o0erall ideas ex-ressed in "!e >!ole recording) A/ 5airlD NuicE and -er!a-s casual lis"ening o5 a "ex". documen"s. -roduced /D a real s-eaEer or >ri"er 5or a real audience and designed "o carrD a real message o5 some sor")6719'':138 Jarmer 71983 : 1&68 saDs "!a" au"!en"ic "ex"s 7ei"!er >ri""en or s-oEen8 are "!ose >!ic! are designed 5or na"i0e s-eaEers: <!eD are real "ex" designed no" 5or language s"uden"s. 5or exam-le lis"ening 5or "!e de-ar"ure "ime o5 a -lane in an air-or" announcemen" e"c) B5"en 5ollo>ed /D "!e >ri"ing do>n "!e in5orma"ion) 2/ Predicti g 0/ %iste i g for gist 1/ E.te si*e liste i g 5/ I te si*e liste i g #cti*it8 1: #ut:e tic *s/ o -aut:e tic materials <!e no"ion o5 au"!en"ici"D !as /een muc! discussed) Marro> de5ined i" as Ua s"re"c! o5 real language. usuallD under "!e "eac!erYs guidance.

o-eras • radio -rogrammes • songs • documen"aries • sales -i"c!es • >ea"!er 5orecas"s • -u/lic announcemen"s =n li"era"ure. s"uden"s "end "o 5ocus more on con"en" and meaning ra"!er "!an "!e language i"sel5) <!is o55ers s"uden"s a 0alua/le source o5 language in-u". colors. and ena/le "!em maEe "!e im-or"an" connec"ions /e">een "!e classroom >orld and "!e >orld /eDond i") <!e main ad0an"ages o5 using au"!en"ic ma"erials in "!e classroom are: $ !a0ing a -osi"i0e e55ec" on s"uden" mo"i0a"ion 109 . and con0ersa"ions e"c) <!e selec"ed ma"erials >ill. >!en s"uden"s use au"!en"ic ma"erials 5or "!e s"udD o5 cul"ure in "!e language classroom) Brosnan e" al) 7198&8 jus"i5D "!e im-or"ance o5 "!e use o5 au"!en"ic language in "!e classroom in "!is >aD: 1) ?anguage is na"ural) BD sim-li5Ding language or al"ering i" 5or "eac!ing -ur-oses 7limi"ing s"ruc"ures. sDm/ols./e">een "!e language classroom and "!e ou"side >orld) Ge/!ard 719968 sees au"!en"ic ma"erials as a >aD "o Ucon"ex"uali9e6 language learning) P!en lessons are cen"ered on com-re!ending a menu or a <F >ea"!er re-or". lec"ures. con"rolling 0oca/ularD. !e maEes a -oin" "!a" Ulearners s!ould /e 5ed as ric! a die" o5 au"!en"ic da"a as -ossi/le.• comedD s!o>s • mo0ies • soa. de-end on suc! 5ac"ors as: • "o-ic • "arge" language area • sEills • s"uden"s needs and in"eres"s 1sing au"!en"ic ma"erials !as se0eral ad0an"ages) *ccording "o Brin"on 719918. /e remo0ing clues "o meaning) 2) *u"!en"ic language o55ers s"uden"s "!e c!ance "o deal >i"! a small amoun" o5 ma"erial >!ic!. au"!en"ic ma"erials and media can rein5orce 5or s"uden"s "!e direc" rela"ions!i. -!rases liEe Ureal s-eec!6 U"!e s-on"aneous s-eec!6 Uli0e or na"ural language6 Ugenuine ins"anced o5 language use6 Una"ural con0ersa"ion6 U>!a" -eo-le saD in real li5e6 U>!a" na"i0e s-eaEers saD >!en "alEing "o eac! o"!er6 !a0e /een used "o de5ine au"!en"ic lis"ening ma"erial) * sui"a/le de5ini"ion s!ould /e "!a" au"!en"ic lis"ening ma"erials is unscri-"ed. "!e -!Dsical se""ing in >!ic! i" occurs8 "o !el. con"ains com-le"e and meaning5ul messages) 3) *u"!en"ic -rin"ed ma"erials -ro0ide s"uden"s >i"! "!e o--or"uni"D "o maEe use o5 non$linguis"ic clues 7laDou". >e risE maEing "!e "asE more di55icul") Pe maD. Mel0in and @"ou" 7198'8 claim "!a" suc! ma"erials increase s"uden"sC mo"i0a"ion "o learn. and real$li5e ma"erial "rea"ed realis"icallD maEes "!e connec"ion o/0ious) P!ile unan 71999:2'8 reali9es "!a" i" is no" realis"ic 5or "eac!ers "o use onlD au"!en"ic ma"erials in "!e classroom. /ecause. in 5ac". ul"ima"elD. e"c)8. so "!a" "!eD are no" /eing ex-osed onlD "o "!e language -resen"ed /D "!e "ex" and "!e "eac!er) =n addi"ion."!em disco0er "!e meaning more easilD) &) *dul"s need "o /e a/le "o see "!e immedia"e rele0ance o5 >!a" "!eD do in "!e classroom "o >!a" "!eD need "o do ou"side i". o5 course. suc! as in"er0ie>s. -ic"ures. i5 "!eD onlD encoun"er con"ri0ed dialogues and lis"ening "ex"s. a" "!e same "ime. na"ural and s-on"aneous s-oEen language ma"erials. discussions. dialogues. "!eir learning "asE >ould /e made more di55icul"6) Je con"inues on "!is "o-ic /D saDing "!a" i" is im-or"an" "!a" learners lis"en "o au"!en"ic ma"erial o5 as manD di55eren" Einds as -ossi/le) <!is >ill !elmo"i0a"e "!e s"uden"s /D /ringing "!e con"en" and "!e su/jec" ma""er "o li5e 5or "!em. as >ell as in"eres" in "!e su/jec" ma""er.

$roup @or= .(esign a -os"er 5or ad0er"ising a radio -rogramme on >>>)//c)co)uE. a radio commercial 7B8 and a con0ersa"ion /e">een 5i0e -ersons 7C8 and ex-lain >!a" "!e ad0an"ages and disad0an"ages o5 using au"!en"ic and non$au"!en"ic ma"erials can /e: #/ (ill i t:e ta)le @it: t:e correct i formatio : # @eat:er forecast !""-:AA>ea"!er)go0Al>xA-odcas"sAW5eed^PBC@*# P2 6 TR#"SCRIPT Part of t:e da8 <eat:er do@ to@ *#<2R BB 2F2 = GA =GJ< su)ur)s )ot: A/ %iste to t:e radio commercial a d ma=e a poster )ased o it/ Radio commercial @@@/ orma )/ et TR#"SCRIPT 6 7 a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD 110 . "!e name o5 "!e !os"A in"er0ie>ed -eo-le and o"!er rele0an" -ieces o5 in5orma"ion <!en asE Dour s"uden"s "o lis"en "o i" and >orE in -airs "o 5ill in "!e missing in5orma"ion) Step 1/2 5 i di*idual @or= .ac"i0i"iesM _ adjus"ing "!e leng"! o5 "!e ma"erialsM _ sim-li5Ding or ex-laining EeD language elemen"sM _ con0er"ing au"!en"ic ma"erials in"o a 0arie"D o5 exercise "D-es) ?earners /ene5i" 5rom lis"ening ma"erials s-oEen a" Unormal6 con0ersa"ional s-eed 0s) 2nglis! language learner direc"ed lis"ening ma"erials >!ic! !a0e /een Ual"ered6 or Uslo>ed6 "o ena/le Uim-ro0ed com-re!ension6) *u"!en"ic language 0ideos. C(s. "!eD s!ouldnC" s"o.$ -ro0iding au"!en"ic cul"ural in5orma"ion $ ex-osing s"uden"s "o real language $ rela"ing more closelD "o s"uden"sC needs $ su--or"ing a more crea"i0e a--roac! "o "eac!ing) @ome disad0an"ages o5 using au"!en"ic ma"erials are: $ unsui"a/le ma"erial le0el $"oo di55icul" $"oo long or s!or" $ use o5 grammar or language $irrele0ancD o5 "!emes $ no" ada-"ed 5or s-eci5ic use $ no" ada-"ed "o s"uden" learning s"Dles P!ile "!ese reasons are cer"ainlD -resen" and accoun"a/le. .?is"en "o "!e 5ollo>ing audio ma"erials: a >ea"!er 5orecas" 7*8. ne>scas"s and radio -rograms can -ro0ide in0alua/le insig!" in"o curren" e0en"s and cul"ural as-ec"s o5 2nglis!$s-eaEing coun"ries 5or language "eac!ers and learners in o"!er -ar"s o5 "!e >orld) * /ene5i" o5 recorded ma"erial is "!e a/ili"D "o /e a/le "o re>ind and re-ea" i" as manD "imes as necessarD in order "o unders"and "!e lis"ening "ex"s) Step 1/."!e use o5 au"!en"ic ma"erials in "!e 2nglis! language learning classroom) *u"!en"ic ma"erials can /e success5ullD incor-ora"ed in"o an 2nglis! language "eac!ing curriculum or course o5 s"udD) @ome EeDs "o success5ul ada-"a"ion o5 au"!en"ic ma"erials include: _ con0er"ing "!em in"o >orEs!o. /u" lea0e ou" "!e "o-ic.

"!oug! !eAs!e maD need "o con5irm occasional de"ails. -ro0ided s-eec! is clearlD ar"icula"ed in a generallD 5amiliar accen") 8 a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD 111 . on /o"! 5amiliar and un5amiliar "o-ics normallD encoun"ered in -ersonal. 5or exam-le /D asEing 5ollo>$u. iden"i5Ding /o"! general messages and s-eci5ic de"ails. es-eciallD i5 "!e accen" is un5amiliar) Can recognise a >ide range o5 idioma"ic ex-ressions and colloNuialisms. /u" "o s!o> "!a" Dou unders"and >!a" "!eD are "elling Dou) =" is also a >aD "o clari5D miscommunica"ion /e5ore i" ge"s "oo 5ar alongM @!o> res-ec" "o "!e s-eaEer /D mee"ing "!em on "!eir ground) =n "erms o5 2@? learners "!is means roug!$"uning Dour language "o "!eir le0el and gi0ing 0alidi"D "o "!eir ideas des-i"e a lacE o5 linguis"ic a/ili"D) <!is is es-eciallD im-or"an" >!en >orEing >i"! adul" language learners) <!eD !a0e 5ullD 5ormed and com-lica"ed ideas. inadeNua"e discourse s"ruc"ure andAor idioma"ic usage in5luences "!e a/ili"D "o unders"and) Can unders"and "!e main ideas o5 -ro-osi"ionallD and linguis"icallD com-lex s-eec! on /o"! concre"e and a/s"rac" "o-ics deli0ered in a s"andard dialec". no" deli0erD errorsM ?e" "!e s-eaEer 5inis! /e5ore Dou gi0e a 5inal res-onse or assessmen") • • • #cti*it8 6: %iste i g le*els O6ER#%% %ISTE"I"$ CO'PRE7E"SIO" CCE(D C.Nues"ions or noddingM (emons"ra"e Dou unders"and /D res"a"ing "!eir main idea) <!is is no" "o -ro0e Dou are lis"ening. including "ec!nical discussions in !isA!er 5ield o5 s-ecialisa"ion) Can 5ollo> ex"ended s-eec! and com-lex lines o5 argumen" -ro0ided "!e "o-ic is reasona/lD 5amiliar.C/ %iste a d t:e a s@er t:e Fuestio s: (ood C@@@/mar8glasgo@plus/com D ! TR#"SCRIPT 1) Can Dou name some"!ing !eal"!D and some"!ing un!eal"!D @o-!ie a"e or dranEW 2) P!D does RDan "!inE sc!ool 5ood is /oring in Dour o-inionW 3) P!a" does %acE saD a/ou" sc!ool 5oodW &) P!a" are "!e names o5 "!e "eenagers >!o a--recia"e "!eir mo"!erCs cooEing more "!an "!e sc!oolCsW 5) (id @allD ea" a !eal"!D mealW P!DW #cti*it8 5: Tips for effecti*e liste i g • • • • +aD a""en"ion "o >!a" "!e s-eaEer is saDing /D -u""ing a !old on all o"!er ac"i0i"ies) MaEe an ac"i0e e55or" "o 5ig!" dis"rac"ion and concen"ra"e on Dour s-eaEerM @!o> com-re!ension and in"eres" /D res-onding 0er/allD or non$0er/allD. Can unders"and s"raig!"5or>ard 5ac"ual in5orma"ion a/ou" common e0erDdaD or jo/ rela"ed "o-ics. Can unders"and enoug! "o 5ollo> ex"ended s-eec! on a/s"rac" and com-lex "o-ics /eDond !isA!er o>n 5ield. social. li0e or /roadcas". and "!e direc"ion o5 "!e "alE is sign$-os"ed /D ex-lici" marEers) A. "one. /u" are o5"en 5rus"ra"ed /D "!eir lacE o5 a/ili"D "o communica"e "!ese >i"! "!e same eloNuence "!eD are a/le "o in "!eir o>n languageM 1se a--roxima"elD "!e same le0el o5 0er/al communica"ion in "erms o5 0olume. a--recia"ing regis"er s!i5"s) Can 5ollo> ex"ended s-eec! e0en >!en i" is no" clearlD s"ruc"ured and >!en rela"ions!i-s are onlD im-lied and no" signalled ex-lici"lD) A2 Can unders"and s"andard s-oEen language. e"cM #ocus on con"en". emo"ional range. academic or 0oca"ional li5e) BnlD ex"reme /acEground noise.

Can 5ollo> mos" lec"ures.discussion and de/a"e. -ro0ided s-eec! is clearlD ar"icula"ed in s"andard dialec") #2 Can generallD iden"i5D "!e "o-ic o5 discussion around !imA!er. Can 5ollo> s-eec! >!ic! is 0erD slo> and care5ullD ar"icula"ed. audi/lD dis"or"ed -u/lic announcemen"s. /D 5oo" or -u/lic "rans-or") #. s-eci5ica"ions 5or 5amiliar -roduc"s and ser0ices) A2 Can unders"and announcemen"s and messages on concre"e and a/s"rac" "o-ics s-oEen in s"andard dialec" a" normal s-eed) A. >!en i" is conduc"ed slo>lD and clearlD) %ISTE"I"$ #S # 'E'AER O( # %I6E #UDIE"CE C. leisure e"c). sim-le direc"ions) 112 . suc! as o-era"ing ins"ruc"ions 5or e0erDdaD eNui-men") Can 5ollo> de"ailed direc"ions) #2 Can ca"c! "!e main -oin" in s!or". sc!ool. e)g) in a s"a"ion. -ro0ided "!e su/jec" ma""er is 5amiliar and "!e -resen"a"ion s"raig!"5or>ard and clearlD s"ruc"ured) A. Can generallD 5ollo> "!e main -oin"s o5 ex"ended discussion around !imA!er. Can 5ollo> in ou"line s"raig!"5or>ard s!or" "alEs on 5amiliar "o-ics -ro0ided "!ese are deli0ered in clearlD ar"icula"ed s"andard s-eec!) %ISTE"I"$ TO #""OU"CE'E"TS #"D I"STRUCTIO"S C. /u" maD 5ind i" di55icul" "o -ar"ici-a"e e55ec"i0elD in discussion >i"! se0eral na"i0e s-eaEers >!o do no" modi5D "!eir language in anD >aD) A. suc! as o-era"ing ins"ruc"ions. "alEs and re-or"s and o"!er 5orms o5 academicA-ro5essional -resen"a"ion >!ic! are -ro-osi"ionallD and linguis"icallD com-lex) Can 5ollo> a lec"ure or "alE >i"!in !isA!er o>n 5ield.u. local geogra-!D.Can unders"and "!e main -oin"s o5 clear s"andard s-eec! on 5amiliar ma""ers regularlD encoun"ered in >orE. including s!or" narra"i0es) #2 Can unders"and enoug! "o /e a/le "o mee" needs o5 a concre"e "D-e -ro0ided s-eec! is clearlD and slo>lD ar"icula"ed) Can unders"and -!rases and ex-ressions rela"ed "o areas o5 mos" immedia"e -riori"D 7e)g) 0erD /asic -ersonal and 5amilD in5orma"ion. com-lex un5amiliar "o-ics) A2 Can Eee. >i"! long -auses 5or !imA!er "o assimila"e meaning) U"DERST#"DI"$ CO"6ERS#TIO" AET<EE" "#TI6E SPE#LERS C. Can unders"and sim-le "ec!nical in5orma"ion. clear. Can easilD 5ollo> com-lex in"erac"ions /e">een "!ird -ar"ies in grou. discussions and de/a"es >i"! rela"i0e ease) A2 Can 5ollo> "!e essen"ials o5 lec"ures. e0en on a/s"rac". Can unders"and ins"ruc"ions addressed care5ullD and slo>lD "o !imA!er and 5ollo> s!or".>i"! an anima"ed con0ersa"ion /e">een na"i0e s-eaEers) Can >i"! some e55or" ca"c! muc! o5 >!a" is said around !imA!er. em-loDmen"8 -ro0ided s-eec! is clearlD and slo>lD ar"icula"ed) #. sim-le messages and announcemen"s) Can unders"and sim-le direc"ions rela"ing "o !o> "o ge" 5rom ] "o X. s-or"s s"adium e"c) Can unders"and com-lex "ec!nical in5orma"ion. Can ex"rac" s-eci5ic in5orma"ion 5rom -oor Nuali"D. s!o--ing.

36 718. 3'$&'. 8ut. 8ut. 2008) :ttp:GG@@@/ clrc/org !""-:AA>>>)ones"o-englis!)com !""-:AA>>>)esl/ase)com >>>)marDglasgo>-lus)com !""-:AA/usD"eac!er)org @imon @>eeneD.e $lassroom on >>>)jrc)so-!ia)ac)j?indsaD Miller.(e0elo-ing ?is"ening @Eills ===. 1981 8) PorterH D/ a d Ro)ertsH J) *u"!en"ic lis"ening ac"i0i"ies) =n M) ?) ?ong 7ed)8 Me"!odolog Din <2@B?) Ro>leD.1996 &) 7armerHJ)$ <!e +rac"ice o5 2nglis! ?anguage <eac!ing$ +earson ?ongman.<aDlor \ #rancis e$?i/rarD. Bos"on: Jeinle and Jeinle +u/lis!ers.entic Haterials on !""-:AA-eo)cam/ridge)org Gail [) Bura .2008 3) $e):ardH J/$) <eac!ing 2nglis! as a #oreign ?anguage: * <eac!er @el5$(e0elo-men" and Me"!odologD Guide) *nn *r/or: <!e 1ni0ersi"D o5 Mic!igan +ress. %8) ?is"ening in "!e ?anguage Classroom) Cam/ridge : Cam/ridge 1ni0ersi"D +ress. 198' 9) Scri*e erHJ)$ ?earning <eac!ing$ Macmillan 10) UrH P)$ * Course in ?anguage <eac!ing. Developing 'istening (0ills 9it. Mass): e>/urD Jouse.entic Haterials o !""-:AA>>>)el"!illside)com 255ec"i0e ?is"ening *c"i0i"ies 5or 2@? @"uden"s o :ttp:GG@@@/articles)ase/com =/"esam *l *mriH 'istening strategies used b7 language learner on !""-:AAs>e/)sNu)edu)om >>>)esl$la/)com !""-:AA>>>)elllo)org !""-:AA>>>)esl5as")com !""-:AA>>>)//c)co)uEA>orldser0iceAlearningenglis! !""-:AA>>>)5minu"eenglis!)com 2nglis!Clu/)com !""-:AA>>>)englis!mediala/)comAlis"ening)!"ml !""-:AAacu-o5englis!)li/sDn)com !""-:AA/reaEingne>senglis!)com !""-:AAe5lclassroom)ning)com 113 . Cam/ridge 1ni0ersi"D +ress. ') PorterH D/ a d Ro)ertsH J)) *u"!en"ic lis"ening ac"i0i"ies) 2nglis! ?anguage <eac!ing %ournal.#cti*it8 2: Educatio al li =s 2x"ernal linEs "o lis"ening -rac"ice • • • • • • • • • • Refere ces 1) Ari to H D/') <eac!ing 2nglis! as a @econd or #oreign ?anguage.5ased Haterials 5ringing t. %ona"!an e>"on <eac!ing 2#?A2@? ?is"ening and @-eaEing 2@? \ *--lied ?inguis"ics +ro5essional @eries .1998 $ @)+) a"ion. 8ut.1991 2) #ield.e &eal /orld :nto t. 5our"! edi"ion 5) %eo HP/. 2<2C@ =C+ * 6) "u a H D)) @econd ?anguage <eac!ing and ?earning) Bos"on: Jeinle and Jeinle +u/lis!ers1999.entic !as0.

'istening s0ills guide on !""-:AA>>>)ones"o-englis!)com =m-ro0ing "!e <eac!ing o5 ?is"ening o @@@/5.e Nse of 8ut.an introduction and practical guideline on >>>)"imes-ace)dE Miles Cra0en .entic Haterials? .article on !""-:AA>>>)esl/ase)comAar"iclesAau"!en"ic$ma"erials$2 114 . %i ?ing9!u and K!ang XuanDuan on !""-:AA>>>)!l"mag)co)uE !ips on %ffective 'istening !""-:AA>>>)uni"e5l)com Nse 8ut.2riE C!ris"ensenH :ntensive 'istening.ing %F' 'istening .s:are/ et <eac!ing ?is"ening Be""er: =s ?is"ening /eing "aug!" as >ell as i" could /eW$ ar"icle on :ttp:GG@@@/a)a./co/9p <eac!ing ?is"ening on :ttp:GG@riti g/colostate/edu !.entic Haterials in !eac.

'ODU%E M .OR#% PRODUCTIO" 115 .

4. 3. -) 138) <odaDYs >orld reNuires "!a" "!e goal o5 "eac!ing s-eaEing s!ould im-ro0e s"uden"sY communica"i0e sEills. >!ic! is called as 5luencD) 7 unan. "a/les. 1998. 6. audience. and linEed PPP$si"es8M "o rein5orce "!e im-or"ance o5 gi0ing 5eed/acE L!o> and >!en$M "o -ro0ide resources 5or "eac!ing s-eaEing) #cti*it8 ./2 CP#IR <ORLD: CO'PO"E"TS = @<R1C<=B @ 9 a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD 10 a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD 116 ./. 20038 STEP .: WTeac:i g spea=i gB: $oals @-eaEing is S"!e -rocess o5 /uilding and s!aring meaning "!roug! "!e use o5 0er/al and non$0er/al sDm/ols. 2. 5.#cti*it8 . diagrams."raineesC lesson -lanning com-e"ence in oral -roduc"ion "eac!ingM "o maEe "rainees 5amiliar >i"! learning s"ra"egies in0ol0ing analD9ing. CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: RE(%ECTIO" O" "OR'#% PR#CTICE = @<R1C<=B @ 1) Jo> muc! do Dour s"uden"s s-eaE in classW 2) Jo> do Dou -re-are s-eaEing ac"i0i"ies in classW 3) P!a" ma"erials do Dou useW &) P!a" -ar"icular -ro/lems do Dour s"uden"s !a0eW 5) =n >!a" >aDs do Dou encourage real communica"ion "o "aEe -lace in Dour lessonsW STEP . onlD in "!a" >aD. in a 0arie"D o5 con"ex"sS 7C!aneD. V"eac!ing s-eaEingC is "o "eac! s"uden"s "o: 1. in"ona"ion -a""erns and "!e r!D"!m o5 "!e second languageM selec" a--ro-ria"e >ords and sen"ences according "o "!e -ro-er social se""ing. si"ua"ion and su/jec" ma""erM organi9e "!eir "!oug!"s in a meaning5ul and logical seNuenceM use language as a means o5 ex-ressing 0alues and judgmen"sM use "!e language NuicElD and con5iden"lD >i"! 5e> unna"ural -auses. /ecause. in"er-re"ing and con0eDing in5orma"ion in a 0arie"D o5 5orms 7"ex"s.: <eac!ing s-eaEing: Goals #cti*it8 2: *--roac!es "o "eac!ing s-eaEing #cti*it8 0: *c"i0i"ies "o -romo"e s-eaEing #cti*it8 1: =deas 5or -lanning s-eaEing ac"i0i"ies #cti*it8 5: Correc"ion and Gi0ing #eed/acE 9 #cti*it8 6: @am-les o5 class ac"i0i"ies #cti*it8 2: 20alua"ion 10 O)9ecti*es • • • • • • "o maEe "rainees a>are o5 di55eren" a--roac!es "o "eac!ing s-eaEingM "o -ro0ide "!em >i"! reasons 5or using a /alanced ac"i0i"ies a--roac! >!en dealing >i"! "eac!ing s-eaEing sEillsM "o de0elo. -roduce "!e 2nglis! s-eec! sounds and sound -a""ernsM use >ord and sen"ence s"ress. s"uden"s can ex-ress "!emsel0es and learn !o> "o 5ollo> "!e social and cul"ural rules a--ro-ria"e in eac! communica"i0e circums"ance) <!ere5ore.

sc!ool scri-"s. memorD 5or "D-ical e-isodes "!a" occur in s-eci5ic si"ua"ions) Bur Eno>ledge o5 den"is"Cs scri-"s. grammar. "!e a--lied linguis"s Canale and @>ain -u/lis!ed an in5luen"ial ar"icle in >!ic! "!eD de5ined communicative competence as a glo/al com-e"ence "!a" su/sumed 5our se-ara"e /u" rela"ed com-e"encies: • • • • gramma"ical 7a/ili"D "o crea"e gramma"icallD correc" u""erances8 sociolinguis"ic 7a/ili"D "o -roduce sociolinguis"icallD a--ro-ria"e u""erances8 discourse 7a/ili"D "o -roduce co!eren" and co!esi0e u""erances8 s"ra"egic 7a/ili"D "o sol0e communica"ion -ro/lems as "!eD arise8 <!e conce-" o5 communication competence emerged as a reac"ion "o earlier a--roac!es "o language "!a" 5ocused exclusi0elD on gramma"ical com-e"ence) STEP . meal scri-"s.*ccording "o @DaEur "!ere are a" leas" 5i0e com-onen"s o5 s-eaEing sEill concerned >i"! com-re!ension. 0oca/ularD. "!a" is. and 5luencD 7@DaEur. ena/les us "o in"er-re" a grea" deal o5 "!e language o5 e0erDdaD li5ecBu" i5 >e lacE a rele0an" scri-" . 198': 38) (e5ine "!e 5unc"ion o5 eac! o5 "!e 5i0e com-onen"s lis"ed) CO'PO"E"T Com-re!ension Grammar Foca/ularD +ronuncia"ion #luencD (U"CTIO"CSD =n 1980./0 C$ROUP <ORLD: SPE#LI"$ E"6IRO"'E"T = @<R1C<=B @ =n grou-s decide on "!e 5ollo>ing: 1) =s "!ere anD connec"ion /e">een "!e >aD >e "alE and "!e se""ing in >!ic! i" occursW 7Pould Dou "ell "!e same Einds o5 joEes in a !os-i"al and a" a -ar"DW8 2) Jo> does "!e Eind o5 "alE limi" "!e "o-ics in"roducedW 7Jo> does a jo/ in"er0ie> di55er 5rom a re-or"erCs in"er0ie> o5 a 5amous ac"orW8 3) (o language 5unc"ions 0arD 5rom one Eind o5 "alE "o ano"!erW 7Jo> do cam-aign s-eec! and a c!ari"D s-eec! com-are >i"! regard "o "!e >aDs "!eD "rD "o -ersuade "!eir audiencesW8 &) =s a -ar"icular "alE liEelD "o c!ange i5 >e c!ange "!e roles o5 "!e -ar"ici-an"sW 7(oes a doc"or "alE "o a -a"ien" as !e >ould "alE "o a mem/er o5 !is 5amilD in need 5or medical assis"anceW8 STEP . -ronuncia"ion.>i"! "!ose o5 o"!er grou-s Situatio s: 1) Xou !a0e /een in0i"ed 5or dinner a" "!e !ome o5 Dour girl5riendA/oD5riend) <!is is "!e 5irs" "ime Dou !a0e /een !ere) 4reate a short conversation 7#-> speeches8 "!a" >ould "aEe -lace as Dou arri0e and en"er "!e !ouse) 117 . e"c./1 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: CO"6ERS#TIO" A#SED O" SCRIPT = @<R1C<=B @ VMuc! o5 our Eno>ledge o5 "!e >orld is organi9ed around scripts. com-re!ension maD /e di55icul")C Ric!ards 71983:2238 O)9ecti*es: 1) recrea"e "!e language associa"ed >i"! a -ar"icular scri-" 2) com-are "!e resul"s o/"ained /D Dour grou.

/u" "!eD also maD use anD o"!er 0oca/ularD. and communicative output a--roac!es) %$ -anguage input comes in "!e 5orm o5 "!e language !eard and read ou"side o5 class. s"uden"s mus" reduce or elimina"e "!e in5orma"ion ga-) =n "!ese ac"i0i"ies. class in"erac"ion. and grammar -linguistic competence1) a--ro-ria"e "!ings "o saD in s-eci5ic con"ex"s -discourse competence1) ex-ec"a"ions 5or ra"e o5 s-eec!. language is a "ool. "!e cri"erion o5 success is >!e"!er "!e s"uden" ge"s "!e message across) Gluency and no" accuracy is a considera"ion. and communica"ion s"ra"egies "!a" "!eD Eno>) =n communicative output activities. and i" gi0es s"uden"s "!e ma"erial "!eD need "o /egin -roducing language "!emsel0es) -anguage input maD 5ocus on content or /orm) • • #ocus on 4ontent input in0ol0es in5orma"ion) =" maD also include descri-"ions o5 learning s"ra"egies and exam-les o5 "!eir use) #ocus on Gorm input in0ol0es >aDs o5 using "!e language: guidance 5rom "!e "eac!er or ano"!er source on 0oca/ularD. unless "!e lacE o5 "!e la""er in"er5eres >i"! "!e message) =n e0erDdaD communica"ion. "eac!ers can use ac"i0i"ies "!a" com/ine language input. s-oEen exc!anges "aEe -lace /ecause "!ere is some sor" o5 in5orma"ion ga. -ause leng"!. no" an end in i"sel5) 118 . a "eac!er com/ines content-oriented and /orm-oriented input) <!e amoun" o5 in-u" "!a" is ac"uallD -ro0ided in "!e "arge" language de-ends on s"uden"sY -ro5iciencD and also on "!e si"ua"ion) :$ -anguage output • • Etructured output 5ocuses on s"uden"sC using correc" language 5ormsAs"ruc"ures) <!eD maD !a0e o-"ions 5or res-onses. grammar./e">een "!e -ar"ici-an"s) 4ommunicative output activities in0ol0e a similar real in5orma"ion ga-) =n order "o com-le"e "!e "asE. -ronuncia"ion.s"uden"s de0elo. "urn$"aEing. structured output. "!e s"uden"sY main -ur-ose is "o com-le"e a "asE) <o com-le"e "!e "asE.2) <!e e0ening is dra>ing "o a close and i" is "ime 5or Dou "o lea0e) P!a" do Dou saDW Jo> do Dour !os"sA-aren"s res-ondW 3) Xou >an" "o ex-ress Dour "!anEs "!e nex" daD) Jo> do Dou ex-ress Dour "!anEsW P!a" do "!eD ans>erW (id Dou 5ind i" easD or di55icul" "o crea"e "!e con0ersa"ions 5or eac! scri-"W #cti*it8 2: #pproac:es to teac:i g spea=i g <!e goal o5 "eac!ing s-eaEing sEills is "o ensure "!a" s"uden"s are a/le "o maEe "!emsel0es unders"ood. 5aul"D grammar. and "o o/ser0e "!e social and cul"ural rules "!a" a--lD in eac! communica"ion si"ua"ion) <o !el. or 0oca/ularD. "!eD maD use "!e language "!a" "!e "eac!er !as jus" -resen"ed. lis"ening ac"i0i"ies. using "!eir curren" -ro5iciencD "o "!e 5ulles") <!eD s!ould "rD "o a0oid con5usion in "!e message due "o mis-ronuncia"ion. some"imes in com/ina"ion >i"! -re0iouslD learned i"ems) =n communicative output.communica"i0e e55iciencD in s-eaEing. and o"!er social as-ec"s o5 language use -sociolinguistic competence1) and ex-lici" ins"ruc"ion in -!rases "o use "o asE 5or clari5ica"ion and re-air miscommunica"ion -strategic competence1@ =n "!e -resen"a"ion -ar" o5 a lesson. /u" all o5 "!e o-"ions reNuire "!em "o use "!e s-eci5ic 5orm or s"ruc"ure "!a" "!e "eac!er !as jus" in"roduced) Etructured output is designed "o maEe learners com5or"a/le -roducing s-eci5ic language i"ems recen"lD in"roduced.

communicative e//iciency speaking. and communicative output) STEP 2/. c!ecE 5or clari5ica"ion) :$ 9ole 1lay • s"uden"s -re"end "!eD are in 0arious social con"ex"s and !a0e a 0arie"D o5 social rolesM • "!e "eac!er assigns roles 7gi0es in5orma"ion "o "!e learners suc! as >!o "!eD are and >!a" "!eD "!inE or 5eel8) . resol0e a -ro/lem.=n "!e communicative model o5 language "eac!ing. "eac!ers !el./ <!e "!ree grou-s >orEing on role plays and "!e "!ree >orEing on discussions exc!ange in5orma"ion) 12) <!e grou-s decide on >!a" "o re-or" "o "!eir colleagues) 13) +resen"a"ions on /lacE/oardA5li-c!ar"sA0ideo -resen"a"ion) #cti*it8 0: #cti*ities to promote spea=i g %$ Discussions • 5os"er cri"ical "!inEing and NuicE decision maEingM s"uden"s learn !o> "o ex-ress and jus"i5D "!emsel0es in -oli"e >aDs >!ile disagreeing >i"! "!e o"!ersM • "eac!ers se" "!e -ur-ose o5 "!e discussion ac"i0i"D /e5ore "!e discussion. according "o Dou. s"uden"s mus" >orE "oge"!er "o de0elo. -ara-!rase ideas. "eac!ers can use a /alanced ac"i0i"ies a--roac! "!a" com/ines language inputA structured output. so "!a" s"uden"s do no" s-end "!eir "ime c!a""ing >i"! eac! o"!er a/ou" irrele0an" "!ingsM • s"uden"s /ecome in0ol0ed in agreeAdisagree discussions) • s"uden"s are encouraged "o asE Nues"ions. CP#IR <ORLD: SUCCESS(U% SPE#LI"$ = @<R1C<=B @ ?is" >!ic! are. or com-le"e a "asE) <!e mos" common "D-es o5 communica"i0e ou"-u" ac"i0i"D are role pla7s and discussions) PROCEDURES .. in "!eir grou-s. on "!e s"e-s "!e "eac!er s!ould "aEe in order "o succeed >i"! role plays) <!e o"!er "!ree grou-s do "!e same 5or discussions) . ex-ress su--or"."!eir s"uden"s de0eloEno>ledge /D -ro0iding au"!en"ic -rac"ice "!a" -re-ares s"uden"s 5or real$li5e communica"ion si"ua"ions) <o !el.a -lan. mo"i0a"e "!e s"uden"s and increase "!e sel5$ con5idence o5 "!e s!D ones #$ *n/ormation &ap • s"uden"s are su--osed "o /e >orEing in -airs $ one s"uden" >ill !a0e "!e in5orma"ion "!a" o"!er -ar"ner does no" !a0e and "!e -ar"ners >ill s!are "!eir in5orma"ion$M 119 . "!e c!arac"eris"ics o5 success5ul s-eaEing ac"i0i"ies) STEP 2/2 C$ROUP <ORLD: RE(%ECT = @<R1C<=B @ *s a "eac!er >!a" do Dou 5ind mos" c!allenging a/ou" oral communica"ion "asEsW STEP 2/0 C$ROUP <ORLD: CO''U"IC#TI6E OUTPUT #CTI6ITIES = @<R1C<=B @ $ommunicative output activities allo> s"uden"s "o -rac"ise using all o5 "!e language "!eD Eno> in si"ua"ions "!a" resem/le real se""ings) =n "!ese ac"i0i"ies.s"uden"s de0elo.$ Eimulations • similar "o role$-laDs /u" more ela/ora"e $s"uden"s can /ring i"ems "o "!e class "o crea"e a realis"ic en0ironmen"$M • role -laDs and simula"ions are en"er"aining.4/ <!e "rainees >orE in grou-s) <!ree grou-s are su--osed "o decide.

and ending. "!eD re-or" "o "!eir 5riends >!a" "!eD 5ind as "!e mos" in"eres"ing ne>s) %B$ 1icture 2arrating • ac"i0i"D /ased on se0eral seNuen"ial -ic"uresM • "!e "eac!er -ro0ides a ru/ric 7ru/rics can include "!e 0oca/ularD or s"ruc"ures s"uden"s need "o use >!ile narra"ing8M • s"uden"s are asEed "o "ell "!e s"orD "aEing -lace in "!e seNuen"ial -ic"ures /D -aDing a""en"ion "o "!e cri"eria -ro0ided /D "!e "eac!er as a ru/ric) %%$ 1icture Describing • s"uden"s are su--osed "o /e >orEing in grou-sM • eac! grou. s"uden"s ex-ress ideas in "!e 5orma" o5 de0elo-men"."!em /ecoming sociali9ed)) ?$ Etory 4ompletion • a 0erD enjoDa/le. /u" i" is "!e s"uden"s >!o -re-are "!eir o>n in"er0ie> Nues"ions) • ad*a tages: gi0e s"uden"s a c!ance "o -rac"ice "!eir s-eaEing a/ili"D no" onlD in class /u" also ou"sideM !el. eac! -ar"ner -laDs an im-or"an" role /ecause "!e "asE canno" /e com-le"ed i5 "!e -ar"ners do no" -ro0ide "!e in5orma"ion "!e o"!ers needM e0erD/odD !as "!e o--or"uni"D "o "alE ex"ensi0elD in "!e "arge" language 5$ . 5ree$s-eaEing ac"i0i"DM • "!e "eac!er maD -ro0ide "!e /eginning o5 a s"orD. 5os"ers crea"i0i"D. "!en a s-oEes-erson 5or eac! groudescri/es "!e -ic"ure "o "!e >!ole class) • ad*a tages: 5os"ers "!e crea"i0i"D and imagina"ion o5 "!e learners as >ell as "!eir -u/lic s-eaEing sEills) %:$ Gind the Di//erence • s"uden"s >orE in -airs and eac! cou-le is gi0en ">o di55eren" -ic"uresM • s"uden"s in -airs discuss "!e similari"ies andAor di55erences in "!e -ic"ures) 120 . e0en"s. >!ole$class.rainstorming=problem solving • s"uden"s are reNuired "o -roduce ideas on a gi0en "o-ic in a gi0en "ime -eriodM • can /e done indi0iduallDAin -airsAgrou-sM • is e55ec"i0e $ s"uden"s genera"e ideas NuicElD and 5reelDM • s"uden"s are no" cri"ici9ed 5or "!eir ideas so "!eD are o-en "o s!aring ne> ideas) >$ Etorytelling • 5os"ers crea"i0e "!inEingM • !el-s s"uden"s ex-ress ideas in "!e 5orma" o5 /eginning. including "!e c!arac"ers and se""ing a s"orD !as "o !a0e) $ *ntervie)s • s"uden"s are reNuired "o conduc" in"er0ie>s on selec"ed "o-ics >i"! 0arious -eo-leM • "!e "eac!er maD -ro0ide a ru/ric "o s"uden"s so "!a" "!eD Eno> >!a" "D-e o5 Nues"ions "!eD can asE. de0elo-men". e0erD/odD !as "!e o--or"uni"D "o "alE in "!e "arge" language) @$ 9eporting • s"uden"s are asEed "o read a ne>s-a-er or maga9ine /e5ore coming "o class. "!en. including "!e c!arac"ers and se""ing a s"orD !as "o !a0e 7"!eD maD add ne> c!arac"ers. and ending.is gi0en a di55eren" -ic"ureM • s"uden"s discuss "!e -ic"ure >i"! "!eir grou-s.• ad*a tages: in sol0ing a -ro/lem or collec"ing in5orma"ion. descri-"ions8. >a"c! a 0ideo cli-M • in class. eac! s"uden" s"ar"s "o narra"e 5rom "!e -oin" >!ere "!e -re0ious one s"o--edM • eac! s"uden" is su--osed "o add a sugges"ed num/er o5 sen"ences) • ad*a tages: relaxed a"mos-!ere.

indica"ion o5 s"ages.7al"!oug! "!e re0erse is no" necessarilD "rue8) *) =n5orma"ion$ga. Nuo"a"ion8 $lear signposting 7s"a"emen" o5 goals. manner 1-A2 G!9 !9A. e7e contact. s"a"is"ics.!DF • Re5er "o learning 5rom oneCs o>n ex-erience: gi0e exam-les) • Re5er "o learning 5rom "!e ex-eriences o5 o"!ers: gi0e exam-les) .$ E<55A9F A2D 4!24-<E*!2 • Re5er /rie5lD "o ">o or "!ree main ideas men"ioned in "!e /odD) • @"a"e Dour o>n conclusions a/ou" "!e "!eme) STEP 0/. 3$5 mins)8 III/ DE%I6ERK-RE%#TED • • • • • $larit7 and pronunciation (tress and intonation Bolume 6ace 5od7 language.erence 7 logical.%.190E02+A+*!2E %$ *2+9!D<4+*!2 • @"a"e "!e general "!eme :$ +(0 .learners "o de0elo. de-ending on "!e audience8 OR$#"IS#TIO"-RE%#TED • • • • %ffective introduction 7ca"c!D o-ening : rele0an" joEeAanecdo"e.asizing 0e7 points 7insis"ing onAre-ea"ing main -oin"s and s"a"ing "!e -resen"erCs conclusion8 'engt. CP#IR <ORLD: #CTI6ITIES = @<R1C<=B @ Belo> is a lis" o5 0arious ac"i0i"D "D-es designed "o !el. 7organi9a"ion o5 ma"erials "o 5i" "ime limi".$ !ral presentations on a given topic 49*+09*A G!9 0GG04+*30 190E02+A+*!2E *$ 4!2+02+-90-A+0D • • • • II/ &elevance of ideas to topic 7-er"inen" exam-lesM no unnecessarD de"ails8 Mverall co.ac"i0i"ies B) RanEing ac"i0i"ies C) %igsa> ac"i0i"ies () Guessing ac"i0i"ies 121 . na"ural 5lo> o5 ideas8 'e+ical range 70arie"D o5 >ordsA-!rases "o sui" com-lexi"D o5 "o-ic8 &egister 7a--ro-ria"e c!oice and consis"en" use o5 ei"!er 5ormal or in5ormal le0el."!eir oral 5luencD) @ome o5 "!e "D-es maD o0erla-$5or exam-le. em-!asis on conclusionsAresul"s8 %mp. a jigsa> ac"i0i"D maD in0ol0e an in5orma"ion ga.

discussion J) +rojec"$/ased ac"i0i"ies =) +re-ared monologues (or eac: acti*it8 t8pes Ca-iD )rai storm a e."asE 5or Dour s"uden"s) 1) iden"i5D a con"ex" 7a social e0en"Aa gameAa -u99le8 2) crea"e a 0isual aid 7a s-ider gramAa ma-8 5or s"uden"s "o 5ill in as "!eD ga"!er in5orma"ion 5rom "!eir -ar"ners 3) men"ion "!e "ime limi" Dou >ill gi0e "!is "asE #cti*it8 1: Ideas for pla i g spea=i g acti*ities Jere are some ideas "o Eee.t "!e con"en" s!ould /e -rac"ical and usa/le in real$li5e si"ua"ionsM a0oid "oo muc! ne> 0oca/ularD or grammarM 5ocus on s-eaEing >i"! "!e language "!e s"uden"s !a0e) Correcti g Errors • -ro0ide a--ro-ria"e 5eed/acE and correc"ion.an in5orma"ion$ga.ample acti*it8/ E.ample: <!e 5ollo>ing are all exam-les o5 information-gap ac"i0i"ies:  Bne s"uden" descri/es a -ic"ure "o ano"!er s"uden") <!e second s"uden" !as "o dra> i")  Bne s"uden" arranges o/jec"s on "!e "a/le and direc"s "!e second s"uden" "o arrange similar o/jec"s in "!e same >aD) <!e s"uden"s si" so "!a" "!eD canno" see eac! o"!erCs o/jec"s) Bne s"uden" !as a seNuence o5 -ic"ures >!ic! "ell a s"orD) <!e second s"uden" !as "!e same -ic"ures in a jum/led order) <!e 5irs" s"uden" descri/es "!e seNuence "o !isA!er -ar"ner) <!e -ar"ner !as "o arrange !isA!er -ic"ures in"o "!e correc" order)  STEP 0/1 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: DE6E%OPI"$ T#SLS = @<R1C<=B @ (e0elo. in "!e classroom o5"en 5ail) Re-or" "o "!e o"!er -airs) STEP 0/0 C$ROUP <ORLD: I"(OR'#TIO"-$#P #CTI6ITIES = @<R1C<=B @ C!oose 5our o5 "!e ac"i0i"D "D-es and /rains"orm 5ur"!er Einds o5 ma"erial and ac"i0i"D >!ic! mig!" /e used) E.2) +ro/lem$sol0ing ac"i0i"ies #) Role$-laD G) Grou. /u" donY" in"erru-" "!e 5lo> o5 communica"ionM • "aEe no"es >!ile -airs or grou-s are "alEing and address -ro/lems "o "!e class a5"er "!e ac"i0i"D >i"!ou" em/arrassing "!e s"uden"7s8 >!o made "!e errorM 122 .ample: *c"i0i"D *: * Vs-o" "!e di55erenceC exercise is an exam-le o5 an in5orma"ion$gaac"i0i"D) 7@"uden"s >orE in -airs and eac! mem/er o5 "!e -air !as a slig!"lD di55eren" -ic"ure) Pi"!ou" looEing a" eac! o"!erCs -ic"ures "!eD !a0e "o iden"i5D "!e di55erences /e">een "!eir ">o -ic"ures)8 STEP 0/2 CP#IR <ORLD: (#I%URE O( CO''U"IC#TI6E #CTI6ITIES = @<R1C<=B @ <rD "o iden"i5D reasons >!D communica"i0e ac"i0i"ies. es-eciallD discussions.in mind as Dou -lan Dour s-eaEing ac"i0i"ies) Co • • • te.

er: <odaD >e are going "o "alE a/ou" "rans-or" in our ci"D) P!a" do Dou "!inE a/ou" "!is.• >ri"e "!e errors on "!e /oard and asE >!o can correc" "!em) Eua tit8 *s/ Eualit8 • address /o"! in"erac"i0e 5luencD and accuracD. %aneW (tudent: Mmmm) = "!inE is /ad) !eac.in"o a role$-laD.er: Good) <!e /uses) (o Dou "!inE "!eD are "oo slo> or "oo ex-ensi0eW (tudent: <oo slo>) !eac."!e sEills necessarD 5or "aEing -ar" in a groudiscussion) JeAs!e also genuinelD >an"s "!em "o exc!ange "!eir o-inions a/ou" -ro/lems o5 transport in "!eir !ome ci"D) 1) P!a" linguis"ic -re-ara"ion mig!" /e a--ro-ria"eW 2) =n >!a" >aDs mig!" !eAs!e organi9e "!isW 3) =n >!a" >aDs can !eAs!e s"imula"e in"eres" in "!e "o-icW &) =n >!a" >aDs can !eAs!e encourage s!D mem/ers o5 "!e class "o ex-ress "!eir 0ie>sW 5) P!a" mig!" !eAs!e do a/ou" a 0erD dominan" s"uden" >!o is -redis-osed "o mono-oli9e anD ac"i0i"DW 6) Jo> mig!" !eAs!e c!oose "o organi9e "!e classroomW ') P!a" mig!" !isA!er o>n role in "!e ac"i0i"D /eW 8) <!e 5ollo>ing is an excer-" 5rom a "ranscri-" o5 "!e "eac!erCs lesson) P!a" ad0ice >ould Dou gi0e "o "!e "eac!erW !eac.an ac"i0i"D "!a" is "oo di55icul" or /oring) STEP 1/.Y Y/D "!e >aDY8) Teac:erBs I ter*e tio • >!en a s-eaEing ac"i0i"D loses s"eam. ges"ures. CP#IR <ORLD: #D#PT#AI%ITK = @<R1C<=B @ =n -airs. s"ri0ing 5oremos" 5or communica"ionM • ge" "o Eno> eac! learnerYs -ersonali"D and encourage "!e Nuie"er ones "o "aEe more risEs) Co *ersatio Strategies • encourage s"ra"egies liEe asEing 5or clari5ica"ion. -ara-!rasing. clari5D Dour ins"ruc"ions. asE more discussion Nues"ions.Y Yso.er: Good) (o Dou agree. or s"o. and ini"ia"ing 7Y!eD. decide !o> "eac!ers can: 1) +ro0ide s"uden"s >i"! o--or"uni"ies 5or -rac"ising s-eci5ic s-eaEing sEills) 2) <eac! s"uden"s "o ada-" "!eir s-eec! "o s-eci5ic si"ua"ions) 3) +ro0ide o--or"uni"ies "o -rac"ise s-eaEing /e5ore larger grou-s) STEP 1/2 C$ROUP <ORLD: $ROUP DISCUSSIO" = @<R1C<=B @ * "eac!er >an"s !isA!er s"uden"s "o de0elo. Dou maD need "o jum.er: Good) :t is /ad) P!a" donC" Dou liEe a/ou" i"W (tudent: <!e /uses) !eac. (ianeW 123 .

= @<R1C<=B @ =n -airs. "o small grou-s or -airs or "o indi0iduals) <!e >aD "eac!ers deal >i"! "!ese di55eren" grou-ings >ill 0arD) @ome"imes "!eD >ill >an" "o gi0e 5eed/acE on "!e /oard. so >!D s!ould s-eaEing /e di55eren"W @"uden"s >ill 5eel "!a" "!eD are no" >as"ing "ime >!en "!eD s-eaE /ecause "!eD ge" 5eed/acE) =" s!o>s s"uden"s !o> and >!ere "!eD are im-ro0ing. !o> serious "!eD 5eel "!e -oin" is./Aur=artH $/H S) @-oEen ?anguage. and so recDcle "!em) <!ere are manD >aDs "!a" "eac!ers can gi0e 5eed/acE "o s"uden"s.: P!a" i" is and Jo> "o "eac! i" 2/7armerH J)<!e +rac"ice o5 2nglis! ?anguage <eac!ing 124 . as >ell as >!a" "!eD need "o >orE on) <eac!ers can 5ocus on discourse 5ea"ures as >ell as on lexis and anD gramma"ical s"ruc"ures "!eD !a0e /een >orEing on. >!a" "!eD are correc"ing) STEP 5/.#cti*it8 5: Correctio a d $i*i g (eed)ac= • • • • =n some >aDs. decide >!en i" is ad0isa/le "o gi0e 5eed/acE "o "!e >!ole classA"o small grou-sA"o indi0iduals) STEP 5/2 C$ROUP <ORLD: (EEDA#CL 2 = @<R1C<=B @ =n grou-s. as >ell as >!a" "!eD are ge""ing >rong) <!eD can gi0e 5eed/acE "o "!e >!ole class. a s-eaEing ac"i0i"D is liEe a >ri"ing ac"i0i"D $ s"uden"s >ould -ro/a/lD com-lain i5 "eac!ers didnY" correc" "!eir >ri"ing. /u" i" maD o5"en /e oral: "!e >aD "!eD c!oose >ill de-end on !o> muc! "ime "!eD >an" "o s-end on i". CP#IR <ORLD: (EEDA#CL . decide on ideas 5or gi0ing 5eed/acE "o 1) "!e >!ole classA2) "o small grou-sA3) "o indi0iduals) STEP 5/0 CI"DEPE"DE"T <ORLD: #TTITUDE O( SO'E %E#R"ERS = @<R1C<=B @ <!e 5ollo>ing commen"s >ere made /D s"uden"s a""ending a Vcon0ersa"ion classC) a) MD "eac!er ne0er correc"s me so !o> can = learnW /) = >an"ed a con0ersa"ion class /u" all >e do is -laD games) c) Xes"erdaD >e "alEed a/ou" nuclear energD c /u" = didnC") d) = Eno> >!a" "o saD /u" >!en i"Cs mD "urn = canC") e) = donC" !a0e enoug! >ords) 1) P!a" do Dou "!inE "!e underlDing -ro/lems areW 2) P!a" ad0ice mig!" Dou gi0e "o "!e "eac!erW Refere ces . and manD as-ec"s "!a" "!eD can 5ocus on) Jere are some ideas: • • #eed/acE s!ould /e -osi"i0e as >ell as nega"i0e L "eac!ers s!ould "ell s"uden"s >!a" "!eD do >ell.

Bx5ord 1ni0ersi"D +ress $ >>>)coerll)u"exas)eduAme"!ods. #oreign ?anguage <eac!ing Me"!ods $ >>>)lEEa)l"Ajr)gul/inasA 125 . >>>)scri/d)comA $ !""-:AA>>>)>ea"!er>i9Eids)com $ +a"!>aD "o 2nglis!. 2nglis! Jori9ons.0/7a8ri8e La8iH <eac!ing @-eaEing: *c"i0i"ies "o +romo"e @-eaEing in a @econd ?anguage.

'ODU%E Q 5 <RITI"$ 126 .

"!is maD.: #pproac:es to Teac:i g <riti g STEP . a le""er o5 ini"ial com-lain" >ill con0en"ionallD /egin >i"! a descri-"ion o5 "!e /acEground. "!en s"a"e "!e -ro/lem. CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: SO'E A#SIC ISSUES = @<R1C<=B @ 255ec"i0e >ri"ing in0ol0es con0eDing a message in suc! a >aD as "o a55ec" "!e audience as "!e >ri"er in"ends) (e-ending on "!e -recise -ur-ose in >ri"ing. and "o !elex-lore 5ac"ors rela"ing "o a 0arie"D o5 a--roac!es) 13 12 #cti*it8 . Crea"i0e Pri"ing 11 #cti*it8 6: 1sing linEed PPP$si"es in class ac"i0i"ies #cti*it8 2: @am-les o5 class ac"i0i"ies #cti*it8 M: 20alua"ion O)9ecti*es • • • • • • "o maEe "rainees a>are o5 di55eren" a--roac!es "o "eac!ing >ri"ingM "o -ro0ide resources 5or "eac!ing >ri"ingM "o maEe "rainees re5lec" on "!eir o>n ex-erience o5 learning "o >ri"e in a 5oreign languageM "o 5amiliari9e "!em >i"! "erms and conce-"s >!ic! are cen"ral "o a considera"ion o5 e55ec"i0e >ri"ingM "o in0i"e "!em a--lD "!ese "erms and conce-"s in analD9ing >ri"ing "asEs and sam-les o5 learnersC >ri""en 2nglis!M "o ex"end "!eir a>areness o5 a range o5 5ac"ors in0ol0ed in "eac!ing >ri"ing sEills. in0ol0e sei9ing and main"aining "!e in"eres" o5 "!e in"ended readers. #unc"ional Pri"ing. 5or exam-le.atio pu ctuatio 1) *dd 5ur"!er 5ac"ors "o "!is lis" i5 Dou "!inE "!ere is anD"!ing missing) 7V@"DleC is no" included in "!is lis" as an inde-enden" i"em as "!is "erm normallD re5ers "o a--ro-ria"e c!oices o5 vocabular7 or grammar)8 2) P!ic! o5 "!e "erms in "!e lis" re5er "o: a8 <!e organi9a"ion o5 5unc"ions >i"!in a "ex"W 7#or exam-le.: *--roac!es "o "eac!ing >ri"ing #cti*it8 2: P!D "eac! >ri"ingW #cti*it8 0: +rinci-les o5 "eac!ing >ri"ing #cti*it8 1: *c"i0i"ies "o -romo"e -rocess >ri"ing #cti*it8 5: Pri"ing "o ?earn./. "!eir assum-"ions a/ou" "!e "o-ic and "!eir a""i"udes "o>ards i" and in"eres" in i") =n ac!ie0ing "!e -ur-ose 5or >ri"ing.#cti*it8 . and >ill "!en indirec"lD reNues" ac"ion)8 11 12 13 a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD 127 . con0eDing in5orma"ion clearlD. "!e >ri"er maEes c!oices a/ou" a num/er o5 5ac"ors) ?ooE a" "!e 5ollo>ing lis" o5 some o5 "!ese 5ac"ors: grammar *oca)ular8 co:esio co:ere ce r:etorical orga i. delig!"ing or amusing "!e readers or -ersuading "!em o5 a -ar"icular -oin" o5 0ie>) <!e >ri"er needs "o /e a/le "o imagine "!e readers and "o assess "!eir Eno>ledge o5 "!e "o-ic.atio la8out u derli i gGitalics :a d@riti g paragrap:i g formulae spelli g capitali.

s"uden"s s!ould /e "rained "o -aD a""en"ion "o organi9a"ion >!ile "!eD also >orE on "!e necessarD grammar and sDn"ax) +his approach links the purpose o/ )riting to the /orms that are needed to convey message ) 0$ +he 4ommunicative Approach <!is a--roac! encourages s"uden"s "o /e!a0e liEe >ri"ers in real li5e and asE "!emsel0es "!e crucial Nues"ions a/ou" purpose and audience: Because >ri"ing is seen as a communica"i0e ac". "!en -aragra-!s "o co-D or mani-ula"e gramma"icallD /D c!anging Nues"ions "o s"a"emen"s. i" is rela"i0elD easD 5or s"uden"s "o >ri"e and De" a0oid errors. >ri"e mul"i-le dra5"s in order "o -resen" >ri""en -roduc"s "!a" communica"e "!eir o>n ideas) Pri"ing /ecomes a -rocess o5 disco0erD 5or "!e s"uden"s as "!eD disco0er ne> ideas and ne> language 5orms "o ex-ress "!em) A )riting process approach reHuires that teachers should give students greater responsibility /orA and o)nership o/A their o)n learning ) @"uden"s maEe decisions and colla/ora"e as "!eD >ri"e) 128 . s"uden"s maD 0olun"eer "o read "!eir o>n >ri"ing aloud "o "!e class) 4oncern /or Iaudience” and Icontent” are important in this approach) 4$ +he 1aragraph-1attern Approach =ns"ead o5 accuracD o5 grammar or 5luencD o5 con"en". "!e 5ac" "!a" in a le""er.rig!"$!and corner)8 c8 <!e use o5 Vs"ocE -!rasesCW 7#or exam-le. "!e readers!i. -resen" "o -as".maD /e ex"ended "o classma"es and -en -als) G$ +he 1rocess Approach =n "!is a--roac!. "!e 1aragraph-1attern-Approach stresses on organization) <!eD -u" scram/led sen"ences in"o -aragra-! order) <!eD iden"i5D general and s-eci5ic s"a"emen"s and c!oose "o in0en" an a--ro-ria"e "o-ic sen"ence or inser" or dele"e sen"ences) <!is a--roac! is /ased on "!e -rinci-le "!a" in di55eren" cul"ures -eo-le cons"ruc" and organi9e communica"ion >i"! eac! o"!er in di55eren" >aDs) D$ +he &rammar-Eynta6-!rganization Approach <eac!ers >!o 5ollo> "!is a--roac! consider "!a" >ri"ing canno" /e seen as com-osed o5 se-ara"e sEills >!ic! are learned seNuen"iallD) <!ere5ore. "!inE o5 "!e -ur-ose and audience. V<!anE Dou 5or Dour le""er o5 16 "! o5 %ulDC8 <!ere are se0eral a--roac!es "o "eac!ing >ri"ing as -resen"ed /D 7Raimes. "!e senderCs address normallD a--ears in "!e "o.$ +he Gree-'riting Approach +his approach /ocuses on )riting Huantity rather than Huality) <!e em-!asis in "!is a--roac! is on con"en" and 5luencD ra"!er "!an on accuracD and 5orm) <eac!ers maD /egin "!eir classes /D asEing s"uden"s "o >ri"e 5reelD on anD "o-ic >i"!ou" >orrDing a/ou" grammar and s-elling 5or 5i0e or "en minu"es) <eac!ers do no" correc" "!ese -ieces o5 5ree >ri"ing) <!eD onlD read "!em and commen" on "!e ideas "!e s"uden"s ex-ressed) *l"erna"i0elD. 19838: A$ +he 4ontrolled-to-Gree Approach =n "!e 1950s and earlD 1960s. s"uden"s are "rained "o genera"e ideas 5or >ri"ing./8 <!e -!Dsical arrangemen" o5 in5orma"ion on "!e -ageW 7#or exam-le. >!ic! maEes error correc"ion easD) +his approach emphasizes accuracy rather than /luency or originality) . or -lural "o singular) <!eD mig!" also c!ange >ords "o clauses or com/ine sen"ences) Pi"! "!ese con"rolled com-osi"ions.*. "!e audio$lingual me"!od domina"ed second$language learning) <!is me"!od s"ressed "!a" s-eec! and >ri"ing aimed a" mas"erD o5 gramma"ical and sDn"ac"ic 5orms) +he controlled-to-/ree approach is seHuential: s"uden"s are 5irs" gi0en sen"ence exercises.

5rom maEing a s!o--ing lis" "o >ri"ing essaDs 5or sc!ool) =n a com-u"er$media"ed age. can !el. -rac"ise and ex-ress "!emsel0es in "!e 5oreign language in a more adul"$liEe manner >i"! more com-lex "!oug!"s "!an >!en "!eD !a0e "o s-eaE >i"!ou" -lanning =" maD raise cogni"i0e a>areness o5 "!e language. mos" im-or"an".During the )riting processA students engage in pre-)ritingA planningA dra/tingA and post)riting activities) Jo>e0er.orga isatio Commu icati *e Process @riti g e) Com-are "!e resul"s o5 Dour "asEs >i"! "!ose o5 "!e o"!er grou-s) 5) (iscuss "!e ad0an"ages and disad0an"ages o5 eac! o5 "!ese a--roac!es) g) P!ic! >ould Dou use >i"! Dour s"uden"sW *" >!a" le0elW P!DW #cti*it8 2: <:8 Teac: <riti gO Pri"ing s!ould /e "aug!" 5or i"s o>n saEe in a ?2 class /ecause: • =" is a -re0alen" 5orm o5 communica"ion in real li5e. "!eD do no" necessarilD engage in "!ese ac"i0i"ies in "!a" order) STEP ./2 C$ROUP <ORLD: DE6ISI"$ T#SLS = @<R1C<=B @ =n grou-s de0ise 5or Dour s"uden"s "!e 5ollo>ing "asEs: a) *sE s"uden"s "o com-le"e a descri-"ion -aragra-!A>ri"e a descri-"ion 5rom Nues"ions) /) Gi0e s"uden"s a se" o5 slas! sen"ences and asE "!em "o >ri"e a s!or" narra"i0e -aragra-!) c) *sE s"uden"s "o in"er0ie> "!eir -ar"ner 7-air >orE8 on a cer"ain "o-ic and "!en >ri"e a/ou" >!a" "!eD !a0e learned) d) #ill in "!e "a/le /D -u""ing a "icE in "!e a--ro-ria"e columns "o indica"e >!a" a--roac! addresses >!a" elemen"s o5 >ri"ing: co te proces audie c @ord orga i. e Co trolled-to free (ree -@riti g Paragrap:patter $rammars8 ta.atio mec:a ic grammarGs8 t t s e c:oic s a. idioms and 0oca/ularD "!a" s"uden"s !a0e learned 129 . language de0elo-men"./ Rei forceme t • some s"uden"s acNuire a language in a -urelD oralA aural >aD. >ri"ing as a sEill in i"s o>n rig!") . as "!e >ri"ing -rocess is recursive in na"ure. -eo-le use com-u"er$media"ed communica"ion. -) '98 descri/es "!a" "!e reasons 5or "eac!ing >ri"ing "o s"uden"s o5 2nglis! as a 5oreign language include rein5orcemen". /eing a/le "o >ri"e is an essen"ial sEill in anD language) =" maD /e !el-5ul 5or s"uden"s "o re5lec". rela"ions!i-s /e">een lexical i"ems and grammar) Crea"i0e assignmen"s maD lead "o !ig!er le0els o5 mo"i0a"ion in "!e s"uden"s) • • • Jarmer 71998. connec"ions /e">een rela"ed lexical i"ems.-rac"ise sound$sDm/ol associa"ions. learning s"Dle and. /u" o"!ers /ene5i" grea"lD 5rom seeing "!e language >ri""en do>n • >ri"ing rein5orces "!e gramma"ical s"ruc"ures. es-eciallD no>adaDs$ "!ere are /logs. "!eD "ex" a lo"$) Pe use >ri"ing 5or a 0arie"D o5 e0erDdaD communica"i0e -ur-oses.

"!em in >ri"ing) 2) Jo> im-or"an" do Dou consider i" is "!a" "!e >ri"ing "asE incor-ora"es an elemen" o5 real communica"ionW 3) Jo> mig!" a >ri"ing "asE incor-ora"e "!is elemen" o5 real communica"ionW #cti*it8 0: Pri ciples of Teac:i g <riti g BrDne 719888 sugges"s "!e -rinci-les 5or "eac!ing >ri"ing >i"! "!e 5ollo>ing -oin"s: 1) Teac: stude ts to @rite • classroom >ri"ing "asEs need "o /e se" u. e"c jus" as "!eD need "o Eno> !o> "o -ronounce s-oEen 2nglis! a--ro-ria"elD) STEP 2/. a""i"udes and in"eres" o5 "!e in"ended audience and addressing "!em accordinglD) 1) Jo> clear "o Dour s"uden"s do Dou maEe "!e -ur-ose o5 anD >ri"ing ac"i0i"DW 2) Jo> mig!" "!e -ur-ose o5 a >ri"ing ac"i0i"D de"ermine Dour a--roac! "o -re-aring "!e ac"i0i"D in classW 3) Jo> mig!" "!e -ur-ose o5 a >ri"ing ac"i0i"D de"ermine Dour a--roac! "o correc"ionW &) #or >!ic! o5 "!ese -ur-oses mig!" s"uden"s /e encouraged "o >ri"e colla/ora"i0elDW STEP 2/2 C$ROUP <ORLD: PREP#R#TIO"H 'OTI6#TIO" #"D CO''U"IC#TIO" = @<R1C<=B @ 1) MaEe a lis" o5 >aDs in >!ic! "!e "eac!er can mo"i0a"e s"uden"s "o >ri"e /D encouraging con5idence and en"!usiasm) 2xam-le: @!e can ge" s"uden"s "o >a"c! -ar" o5 a selec"ed <F documen"arD 7in 2nglis! or in "!eir o>n language8 as a s"imulus 5or ideas "o !el./e">een >ri"ing and "!inEing maEes >ri"ing a 0alua/le -ar" o5 anD language courses 0/ %ear i g st8le • /D looEing and lis"ening • /D "!inEing and re5lec"ing >!a" "!eD !a0e learned 1/ <riti g as a s=ill • >ri"ing is a /asic language sEill. !o> "o -u" >ri""en re-or"s "oge"!er. -er se.perie ce of t:e @ritte la guage 130 .2/ %a guage de*elopme t • >ri"ing !el-s s"uden"s in acNuiring a language /ecause "!e -rocess demands "!em "o "!inE and c!oose "!e sen"ences as >ell as >ords "!a" "!eD >ill use "o ex-ress "!e ideas • "!e rela"ions!i. and re0ising 2/ Pro*ide adeFuate a d rele*a t e. lis"ening and reading • s"uden"s need "o Eno> !o> "o >ri"e le""ers. organi9ing. co-Ding a model o5 ne> language or >ri"ing a s!or" "ex" "o -rac"ise or "es" Eno>ledge o5 language >!ic! !as /een "aug!"8) c) <o encourage "!e de0elo-men" o5 5luencD) d) <o "rainA-ro0ide -rac"ice in as-ec"s o5 >ri"ing sEills. assum-"ions. 5or exam-le: • selec"ing c!arac"eris"ic 5ea"ures o5 -ar"icular "ex" "D-es according "o "!e -ur-ose in >ri"ingM • including a--ro-ria"e s"ages in "!e -rocess o5 com-osi"ionM • assessing "!e Eno>ledge. "!eD need "o Eno> some o5 >ri"ingCs s-ecial con0en"ions suc! as -unc"ua"ion.in >aDs "!a" re5lec" "!e >ri"ing -rocess in good >ri"ers • s"uden"s need "o /e encouraged "o go "!roug! a -rocess o5 -lanning. CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: RE#SO"S (OR <RITI"$ = @<R1C<=B @ <!e 5ollo>ing are some o5 "!e reasons learners o5 2nglis! maD /e asEed "o >ri"e: a) #or diagnos"ic -ur-oses) /) <o de0elo. com-osing.linguis"ic com-e"ence 75or exam-le. -aragra-! cons"ruc"ion. jus" as im-or"an" as s-eaEing.

guided >ri"ing. and a--ro-ria"e -ieces o5 communica"ion 2/ I tegrate @riti g @it: ot:er s=ills • design "asEsAac"i0i"ies in >!ic! Dou in"egra"e >ri"ing >i"! o"!er sEills Llis"ening. CP#IR <ORLD: TE#C7I"$ T7E (E#TURES O( P#RTICU%#R TERT TKPES = @<R1C<=B @ Be5ore asEing "!e s"uden"s "o >ri"e an exam-le o5 a -ar"icular "ex" "D-e Dou mig!" >an" "o go "!roug! some o5 "!e 5ollo>ing s"ages) <!e order. com/ining sen"ences using a rela"i0e clause8) c) Reading exam-les o5 "!e "ex" "D-e) d) *nalDsing "ex"s "o isola"e c!arac"eris"ic 5ea"ures o5 "!a" "ex" "D-e) ORDER . >!a" Einds o5 5eed/acE did Dour "eac!ers gi0e DouW Jo> use5ul did Dou 5ind "!is 5eed/acEW Consider "!e 5ollo>ing commen"s made /D learners o5 2nglis!) =n eac! case a""em-" "o de5ine in >!a" >aDs "!e ex-ec"a"ions and V-ersonal -!iloso-!iesC o5 "!e "eac!er and "!e learner are similar or a--ear "o di55er) Pri"e Dour o>n considera"ions in "!e grid 7no more "!an 20 >ords A commen"8 and sa0e i" as a Pord)doc) 2xam-le: Commen" 7a8: #rom !er o>n ex-erience as a learner or 5rom !er "raining as a "eac!er. 2 0 1 ST#$E • STEP 0/2 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: CORRECTIO" O( <RITTE" <ORL = @<R1C<=B @ 1) =n Dour o>n ex-erience o5 learning languages.selec"ion o5 "ex" "D-es 5or /o"! reading and >ri"ing s!ould /e made /earing in mind "!a" s"uden"s can usuallD read language "!a" is more ad0anced "!an "!eD can -roduce 0/ S:o@ stude ts :o@ t:e @ritte la guage fu ctio s as a s8stem of commu icatio • >!en s"uden"s unders"and "!e con"ex" "!eD are muc! liEelD "o >ri"e e55ec"i0elD so. !ere. is jum/led) +u" "!em in"o an a--ro-ria"e order and jus"i5D Dour decisions) a) Guided >ri"ing -rac"ice$"!e s"uden"s >ri"e 7-ar"s o58 a -arallel "ex" guided /D -rom-"s 7e)g) -ic"ures or sen"ences >!ic! summarise -aragra-!s8) /) 2xercises >!ic! -rac"ise -ar"icular 5ea"ures o5 "!e "ex" "D-e 7e)g) ordering -aragra-!s in "!e "ex". conce-"uali9ed. 3) "rD "o maEe e0erD -iece o5 >ri"ing 5ul5il some Eind o5 communica"i0e -ur-ose. ei"!er real or simula"ed 1/ Teac: stude ts :o@ to @rite te. 2) iden"i5D >!o "!e readers are."o maEe a "ex" co!eren" 5/ Teac: stude ts differe t =i ds of te. all "!e im-or"an" 5ea"ures "!a" can !el."!e di55eren" sEills in0ol0ed in -roducing >ri""en "ex"s 6/ 'a=e @riti g tas=s realistic a d rele*a t • >ri"ing "asEs s!ould ena/le s"uden"s "o >ri"e >!ole "ex"s >!ic! 5orm connec"ed. 5ree >ri"ing • eac! ac"i0i"D >ill need di55eren" "ec!niNues and -rac"ice • colla/ora"i0e >ri"ing in "!e classroom genera"es discussions and ac"i0i"ies >!ic! encourage an e55ec"i0e -rocess o5 >ri"ing Q/ Pro*ide appropriate support • maEe re0ision an in"egral -ar" o5 "!e -rocess o5 >ri"ing /D: 1) de0ising a range o5 ac"i0i"ies in0ol0ing s"uden"s as >ell as "eac!ers STEP 0/.ts • encourage "!e -roduc"ion o5 >!ole "ex"s "o "eac!.ts • -ro0ide 5or s"uden"s o--or"uni"ies "o -rac"ice 0arious 5orms and 5unc"ions in >ri"ing and >i"!in "!ese "o de0elo. "eac!ers need: 1) "o 0arD "!e audience. reading$ M/ Use a *ariet8 of tec: iFues a d practice formats • -ro0ide 0arious >ri"ing ac"i0i"ies: con"rolled >ri"ing. "!e "eac!er maD !a0e in"ernali9ed "!e 0ie> "!a" red inE is -ercei0ed /D learners "o 131 . >!en se""ing >ri"ing "asEs.

"!e content. added. /u" = Eno> i" isnC") !) =Cd lo0e "o Eno> >!a" o"!er s"uden"s >ri"e) CBMM2 < /) c) d) e) 5) g) !) XB1R BP CB @=(2R*<=B @ #cti*it8 1: #cti*ities to Promote Process <riti g T:e process approac: • • "rea"s all >ri"ing as a crea"i0e ac" >!ic! reNuires "ime and -osi"i0e 5eed/acE "o /e done >ell !as "!e "eac!er mo0e a>aD 5rom /eing someone >!o se"s s"uden"s a >ri"ing "o-ic and recei0es "!e 5inis!ed -roduc" 5or correc"ion >i"!ou" anD in"er0en"ion in "!e >ri"ing -rocess i"sel5 !as "!e s"uden"s encouraged "o "!inE a/ou" audience: >!o is "!e >ri"ing 5orW !as "!e s"uden"s realise "!a" >!a" "!eD >ri"e can /e c!anged: "!ings can /e dele"ed./e in"imida"ing or discouraging) @!e a--ears no" "o !a0e Nues"ioned "!is. "!e "eac!er s!ould guide "!em "!roug! areas suc! as sDn"ax) !el.in "!is s"age. re0ie> or /uilds su/$sEills "!a" -re-are "!em 5or com-le"ing "!e main >ri"ing "asEM 5ocus on "!e audience. "!e mos" im-or"an" "!ing is "!e 5lo> o5 ideas$ • • • 2/ During-)riting activities • • 0/ 1ost-)riting activities • %$ 1re-)riting tasks a$. and "!e vocabulary necessarD 5or "!e "asE) 7"D-icallD >ord and -!rase le0el ac"i0i"ies8M "!e role o5 "!e "eac!er is "o s"imula"e s"uden"sY crea"i0i"D.rainstorming 132 . "o ge" "!em "!inEing !o> "o a--roac! a >ri"ing "o-ic) engage s"uden"s in recursi0e >ri"ing.) 1re-)riting activities.s"uden"s re5lec" on and re0ise "!eir >ri"ing /ased on 5eed/acE 5rom an audience. e"c) -re-are s"uden"s 5or a >ri"ing "asE and ac"i0a"e. one /D one) ="Cs suc! a >as"e o5 "ime) g) @!e >ri"es VgoodC a" "!e /o""om. suc! as -eers andAor "!eir "eac!er) • • . res"ruc"ured. sel5$edi"ing and re0isionsM as s"uden"s are guided "!roug! >ri"ing and re$>ri"ing. or a" leas" s!e !as no" solici"ed "!e 0ie>s o5 "!is learnerCs class) =" maD /e "!e case "!a" 0erD 5e> o5 !er s"uden"s s!are !er reluc"ance "o use red inE) a) = >is! "!e "eac!er >ould use red inE so "!a" = could see "!ings clearlD) /) = >is! "!e "eac!er >ould >ri"e in "!e correc"ions ins"ead o5 using "!a" code) c) @!e correc"s e0erD mis"aEe) ="Cs reallD discouraging) d) @!e seems "o "!inE "!a" grammar and s-elling are e0erD"!ing) e) @!e >ri"es reallD nice commen"s a" "!e /o""om) 5) @!e goes o0er our mis"aEes indi0iduallD.

ex-ressions. or a ne>s-a-er ar"icle. >!e"!er >ri""en or oral. e"c) • 6ar8i g form @imilar "o "!e ac"i0i"D a/o0e. i5 "!eD canno" "!inE o5 a >ord "!eD lea0e a s-ace or >ri"e i" in "!eir o>n language) <!e im-or"an" "!ing is "o Eee. di55eren" "ex" "D-es are selec"ed) Jo> "!e "ex" >ould /e di55eren" i5 i" >ere >ri""en as a le""er. s"uden"s genera"e Nues"ions a/ou" "!e "o-ic 7"!is !el-s "!em 5ocus u-on audience as "!eD consider >!a" "!e reader needs "o Eno>8) <!e ans>ers "o "!ese Nues"ions >ill 5orm "!e /asis "o "!e >ri"ing) e$1rompts • • a >ell c!osen -ic"ure or song >ri""en -rom-"s 7-ro0ided /D "!e "eac!er or genera"ed "!roug! /rains"orming /D "!e s"uden"s8 $ +hey can /ollo) the /ive 's and the ( /rom "ournalism: )hoA )hatA )henA )hereA )hyA ho)) /$ 9esponding to tasks • P!en s"uden"s res-ond "o "asEs.• s"uden"s di0ided in"o grou-s -roduce >ords and ideas a/ou" "!e >ri"ing b$1lanning • • s"uden"s maEe a -lan o5 "!e >ri"ing /e5ore "!eD s"ar"M "!ese -lans can /e com-ared and discussed in grou-s /e5ore >ri"ing "aEes -lace) c$&enerating ideas • s"uden"s >ri"e a/ou" "!e su/jec" in six di55eren" >aDs $ "!eD: 1) descri/e i" 2) com-are i" 3) associa"e i" &) analD9e i" 5) a--lD i" 6) argue 5or or agains" i") d$Juestioning • =n grou-s. >i"ness s"a"emen". an e$mail. -ragma"ic in5orma"ion 7!o> "o s"ruc"ure a re0ie>. "!eD can learn ne> 0oca/ularD. C$ROUP <ORLD: S7#PI"$ IDE#S 133 . e"c8) g$ Gocusing ideas • (ast @riti g <!e s"uden"s >ri"e NuicElD on a "o-ic 5or 5i0e "o "en minu"es >i"!ou" >orrDing a/ou" correc" language or -unc"ua"ion) <!eD >ri"e as NuicElD as -ossi/le. gramma"ical s"ruc"ures and. s!aring ideas) <!is colla/ora"i0e >ri"ing is es-eciallD 0alua/le as i" in0ol0es o"!er sEills 7s-eaEing in -ar"icular8) • C:a gi g *ie@poi ts * good >ri"ing ac"i0i"D "o 5ollo> a role$-laD or s"orD"elling ac"i0i"D) (i55eren" s"uden"s c!oose di55eren" -oin"s o5 0ie> and "!inE a/ou" Adiscuss >!a" "!is c!arac"er >ould >ri"e in a diarD. e"c) STEP 1/. /u" ins"ead o5 di55eren" 0ie>-oin"s.>ri"ing) ?a"er "!is "ex" is re0ised) • $roup compositio s PorEing "oge"!er in grou-s.

"!eD can /egin "!e decision$maEing -rocess crucial "o de0elo-ing a co!eren" idea or argumen") *" "!is -oin". >!ic! ideas need "o /e se" aside. >!ic! ideas seem "o 5i" "oge"!er.s"uden"s maEe decisions as "!eD s!a-e ideas) STEP 1/2 C$ROUP <ORLD: WPROCESSB #PPRO#C7ES TO TE#C7I"$ <RITI"$ SLI%%S = @<R1C<=B @ =n recen" Dears a""en"ion !as 5ocused on "!e -rocess o5 >ri"ing. "!e leng"! o5 "!e "ex". an essaD or an im-or"an" le""er8) #ill in "!e grid 7no more "!an 50 >ords8 1) Mulling o0er and discussing ideas 2) %o""ing do>n no"es in no -ar"icular order 3) &) 5) e"c o"e "!a" i" >ould /e ina--ro-ria"e "o go "!roug! all "!ese s"ages in e0erD ins"ance o5 >ri"ing$"!e na"ure o5 "!e V-rocessC de-ends on "!e -ur-ose 5or >ri"ing./e">een "!em and "!ere maD /e VregressionsC "o earlier s"ages) <!inE o5 di55eren" >ri""en assignmen"s Dou mig!" se" Dour s"uden"s) @-eci5D one in >!ic! i" >ould /e a--ro-ria"e "o encourage "!em "o >orE sDs"ema"icallD "!roug! "!ese s"ages. maEe sure sen"ences maEe sense *dd -!rases "o maEe "!e s"orD 5lo> smoo"!lD 7co!esion marEers. -ronouns. re0ising.eac! o"!er in "!e -rocesses o5 re0ision and re$dra5"ingW /) 2) 3) &) 2/ During-)riting activities • s"uden"s are readD "o >ri"e $ "!eD need clear ins"ruc"ions and resources "o com-le"e "!e nex" s"e-s in "!e -rocess: >ri"ing dra5"s. sel5$edi"ing. "!e com-lexi"D o5 "!e ideas and "!e "ime a0aila/le "o "!e >ri"er) Moreo0er. and "!e cri"icism !as /een made "!a" "eac!ers some"imes ex-ec" learners "o -roduce >ri""en "ex"s >i"!ou" allo>ing.-rocess$>ri"ing sEillsW =n"erac"ion Jo> mig!" a lesson /e organi9ed so "!a" s"uden"s !el. and >!ic! ideas need 5ur"!er ex-lora"ion) (e0ise an ac"i0i"D "o !el. s"uden"s >ill c!oose >!ic! ideas mos" a--eal "o "!em. and one in >!ic! "!is >ould /e ina--ro-ria"e) C!oices o5 a--roac! <o >!a" ex"en" is a -rocess$/ased a--roac! "o "eac!ing >ri""en sEills com-a"i/le >i"! a "ex"$ "D-e /ased a--roac!W 7@ee @"e.2 $Module 3$ 5or an ex-lana"ion o5 a "ex"$"D-e /ased a--roac!)8 <ec!nologD Jo> mig!" access "o >ord -rocessors a55ec" "!e organi9a"ion o5 a lesson in"ended "o de0elo. ex-anding$M • s"uden"s are allo>ed "o use no"es 5rom "!e -re$>ri"ing "asEs) <!eD maD also use a dic"ionarD or s-ell$c!ecEer) STEP 1/0 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: DURI"$ T#SL = @<R1C<=B @ (e0ise a (uring Pri"ing <asE) 0/ 1ost-)riting activities • • Re$read Dou s"orD. in -rac"ice "!ese s"ages >ill rarelD /e discre"e$"!ere maD /e considera/le o0erla. conjunc"ions8 134 .= @<R1C<=B @ Bnce s"uden"s !a0e some"!ing on "!e -age "o >orE >i"!. encouraging or "raining "!em in "!e s"ages >!ic! are necessarD 5or -roducing good "ex"s) 1) <!e Vs"agesC o5 "!e >ri"ing -rocess a) Com-le"e "!e 5ollo>ing c!ronological lis" o5 "!e s"ages >ri"ers go "!roug! in >ri"ing some"!ing in >!ic! "!eD are concerned >i"! ex-ressing "!emsel0es 0erD exac"lD 75or exam-le.

a >iEi en"rD. grammar.• • • • 2limina"e unnecessarDAredundan" de"ails +roo5read 5or s-elling. s"uden"s learn 5rom eac! o"!er >!ile "!eD com-le"e assigned "asEs) More and more >orE-lace ac"i0i"ies in0ol0e -rojec" "eams) Gi0ing s"uden"s o--or"uni"ies "o >orE colla/ora"i0elD on -rojec"s can !el. in a small groulo"s o5 re5lec"ing on >ri"ing $ >!ole class. ano"!er maD excel in organi9ing) BD >orEing in grou-s. 0oca/ularD. "o edi" "!em. online /log. nor s!ould "!eD all) Bu" a" leas" some o5 "!e >ri"ing s"uden"s do >orE /es" in colla/ora"i0e grou-s) STEP 1/6 CP#IR <ORLD: PROA%E' SO%6I"$ = @<R1C<=B @ 135 . grammar Lc!ecElis"$ +eer edi"ing and -roo5$reading 7"!e "ex"s are in"erc!anged and "!e e0alua"ion is done /D o"!er s"uden"s) =n "!e real >orld. e"c) Xou could also asE "!e s"uden"s "o reduce "!e "ex"s.s"uden"s -re-are "o com-le"e "!e "asEW &) P!a" guidelinesAma"erials >ould Dou gi0e "!e s"uden"s during "!e >ri"ing "asEW 5) P!a" are some -os"$>ri"ing ac"i0i"ies Dou could useW STEP 1/5 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: <RITI"$ C%#SS = @<R1C<=B @ Commen" on "!ese: * >ri"ing classroom !as: • • • • • • • • lo"s and lo"s o5 li"era"ure s!ared and read lo"s o5 "alEing and s!aring o5 ideas and /elie5s -lanned ins"ruc"ion in "!e >ri"ing -rocess muc! -rac"ice in using "!e >ri"ing -rocess -eo-le >ri"ing indi0iduallD. >i"! a -ar"ner. reading. e"c8 2) P!a" are "!e su/$sEills needed "o com-le"e "!e "asEW 3) P!a" -re$>ri"ing ac"i0i"ies can !el.>ri"ing "asEs. i" is common 5or >ri"ers "o asE 5riends and colleagues "o c!ecE "ex"s 5or s-elling.-re-are "!em 5or "!e ad0an"ages and -i"5alls o5 colla/ora"i0e >orE on "!e jo/) @"uden"s >orEing in colla/ora"i0e grou-s can "aEe ad0an"age o5 grou. e"c8 STEP 1/1 C$ROUP <ORLD: T#SL DESI$" = @<R1C<=B @ (esign an assignmen" 5or Dour s"uden"s and ans>er "!e 5ollo>ing Nues"ions: 1) P!a" is "!e learning o/jec"i0eW 7>ri"ing.mem/ers 5or /uil"$in -eer re0ie> as "!eD com-le"e >ri"ing -rojec"s) o" leas" im-or"an". small grouselec"ing and organi9ing >ri"ing -or"5olios "eac!er$led mini$lessons on s-eci5ic >ri"ing sEills <:8 co sider colla)orati*e @riti g assig me tsO • • • • Colla/ora"i0e grou-s dra> u-on "!e s"reng"!s o5 all "!eir mem/ers) *l"!oug! one s"uden" maD /e s"ronger in cri"ical "!inEing sEills. concen"ra"ing on "!e mos" im-or"an" in5orma"ion) @!are >i"! audience 7>e/si"e. colla/ora"i0e >ri"ing assignmen"s usuallD en"ail muc! less grading "ime 5or "!e "eac!er) o" all >ri"ing assignmen"s can /e con0er"ed 5rom indi0idual >ri"ing "asEs "o grou. 0oca/ularD.

"!eD can. regardless o5 "!eir ages. decide on >!a" can go in"o a >ri"ing journal) :$ Gunctional )riting 136 . 5ind solu"ions "o "!e lis"ed -ro/lems) #ill in "!e "a/le) Re-or" "o "!e class) +ossi/le +ro/lem une0en -ro5iciencD large grou.si9es o55$"asE /e!a0iour @olu"ion7s8 #cti*it8 5: <riti g to %ear H (u ctio al <riti gH Creati*e <riti g =n SPri"ing "o ?earn Means ?earning "o <!inE.=n grou-s. P#IR <ORLD: <RITI"$ JOUR"#% = @<R1C<=B @ =n -airs. de0elo.considera/le men"al -o>er) Pri"ing is one o5 "!e mos" e55ec"i0e >aDs "o de0elo."!inEing) 7-) 1628 %$ 'riting to learn activities can !a--en 5reNuen"lD or in5reNuen"lD in classM some can ex"end o0er "!e en"ire semes"erM some can /e ex"ended "o include a >ide 0arie"D o5 >ri"ing "asEs in di55eren" 5orma"s and "o di55eren" audiences) Jere are some exam-les: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • <!e reading journal Generic and 5ocused summaries *nno"a"ions Res-onse -a-ers @Dn"!esis -a-ers <!e discussion s"ar"er #ocusing a discussion <!e learning log *nalD9ing "!e -rocess +ro/lem s"a"emen" @ol0ing real -ro/lems Belie0ing and dou/"ing game *nalDsis o5 e0en"s +rojec" no"e/ooEs <!e >ri"ing journal STEP 5/.S @Drene #orsman maEes "!e 5ollo>ing -oin" a/ou" )riting to learn: *s "eac!ers >e can c!oose /e">een 7a8 sen"encing s"uden"s "o "!oug!"less mec!anical o-era"ions and 7/8 5acili"a"ing "!eir a/ili"D "o "!inE) =5 s"uden"sY readiness 5or more in0ol0ed "!oug!" -rocesses is /D-assed in 5a0our o5 jamming more 5ac"s and 5igures in"o "!eir !eads. "!eD >ill s"agna"e a" "!e lo>er le0els o5 "!inEing) Bu" i5 s"uden"s are encouraged "o "rD a 0arie"D o5 "!oug!" -rocesses in classes.

>orEA-air >orE • leng"! reNuiremen"s • e0alua"ion o/jec"i0e7s8 • marEing sc!eme • "ime allo""ed • dissemina"ion STEP 5/1 CP#IR <ORLD: CO7ERE"CE #"D CO7ESIO" = @<R1C<=B @ Co!esion and co!erence are cen"ral "o all ins"ances o5 language use. screen-laD are all exam-les o5 crea"i0e >ri"ing "asEs "!a" !a0e /een sugges"ed 5or use in a 5oreign language class) STEP 5/0 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: #%TER"#TE E"DI"$S = @<R1C<=B @ *l"erna"e ending ac"i0i"ies include: • coming u.• • • "!e -rac"ice o5 ex-ressing s-eci5ic in5orma"ion mean" "o mirror real$li5e scenarios suc! as !o> "o maEe or do some"!ing. and minu"esM "o succeed in -roducing e55ec"i0e 5unc"ional "ex"s. i" is in >ri"ing "!a" learners o5 a 5oreign language o5"en 5ind "!a" anD -ro/lems "!eD !a0e in "!ese areas /ecome !ig!lig!"ed) 1) ?ooE a" "!e 5ollo>ing ex"rac"s 5rom com-osi"ions >ri""en /D learners o5 2nglis!) Bo"! s"uden"s !a0e -ro/lems >i"! co!esion. no" merelD on a linguis"ic sDs"em @!or" s"ories. memoranda. direc"ories.>i"! a di55eren" ending "o a Eno>n "ex" • -redic" an ending o5 a s"orD 5rom "!e class reading • >ri"e a seNuel "o a s"orD • !a0e s"uden"s re$>ri"e "!e s"orDA-ar" o5 "!e s"orD 5rom ano"!er c!arac"erCs -ers-ec"i0e Jo> >ould Dou de0ise suc! a "asEW #ocus on: • "!e reNuiremen"7s8 • grou. gi0ing ad0ice. reci-es. manuals. "!e "asE and "!e leng"! reNuiremen") . 5orms. learners mus" !a0e a clear sense o5 purpose and audience 7learnersC a>areness o5 audience and -ur-ose >ill 5acili"a"e "!e selec"ion o5 a--ro-ria"e language. and indeed. drama.e does not give me por0 to eat@ H7 landlad7 does not 0no9 : am used 137 . decide on !o> "o "eac! Dour s"uden"s: 5ormalAin5ormal le""er >ri"ingAar"icle >ri"ingA-ro-osal >ri"ing) (ecide on "!e 5orma". $4reative 'riting • • • maEes i" -ossi/le 5or s"uden"s "o ex-erimen" and -laD >i"! "!e language is engaging and mo"i0a"ing !el-s s"uden"s see language as a communica"i0e "ool. >i"! 5ocus on meaning. "o communica"ion o5 anD Eind) Jo>e0er. s"Dle and 5orma" >!ic! >ill 5ur"!er su--or" "!e -iece o5 >ri"ing8) STEP 5/2 C$ROUP <ORLD: %ETTERS = @<R1C<=B @ =n grou-s. -oems songs. >!ic! is >!D "!e "ex"s seem odd e0en "!oug! mis"aEes o5 grammar and 0oca/ularD !a0e /een correc"ed) 7a8 H7 landlad7 is an old 9oman@ H7 landlad7 is ver7 0ind to me@ (. in0i"ing someone "o some"!ing or "elling >!a" !a--ened in a s-eci5ic si"ua"ionM includes le""ers.

e lives on a ground floor of .ouse@ H7 room is dr7@ Re>ri"e "!ese ex"rac"s so "!a" "!eD VreadC na"urallD) P!a" -ro/lems does eac! s"uden" !a0e >i"! co!esionW 7B"!er mis"aEes !a0e /een correc"ed)8 2) (e5ine Vco!esionC and maEe a lis" o5 >ords >!ic! commonlD ac" as Vco!esi0e de0icesC) 3) ?ooE a" "!e 5ollo>ing ">o sen"ences) Bo"! are co!esi0e./e">een "!e -aragra-!s /eginning V.to eating a lot of por0@ :n m7 countr7 people of m7 countr7 tend to eat a lot of por0@ 7/8 H7 landlad7 is called Hrs (mit. co!esion or co!erenceW 6) Pould "!is /e eNuallD "rue o5 "!e -rocess o5 readingW Refere ces .emplif8i g a poi t madeH cou teri g a poi t madeH e.la"e and /oug!" a ne> car) WCo:ere ceB descri)es t:e logical relatio s )et@ee t:e ideas a d i formatio em)odied i discourse/ I co:ere t te.pa d t:e i formatio co tai ed i t:e precedi g se te ce: c) = !ad a >onder5ul >eeEend) Xes"erdaD = go" u. /u" one !as a -ro/lem o5 co!erence) P!ic! oneW a) Xes"erdaD = go" u. a roof@ H7 room is not at top of a ./ A8r eH D)<eac!ing Pri"ing @Eills 2/(orsma H D)Pri"ing "o ?earn Means ?earning "o <!inE 0/7armerH J) <!e +rac"ice o5 2nglis! ?anguage <eac!ing 1/'usumeciH D)Pri"ing in "!e 5oreign ?anguage Curriculum 138 .erence” describes =A and P:n t.la"e and !ad a NuicE /reaE5as") /) Xes"erdaD = go" u.roug.ts to suppl8 t:e ecessar8 logical co ectio s/ I se te ce CaD a)o*eH it is clear t:at t:e relatio s:ip )et@ee Wgetti g up lateB a d W:a*i g a Fuic= )rea=fastB is o e of cause a d effect/ I se te ce C)DH t:e t@o parts of t:e se te ce appear to )e u related a d it is difficult to i fer a 8 co ectio / I t:is se te ce t:ere is a pro)lem of co:ere ce/ T:e seco d of t:e se te ces i CcD )elo@ is grammaticall8 similar to se te ce CaD a)o*e/ #gai it is perfectl8 co:ere t/ 7o@e*erH i t:is case t:e relatio s:ip )et@ee t:e t@o parts of t:e se te ce is ot o e of cause a d effect )ut of eFui*ale ce-)ot: parts of t:e se te ce illustrate a d e.te di g a poi t madeH etcD/ Co:ere ce is :elped )8 co:esio H )ut ofte a @riter assumes t:at t:e reader @ill use particular aspects of ge eral = o@ledge a d = o@ledge of t:e specific co *e tio s of certai =i ds of te.e sentence -a1 above.t a d t:roug: = o@ledge Ci t:ese casesH of co *e tio al :uma )e:a*iourD @:ic: t:e reader )ri gs to )ear i t:e act of i terpreti g/ &) ?ooE /acE a" "!e -receding -aragra-! in "!is "asE) (e5ine "!e rela"ions!i.la"e and !ad a leisurelD /reaE5as") I )ot: se te ces CaD a d CcD Wa dB pro*ides t:e co:esio / 7o@e*erH t:e relatio s:ip it implies ca )e deri*ed o l8 t:roug: t:e co te.t it is clear :o@ se te ces relate to se te cesH a d paragrap:s to paragrap:s Ce. =A@ 5) =n >ri"ing 2nglis!.ouse@ (ometimes it rains@ /ater comes t.$o.s@ (. >!ic! a--ears "o -resen" more -ro/lems "o Dour learners.ouse@ :t is a ver7 old .

#oreign ?anguage <eac!ing Me"!ods $ !""-:AA>>>)lis"en$and$>ri"e)comAaudio $ !""-:AA>>>)learner)orgAin"erac"i0esAs-ellingA 139 . 2nglis! Jori9ons.5/RaimesH #/ <ec!niNues in <eac!ing Pri"ing $ +a"!>aD "o 2nglis!. >>>)!ona)a!lamon"ada)ne"A $ >>>)coerll)u"exas)eduAme"!ods. Bx5ord 1ni0ersi"D +ress $ *--roac!es "o <eac!ing Pri"ing.

4 #DJUSTI"$ C%#SSROO' '#"#$E'E"T TO T7E EDUC#TIO"#% E"6IRO"'E"T 140 .'ODU%E .

: Classroom 'a ageme t: $oals Classroom 'a ageme t $oals are: • • • • • • • • • • • +ro0ide a -roduc"i0e. res-onsi/ili"D.: Classroom Managemen": Goals #cti*it8 2: <eac!erCs roles #cti*it8 0: <eac!erCs language: ins"ruc"ions #cti*it8 1: +lanning -a""erns o5 in"erac"ion in class #cti*it8 5: @"uden"sC a""i"udes "o di55eren" -a""erns o5 in"erac"ion #cti*it8 6: *u"onomD and learning #cti*it8 2: PaDs "o im-ro0e "eac!ing and learning /D using modern "ec!nologD 14 #cti*it8 M: 20alua"ion O)9ecti*es • • • • • • • • "o de0elo. and em-a"!D in s"uden"s @-arE en"!usiasm 5or learning =den"i5D "!e roles o5 "!e "eac!er and use "!em according "o "!e na"ure o5 "!e -ro-osed ac"i0i"ies 2nsure (i55eren"ia"ed ?earning #os"er @el5$(irec"ed ?earning Crea"e a ?earning Communi"D 2ncourage Colla/ora"i0e ?earning C!allenge @"uden"s *cademicallD +ro0ide 5eed/acE on "!e e55ec"i0eness o5 "!e ac"i0i"ies =den"i5D >aDs 5or "eac!ers and s"uden"s "o im-ro0e learning /D using modern "ec!nologD A$ 1rovide a productiveA sa/e environment conducive to learning • • 14 Brgani9ing +!Dsical @-ace: sa5e"D and arrangemen" o5 5urni"ureM accessi/ili"D "o learning and use o5 -!Dsical resourcesM crea"e Classroom @ea"ing C!ar"s "o -re0en" s"uden"s 5rom disru-"ing Dour class) Managing @"uden" Be!a0iour: ex-ec"a"ionsM moni"oring o5 s"uden" /e!a0iourM res-onse "o s"uden" mis/e!a0iour) @"uden"s -ar"ici-a"e in "!e de0elo-men" o5 classroom a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD 141 . sa5e en0ironmen" conduci0e "o learning #os"er sel5$res-ec".#cti*it8 .a more -rinci-led /asis on >!ic! "o maEe decisions a/ou" "!e -lanning and "eac!ing o5 lessons. -ar"icularlD >i"! regard "o "!e range o5 roles a0aila/leM "o consider al"erna"i0e >aDs o5 gi0ing ins"ruc"ionsM "o ex-lore -ro/lems "!a" mig!" arise in gi0ing ins"ruc"ionsM "o /ecome more a>are o5 "!e ra"ionale underlDing "!e range o5 c!oices a0aila/le >i"! regard "o grou-ing s"uden"s 5or di55eren" ac"i0i"iesM "o -ro0ide a 5rame>orE >i"!in >!ic! "o learn more a/ou" s"uden"sC a""i"udes "o di55eren" -a""erns o5 in"erac"ion in "!e classroomM "o dra> a""en"ion o5 "!e "rainees "o "!e ex"en" "o >!ic! di55eren" Einds o5 ac"i0i"D encourage 7or do no" encourage8 "!e learnerCs de0elo-men" o5 au"onomous learning sEillsM "o encourage "rainees "o ex-lore and e0alua"e "!e desira/ili"D and a--ro-ria"eness o5 "!ese sEills >i"! re5erence "o "!eir o>n ex-erience o5 learning and "eac!ing me"!ods) #cti*it8 .a>areness o5 di55eren" roles "eac!ers -er5orm and consider "!e a--ro-ria"eness o5 di55eren" rolesM "o de0elo.

i" is ad0isa/le "o incor-ora"e mul"i-le learning s"Dles in our classes) G$ Goster Eel/-Directed -earning 7ED-8 • @"uden"s ex-ress "!eir o-inions and -ro0ide sugges"ions regarding "!eir o>n learning) Keeping a journal.$ Goster sel/-respectA responsibilityA and empathy in students • • • Res-ec": classroom in"erac"ions /e">een s"uden"s and "eac!er or /e">een -eers re5lec" res-ec" 5or o"!ers) Res-onsi/ili"D: "eac!ing s"uden"s "o "aEe more res-onsi/ili"D 5or "!eir ac"ions and sc!ool >orE is an excellen" lesson no" onlD 5or Dour class. /u" 5or li5e as >ell) 2m-a"!D: "!e a/ili"D "o imagine >i"! some degree o5 accuracD >!a" i" is liEe "o /e in "!e -redicamen" o5 "!e o"!er -erson and "o communica"e "!a" a>areness so "!e o"!er -erson 5eels unders"oodM role -laDing can /e a use5ul "ool in !el-ing s"uden"s "o /ecome em-a"!ic) 4$ Epark enthusiasm /or learning • #eel -assiona"e a/ou" >!a" Dou are "eac!ingM ge" s"uden"s exci"ed a/ou" "!eir learningM ge" s"uden"s ac"i0elD in0ol0ed in "!eir learning 7 gi0es "!em "!e o--or"uni"D "o -u" "!emsel0es in"o "!e eNua"ion8$ge" s"uden"s mo0ing around "!e classroom. and systems rather than content coverage and tests./ecomes a communi"D) * learning communi"D reNuires "!a" e0erDone /e emotionally present and no" jus" -!DsicallD -resen") <!eD learn some"!ing a/ou" /eing 0ulnera/le and a/ou" caring 5or 142 . crea"e mDs"eriesA-ro/lems 5or "!em "o sol0eA-ose Nues"ions "!a" c!allenge s"uden"s "o "!inE "!roug! "!e ans>ers or researc! in5orma"ion "o sol0e "!e -u99le) D$ *denti/y the roles o/ the teacher and use them according to the nature o/ the proposed activities 0$ 0nsure Di//erentiated -earning • 20erD s"uden" is di55eren") (e0ising lessons "!a" e0erD s"uden" >ill >an" "o learn is di55icul") (i55eren"ia"ion is not onl7 . -ro0ide in-u" regarding rules or -roceduresM are in0ol0ed in con5lic" resolu"ion8) Crea"ing an 2n0ironmen" o5 Res-ec" and Colla/ora"ion: good "eac!er$s"uden"As"uden"$ s"uden" in"erac"ionsM "eac!er res-onds "o s"uden"s needs . personal development and the development of character are central themes of @el5$(irec"ed ?earning) In schools. planning and taking action are key tools. "or the individual. i" is using man7 lessons t. eaching emphasi!es SDL skills.aving multiple learning modalities in one lesson .at concentrate on different learning modalities ) *lmos" e0erDone is a 0isual learner. Self-improvement. teachers can work toward SDL a stage at a time. /u" "!ose same -eo-le are Einaes"!e"ic learners also) <eac!ers s!ould /e a>are o5 >!ic! learning modali"D "!eD are "arge"ing in a lesson and "rD "o "arge" a di55eren" modali"D "!e nex" class) <!is Eee-s "!eir class 5res! and in"eres"ing 5or all s"uden"s) P!en -ossi/le. &$ 4reate a -earning 4ommunity • • @"uden"s su--or" one ano"!er in grou. setting goals.learning ac"i0i"ies and include lo>$ s"a"usA!is"oricallD marginali9ed s"uden"s) <!eD s!o> res-ec" 5or mul"icul"ural and gender -ers-ec"i0es ex-ressed /D o"!ers) BD "!e 0erD -rocess o5 learning !o> "o "ranscend di55erences "o success5ullD ac!ie0e a common goal "!e grou.• /e!a0ioural ex-ec"a"ions and norms 7e)g). SDL involves initiating personal challenge activities and developing the personal #ualities to pursue them successfully. processes.

"!e ma"erial) P!a"e0er su/jec" a good "eac!er is "rDing "o ge" across "o "!e s"uden"s. "rus". and -rocessing 7re5lec"ing on !o> >ell "!e "eam is 5unc"ioning and !o> "o 5unc"ion e0en /e""er8) *$ 4hallenge Etudents Academically • • • <!is rule is a/ou" curriculum) =5 s"uden"s are no" academicallD c!allenged./. more "!an liEelD. 7I"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: TE#C7I"$ P7I%OSOP7K =ns"ruc"ions: =magine Dou >ere asEed "o send an u-$"o$da"e "eac!ing -!iloso-!D in order "o ge" a "eac!ing -osi"ion) Go "o !""-:AA>>>)edulinE)orgA-or"5olioA-!iloso-!ies)!"m and read "!e sugges"ions -resen"ed in "!e ar"icle) =5 Dou 5eel liEe 5inding ou" more de"ails a/ou" >!a" o"!er "eac!ers encoun"ered >!en 5aced >i"! suc! a reNuiremen". decision maEing. "!e in"eres" on "!e -ar" o5 "!e s"uden"s !as "o /e "!ere 5irs") <!is is >!ere su--or"i0e ideas come in) <!eD crea"e a c!allenge and gain "!e a""en"ion o5 "!e s"uden"s) ?earning !as "o /e in"eres"ing. 5ace$"o$5ace -romo"i0e in"erac"ion. leaders!i-.e group learns ho) to listen$ @c!ool is !ard >orE. sim-lD /ecause "!eD ge" "o Eno> "!eir s"uden"s as indi0iduals."!e s"uden"s gras. "!e /e""er a/le "!eD are "o ada-" "!eir "eac!ing me"!ods. and >!a" "!eD need) <!e more a "eac!er unders"ands "!e s"uden"s."!e a""en"ion o5 s"uden"s) <!e s"uden"s mus" 5eel "!eD can rela"e some!o> "o "!e ma"erial) Jere is >!ere a good "eac!er can do ex"ra researc! "o ge" some !idden gems) +resen"ing "!e ma"erial "o "!e class in "!is manner. and a "ime 5or celebration occasionallD is a >onder5ul >aD "o exci"e a class and "o remind "!em "!a" success is im-or"an" e0erD>!ere and no" jus" in "!e classroom) ($ 0ncourage 4ollaborative -earning • • • Colla/ora"i0e learning re-resen"s a signi5ican" s!i5" a>aD 5rom "!e "D-ical "eac!er can"ered classrooms) <eac!ers >!o use colla/ora"i0e learning a--roac!es "end "o "!inE o5 "!emsel0es less as ex-er" "ransmi""ers o5 Eno>ledge "o s"uden"s. >ill "urn a /oring su/jec" in"o an in"eres"ing one) STEP . "!eD can /ecome /ored and o55 "asE) Bnce a s"uden" is o55 "asE. Dou !a0e a managemen" -ro/lem) *ll s"uden"s >an" "o 5eel "!a" "!eD are a -ar" o5 "!e class) <!is includes -er5orming s"uden"s and s"uden"s >!o are close "o dro--ing ou") Good "eac!ers Eno> !o> "o c!allenge "!eir s"uden"s. /u" mos" cen"re on s"uden"sC ex-lora"ion or a--lica"ion o5 "!e course ma"erial.• o"!ers) <!roug! "!eir ex-erience "!eD learn >!a" i" means "o /e !uman in a >orE en0ironmen") !. "o !el. in"er-ersonal sEills 7communica"ion. unders"anda/le and 5un in order "o Eee. and more as ex-er" designers o5 in"ellec"ual ex-eriences 5or s"uden"s) Colla/ora"i0e learning ac"i0i"ies 0arD >idelD. and learns a/ou" >!a" "!e s"uden"s 5ind in"eres"ing and no" so in"eres"ing. clicE on <eac!ing +!iloso-!D) o> >ri"e a -!iloso-!ical s"a"emen" on Dour /elie5s a/ou" classroom managemen") STEP ./2 C#SSESS'E"TD: CO'PO"E"TS O( C%#SS '#"#$E'E"T =ns"ruc"ions: *ns>er "!e Nues"ion) P!a" does a >ell managed classroom looE liEeW P!a"Cs in0ol0ed in: 143 . indi0idual accoun"a/ili"D 7eac! o5 us !as "o con"ri/u"e and learn8. no" sim-lD "!e "eac!erCs -resen"a"ion or ex-lica"ion o5 i") @"uden"sC >orEing "oge"!er !as manD /ene5i"s) =" le"s "!e s"uden" /ecome "!e "eac!er) PorEing "oge"!er le"s s"uden"s ge" "!eir Nues"ion ans>ered /D someone >!o is no" going "o grade "!em) =" le"s s"uden"s "alE and ge" "o Eno> eac! o"!er during class) PorEing in grou-s le"s !ig! sc!ool and middle sc!ool s"uden"s relD on eac! o"!er >!en "!eD !a0e "o do some"!ing "!a" is c!allenging) Colla/ora"i0e ?earning is a rela"ions!i.among learners "!a" reNuires -osi"i0e in"erde-endence 7a sense o5 sinE or s>im "oge"!er8. and con5lic" resolu"ion8.

and generallD maEe "!e "ransi"ion "imes ">ice as long as "!eD need "o /e) Solutio s Solutio s STEP .and class discussions "!ere are s"uden"s >!o do no" -ar"ici-a"e and ins"ead dis"rac" o"!er s"uden"s 5rom learning /D "alEing "o "!eir 5riends or else "alEing ou") &) <!e same s"uden"s are al>aDs "!e ones >!o maEe sure "!e ma"erials are -icEed u.and -u" a>aD a" "!e end o5 class) 5) <!e class is /roEen in"o small grou-s 5or grou. >!ic! maD im-ede an ideal sea"ing arrangemen" or grou. "!e s"uden"s are a>are >!a" "!e "eac!er >an"s 75or "!em "o /e Nuie"8 /u" "!eD all jus" Eee./1 CAR#I"STOR'I"$D: %E#R"I"$ CO''U"ITK SET UP =ns"ruc"ions: 144 .>i"! and "!ose "!a" "!eD do no" >an" "o /e >i"!) <!eD "!en c!ose no" "o >orE >i"! anDone else /esides "!eir 5riends) 3) (uring grou.>orE) 2) P!en maEing grou-s s"uden"s are 0ocal "o>ards "!ose "!a" "!eD >ould liEe "o /e in a grou."alEing anD>aDs) Classroom Orga i.atio Pro)lems 1) @"uden"s are >orEing in class and accom-lis! "asEs a" di55eren" ra"es L some s"uden"s are done 0erD NuicElD and some "aEe muc! more "ime) 2) P!en class is >orEing colla/ora"i0elD in small grou-s in "!e classroom./0 C$ROUP <ORLD: SI'U%#TED PROA%E' SO%6I"$ =ns"ruc"ions: @ugges" solu"ions "o "!e 5ollo>ing classroom managemen" -ro/lems: "orm Setti g Pro)lems 1) * s"uden" is excluded 5rom -ar"ici-a"ing in grou. !o> do Dou regain "!eir a""en"ion and re5ocus "!em >!en i" is "ime "o come /acE "oge"!erW 3) <!e -!Dsical limi"a"ions o5 "!e en0ironmen". >!ic! maEes i" !ard "o s"aD >i"! "!e -lan) P!a" do Dou do >i"! "!e class a" "!a" "ime L !o> do Dou reco0erW 5) @"uden"s are no" in"eres"ed L !o> "o ge" "!e classCs a""en"ion) 6) (uring "ransi"ion "imes "!e s"uden"s ge" ou" o5 "!eir sea"s.>orE and is un-roduc"i0e) 6) *5"er a "eac!erCs a""em-" "o ge" "!e classCs a""en"ion. "alE >i"! "!eir 5riends.>orE arrangemen") &) * lesson /om/s or some o"!er mis"aEe.7i8 crea"ing an en0ironmen" o5 res-ec" and ra--or"M 7ii8 es"a/lis!ing a cul"ure 5or learningM 7iii8 managing classroom -roceduresM 7i08 managing s"uden" /e!a0iourM and 7iii8 organi9ing -!Dsical s-aceW STEP .

/5 CP#IR <ORLD: P7KSIC#% E"6IRO"'E"T =ns"ruc"ions: =n order "o design Dour +!Dsical @-ace -ro0ide a ma-. mus" /e clear >!a" s"e-s lead u.democra"ic classroom and curriculum "o mee" s"uden"sC needs) <!is >ill include -lans 5or es"a/lis!ing a cul"ure 5or learningM s"uden" use o5 classroom s-ace \ 5acili"iesM -rocedures during >!ole class ac"i0i"iesM -rocedures during small grou.+roduce a descri-"ion o5 !o> Dou >ill se" u. e"c8 Crea"ing -os"ers in class '#P <7KO STEP .>orE session) 145 . marEe"ing. resources.>i"! assessmen"W 6) <!ere is no"!ing "o s!o> a" "!e end o5 a grou. lea5le"s.Dour classroom and "eac!ing so "!a" s"uden"s -ar"ici-a"e in a learning communi"D "!a" su--or"s s"uden" learning and >ell$/eing) Be sure "o include: a) -re0en"a"i0e measures 7-roac"i0e >aDs Dou >ill se" u. or ma-s 5or di55eren" "D-es o5 ac"i0i"ies including a s"uden" sea"ing arrangemen". "eac!er desE."oo muc! "ime) 5) Jo> does colla/ora"i0e >orE !el. /roc!ures. dis-laDs.>orEM ex-ec"a"ions regarding s"uden" res-onsi/ili"D 5or >orEM e"c8) /) su--or"i0e measures 7!o> Dou >ill guide s"uden"s /acE "o acce-"ed /e!a0iour8) c) correc"i0e measures$ conseNuences 7las" resor"./6 C$ROUP <ORLD: TE#C7I"$ TEC7"IEUES =ns"ruc"ions: (e0ise a s!or" scenario >!ic! in0ol0es a" leas" 2 "ec!niNues "o maEe class mee"ings crea"e and en!ance ?earning Communi"D) %us"i5D Dour c!oices) MaEe sure Dou men"ion: 1) Com-e"ence."o "!is s"age and >!a" Dou >ill do "o correc"8) STEP . le0el 2) B/jec"i0e7s8 3) =n"erac"ions &) <iming 5) #eed/acEA20alua"ion STEP . e"c) Xou s!ould include a >ri""en ex-lana"ion o5 Dour c!oice o5 arrangemen"7s8) #CTI6ITK 20alua"ing -rojec"s Class de/a"e (is-laDing s"uden"sC -roduc"s in in"erac"ion: "ourism 5airs 7s"ands./2 CDEA#TED: RE(%ECT Gi0e Dour commen"s on "!e 5ollo>ing: 1) *re colla/ora"i0e learning ac"i0i"ies good 5or s"uden"s >i"! /e!a0ioural di55icul"iesW 2) P!a" are "!e >aDs in >!ic! in"roducing colla/ora"i0e learning maEes "eac!ing easier and more -leasura/leW 3) @urelD colla/ora"i0e >orE >ill !old gi5"ed and "alen"ed s"uden"s /acE) &) Colla/ora"i0e ac"i0i"ies "aEe u. role -laD.

organi9ing "!e loca"ion and grou-ing o5 s"uden"s in "!e room) %ESSO" P%#" 146 . gi0e clear ins"ruc"ions a/ou" >!a" exac"lD "!eir "asE is.a major -ar" o5 "!e "eac!erYs jo/ is "o assess "!e s"uden"sY >orE. and "!e s"uden"s ex-ec" i") . some"imes -laDing roles "!emsel0es) =" >ill gi0e "!e s"uden"s a c!ance "o -rac"ise 2nglis! >i"! someone >!o s-eaEs i" /e""er "!an "!eD do) >$ resource ."!e "eac!er as a "u"or is someone >!o ac"s as a coac! and as a resource >i"! s"uden"s in0ol0ed in "!eir o>n >orE."!e mos" im-or"an" and di55icul" role o5 "!e "eac!er >!en organising an ac"i0i"D is "o "ell "!e s"uden"s >!a" "!eD are going "o "alE a/ou" 7or >ri"e or read a/ou"8.>!ile i" is im-or"an" "!a" "eac!ers s!ould no" in"er0ene in genuinelD communica"i0e ac"i0i"ies "aEing -lace in "!e classroom "!eD s!ould al>aDs /e readD "o o55er !el.i5 i" is needed) <!us "!eD maEe "!emsel0es a0aila/le so "!a" s"uden"s can consul" "!em >!en 7and onlD >!en8 "!eD >is!) $ tutor . "alEing a" "!e s"uden"sY le0el o5 com-re!ension. ge" "!e ac"i0i"D going./D "!emsel0es or >i"! colleagues) <!e /es" >aD "o do "!is is /D in0es"iga"ing >!a" is going on. and "!en organise 5eed/acE >!en i" is o0er) <!e success o5 "!e ac"i0i"ies de-ends on good organi9a"ion and on "!e s"uden"s Eno>ing exac"lD >!a" "!eD are "o do) #$ prompter . s-eci5D "!e role "!e "eac!er is liEelD "o ado-" a" eac! o5 "!e -oin"s marEed VRC) Com-are Dour ans>ers >i"! "!ose o5 o"!er mem/ers o5 "!e grou-) Jo> do Dou accoun" 5or anD di55erencesW 2xam-le: R2 Hanager: <!e "eac!er is in0ol0ed !ere in "!e -!Dsical managemen" o5 "!e classroom. "o see !o> >ell "!eD are -er5orming or !o> >ell "!eD -er5ormed) <!is is /o"! im-or"an" -edagogicallD."eac!ers can de0elo. CAR#I"STOR'I"$D: E%ICITI"$ TE#C7ERBS RO%E =ns"ruc"ions: MaEe a lis" o5 5ur"!er ca"egories Dou mig!" use "o classi5D "!e roles a "eac!er -er5orms) 2xam-le: %ntertainer STEP 2/2 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: '#TC7I"$ =ns"ruc"ions: ?ooE a" "!e lesson -lan /elo>) #irs". -ro0ide "!e aim 5or eac! o5 "!e ac"i0i"ies in "!e s"age) <!en. >!o is "!e mos" im-or"an" source "!eD !a0e 5or com-re!ensi/le in-u"M  disad0an"age $ >e maD 5eel uneasD a/ou" "!e e55ec" "!is !as on "!e -ossi/ili"ies 5or s"uden" "alEing "ime) :$ assessor . o/ser0ing >!a" >orEs >ell in class and >!a" does no". "rDing ou" ne> "ec!niNues and ac"i0i"ies and e0alua"ing "!eir a--ro-riacD) STEP 2/.$ organizer ."eac!ers mig!" join simula"ions as -ar"ici-an"s. and >!o call u-on "!e "eac!er mainlD 5or ad0ice and guidance) ?$ investigator .#cti*it8 2: Teac:erBs Roles (e-ending on "!e ac"i0i"ies !eAs!e -ro-oses. using Dour -re5erred sDs"em 5or classi5Ding a "eac!erCs roles. "!e "eac!er "aEes on one or se0eral roles) <!e lis" maD include: %$ controller .o5"en "!e "eac!er needs "o encourage s"uden"s "o -ar"ici-a"e or needs "o maEe sugges"ions a/ou" !o> s"uden"s maD -roceed in an ac"i0i"D >!en "!ere is a silence or >!en "!eD are con5used a/ou" >!a" "o do nex") <!e role o5 -rom-"er !as "o /e -er5ormed >i"! discre"ionM "eac!ers s!ould /e !el-ing "!em onl7 >!en i" is necessarD) 5$ participant ."eac!ers "end "o do a lo" o5 "!e "alEingM  ad0an"age $ 5reNuen"lD i" is "!e "eac!er.

0ideo is used "o rein5orce and consolida"e s"uden"$-roduced language) • B/jec"i0e: o @"uden"s >ill /e a/le "o an"ici-a"e "!e Nues"ions and "o-ics "!a" occur during real$li5e !o"el c!ecE$in and res-ond a--ro-ria"elD) • ?e0el: o ?o>$=n"ermedia"e "o =n"ermedia"e • Ma"erials: o Jandou" and s!or" 0ideo segmen" s!o>ing a -erson c!ecEing in "o a !o"el) Mo0ies "!a" include !o"el c!ecE in scenes are:  <!e Gradua"e  Jome *lone ==  BnlD Xou  =" Could Ja--en "o Xou  +lanes. so "!eD are a good source o5 language models) =n "!is ac"i0i"D. <rains and *u"omo/iles +re-ara"ion: • <!e "eac!er >a"c!es "!e 0ideo segmen" and maEes a no"e 5or !isA!er o>n re5erence o5 >!ic! o5 "!e "o-ics and con0ersa"ional mo0es lis"ed on "!e !andou" are used and in >!a" order during "!e c!ecE$in scene) +RBC2(1R2@ #I' W TE#C7ER #CTI6ITK (is"ri/u"es "!e !andou" and goes "!roug! "!e meanings o5 eac! con0ersa"ional mo0eA"o-ic on "!e lis") #orms -airs) *sEs eac! -air "o cons"ruc" a -ossi/le dialogue including all o5 "!e "o-ics and con0ersa"ional mo0es) Reminds "!em "!a" "!e #ron" ClerE does no" al>aDs s"ar" eac! con0ersa"ional exc!ange) @ome"imes "!e Jo"el Gues" >ould /ring u"!e "o-ic 5irs") Circula"es "!e room -ro0iding assis"ance as needed) @elec"s some 7or all8 o5 "!e -airs "o -er5orm "!eir dialogues) +laDs "!e 0ideo segmen" and c!ecEs o55 "!e con0ersa"ional mo0es or "o-ics "!a" occur in "!e scene) +laDs "!e segmen" again and asEs @@ "o maEe a no"e o5 "!e order o5 "!e mo0esA"o-ics) +laDs a "!ird "ime and asEs @@ "o maEe a no"e o5 anD TE#C7ERBS RO%E R1 STUDE"T #CTI6ITK *c"i0elD lis"en) '#TERI#% !andou"s • ST#$E 1 R2 R3 Ge" in"o -airs) *c"i0elD lis"en) R& *c"i0elD lis"en) R5 R6 R' PorE) *c" "!e dialogue) Pa"c! \ ans>er) 0ideo "a-e R8 R9 MaEe a no"e o5 "!e order o5 "!e mo0esA"o-ics \ re-or" "o "!e class) MaEe no"es\ re-or" "o "!e class) 147 .+eo-le o5"en c!ecE in "o !o"els in "!e mo0ies.

i" >ill no" ma""er !o> clear Dour ins"ruc"ions areb 148 . maEe sure "o ge" Dour s"uden"sY a""en"ion /e5ore Dou s"ar" gi0ing ou" "!e ins"ruc"ions) =5 "!eD are no" lis"ening or -aDing a""en"ion "o Dou.ex-ressions used in "!e 0ideo "!a" are similar "o "!ose cons"ruc"ed in "!e s"uden" dialogues) J* (B1< C7ECLI"$ I"TO # 7OTE% <o-icsACon0ersa"ional Mo0es • • • • • • • • • B-eningAGree"ing ReNues" Room @-eci5D Room <D-e and um/er o5 Bccu-an"s ?eng"! o5 @"aD Jel. /u" /D going "!roug! "!is -rocess. V5irs". "!en i" mig!" /e a good idea "o "rim i" do>n e0en more) *lso."!is u.5or a long -eriod o5 "ime. >eaE s"uden"s. V/e5ore Dou do "!is))) V and "rD "o 5ocus on seNuen"ial sign-os"ing liEe. room ser0ice. record "!e c!anges >!ic! "aEe -lace in "!e "eac!erCs roles) Com-are Dour lis" o5 c!anges >i"! "!ose o5 o"!er mem/ers o5 "!e grou-) Jo> do Dou accoun" 5or anD di55erences /e">een "!e lis"sW #cti*it8 0: Teac:erBs %a guage: I structio s ?acE o5 ex-laining ins"ruc"ions clearlD ea"s a>aD a 0alua/le class "ime) Model >!ene0er Dou can and "one Dour language "o sui" large mixed a/ili"D classes. laundrD8 @ign "!e Regis"er BooE B"!er Business 7Can Dou "!inE o5 anD"!ing elseW8 ClosingA#are>ell STEP 2/0 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: #%TER"#TI6E PROCEDURE =ns"ruc"ions: Pa"c! a 10$minu"e sec"ion o5 a 0ideoed lesson) *s Dou >a"c! i" a second "ime. and 5inallD. small grou-s.call.>i"! ?uggage @-ecial eeds 7>aEe u. "!e age o5 Dour s"uden"s) Jere are a 5e> sugges"ions: • • • • • • • • +lan >!a" Dou are going "o saD a!ead o5 "ime /D >ri"ing Dour ins"ruc"ions ou" on -a-er) =" is !ig!lD im-rac"ical "o Eee. nex")))C e"c) (emons"ra"e >!a" "!eD s!ould /e doing >!en -ossi/le) C!ecE "!a" s"uden"s unders"and "!e ins"ruc"ions /e5ore le""ing "!em s"ar" 7and a0oid asEing "!em DesAno Nues"ions liEe S(o Dou unders"andWSM c!ances are "!eD >ill saD SDesS e0en i5 "!eD donY" !a0e a clueb8 <!inE a/ou" !o> Dou >ould res-ond "o Dour ins"ruc"ions) Pould Dou /e a/le "o remem/er as muc! as Dou ex-ec" Dour s"uden"s "o remem/erW =5 Dou "!inE i" mig!" /e "oo muc! 5or Doursel5. second. Dou s!ould /e a/le "o "eac! Doursel5 ne> !a/i"s) PorE on gi0ing s!or" ins"ruc"ions) 2di" ou" com-lex language) MaEe sure Dour ins"ruc"ions are in a logical order) #orge" a/ou" sen"ences liEe.

e7 are sitting@ !.>ill ac" "!e 5irs" si"ua"ion descri/ed /elo>) <!e o"!er grou. : 9ant 7ou to as0 <uestions to find out 9. ins"ead. Eee-ing in mind anD conclusions "!eD maD !a0e reac!ed in discussing "!e -re0ious Nues"ion) <!en "!eD s>i"c! roles) a8 <eac!er: VC@ "o9.at time do 7ou get up?C and no> >an"s "!e s"uden"s "o asE o"!er Nues"ions /eginning V/. be careful not to let 8 see 7our picture@ ML.t@ #ood )6 /8 <!e "eac!er ge"s "!e a""en"ion o5 "!e >!ole class) <!en s!e gi0es a -ic"ure "o *nn and ges"ures "o !er no" "o re0eal i" "o o"!ers) <!e "eac!er asEs *nn "!ree or 5our Nues"ions "o 5ind ou" >!a" is in "!e -ic"ure) @!e "!en ges"ures "o <om 7>!o is on "!e o--osi"e side o5 "!e room8 "o con"inue "!e Nues"ions) @!e "!en uses ges"ure "o di0ide "!e s"uden"s in"o -airs and gi0es one s"uden" in eac! -air a -ic"ure) @!e saDs.at is in 5As picture@ 5.t. learners and "!e "eac!er are conseNuen"lD o/liged "o Vnego"ia"e meaningC "o ac!ie0e an au"!en"ic communica"i0e -ur-ose) STEP 0/0 CRO%E P%#K-P#IR <ORLD: E6#%U#TI"$ I"STRUCTIO"S =ns"ruc"ions: (i0ide "!e "rainees in"o ">o grou-s) Bne grou.>ill e0alua"e "!e e55ec"i0eness o5 "!e ins"ruc"ion.at time do 7ou=?C Jo>e0er. . loo0 at 8nn and 2ane and see .ere are t. :Ad li0e 7ou to get into pairs. "!e s"uden"s Eee. Dou)C STEP 0/1 C$ROUP <ORLD: PROA%E' SO%6I"$ SI'U%#TIO" =ns"ruc"ions: ?ooE a" "!e 5ollo>ing si"ua"ions and iden"i5D >!a" mig!" !a0e gone >rong) P!a" else could "!e "eac!er !a0e doneW +resen" Dour 5indings "o "!e o"!er grou-s) a8 7Class o5 anD le0el8 <!e "eac!er !ands ou" a -assage 5or "!e s"uden"s "o read) @!e "!en "ells "!em "o read i" 0erD NuicElD in order "o ex"rac" "!e gis") <!e s"uden"s /egin "o read -ains"aEinglD) /8 i8 ii8 7?o>er$in"ermedia"e class8 <!e "eac!er >an"s "o "eac! "!e Nues"ion >o9 long f+resen" +er5ec" Con"inuous) @!e >an"s "!e s"uden"s "o re-ea" VJo> long !a0e Dou /een s"udDing 2nglis!WC /u".ave 7ou been stud7ing %nglis.e canAt see it@ %ver7one. "!e s"uden"s Eee. "!e s"uden"s ans>er !er V@ix mon"!sC) 7?o>er$in"ermedia"e class8 <!e "eac!er !as drilled "!e Nues"ion V >o9 long . 8nn. and no> >an"s "!e s"uden"s "o asE eac! o"!er across "!e class and "o elici" "!e a--ro-ria"e ans>ers) Jo>e0er.WC. VB[W o>.STEP 0/. CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: RE(%ECT =ns"ruc"ions: Consider "!e 5ollo>ing: a8 Jo> care5ullD do Dou -re-are "!e >aD Dou >ill gi0e ins"ruc"ions in a -ar"icular lessonW /8 =n >!a" >aDs do Dou gi0e ins"ruc"ionsW c8 P!a" 7i5 anD8 -ro/lems arise >i"! regard "o s"uden"s unders"anding Dour ins"ruc"ionsW STEP 0/2 CDEA#TED: "O" 6ERA#% I"STRUCTIO"S 6S 6ERA#% I"STRUCTIO"S =ns"ruc"ions: Commen" on "!e 5ollo>ing ">o -oin"s o5 0ie>) (oes ei"!er o5 "!em seem "o /e more acce-"a/le "!an "!e o"!erW 7=5 Dou 5eel "!a" de-ends on -ar"icular circums"ances.atAs rig.asEing V/.atAs rig.o9 t.e pictures@ !.at time do 7ou get up?C iii8 149 . 8 and 5@ 8. Nuali5D Dour ans>er >i"! s-eci5ic re5erence "o "!ese circums"ances)8 a8 <eac!ers s!ould aim "o demons"ra"e "o s"uden"s as sim-lD and as clearlD as -ossi/le >!a" "!eD !a0e "o do) on$0er/al ins"ruc"ions are o5"en more e55ec"i0e "!an 0er/al) /8 <!e gi0ing o5 ins"ruc"ions in "!e classroom is one o5 "!e 5e> genuinelD communica"i0e ac"s >!ic! "aEe -lace) <!e "eac!er s!ould "!us ex-loi" "!is o--or"uni"D /D maEing !isA!er ins"ruc"ions as na"ural as -ossi/le) =5 "!eD are com-lica"ed and di55icul" 5or "!e s"uden"s "o unders"and.re-ea"ing "!e Nues"ion) 72lemen"arD class8 <!e class is learning and -rac"ising "!e sim-le -resen") <!e "eac!er !as drilled "!e Nues"ion V/. turn a9a7 from 2ane so s.

>orE in "!e classroom) 2) MaEe a lis" o5 argumen"s "!a" s"uden"s mig!" ad0ance agains" "!e use o5 -air >orE and grou.>orE is "!a" "!is maD encourage s"uden"s "o s-eaE in "!eir o>n language) STEP 1/2 CP#IR <ORLD: $ROUPI"$ P#TTER"S =ns"ruc"ions: ?ooE a" "!e 5ollo>ing lis" o5 some o5 "!e ac"i0i"ies s"uden"s mig!" engage in "!e classroom) =ndica"e /D -lacing a "icE in "!e a--ro-ria"e column >!e"!er Dou "!inE "!e mos" a--ro-ria"e Vgrou-ingC 5or "!e ac"i0i"D >ould /e -airs 7+8. grou-s o5 "!ree "o 5i0e 7G8 or indi0idual >orE 7=8) (iscuss "!e reasons 5or Dour decisions) #CTI6ITK (oing course /ooE grammar exercises (oing course /ooE 0oca/ularD exercises Reading com-re!ension -assages *ns>ering com-re!ension Nues"ions +re-aring argumen"s 5or a discussion 5or >ri""en com-osi"ion Pri"ing dialogues Brains"orming a lexical 5ield (oing a re0ision "es" <alEing a/ou" "o-ics o5 -ersonal li5e 1sing a dic"ionarD "o researc! 0oca/ularD rela"ing "o a P $ I 150 . "!e grou-s >ill !a0e "o maEe a -os"er "o /e used in a >orEs!o. deal >i"! disru-"i0e /e!a0iourM STEP 1/.c8 72lemen"arD class8 <!e "eac!er >an"s "!e s"uden"s "o do an exercise 5rom "!eir >orE /ooEs 5or !ome>orE) @!e ex-lains "!a" s!e >an"s "!e s"uden"s "o >ri"e "!e ans>ers on a -iece o5 -a-er "o !and in) =n "!e nex" lesson s!e disco0ers "!a" mos" o5 "!e s"uden"s !a0e >ri""en "!eir ans>ers in "!e >orE/ooE) @!e canno" collec" "!ese in /ecause "!eD >ill need "!em 5or "!eir !ome>orE) d8 7*d0anced class8 <!e "eac!er !as asEed eac! s"uden" "o -re-are a s!or" -resen"a"ion on a "o-ic o5 "!eir o>n in"eres" "o gi0e "o "!e res" o5 "!e class) @!e disco0ers "!a" manD o5 "!e s"uden"s !a0e >ri""en do>n "!e "ex" o5 "!e -resen"a"ion and 5eel un-re-ared "o gi0e i" >i"!ou" reading ou" >!a" "!eD !a0e >ri""en) #cti*it8 1: Pla i g Patter s of I teractio i Class =n"erac"ion /e">een "eac!er and s"uden"s is an essen"ial -ar" o5 "eac!ing learning -rocess) Classroom in"erac"ion encom-asses "!e communica"ion exc!anges /e">een "!e "eac!er and "!e s"uden"s 7and among s"uden"s "!emsel0es8 "oge"!er >i"! all "!e s"ra"egies used /D "!e "eac!er "o: • 5acili"a"e com-re!ensionM • • ga"!er and main"ain s"uden"sC a""en"ion and in0ol0emen" in "!e ac"i0i"iesM encourage and ensure "!e -ar"ici-a"ion o5 all s"uden"sM • -ro0ide 5eed/acE. C$ROUP <ORLD: TO $ROUP <ORL OR "OT TO $ROUP <ORLO =ns"ruc"ions: (i0ide "rainees in grou-s and asE "!em "o ans>er "!e 5irs" Nues"ion) 2lici" "!e /es" ones and >ri"e "!em on a 5li-c!ar") #ollo> "!e same -rocedure 5or Nues"ion 2) #or Nues"ion 3. designed 5or in$ser0ice "raining) 1) MaEe a lis" o5 argumen"s "!a" a "eac!er mig!" ad0ance agains" "!e use o5 -air >orE and grou.on classroom in"erac"ion.>orE in "!e classroom) 3) MaEe a lis" o5 argumen"s Dou mig!" use in order "o -ersuade "eac!ers and s"uden"s >!o >ere resis"an" "o "!e idea o5 >orEing in -airs and grou-s and >!o ad0anced "!e -oin"s Dou !a0e lis"ed in ans>ering Nues"ions 1 and 2) 2xam-le: *n argumen" >!ic! mig!" /e ad0anced agains" "!e use o5 -air >orE and grou.

and De" ano"!er mig!" ex-lore !o> "!e s"uden"sC -re5erences are a55ec"ed /D >!o "!eD are -aired >i"!) <!e 5ollo>ing is an exam-le o5 some o5 "!e Einds o5 i"ems Dou mig!" >an" "o include in "!e Nues"ionnaire) E.ample: @ome"imes Dou >orE in class: • on Dour o>n 7e)g) silen" reading8 • >i"! "!e >!ole class 7e)g) lis"ening "o "!e "eac!er8 • >i"! one o"!er s"uden" • >i"! o"!er s"uden"s in a small grouP!en Dou >orE on a grammar exercise 5rom "!e course /ooE. some grou-s o5 learners maD !a0e !ad no ex-erience o5 grou.s-ecial "o-ic Re-ea"ing >ords and -!rases "o im-ro0e -ronuncia"ion Role$-laDing a si"ua"ion "o -rac"ise ex-onen"s o5 a -ar"icular 5unc"ion 7e)g) Vin0i"ingC8 #cti*it8 5: Stude tsB attitudes to differe t patter s of i teractio (i55eren" learners and grou-s o5 learners maD !a0e di55eren" a""i"udes) <!ese a""i"udes maD !a0e /een condi"ioned /D "!eir !a0ing !ad 0erD li""le ex-osure or 0erD li""le -roduc"i0e ex-osure "o -ar"icular -a""erns o5 in"erac"ion 75or exam-le.>orE in "!e class8) STEP 5/.a" "!e same -lace = >as /e5ore = "ooE "!e +B@@=B?2 R2M2(=2@ 151 . one "eac!er maD com-are "!e res-onses o5 di55eren" le0els o5 s"uden"s "o one Nues"ion onlD) *no"!er maD asE Nues"ions "o see !o> "!e na"ure o5 "!e ac"i0i"D a55ec"s s"uden"sC -re5erences. C$ROUP <ORLD: EUESTIO""#IRE =ns"ruc"ions: (e0ise a 0erD /rie5 Nues"ionnaire 7maximum 5 i"ems8 "o !el. do Dou liEe: • >orEing on Dour o>nW • >orEing >i"! one o"!er s"uden"W • >orEing >i"! o"!er s"uden"s in a small grou-W =ndica"e Dour -re5erences /D -u""ing a num/er /D eac! o5 "!e -ossi/ili"ies: • = donC" liEe "!is) • = Nui"e liEe "!is) • = liEe "!is a lo" STEP 5/2 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: PROA%E' SO%6I"$ =ns"ruc"ions: =den"i5D "!e -ossi/le causes residing a" "!e le0el o5 classroom in"erac"ion 5or "!e 5ollo>ing nega"i0e ex-eriences encoun"ered /D s"uden"sM "!en maEe some sugges"ions on !o> "o a0oid "!em: +B@@=B?2 C*1@2@ PJ*< @<1(2 <@ @*X Pe s-en" "en lessons conjuga"ing "!e -as" "ense. /u" on "!e "es" "!ere >ere onlD ">o conjuga"ions) = ne0er learn anD"!ing 5rom "es"s /ecause "!e "eac!er ne0er correc"s "!e mis"aEes = maEe.maD decide "o ex-lore di55eren" as-ec"s o5 "!is Nues"ion) #or exam-le. so = end u.Dou disco0er "!e a""i"ude o5 some o5 Dour s"uden"s "o>ards as-ec"s o5 grou.>orE and -air >orE) (i55eren" mem/ers o5 Dour grou.

= 5lunE "!e course) = donC" !a0e a clue a/ou" >!a" "!e "ex" >as a/ou" /u" = go" 98k on "!e reading "es") = donC" see "!e connec"ion /e">een "!e "es" and mD Eno>ledge) B"!er>ise."es"s. mime. can Dou 5ind exam-les o5 success5ul learning /D "eac!er$de-enden" learners >!o resis" "aEing res-onsi/ili"D 5or "!eir learningW8 STEP 6/2 CP#IR <ORLD: $OOD %E#R"ER <o >!a" ex"en" do "!e 5ollo>ing classroom ac"i0i"ies encourage "!e de0elo-men" o5 "!e Nuali"ies -re0iouslD men"ionedW a) <!e "eac!er V-resen"sC some 0oca/ularD using -ic"ures. /u" las" >eeE >!en = me" an *merican = couldnC" saD anD"!ing in 2nglis!W Jo> come >e ne0er s-eaE in "es"sW = 5eel "!a" in order "o do >ell in "!e "es" Dou !a0e "o ge" in "!e !ead o5 "!e examiner) #cti*it8 6: #uto om8 a d lear i g =" is o5"en argued "!a" among "!e a""ri/u"es o5 a VgoodC language learner is "!e a/ili"D and >illingness "o "aEe res-onsi/ili"D 5or learning. "o ini"ia"e and "o "aEe risEs$"!e VgoodC learner is one >!o: $"aEes decisions >i"! regard "o: • areas o5 language "o 5ocus on • ac"i0i"ies "o 5acili"a"e learning • s"ra"egies "o a--lD in learning.six >ords o5 EeD rele0ance "o "!e "o-ic "!a" "!eD Eno> in "!eir o>n language /u" >!ose meaning "!eD are una/le "o ex-ress in 2nglis!) =n "!e nex" lesson !e asEs "!e s"uden"s "o -ool "!e in5orma"ion "!a" "!eD acNuire "!roug! "!is) c) <!e "eac!er asEs "!e class "o V-re-areC a reading -assage /D looEing u. so i5 = do no" 5eel >ell on "!e same daD "!e "es" >as gi0en. s"uden"s c!oose "asEs and colla/ora"e in ans>ering "!em) 5) @"uden"s 0isi" "!e sc!ool li/rarD in class "ime and selec" /ooEs "o read) <ime 5or reading is -ro0ided in class and ul"ima"elD class "ime is also de0o"ed "o discussion o5 >!a" "!e s"uden"s !a0e read) 152 . re5erence grammars. !o> can = ex-lain "!e 5ac" "!a" = ge" good grades on 2nglis! "es"s.un5amiliar >ords a" !ome /e5ore i" is s"udied in class) d) <!e "eac!er dis"ri/u"es a reading -assage "o "!e class) *5"er a se" -eriod o5 "ime !e asEs indi0idual s"uden"s Nues"ions a/ou" "!e in5orma"ion con"ained in "!e "ex") Je ex-ands and correc"s "!e ans>ers elici"ed) e) @"uden"s are a--oin"ed "o 5ind -assages 5or "!e class "o s"udD) <!e "eac!er de0ises com-re!ension "asEs) PorEing in grou-s. exce-" no> = also !a0e a /ad grade) <!e "eac!er /ases "!e grade on one "es".C(RO"T#%D: RE(%ECT =ns"ruc"ions: <o >!a" ex"en" does Dour o>n ex-erience o5 learning and "eac!ing 0alida"e "!e argumen" a/ou" "!e a""ri/u"es o5 a VgoodC language learnerW 7#or exam-le. ex-lana"ion and "ransla"ion) /) <!e "eac!er asEs "!e class "o researc! a "o-ic and 7using a /ilingual dic"ionarD8 "o looE u. e"c8 STEP 6/. and $ac"i0elD seeEs: • in5orma"ion • o--or"uni"ies 5or -rac"ice • assis"ance 5rom -ro5icien" language users and general resources 7dic"ionaries.

"!e sig!"s.ample ="em a8: Bs"ensi/lD "!is a--roac! is liEelD "o encourage de-endence on "!e "eac!er ra"!er "!an "!e de0elo-men" o5 au"onomous learning 7an au"onomD$encouraging a--roac! mig!" in0ol0e "!e learners selec"ing 0oca/ularD i"ems "!eD >an" "o learn. es-eciallD oral language) *no"!er -ro/lem >ould /e "!a" language learning o5"en 5ocuses on isola"ed -ar"s "!a" /ecome de"ac!ed 5rom real s-eec!) <!e use o5 "ec!nologD -ro0ides s"uden"s >i"! more "ime on "asE and a >aD "o minimi9e "!ese class limi"a"ions) <odaD. researc!ing 0oca/ularD in dic"ionaries or >orEing ou" "!e meaning o5 >ords 5rom con"ex" and "!e gramma"ical c!arac"eris"ics o5 "!e >ords 5rom con"ex" and "!e gramma"ical c!arac"eris"ics o5 "!e >ords 5rom analogD >i"! o"!er 2nglis! >ords "!eD Eno>8) Jo>e0er. -ic"ures. "!e social se""ings. increases "ime o5 on "asE and "!e e55ec"i0eness o5 "!e s"udD "ime) Ae efits of usi g tec: olog8 • • • increasing "ime on "asE on line 0ideos can also /e used "o rein5orce in$class "eac!ing ac"i0i"ies "ec!nologD -ro0ides con"ex" 7"ec!nologD can !el. gi0ing s"uden"s "ime "o recall or guess >ords in res-onse "o a -ic"ure >ould /e more !el-5ul in "!is res-ec" "!an sim-lD V"elling "!e s"uden"s "!e >ord) STEP 6/0 CAR#I"STOR'I"$D: DE6E%OPI"$ #UTO"O'K =ns"ruc"ions: *ns>er "!e Nues"ion. e"c) <!roug! 0ideo >e see "!ings in con"ex"M "!roug! audio >e maEe associa"ions 5rom "!e sounds >e !earM "!roug! online social -rograms >e exc!ange real in5orma"ion >i"! real -eo-le >!o unders"and >!a" >e communica"e8 con"ex"uali9ed learning en0ironmen" 7"!e mul"imedia com/ines audio. -ro0iding exam-les 5rom Dour o>n "eac!ing ex-erience) • =n >!a" >aDs do Dou or mig!" Dou de0elo. and "ex" in ne> >aDs "!a" !el.g) <ime in class is de0o"ed "o Vcom-e"i"ionC ac"i0i"ies in >!ic! s"uden"s ans>er Nues"ions a/ou" grammar and 0oca/ularD /D loca"ing and reading "!e rele0an" in5orma"ion in re5erence grammars) !) Grammar exercises are se" 5or !ome>orE and "!e "eac!er su/seNuen"lD goes o0er "!ese in class) i) @"uden"s are asEed "o >ri"e a com-osi"ion a" !ome a5"er "!e language and "!e "o-ic !a0e /een -re-ared in class) j) <!e "eac!er decides "o a/andon "!e course ma"erials 5or a -eriod o5 "ime) =ns"ead "!e class is engaged in >orEing on a -rojec" "o -roduce a series o5 !andou"s -resen"ing in5orma"ion a/ou" "!eir "o>n in 2nglis!) Je -ro0ides models 5or "!e class "o read 75rom "ouris" /roc!ures a/ou" Bri"is! ci"ies8. anDone >!o !as access "o "!e =n"erne" !as ins"an" access "o o"!er languages) <!e use o5 mul"imedia !el-s ex-ose s"uden"s "o "!ese au"!en"ic s-eec! exc!anges. "!e e0en"s. and casse""es o5 ex-a"ria"e na"i0e s-eaEers discussing -ro/lems "!eD maD !a0e 7real or Vcon"ri0edC8 a/ou" 5inding "!ings "o do in "!eir leisure "ime) E.imi"a"e and crea"e "!e associa"ions. 0ideo.learner au"onomD in Dour o>n classW #cti*it8 2: <a8s to impro*e teac:i g a d lear i g )8 usi g moder tec: olog8 * "radi"ional class con"ains limi"a"ions and c!allenges "!a" a55ec" language learning) <!e "ime a "eac!er s-ends >i"! eac! s"uden" is limi"ed) ?2 "eac!ers are no" na"i0e "eac!ersM "!ere5ore. i" is di55icul" "o ex-ose s"uden"s in a classroom "o au"!en"ic language."o crea"e a uniNue ric! learning en0ironmen"M "!is "D-e o5 con"ex" allo>s s"uden"s "o maEe ne> com/ina"ions 5or en!anced learning8 "ec!nologD 5rees us 5rom "!e limi"a"ions o5 a course /ooE 7as "eac!ers >e are al>aDs su--lemen"ing our lessons >i"! our o>n ma"erials8 "ec!nologD -ro0ides >aDs "o • • • 153 . "!e sounds. e0en >i"!in "!is "eac!erCs a--roac! "!ere is a li""le room 5or encouraging au"onomD) #or exam-le.

-odcas"ing. sor". 154 . collec".in mind: 1) "ime on "asE.1) increase "!e 5oreign language in-u" "!a" learners are ex-osed "o and 2) en!ances "!e -rocess o5 !o> in-u" is con0er"ed in"o in"aEe Le8 <ords 1) i put is all "!e >ri""en and s-oEen "arge" language "!a" a learner encoun"ers. e"c T@itter * micro$/logging ser0ice "!a" allo>s users "o send /rie5 messages "o "!ose >!o are lis"ed as 5riends Crea"e a "eac!ing seNuence in 2nglis! /ased on one o5 "!ese a--lica"ions) Remem/er "o Eee. -!o"os.o5 s"uden"s) STEP 2/2 CP#IR <ORLD: #UTO"O'OUS PR#CTICE USI"$ TEC7"O%O$K =ns"ruc"ions: ?is" "!ree >aDs in >!ic! "ec!nologD can /e used "o rein5orce >!a" >as co0ered in class and "o 5ocus on i"ems "!a" >ere no" co0ered in class) STEP 2/0 CI"DEPE"DE"T <ORLD: RE(%ECT =ns"ruc"ions: Considering au"onomD and indi0idual learning s"Dles. including mail. 5or Dour grou.in deciding >!a" Eind o5 5ollo>$u. >!a" ideas come "o Dour mind rela"ed "o !o> "ec!nologD can !el. >!e"!er i" is 5ullD com-re!ended or no" 2) i ta=e is limi"ed "o "!e com-re!ended in-u" "!a" im-ac"s "!e learnerYs de0elo-ing linguis"ic sDs"em STEP 2/. "o !el. -re-are o5 lis" o5 "o-ics "!a" a "eac!er could use as a 5ollo>$u."eac!ers a0oid -assi0e "eac!ing and learningW STEP 2/6/ C$ROUP <ORLD: #PP%IC#TIO"S =ns"ruc"ions: Consider one o5 "!ese a--lica"ions or one o5 Dour c!oice: E*er ote *n a--lica"ion "!a" allo>s users "o co-D.Dou increase "!e "ime "!a" Dou s-end s"udDing a 5oreign languageW STEP 2/1 CI"DEPE"DE"T <ORLD: A%O$$I"$ =ns"ruc"ions: (o Dou "!inE "!a" a discussion /log maD -ro0ide a con"ex" 5or a "eac!er. and anno"a"e in5orma"ion.5or a classroom ac"i0i"D) STEP 2/5 CI"DEPE"DE"T <ORLD: 'U%TI'EDI# =ns"ruc"ions: Jo> can "!e use o5 "ec!nologD and mul"imedia !el. CP#IR <ORLD: TEC7"O%O$K #"D C%#SS '#"#$E'E"T =ns"ruc"ions: <!inE o5 !o> Dou could incor-ora"e online 0ideo cli-s in"o Dour classroom. ei"!er 5rom "!e =n"erne" or 5rom direc" in-u" "et*i)es *n a--lica"ion "!a" >orEs as a s"ar" -age >i"! "a/s and >idge"s. R@@ readers.mig!" /e a--ro-ria"e 5or classroom "imeW ?og on a discussion /log dealing >i"! au"onomD: !""-:AAs-ace"!a"no"exis")/logs-o")comAM !""-:AA5ernandoex-eriences)/logs-o")comA2010A0&A32&$ au"onomous$learners)!"mlM !""-:AAeisensei)/logs-o")comA2010A01A>!a"$>ill$au"onomous$learner$ "!inE$o5)!"mlM e"c and looE a" "!e user commen"s) Based on "!ose commen"s.

&) in-u" 0s) in"aEe) Refere ces . #oreign ?anguage <eac!ing Me"!ods 1)!""-:AAal"erna"i0elearning-rocesses)/logs-o")comA-A>aDs$"o$im-ro0e$au"onomous$ learning)!"ml !""-:AA>>>)edulinE)orgA-or"5olioA-!iloso-!ies)!"m !""-:AA>>>)classroom$managemen"$success)orgAclassroom$managemen"$-lan sam-le)!"m !""-:AA>>>)mariajordano)comAar"iclesAau"onomousTlearningTandT/logs)-d5 !""-:AAc!ronicle)comAjo/sA2003A03A2003032'02c)!"m 16)!""-:AA>>>)academicleaders!i-)orgAar"icleA<!eTin5luenceTo5Tasser"i0eTclassroomTm anagemen"Ts"ra"egDTuseTonTs"uden"$"eac!erT-edagogicalTsEills 1') !""-:AA>>>)englis!$"es")ne"AeslAlearnAenglis!AgrammarAai23&Aesl$"es")-!>>>)lesson-lansinc)com. 3) con"ex"uali9ed learning en0ironmen". Classroom Managemen" @"ra"egies 155 ./Alat erH #/ 1sing role playing in "eac!ing empathy 2/7armerH J)<!e +rac"ice o5 2nglis! ?anguage <eac!ing 0/%eig: Smit:H A/ a d 'ac$regorH J/T) P!a" is Colla/ora"i0e ?earningW 1/'cDo aldH E/@-arEing "!e Minds o5 @"uden"s in =ns-iring <eac!ers 5/Sasso H D)<!e <eac!er as a Classroom Manager.2) con"ex". >>>)sui"eA 6/<ellsH R)Communi"D in "!e Classroom >>>)sel5direc"edlearning)comA. @el5$(irec"ed ?earning >>>)coerll)u"exas)eduAme"!ods.

.'ODU%E . I"TERCU%TUR#% EDUC#TIO" 156 .

and !a0e /ecome a >!ole. gi0en "!a" our -resen" cul"ure 7all Eno>ledge and 0alues8 !a0e /een com-iled "!roug!ou" cen"uries o5 con"ac" >i"! di55eren" cul"ures. and -romo"e eNual o--or"uni"ies 5or all) 2uro-ean coun"ries are c!arac"erised /D di0ersi"D des-i"e e55or"s "o -roduce an idea o5 2uro-eaness) 2uro-e is mul"icul"ural and mul"ilinguis"ic and "!ere5ore in"ercul"urali"D in 2uro-e im-lies o-enness "o -lurali"D o5 0alues.suggestions1) =n"ercul"ural educa"ion engages >i"! di0erse cul"ures and li5es"Dles s!o>ing res-ec" 5or "!em) 2) =n"ercul"ural educa"ion de0elo-s "ranscul"ural unders"anding) 3) =n"ercul"ural educa"ion is a/ou" examining di55erences in cul"ures and -eo-les) &) =n"ercul"ural educa"ion im-lies "!e realisa"ion "!a" "!e o"!ers are di55eren" 5rom oursel0es and "!a" "!eD maEe us re$analDse our o>n sDs"em o5 0alues) 5) =n"ercul"ural educa"ion reNuires a ne> a""i"ude in rela"ion "o "!e o"!er and "o oursel0es) 6) =n"ercul"ural educa"ion c!allenges "!e in!eren"lD dominan" modes o5 doing "!ings and "!inEing a/ou" "!em) ') =n"ercul"ural educa"ion is a/ou" s"imula"ing "!e unders"anding 5or o"!erness) 157 . ex-and on i" and "!en re-or" "o "!e o"!er -airs) Definitions of intercultural education. ar". music. li"era"ure. racial.D Key 'ords 'ulticulturalit8 re5ers "o an undenia/le 5ac": "!e exis"ence o5 di55eren" cul"ures) Pluriculturalit8 maD /e de5ined as "!e mos" c!arac"eris"ic 5ea"ure o5 modern cul"ures. "!a" ine0i"a/lD occurs >i"!in a social con"ex"M "o -ro0ide sugges"ions a/ou" !o> educa"ors can acNuire a grea"er in"ercul"ural com-e"ence)M "o -ro0ide sugges"ions 5or linguocul"uralC "eac!ingCM "o 5amiliari9e "!e "rainees >i"! "!e conce-" o5 cul"ure as a V5i5"! sEillC 7>!ic! em-!asi9es "!e learnerCs a/ili"D "o -ercei0e.: =n"ercul"ural 2duca"ion #cti*it8 2: +ro/lems o5 =n"ercul"ural Communica"ion #cti*it8 0: =n"ercul"ural Com-e"ence #cti*it8 1: (e0elo-ing "!e =n"ercul"ural (imension in ?anguage <eac!ing #cti*it8 5: Cul"ure as a #i5"! @Eill O)9ecti*es • "o increase "eac!ersC in"ercul"ural a>areness. religions. /elie5s and >aDs o5 li5e) C$o to Step 2/.#cti*it8 . s!ared /D a socie"D) I terculturalit8 im-lies in"erac"ion among di55eren" cul"ures on "!e /asis o5 eNuali"D and res-ec") STEP ."!eir com-e"ence "o address cul"ural di0ersi"D in educa"ion $"o educa"e >i"! regard "o a -lurali"D o5 ideas 7"o consider !uman di0ersi"D in e"!nic. acce-" cul"ural rela"i0i"D8) • • • • • • #cti*it8 . CP#IR <ORLD: <7#T IS I"TERCU%TUR#% EDUC#TIO"O = @<R1C<=B @ Consider "!e 5ollo>ing de5ini"ions o5 in"ercul"ural educa"ion) C!oose one de5ini"ion./. social and religious "erms as a source 5or cul"ural enric!men"8$M "o de5end eNual o--or"uni"iesM "o maEe "!e "rainees a>are o5 "!e necessi"D o5 "!e c!ange 5rom a mono$cul"ural -ers-ec"i0e "o a mul"i-le -ers-ec"i0e 7in e0erD su/jec": !is"orD. 5ig!" racism and xeno-!o/ia.: I tercultural Educatio Cardoso 71998: 13$1&8 de5ines Vin"ercul"ural educa"ionC as a series o5 a""em-"s "o engage >i"! di0erse cul"ures and li5es"Dles s!o>ing res-ec") =n"ercul"ural educa"ion s!ould -romo"e unders"anding and res-ec" 5or o"!er -eo-le and cul"ures. "o unders"and and ul"ima"elD. e"c8M "o 5ocus on de0elo-ing a learning communi"D >!ere "eac!ing and learning are concei0ed as an ac"i0e and coo-era"i0e -rocess. /uilding u.

"o /e a/le "o see oneCs o>n cul"ure in rela"ion "o "!e cul"ure o5 "!e coun"ries o5 >!ic! one s"udies "!e languages. /u" mD cul"ure is "!e good one) /)$"radi"ional minori"D g!e""o cul"ureM $sel5$im-osed 75inds sa5e"D in grou-Amere inclusion a" sc!ool8) c) = >an" "o go on /elie0ing in mD 0alues /u" = do no" maEe Dou gi0e u./2 CP#IR <ORLD: 7O< C#" TE#C7ERS PRO'OTE I"TERCU%TUR#% EDUC#TIO"O = @<R1C<=B @ 1se /rains"orming "o ge" as manD sugges"ions as Dou can) Re-or" "o "!e o"!er -airs) STEP .an a>areness o5 /elonging "o a >ider and com-lex mul"icul"ural sDs"em) <!inE o5 !o> "!is can /e done) #cti*it8 0: I tercultural Compete ce =n"er$com-re!ension is cer"ainlD no" "!e solu"ion "o "!e manD -ro/lems o5 in"ercul"ural communica"ion. CP#IR <ORLD: 'U%TICU%TUR#% RE#%ITK I" C%#SS = @<R1C<=B @ =magine a daD a" a mul"icul"ural sc!ool and see >!e"!erA!o> =n"ercul"urali"D is ac!ie0ed) Consider "!e 5ollo>ing a--roac!es "o 'ulticultural Realit8 i class: 1) ?acE o5 adeNua"e res-onse 2) Cul"ural *ssimila"ion 3) @egrega"ionism &) =nser"ion 5) <olerance 6) =n"egra"ion a) @imilar "o inser"ion. and /e!a0es liEe an 2nglis! girl in e0erD"!ing s!e does) @!e saDs s!e does no" miss or>aD a" all) 7cul"ural assimila"ionA"o"al loss o5 o>n cul"ure8 STEP 2/2 CP#IR <ORLD: DE6E%OPI"$ #<#RE"ESS O( AE%O"$I"$ TO # <IDER #"D CO'P%ER 'U%TICU%TUR#% SKSTE' = @<R1C<=B @ =" is no" easD "o de0elo. /u" i" is a -ros-ec" o5 an ini"ial rela"ional a--roac!) Mul"i$language learning !el-s one "o ac!ie0e consciousness o5 "!e 0arious >aDs o5 rela"ing in socie"ies c!arac"eri9ed /D cul"ures "ied "o 5eelings o5 /elonging) <o communica"e means in "!is sense "o in"erac" cul"urallD. and im-lies "!e a/ili"D "o go /eDond s"ereo"D-ed modali"ies o5 rela"ing) @o. /u" im-lies looEing do>n on some/odD) = acce-" "!em./0 CP#IR <ORLD: <7#T S7OU%D AE 6#%UED #S I"TERCU%TUR#% EDUC#TIO"O = @<R1C<=B @ *gree on >!a" s!ould /e 0alued as in"ercul"ural educa"ion) #cti*it8 2: Pro)lems of I tercultural Commu icatio STEP 2/. a 5oreigner.!is "radi"ion "o /e acce-"ed) e) 1na/le "o communica"eAisola"ion) 5) *cce-"ed /u" remains di55eren". ma"c! "!e gi0en a--roac!es >i"! "!eir de5ini"ions) /) #ind an exam-le 5or one o5 "!ese si"ua"ions and re-or" "o "!e class) 2x: *s"rid is 5rom or>aD) @!eCs or>egian /u" DouCd onlD "ell /ecause o5 !er -!Dsical as-ec") @!e s-eaEs 2nglis! >i"! a good accen".8) =n"ercul"urali"D admi"s "!e mu"ual in5luencing o5 cul"ures and deals >i"! con5lic"s among cul"ures orAand >i"! "!eir solu"ion) 9) =n"ercul"urali"D recognises "!a" cul"ures are o-en one "o ano"!er and mu"uallD in"erde-enden") 10) =n"ercul"ural educa"ion reNuires "!a" >e gi0e a""en"ion "o /ooEsAmedia -resen"a"ions 5rom di55eren" cul"ures in order "o reduce -rejudice and "o de0elo. e0en i5 !eAs!e s-eaEs "!e language) JeAs!eCs o5"en /eing reminded "!a" !eAs!e is di55eren") a) =n -airs. "!e conce-" o5 158 .Dours "o /ecome acce-"ed) d) <o"al loss o5 o>n cul"ure) Gi0es u.analD"ical and cri"ical "!inEing) STEP .

t. readiness "o sus-end dis/elie5 a/ou" o"!er cul"ures and /elie5 a/ou" oneCs o>n) L o@ledge: can /e de5ined as !a0ing ">o major com-onen"s: Eno>ledge o5 social -rocesses. e+citedl7@ P: .A :n t.ad become a full7-fledged fis. a""i"udes and sEills under "!e cons"rain"s o5 real$"ime communica"ion and in"erac"ion) Critical cultural a@are ess: an a/ili"D "o e0alua"e. and t. Pand : . 9it.at s.en one da7. : am a frog. of interpreting and relating crucial 5orW 0/ P!D do in"ercul"ural s-eaEers need s0ills of discover7 and interactionW 1/ Jo> can language "eac!ers con"ri/u"e "o de0elo-ing in"ercul"ural com-e"enceW 5/ P!a" s!ould in"ercul"ural educa"ion /e concerned >i"!W STEP 0/2 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: <7#T IS I"TERCU%TUR#% CO'PETE"CEO = @<R1C<=B @ Read "!e s"orD /elo> and "rD "o iden"i5D = o@ledge.at is t.e7 argued and argued until finall7 t. . ans>er "!e Nues"ions) I tercultural attitudes: curiosi"D and o-enness.e 9eeds@ !. a real frog no9.e tadpole discovered t.e 9orld.at?A as0ed t. as >ell as some Eno>ledge a/ou" o"!er -eo-le) S=ills of i terpreti g a d relati g: a/ili"D "o in"er-re" a documen" or e0en" 5rom ano"!er cul"ure.e . and commi"s one "o "!e e55or" o5 decen"rali9ing oneCs o>n -oin" o5 0ie> in order "o !a0e a dialogue >i"! di55eren" sDs"ems o5 0alues and codes o5 /e!a0iour) • <!e compo e ts of i tercultural compete ce are 0no9ledge.ings@A P'i0e 9.t 7ou 9ere a little fis.A !. "o ex-lain i" and rela"e i" "o documen"s or e0en"s 5rom oneCs o>n) S=ills of disco*er8 a d i teractio : a/ili"D "o acNuire ne> Eno>ledge o5 a cul"ure and cul"ural -rac"ices and "!e a/ili"D "o o-era"e Eno>ledge.ave 7ou been?A as0ed t.e tadpole said.ere 9as a pond.ere.antl7@ P'oo0.. *ust li0e me.e fis. -ers-ec"i0es.ere . s0ills and attitudes.Communica"i0e Com-e"ence !as e0ol0ed in"o "!e idea o5 I tercultural Commu icati*e Compete ceH gi0en "!a" /ecoming 5luen" in a language undenia/lD reNuires "!e a/ili"D "o es"a/lis! rela"ions!i-s >i"! indi0iduals 5rom di55eren" cul"ural origins/ * -lurali"D o5 languages as a ma""er o5 5ac" leads "o a -lurali"D o5 0isions. cri"icallD and on "!e /asis o5 ex-lici" cri"eria.A said t.e minno9@ P>o9 could 7ou be a frog if onl7 last nig.ad gro9n and .@ >e often 9ondered 9.ere and t. and t. .e said triump.e climbed out of t.e nig.e fis.e tadpole gre9 tin7 front legs and .ere .app7 splas.ad gone@ 5ut da7s and 9ee0s 9ent b7 and t. and Eno>ledge o5 illus"ra"ions o5 "!ose -rocesses and -roduc"sM "!e la""er includes Eno>ledge a/ou" !o> o"!er -eo-le are liEelD "o -ercei0e Dou. C$ROUP <ORLD: RE(%ECT = @<R1C<=B @ Consider "!e 5ollo>ing de5ini"ions) <!en.e 9ater and onto t.e7 9ere inseparable friends@ Mne morning t.e 9ee0s t.e pond@ P/. com-lemen"ed /D t.ad gro9n t9o little legs@ P'oo0.e frog *umped into t.ere a minno9 and a tadpole s9am among t.A said t.e values one !olds /ecause o5 oneYs /elonging "o a num/er o5 social grou-s) <!ese 0alues are -ar" o5 oneYs social iden"i"ies) STEP 0/.opping ./ Can "!e acNuisi"ion o5 in"ercul"ural com-e"ence /e com-le"e and -er5ec"W %us"i5D Dour XesA o ans>er) 2/ P!a" are "!e s0ills of comparison.is tail got smaller and smaller@ 8nd t. is fis.e edge of t.at.e frog did not return@ !. -rac"ices and -roduc"s in oneCs o>n and o"!er cul"ures and coun"ries .A .t .ave seen e+traordinar7 t.at during t.at follo9ed. PFrogs are frogs and fis.e 9eeds.en one fine da7.A P"onsense. s=ills and attitudes o5 "!e c!arac"ers "!a" mig!" !a0e some"!ing "o do >i"! in"ercul"ural com-e"ence) F:(> :( = F:(> 8t t.e minno9 too . t.oo0 t.ave been about t.is four-footed friend .@ 159 .e 9oods t.e frog.e grass7 ban0@ !. t. a .

is friend called people@ Mne da7 .at come 9. "!anEs "o a num/er o5 resources s"emming 5rom a""i"udes.As mind 9as full of lig. 9.im bac0 into t.e frog. impatientl7@ P$o9s.e pond@ 5ut t. >!ic! is "!e 5ounda"ion 5or es"a/lis!ing rela"ions!i-s /e">een languages. if .t motion of t.ad 9ings.o . sEills and Eno>ledgeM 160 .t of Wot:er essB • • • • a compete ce i resol*i g co flictH o*ercomi g o)staclesH clarif8i g misu dersta di gs a compete ce i egotiatio H >!ic! is "!e 5ounda"ion 5or es"a/lis!ing con"ac"s and rela"ions!i-s in a con"ex" o5 o"!ernessM a compete ce i mediatio .P5irds.e *umped clear out of t.ed .ose strange animals.e ban0@ >e landed in t.A 8nd .e picture in t.ed deepl7. . is fis.t7 9.e7 . "!e 5inal -roduc" o5 a -rojec" coordina"ed /D <!e 2uro-ean Cen"re 5or Modern ?anguages o5 <!e Council o5 2uro-e. all dressed up.e finall7 decided t.e tal0ed and tal0ed until it 9as dar0 in t.ere dreaming about birds in flig. sa9 .im and 9it.o es: • a compete ce of dece tri g.t.e told t..e da7s 9ent b7@ !.e could onl7 *ump about li0e .ifted patc.ave four legs.o . and carr7 pin0 bags of mil0@A P8nd people.A .ere . 9.e felt 9eig.A .is gills@ "o9 . up and do9n.em@ 8nd so.is mind li0e large feat. and t9o legs.e clean cool 9ater run t. all .t. about t. in"ercul"ural com-e"ence includes: .roug. as before@ !.ts and colours and marvellous t.e fis. .is 9orld 9as surel7 t.ac0 of t.e or to move@ P>elp. letting t. . in0ol0ing a c!ange o5 0an"age -oin". t.e fis.e 9ater onto t.e frog@ PHen. a mig.e birds fl7 t. .tless again and 9it.e groaned feebl7@ 'uc0il7 t. unable to breat.at ma7.is friend t.e frog@ P$o9s.ildren.at else?A as0ed t.o sat 9atc.t of ot:er ess.e said@ PFis. t. 9it.e tail .e birds 9.e fis.e la7 gasping for air.e sunra7s reac. 9omen.A !. in ei"!er an ins"i"u"ional or sc!ool con"ex".unting butterflies nearb7. >!ic! descri/es a EeD 5ea"ure o5 "!e aims o5 -luralis"ic a--roac!es.ing from a lil7 leaf@ POou 9ere rig.e frog tal0ed.A 8nd .A said t. di55eren"C) 0/ I termediate compete cesH @:ic: clearl8 fit i to t:e t@o .A said t. and man7.orns. an ever-so-slig.e breat. seeing "!ings in a rela"i0e >aD. and see t. *ust la7 t.A said t.in t.e frog./ Compete ce i t:e co structio a d )roade i g of a plural li guistic a d cultural repertoire • a compete ce i profiti g from o eBs o@ i ter-cultural G i ter-la guage e.e fis.@ P/. and t. in grou-s or indi0iduallD) 2/ Compete ce i ma agi g li guistic a d cultural commu icatio i a co te. floated about for an instant@ !.ered fis.e frog m7steriousl7@ P5irds. eat grass. -ro/lema"ic or 5ranElD nega"i0eM • a compete ce i appl8i g s8stematic a d co trolled lear i g approac:es i a co te.e most beautiful of all 9orlds@ >e smiled at .e dr7.roug. /e">een cul"ures and /e">een -eo-leM a compete ce of adapta)ilit8H >!ic! calls on all "!e resources one !as "o Va--roac! >!a" is un5amiliar.at 9onderful 9orld@ 8nd so t.e pond@ (till stunned. pus.es of luminous colour@ !.en .e tail.at . .is strengt.ed do9n 9it.ad been .is friend.e 9eeds and gentl7 s.e fis. 9arm grass and t.e too must see t.ings and .e couldnAt sleep@ 8.A@ STEP 0/0 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: C#SE STUDK *ccording "o #R2+* 7<!e #rame>orE o5 Re5erence 5or +luralis"ic *--roac!es "o ?anguages and Cul"ures8.e frog .e could move to and fro. man7 colours@ 8s t.ad gone and t.is friend sa9 t. grazing co9s. . c.perie ces >!e"!er "!eD are -osi"i0e.

ost as0ed us to come in@ 5eing t.e group : tried to go in first. but : did not .e time as t. and a0oids /eing com-le"elD immersed in "!e immedia"e in"erac"ion or learning ac"i0i"DM a compete ce i critical a al8sis of t:e Ccommu icati*e a dGor lear i gD acti*ities o e is i *ol*ed i 7close "o >!a" is some"imes called critical a9areness8 >!ic! -u"s "!e 5ocus on "!e resources a--lied a5"er "!e dis"ancing !as /een carried ou"M a compete ce for recog isi g t:e WOt:erBH a d ot:er ess .man preceded me@ !.ere.e onl7 lad7 in t. using all "!e resources a0aila/le.e same time@ Mur .e %nglis.• • • • a compete ce i ma=i g se se of u familiar li guistic a dGor cultural features . no. and onlD 5rom i"s o>n -oin" o5 0ie> STEP 0/1 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: I"TERCU%TUR#% ERPERIE"CE = @<R1C<=B @ ?e"Cs lea0e "!e 5is! "!ere 5or "!e momen".o9 rude t.inese.e bag@ . "!e 5is! remained ))))))))))))))))))))) ) E.ave t. t9o” : repeated again putting t9o fingers on m7  161 .man and a (paniard@ /e all arrived at t.ina : learned a fe9 essential p.e door open for me and made a gesture inviting me in before . isola"ed resources.e ob*ect@ !.ile in 6aris toget. Eee-ing con"rol.e seller ./ 1) P!a" !a--ened "o "!e 5is!W a) =" >as surprised "o see "!e "ad-ole c!ange in"o a 5rog /) =" >as curious "o !ear a/ou" "!e ne> >orld "!e 5rog descri/ed u-on !is re"urn c) =" >as onlD a/le "o partl8 Vu dersta dC "!e >orld ou"side "!e >a"er. pointing m7 finger at t.!.rases and felt ver7 confident in m7 abilit7 to communicate@ (oon after : arrived t.man 9as.e %nglis. and : 9as invited for dinner 9. es-eciallD "!ose /ased on in"er$com-re!ension) a compete ce of dista ci g >!ic!. an %nglis. in >!a" is di55eren" and similar) Jere >e !a0e an ex-ression 7see "!e no"es on "erminologD8 >!ic! can /e a--lied "o /o"! sEills 7recognise8 and a""i"udes 7acce-"D/ = @<R1C<=B @ Considering "!e descri-"ion o5 in"ercul"ural com-e"ence according "o #R2+*.ose t9o” in $."o.e (paniard t. /ased on a range o5 resources.esitated a little.@ 5efore going to $.. re5using "o acce-" 7communica"i0e or learning8 5ailure. :Am Frenc.e ob*ect : desired and said .im@ /e passed a comment about . and le"Cs "rans-ose oursel0es "o our cul"ural >orld) ?e"Cs !a0e a looE a" "!e cross$cul"ural ex-eriences o5 ">o ladies: a +ole and a #renc! ladD) <!en commen" on "!e si"ua"ions -resen"ed in "erms o5 cul"ural misunders"anding "!a" led "o "!em)  :Am 6olis.e door at t. loo0ed at m7 fingers and started to put more and more ca0es in t.en 0ept t. allo>s a cri"ical a--roac! "o si"ua"ions.er 9it. end "!e 5ollo>ing sen"encesAans>er "!e Nues"ions "!a" 5ollo>: 1) P!a" !a--ened "o "!e 5is!W =" >as )))) a) cc /) cc c) cc 2) <!e 5is! did !a0e )))))) ) a) cc /) cc c) cc 3) Bu" "!e momen" i" le5" "!e >a"er "!e 5is! 5ailed /ecause i" !ad: a) cc /) cc c) cc &) Ja0ing a 5e>. : found m7self in front of a ca0e stall@ : pointed m7 finger at t.

e .tA@ STEP 0/5 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: W$OOD $UKSXB = @<R1C<=B @ Read >!a" a "eac!er >ro"e >!en asEed "o s!are a -ersonal in"ercul"ural ex-erience P: 9as part of an international group of colleagues about to enter an 8ustrian restaurant for an evening meal@ "e+t to me 9as an 8ustrian gentleman 9. or daDs >!en some -eo-le c!oose no" "o do s-or" /ecause o5 religious o/ser0anceW 162 .A o> iden"i5D "!e rele0an" com-e"ences "!a" <!e *us"rian gen"leman !ad. -redominan"lD -laDed /D men or /D >omenW *re "!ings c!angingW _ *ge L are "!ere s-or"s 5or Dounger -eo-le and older -eo-leW _ Region L are "!ere local s-or"sW (o -eo-le.>i"! -eo-le o5 o"!er languages and cul"ures) (e0elo-ing "!e in"ercul"ural dimension in language "eac!ing in0ol0es recognising "!a" "!e aims are: 1) "o gi0e learners in"ercul"ural com-e"ence as >ell as linguis"ic com-e"enceM 2) "o -re-are "!em 5or in"erac"ion >i"! -eo-le o5 o"!er cul"uresM 3) "o ena/le "!em "o unders"and and acce-" -eo-le 5rom o"!er cul"ures as indi0iduals >i"! o"!er dis"inc"i0e -ers-ec"i0es.in0 . .e door rus.e t.language learners "o in"erac" >i"! s-eaEers o5 o"!er languages on eNual "erms.e filled t. and to let t. . and "!eir a/ili"D "o in"erac" >i"! -eo-le as com-lex !uman /eings >i"! mul"i-le iden"i"ies and "!eir o>n indi0iduali"D) P!en de0elo-ing in"ercul"ural sEills.umb and t. "eac!ers can maEe use o5: %$ +hemes "rea"ed in "ex"$/ooEs can lend "!emsel0es "o de0elo-men" in an in"ercul"ural and cri"ical -ers-ec"i0e) <!e EeD -rinci-le is "o ge" learners "o compare "!e "!eme in a 5amiliar si"ua"ion >i"! exam-les 5rom an un5amiliar con"ex") #or ins"ance "!e "!eme o5 s-or" can /e examined 5rom manD -ers-ec"i0es.e stepped a.tl7 offended.e bag and as0ed me to pa7 for m7 custom@ : 9as ver7 frustrated.e inde+ finger on m7 nose pointing out9ards meant Peig. and "o /e a>are o5 "!eir o>n iden"i"ies and "!ose o5 "!eir in"erlocu"ors) =" is "!e !o-e "!a" language learners >!o "!us /ecome Yin"ercul"ural s-eaEersY >ill /e success5ul no" onlD in communica"ing in5orma"ion /u" also in de0elo-ing a !uman rela"ions!i.is action.nose@ (. but once 9e 9ere seated . including: _ Gender L are "!ere s-or"s "!a" are.at placing t. iden"i5D >i"! local "eamsW (o some "eams !a0e a -ar"icular cul"ural "radi"ionW _ Religion L are "!ere religious o/jec"ions "o -laDing s-or". "o 5ormula"e >!a" "!eD >an" "o saDA>ri"e in correc" and a--ro-ria"e >aDs) Bu" i" also de0elo-s "!eir intercultural competence i)e) "!eir a/ili"D "o ensure a s!ared unders"anding /D -eo-le o5 di55eren" social iden"i"ies.o. and onl7 later did : learn t.at : felt uncomfortable 9it.ad noticed t.e 9as reall7 polite and so : <uic0l7 moved for9ard to9ards t.e door@ >o9ever.ed to open it@ 8t first : t. and gave me t.t .e e+plained to me t. according "o #R2+*) #cti*it8 1: De*elopi g t:e I tercultural Dime sio i %a guage Teac:i g <!e YCommon 2uro-ean #rame>orEY in"roduces "!e Y=n"ercul"ural (imensionY in"o "!e aims o5 language "eac!ing) ="s essence is "o !el.e 9oman upon entering.ead of me.e 9oman out first 9. and entered before me@ : 9as slig. to m7 amazement.ile@ 8fter t.en leaving t. in "!e 5amiliar con"ex" or in "!e un5amiliar con"ex".e meal better.e opportunit7 to discuss our customs and e+pectations for a 9.oug. 0alues and /e!a0ioursM &) "o !el.e building. : t.at in 8ustria it 9as considered polite for a man to precede t.at little tal0 : en*o7ed t. including "!e learners."!em "o see "!a" suc! in"erac"ion is an enric!ing ex-erience) ?anguage "eac!ing >i"! an in"ercul"ural dimension aims a" !el-ing learners "o acNuire "!e linguistic competence needed "o communica"e in s-eaEing or >ri"ing. as soon as 9e got to t.

cul"ure as "!e 5i5"! sEill em-!asi9es "!e learnerCs a/ili"D "o -ercei0e. s-eaEing. "eac!ers o5"en re5er "o cul"ure as "!e V5i5"! sEillC) 1nliEe 0oca/ularD and grammar. according "o Dou. can recei0e a similarlD cri"ical -ers-ec"i0e) :$ &rammatical e6ercises >!ic! can rei force pre9udice a d stereot8pes or c:alle ge t:em ) #or ins"ance 5emale su/jec"s maD /e linEed "o s"ereo"D-icallD 5emale ac"i0i"ies or ac"ions 7MarD liEes cooEingM %o!n liEes 5oo"/all8M s"ereo"D-ing generalisa"ions maD /e encouraged a/ou" grou-s 7<!e C!inese liEecM Germans arec))M Blder -eo-lec))8) <eac!ers can encourage learners "o commen" on suc! s"a"emen"s and c!allenge "!em) @imilar exercises can /e -ro-osed. >!ic! >ould /e "!ese o"!er com-e"encesW STEP 1/1 C$ROUP <ORLD: 'E#"S = @<R1C<=B @ =n grou-s. leisure."!e in"ercul"ural dimension in language "eac!ing) Re-or" "o "!e o"!er grou-s) STEP 1/2 C$ROUP <ORLD: VERPERIE"TI#% %E#R"I"$ IS PO<ER(U% I" DE6E%OPI"$ SE%(#<#RE"ESS #S <E%% #S PERCEPTIO"S O( OT7ER COU"TRIES/ C = @<R1C<=B @ @"ar"ing 5rom "!e s"a"emen" V E. rein5orcing "!e same gramma"ical s"ruc"ures. lis"ening. >!ic! are concre"e in "!eir con"en". reading. sc!ool. /u" using a di55eren" range o5 con"ex"s and exam-les) <!eD can "!en s>a./ P!ic! is. "!e role o5 "!e "eac!er in"eres"ed in de0elo-ing "!e in"ercul"ural dimension in language "eac!ingW 2) @!ould "!e "eac!ers /e concerned a/ou" !o> muc! in5orma"ion "!eD -ro0ide or a/ou" o"!er com-e"encesW =5 so. >!ic! include a /roader 0ie> o5 cul"ure 7e)g) use a >ider range o5 namesM include ac"i0i"ies more liEelD "o /e enjoDed /D minori"D grou-s.ercises.perie tial lear i g is -o>er5ul in de0elo-ing sel5$a>areness as >ell as -erce-"ions o5 o"!er coun"ries)C. or clo"!es >orn /D minori"iesM include a >ide range o5 names o5 coun"ries and -eo-les. no" jus" 2uro-ean and or"! *merican8) @"ar"ing 5rom "!e exercises -ro-osed /D "!e "ex"$/ooE._ Racism L is "!is 5ound in s-ec"a"or s-or"sW *re "!e -laDers o5 5oreign "eams. acce-" cul"ural rela"i0i"D) 163 . cul"ure is di55icul" "o de5ine) =n general.exercises and >orE on exam-les -ro0ided /D o"!er learners) . our -resen") ?anguage >i"!ou" cul"ural rele0ance is useless) =n Eee-ing >i"! "!e con0en"ion >i"!in "!e 5ield o5 #oreign ?anguage educa"ion o5 re5erring "o language a/ili"ies as se-ara"e sEills 7 e)g) . de0ise "!ree ac"i0i"ies "o de0elo. including >!i"e grou-s) STEP 1/. C$ROUP <ORLD: 7O< C#" TE#C7ERS DE6E%OP T7E I"TERCU%TUR#% DI'E"SIO" I" TE#C7I"$O = @<R1C<=B @ Brains"orm and agree on >!a" a "eac!er could do "o de0elo. !omes. language >ill 5ollo>C Cul"ure is an essen"ial -ar" o5 our language.$ +he inclusion o/ vocabulary t:at :elps lear ers tal= a)out cultural di*ersit8 ) <!is can include "erms suc! as: !uman rig!"sM eNuali"DM digni"DM genderM /iasM -rejudiceM s"ereo"D-eM racismM e"!nic minori"DM and "!e names o5 e"!nic grou-s. our -as". "ourism.in"ercul"ural sEills maEing use o5: 1) <!emes 2) Gramma"ical exercises 3) Foca/ularD #cti*it8 5: Culture as a (ift: S=ill UP!ere cul"ure leads. >ri"ing8. "o unders"and and ul"ima"elD. lear ers ca de*ise furt:er e. or 5oreign -laDers in local "eams al>aDs "rea"ed >i"! res-ec"W *re "!ere inciden"s o5 racis" c!an"s or insul"sW B"!er "!emes e)g) 5ood. de0ise ">o ac"i0i"ies "o s"imula"e "!e in"ercul"ural dimension in language "eac!ing) STEP 1/0 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: TE#C7ERBS RO%E .

e spea0ers of t. or economic s7stemA@ -CDJ41 Q"eed (eel7e-@ I@ P/e must focus on bot.e deeper levels of t.t into t.at enable students to assimilate t. "!eD are also excellen" 0enues 5or 5ocusing "!e s"uden"sC a""en"ion on s-eci5ic de"ails and 5or crea"ing exercise ma"erials /ased on "!e 0ideo i"sel5) %udicious use o5 "!ese ma"erials can su/s"an"iallD increase "!e Nuan"i"D and Nuali"D o5 "ime s-en" on "asE >i"! language and cul"ure) STEP 5/0 C$ROUP <ORLD: #UT7E"TIC '#TERI#%S = @<R1C<=B @ 164 .e7 begin to perceive and e+perience vicariousl7 t. CP#IR <ORLD: = @<R1C<=B @ Consider "!e 5ollo>ing de5ini"ions o5 Cul"ure: C@ .'earning language in isolation of its cultural roots prevents one from becoming socialized into its conte+tual use@ Lno9ledge of linguistic structure alone does not carr7 9it. cul"ural and 0isual L a/ou" "!e "arge" coun"rD) Because "!ese ma"erials can /e edi"ed 5or -resen"a"ion./ilga &ivers*) Jo> mig!" Dou delinea"e "!e di55erences /e">een Vlinguis"ic com-e"enceC and cul"ural com-e"enceC in @eelDeCs "ermsW (o Dou "!inE "!a" non$na"i0e s-eaEersAlearners o5 language s!ould as Ri0ers sugges"s. "eac! and in"ernali9e au"!en"ic in5orma"ion L linguis"ic.4ulture as a /i/th skill re/ers to a set o/ abilities : 1) "!e a/ili"D "o -ercei0e and recogni9e cul"ural di55erences 2) "!e a/ili"D "o acce-" cul"ural di55erences 3) "!e a/ili"D "o a--recia"e and 0alue cul"ural di55erences STEP 5/.e political. "!e union o5 language and in5orma"ion rela"ing "o "!e na"ional cul"ure is called Vlinguocul"uralC "eac!ingC L [os"omro0 and Feres!c!agin. "rD "o a--roxima"e near$na"i0e -ro5iciencDW Br >ill "!eD al>aDs /e -ercei0ed as V5oreignC.em to go be7ond fact.e language -CDRC1@A.e content@ 8ctivities s. so t. religious.e culture of t.ould encourage t. ?anguage <eac!ing Me"!ods:Cul"ure 3ideo-based *nstruction Fideo ma"erials -ro0ide a uniNue o--or"uni"D "o -resen". social. it an7 special insig. appropriate content and activities t. so >!D /o"!er >i"! all o5 "!e cul"ural de"ailsW STEP 5/2 CP#IR <ORLD: USI"$ #RT TO TE#C7 %#"$U#$E #"D CU%TURE = @<R1C<=B @ (e0ise a lesson -lan 5or a uni" in"ended "o <eac! ?anguage and Cul"ure 1sing *r") 7=8 7==8 7===8 7=F8 7F8 7F=8 7F==8 de5ine Dour "arge" grou-: s"uden"sC le0el 7jus"i5D Dour c!oice8M s-eci5D "!e o/jec"i0es and "!e sEills Dou in"end "o 5ocus onM de0ise "!e ac"i0i"ies /D means o5 >!ic! Dou reac! Dour o/jec"i0es and s-eci5D "!e es"ima"ed "ime 5or eac!M s-eci5D "!e s"ra"egies Dou in"end "o useM s-eci5D "!e ma"erials Dou in"end "o useM s-eci5D "!e "eac!erCs role and "!e resul"s o5 "!e ac"i0i"iesM s-eci5D "!e num/er o5 classes Dou -lan 5or "!e >!ole ac"i0i"D) #or ideas and a sam-le lesson Dou maD go "o :ttpGG@@@/))c/co/u= Ct:e Culture sectio D) (o no" 5orge" "o -lace "!e c!osen linE em/edded in Dour ma"erials) -inguoculture V=n "!e -rocess o5 learning.

H S) =n"ercul"urali"D in 2duca"ion $ !""-:AADou"u)/eA%8R!RXT5&1R $ !""-AAi"eslj)orgA?essons $ !""-:AA>>>)coerll)u"exas)eduAme"!ods./ C!oose a 0ideo commercialA"ra0el addA-iece o5 ne>s as an exam-le o5 an au"!en"ic 0ideo segmen") 1se "!e 5ollo>ing cri"eria 5or assessing audioA0isual correla"ion "o de"ermine >!e"!er or no" "!is segmen" mig!" /e sui"a/le 5or an 2nglis! class: • • • =s "!e 0ideo "racE essen"ial "o com-le"e unders"andingW (oes "!e 0ideo "racE 5acili"a"e com-re!ension o5 "!e "ex"W Can "!e 0isuals s"and alone >i"!ou" "!e "ex"W #or sugges"ions and ma"erials Dou maD go "o :ttpGG@@@/))c/co/u= Ct:e *ideo sectio D) (o no" 5orge" "o -lace "!e c!osen linE em/edded in Dour ma"erials) 2/ (e0ise +re0ie>. and #ollo>$u.exercises 5or "!e c!osen 0ideo commercialA"ra0el addA-iece o5 ne>s) =nclude i"ems /ased on discree" -oin"s o5 language 7-ar"icular lexicon. #oreign ?anguage <eac!ing Me"!ods $ #rame>orE o5 Re5erence 5or +luralis"ic *--roac!es "o ?anguages and Cul"ures. as >ell as on cul"ural in5orma"ion) Refere ces 1) A8ramH '/H $ri)=o*aH A/ a d Star=e8H 7 ) (e0elo-ing <!e =n"ercul"ural (imension =n ?anguage <eac!ing 2) "icolaescuH C)?inguis"ic 2duca"ion and =n"ercul"urali"D 3) 'artY DYe.. a -oin" o5 grammar. !""-:AA>>>)readcom)in5oA2)doc 165 . <asE Fie>ing. a uniNue usage. Fersion 3 L MaD 2010 $ !""-:AAcara-)ecml)a"A?inEClicE)as-xW5ile"icEe"^e+D2c"G/?n=k3(###BOT_TEXT###quot;a/id^&25\language^en$GB $ Modules on in"ercul"ural 2duca"ion. e"c8.

166 .

'ODU%E .TE#C7I"$ #IDSH STR#TE$IESH 'ET7ODO%O$KH 'ODER" TEC7"IEUES #"D TOO%S USED TO (#CI%IT#TE $UIDED #"D #UTO"O'OUS %E#R"I"$ O( E"$%IS7 #S # (OREI$" %#"$U#$E 167 .2 .

168 .

"!eir o>n se" o5 learning s"ra"egies "o 5acili"a"e learning "o maEe "rainees /egin "!inEing -osi"i0elD and crea"i0elD a/ou" >!a" au"!en"ic ma"erials "!eD can 5ind and ada-" "o "!eir o>n local "eac!ing si"ua"ions)M "o ge" "rainees 5amiliar >i"! ne> online "oolsM "o -ro0ide resources 5or "eac!ers) #cti*it8 ."!eir learners de0elo./. CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: RE(%ECT = @<R1C<=B @ ?e"Cs consider "!e use5ulness o5 "!e =n"erne" as a classroom resource) #irs"lD. Dou are going "o c!oose 2 "asEs "!a" >ould mo"i0a"e Dour s"uden"s.: Mo"i0a"ing "asEs #cti*it8 2: Me"!odologD around "!e clocE #cti*it8 0: ?anguage learning and communica"ion s"ra"egies #cti*it8 1: *u"!en"ic Ma"erials #cti*it8 5: Modern "ec!niNues and "ools: +odcas"./2 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: SI'U%#TIO" = @<R1C<=B @ =magine "!e 5ollo>ing si"ua"ion: Xou !a0e /een commissioned /D an 2#? maga9ine "o -roduce a -os"er -resen"a"ion 5or Dour nex" na"ional con5erence on "!e su/jec" o5 mo"i0a"ion) <!e edi"or >an"s Dou "o com/ine "!eorD and -rac"ical ac"i0i"ies) <o com-le"e "!is Pe/ Nues".: 'oti*ati g tas=s Can "eac!ing aids mo"i0a"e s"uden"sW STEP . Dou >ill need "o do "!e 5ollo>ing: • • • • 2)1) =n"erne" Researc! $ 5ind ou" a/ou" mo"i0a"ed -eo-le 2)2) MaEe a c!ar" o5 mo"i0a"ingAdemo"i0a"ing 5ac"ors 2)3) =n"erne" Researc! L c!oose a mo"i0a"ing "asE 5rom <2#? >e/si"es 2)&) (o a +os"er -resen"a"ion 15 a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD 169 . @ur0eD MonEeD. PiEi #cti*it8 6: @am-les o5 class ac"i0i"ies15 O)9ecti*es • • • • • • • *udio "o maEe "rainees a>are o5 "!e im-or"ance o5 selec"ing class ma"erials in order "o mo"i0a"e "!eir s"uden"s "o !a0e "rainees ex-lore "!e !is"orD and a--lica"ions o5 2nglis! ?anguage <eac!ing. "!roug! a series o5 communica"i0e "asEs "o /uild -ar"ici-an"Cs a>areness o5 "!e exis"ence and use o5 learning s"ra"egies in indi0idual learners "o !a0e -ar"ici-an"s "!inE a/ou" "eac!ing s"ra"egies "!eD can use in "!eir classes "!a" >ill !el. *udaci"D. armed >i"! "!is Eno>ledge. 5or Dou "o use in Dour language classroom) STEP .#cti*it8 . "!inE a/ou": • • • P!a" is mo"i0a"ionW P!a" mo"i0a"es DouW P!a" mo"i0a"es Dour s"uden"sW <!en. con5erence.

Dou need "o "!inE a/ou" !o> Dou are going "o -resen" i") Xou >ill need "o -u" "!is on"o Dour -os"er -resen"a"ion) *0oid anD long "ex") Consider a "a/le 7#ig) &8. /ro>se "!is si"e looEing a" "!e /io da"a o5 -eo-le "!a" in"eres" Dou) =5 Dou !ad "o in0i"e one o5 "!ese ins-ira"ional -eo-le "o gi0e a "alE "o Dour s"uden"s L >!o >ould Dou c!ooseW P!DW @!are Dour ideas >i"! Dour -ar"nerAgrou-) STEP ./2/2 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: RESE#RC7 5 '#LE # C7#RT = @<R1C<=B @ o> Dou need "o read a/ou" >!a" mo"i0a"ion is and conseNuen"lD >!a" mo"i0a"es grou-s o5 -eo-le) <!inE o5 one o5 Dour learner grou-s 7-re$"eensA la"e$"eens Aadul"s8) Xou could also consider !o> gender a55ec"s mo"i0a"ion) ?ooE a" "!e 5ollo>ing >e/si"es and maEe a lis" o5 "!ings "!a" mo"i0a"e and demo"i0a"e -eo-le: !""-:AA>>>)d)umn)eduAs"uden"AloonAacadAs"ra"Amo"i0a"e)!"ml !""-:AA>>>)ed-sDcin"erac"i0e)orgA"o-icsAmo"i0a"ionAmo"i0a"e)!"ml !""-:AA>>>)!l"mag)co)uEAjan0&Amar"2)!"m !""-:AA>>>)grea"daD)comAmo"i0a"eA !""-:AA>>>)"e5l)ne"Aesl$ar"iclesAmo"i0a"ion$esl)!"m !""-:AA>>>)e!o>)comA!o>T'888586Tmo"i0a"e$esl$s"uden"s$learn)!"ml <i-: MaEing Dour c!ar") o> "!a" Dou !a0e Dour in5orma"ion. C$ROUP <ORLD: (I"DI"$ OUT #AOUT 'OTI6#TI"$ PEOP%E = @<R1C<=B @ @ome -eo-le ac!ie0e manD incredi/le "!ings in "!eir li5e"ime and >e can all learn a lo" 5rom "!em) =n 5ac" some o5 "!em are -aid "o "alE a/ou" >!a" mo"i0a"es "!em) Xour 5irs" "asE is "o 5ind ou" a/ou" "!ese mo"i0a"ed -eo-le) #ollo> "!e linE "o "!is si"e$ !""-:AA>>>)ins-ira"ionals-eaEers)co)uE and 5ind "!e ans>ers "o "!ese Nues"ions) <!en >ri"e 3 more Nues"ions o5 Dour o>n 5or someone else in Dour grou-) a) /) c) d) e) 5) g) !) P!a" !a--ened "o igel FardD on Moun" Mc[inleDW Jo> manD Dears >as Roger BlacE in !ig! le0el a"!le"ics 5orW P!a" is #ranE #urnessC jo/W P!ic! 5ur"!er educa"ion ins"i"u"e did (anielle gradua"e 5romW P!a" >as !er gradeW P!ic! s-or" does %aDan" Mis"rD com-e"e inW c c c o>./2/.• 2)5) (o a @el5$e0alua"ion STEP . Fenn (iagram 7#ig) 58 or anD o"!er 0isual -resen"a"ion) * Fenn (iagram e55icien"lD s!o>s indi0idual areas \ areas "!a" o0erla-) =" can /e ada-"ed 5or a" leas" 2 areas) 'oti*ates Demoti*ates Fig E !able 170 .

/2/1 C$ROUP <ORLD: POSTER PRESE"T#TIO" = @<R1C<=B @ JollD>ood si"e <!e =n"erne" mo0ie da"a/ase <railers. ne>s and re0ie>s CBB1=?( dic"ionarD !ome-age 2ncar"a encDclo-edia !ome-age 2ncDclo-edia Bri"annica Biogra-!ies o5 5amous -eo-le 7see 2<+ 1' 5or classroom ideas8 171 .Fig 3 Benn Diagram STEP . B. 3ilm# >>>)!ollD>ood)com >>>)imd/)com >>>)5ilm)com @ec"ion 2) @ong ?Drics 1 >>>)le"ssingi")com @ec"ion #) Re5erence 1 !""-:AA"i"ania)co/uild)collins)co)uE 2 >>>)encar"a)msn)comAencar"a!ome)as3 >>>)/ri"annica)com & >>>)/iogra-!D)com 5 >>>)s9)comA/iogra-!D @ec"ion G) <es"sA2xams 1 >>>)cam/ridge$e5l)org)uE 2 >>>)iel"s)org 3 >>>)"oe5l)org & >>>)"oeic)org STEP . or G8) @can "!roug! "!e >e/si"es in Dour sec"ion "o 5ind a mo"i0a"ing ac"i0i"D "o -u" in"o Dour -os"er -resen"a"ion) BooEmarE si"es and linEs "!a" Dou liEe 7add "o 5a0ouri"es8) @ec"ion *) Reading >>>)ones"o-englis!)com >>>)ou-)comAel" >>>)longman$el")com >>>)eslca5e)com >>>)linguis"ic$5unland)com >>>)englis!$5orum)com >>>)englis!no>)co)uE @ec"ion B) ?is"ening Resources >>>)esl$la/)com >>>)englis!lis"ening)com @ec"ion C) e>sAMedia 1 >>>)//c)co)uE 2 >>>)ne>s-a-ers)com 3 >>>)//c)co)uEA>orldser0iceAlearningenglis! Com-re!ensi0e BBC >e/si"e e>s-a-ers online 1se5ul 0oca/ ne>s i"ems 6ection 7. #. C./2/0 CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: 'ORE RESE#RC7: C7OOSE # 'OTI6#TI"$ T#SL (RO' TE(% <EASITES = @<R1C<=B @ C!oose a sEillA"o-ic 5rom /elo> 7*. (. 2.

/u" i" !as dra>n on manD o5 "!e -receding ex-erimen"al me"!ods and a--roac!es. on Dour c!osen "o-icM  "!ese Nues"ions s!ould /e ca-a/le o5 elici"ing a sensi/le o0er0ie> o5 "!e me"!odologD A a--roac! concerned. read and maEe /rie5 no"es on jus" one o5 "!e 5ollo>ing me"!odologies or a--roac!es:  selec" Dour c!osen "o-ic 5rom "!e !eadings /elo> 7Grammar$<ransla"ion "o "!e ?exical *--roac!8 and claim Dour "i"leM  !a0ing secured Dour "o-ic.?ooE a" !o> "o do a -os"er -resen"a"ion) <!is si"e gi0es lo"s o5 use5ul "i-s on !o> A!o> no" "o -u" Dour -os"er "oge"!er) <aEe no"es o5 -oin"s "!a" are rele0an" "o Dou and Dour "eac!ing si"ua"ion) !""-:AA>>>)Eumc)eduA@*JAB<2dAjradelA+os"erT+resen"a"ionsA+s"r@"ar")!"ml Xou could also c!oose a ca"c!D "i"le) e)g) T:ereBs o greater i spiratio t:a a role model/ <!is si"e !""-:AA>>>)grea"daD)comAmo"i0a"eA sends Dou dailD mo"i0a"ing messages /D email  #cti*it8 2: 'et:odolog8 arou d t:e cloc= STEP 2/. !o> >ould i" looEW  sa0e Dour Nues"ions in a >ord doc en"i"led -m7 topic1 <uestions 7eg: MD Grammar <ransla"ion Rues"ions8) $rammar-Tra slatio !""-:AA>>>)n"!uleen)comA-a-ersA'20re-or")!"ml !""-:AA>>>)a/er)ac)uEAjm5l>>>AseclangacNAlang"eac!3)!"ml !""-:AA>>>)-ersonal)-su)eduAusersAmAxAmx!392AinsDs&&1AMe"!odologDAgrammarT"ransla"ion)!"m Sile t <a8 !""-:AA>>>)englis!ra0en)comAme"!odTsilen")!"ml Suggestopedia !""-:AA>>>)j>el5ord)demon)co)uEA/rain>arema-Asugges")!"ml !""-:AAesl)a/ou")comAli/rarDA>eeElDAaa0&2699)!"m !""-:AA>>>)englis!ra0en)comAme"!odTsugges")!"ml #udioli gual !""-:AA>>>)/"in"erne")comAj"ed)-o>erAesl0308)!"ml !""-:AA>>>)/"in"erne")comAj"ed)-o>erAesl0312)!"ml !""-:AA>>>)asa!i$ne")or)j-Ajge9m$m"m"Aaudioandcommu)!"m T:e "atural #pproac: !""-:AA>>>)sil)orgAlingualinEsA?* G1*G2?2*R = GAPaDs<o*--roac!?anguage?earningA<!e a"u ral*--roac!)!"m !""-:AAcoe)sdsu)eduA-eo-leAjmoraA a"*--r<!eorD$2ngA(e5aul")!"m Direct met:od !""-:AA>>>)a/er)ac)uEAjm5l>>>AseclangacNAlang"eac!5)!"ml 172 . -lease read "!e rele0an" ar"icles -ro0ided. >!ic! >e are going "o looE a" no>) PorEing indi0iduallD. /u" s!ould reNuire onlD s!or" ans>ers. >e are going "o looE a" eig!" o5 "!em in de"ail) Xou >ill /e asEed "o c!oose onlD one o5 "!ese "o researc!) Communica"i0e ?anguage <eac!ing is recognised as "!e VnormC in >es"ern 2?< -rac"ice. CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLD: I di*idual tas= = @<R1C<=B @ <o gain a 5uller -ic"ure o5 some o5 "!e al"erna"i0e me"!odologies.5i0e Nues"ions "o asE Dour course ma"es. 5or exam-le: =5 = >alEed in"o Dour classroom. "!en maEe u.

!""-:AA>>>)a/er)ac)uEAk'2m5l>>>AseclangacNAlang"eac!5)!"ml !""-:AA>>>)arl")co)uEAd!"mlAdirec"me"!od1)-!. and a me"!od "o "!e nameb  Cale/ Ga""engo A %ames *s!er A @"e-!en [ras!en C!ecE Dour ans>ers on "!ese >e/ linEs: a8 !""-:AA>>>)google)comAuAa"mWN^Ga""egnof*n"!ologD\sa^Go))) /8 !""-:AA>>>)sE)com)/rAsE$Eras!)!"ml c8 !""-:AA>>>)"-r$>orld)comAorigina"or)!"ml STEP 2/2 C$ROUP <ORLD: S7#RI"$ = @<R1C<=B @ <!is nex" "asE is designed so as "o -ro0ide Dou >i"! a /rie5 o0er0ie> o5 all "!e me"!ods and a--roac!es Dou !a0e /een s"udDing "oge"!er) Go /acE "o "!e -rojec" 5orum or "o "!e 5li-c!ar" and -os" Dour re-lies "o eac! o5 "!e se" o5 5i0e Nues"ions Dour course ma"es !a0e se" Dou) <!ese addi"ional linEs >ill !el.!o> "o "eac! ?a"in using "!e (irec" Me"!odb Commu it8 %a guage lear i g !""-:AA>>>)"eac!ingenglis!)org)uEA"!inEAme"!odologDAcll)s!"ml !""-:AAmem/ers)5or"uneci"D)comAnada/sAcommuni"Dlearn)!"ml !""-:AA>>>)"eac!ingenglis!)org)uEA"!inEAme"!odologDAcll)s!"ml !""-:AAi"eslj)orgA*r"iclesA[o/a$C??)!"ml Tas=-Aased %ear i g !""-:AA>>>)"eac!ingenglis!)org)uEA"!inEAme"!odologDA"asET/ased)s!"ml !""-:AA>>>)languages)dEAme"!odsAdocumen"sA<B?T-resen"a"ion)-d5 TPR !""-:AA>>>)"eac!ingenglis!)org)uEA"!inEAme"!odologDA"-r)s!"ml !""-:AA>>>)"-r$>orld)comA*BC)!"ml !""-:AA>>>)"-rsource)comAas!er)!"m %e.ical #pproac: !""-:AA>>>)"eac!ingenglis!)org)uEA"!inEAme"!odologDAlexicalTa--roac!1)s!"ml !""-:AA>ri"ing)/erEeleD)eduA<2@?$2%Aej09Ar10)!"ml !""-:AA>>>)cal)orgAresourcesAdiges"A0102lexical)!"ml !""-:AA>>>)ns-eaE)comAlexical)!"m <!e Big ame GallerD L searc! "!e >e/si"es and -u" a name "o "!e -!o"o.Dou: !""-:AA>>>)au/urn)eduAjnunna"!Aengl62&0A-rinci-l)!"ml !""-:AAcoe)sdsu)eduA-eo-leAjmoraA*?MMe"!ods)!"m 173 .

"!eir o>n se" o5 "!ese s"ra"egies) =n second language acNuisi"ion li"era"ure.s"uden"s de0elo"!eir o>n s"ra"egies) #irs". Dou >ill !ear and see a lis" a c!arac"eris"ics and s"ra"egies "!a" are s!ared /D success5ul language learners) P!ile lis"ening. "rD "o maEe no"es on as manD o5 "!em as Dou can recall) C!ecE >i"! o"!ers and com-are Dour lis"s. /D in5ormallD "alEing >i"! "!e s"uden"s. or !a0ing 5ormal consul"a"ions) <!eD "!en need "o !el.s"uden"s 5igure ou" >!ic! s"ra"egies mig!" >orE /es" 5or "!em) *s s"uden"s /ecome more ade-" a" iden"i5Ding and a--lDing s"ra"egies 5or "!emsel0es. and 5ind ou" >!a" s"ra"egies learners are curren"lD using) <!eD can do "!is "!roug! o/ser0a"ion. "!eD /ecome /e""er sel5$"eac!ers) STEP 0/.MarE Dour -os"s 7Dour "o-ic *ns>ers eg: Grammar <ransla"ion *ns>ers8) #cti*it8 0: %a guage lear i g a d commu icatio strategies %ear i g Strategies @"uden"s can /ecome /e""er learners i5 "!eD are a/le "o use learning s"ra"egies) Good language learners de0elo. CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLG$ROUP <ORLD: STR#TE$IES PRE-6IE<I"$ = @<R1C<=B @ Go "!roug! Readings * and B -rior "o 0ie>ing "!e 0ideo) <7I%E-6IE<I"$ T#SL #/ = @<R1C<=B @ *" "!e /eginning o5 "!e 0ideo. /o"! "!ose "!a" "!e "eac!er -lanned or used and "!ose "!a" seem -ar" o5 "!e class dDnamic) P!a" s"ra"egies mig!" /e a" >orE 5rom "!is -ers-ec"i0eW #(TER-6IE<I"$ = @<R1C<=B @ 174 . maEe no"e o5 anD s"ra"egies 5rom "!e readings "!a" Dou see or !ear "!e "eac!er "alEs a/ou" in "!e 0ideo) %a guage-specific s=ills 2) Fie> "!e 0ideo again) ?is" "!e language$s-eci5ic sEills "!a" s"uden"s use in "!e class and "!e ac"i0i"ies "!a" s"uden"s are doing) o"e >!ic! sEills are used during eac! ac"i0i"D and !o> "!eD are in"egra"ed) P!a" s"ra"egies mig!" /e a" >orEW #ffecti*e factors 3) Fie> "!e "a-e a "!ird "ime and "rD "o lis" a55ec"i0e 5ac"ors. s"ra"egies carrD di55eren" de5ini"ions and 5all in"o a 0arie"D o5 ca"egories) @ome common conce-"s are: _ ?earning or academic s"ra"egies) _ Me"acogni"i0e and cogni"i0e s"ra"egies) _ @ocial and a55ec"i0e s"ra"egies) <!e "eac!erCs role is "o consciouslD /uild s"ra"egD "raining in"o "!e lessons "o !el. in"er0ie>ing "!em. iden"i5D s"uden" -ro/lems. adding "!em as needed) Can Dou agree on a de5ini"ion 5or Usuccess6 in Dour learnersW !""-:AA>>>)Dou"u/e)comA>a"c!W0^si D50]P/BX T#SL A/ = @<R1C<=B @ T8pes of strategies i t:e classroom 1) o"e "!a" "eac!ing and learning s"ra"egies are closelD rela"ed) P!a" s"ra"egies do "!e ar"icles descri/eW *s Dou >a"c! "!e 0ideo. "eac!ers need "o learn a/ou" "!eir s"uden"sC /acEgrounds.

-er!a-s 5or con"en" classes "!a" are "aug!" in 2nglis!. 5or unders"anding music and mo0ies.5or i"ems 1$3 5rom <7I%E-6IE<I"$ T#SL A/ (iscuss >!a" >as "!e same or di55eren" and >!D) 1se "!e 5ollo>ing re5lec"ion Nues"ions as a discussion guide) 1) Jo> >ould Dou ca"egori9e mos" o5 "!e s"ra"egies "!a" Dou o/ser0ed 7>!e"!er direc"lD or "!roug! in5erence8W Pere "!eD "eac!ing or learning s"ra"egies. and !o> do Dou use "!emW 3) P!a" a55ec"i0e 5ac"ors >ere -resen" in "!e organi9a"ion o5 "!e classroom s-aceW =n "!e lesson 5orma" and >aD "!e "eac!er !ad s"uden"s do "!e >orEW (o Dou "!inE "!eD >ere e55ec"i0eW 2x-lain Dour ans>er "o o"!ers in Dour grou-) II/ (O%%O< UP = @<R1C<=B @ II/. design a -or"ion o5 a lesson "!a" includes "!e use o5 some o5 "!e s"ra"egies Dou lis"ed) II/0/ @!are Dour -lan >i"! o"!ers) 2x-lain >!a" ac"i0i"D >ould come /e5ore and a5"er Dour segmen") Ge" -eer ideas and 5eed/acE) OT7ER SU$$ESTED RESOURCES >o9 to Ha0e a #reat 6oster *u"!or: (ina #) Mandoli. 5ulletin 5oard :deas *u"!or: [a"!D @c!rocE Pe/ si"e: !""-:AAsc!ool)disco0erD)comAsc!rocEguideA/ulle"inA 175 . Dou !a0e seen a 5e> exam-les and ideas 5rom o"!er "eac!ersC classes) Jo> could Dou use some o5 "!e s"ra"egies and "ec!niNues lis"ed "o accom-lis! or im-ro0e on >orE Dou !a0e alreadD done >i"! "!e 5ollo>ing i"emsW      Crea"e a "rus"ing classroom a"mos-!ere "!a" encourages risE$"aEing and -ar"ici-a"ion) Build s"uden" con5idence in "!eir a/ili"D "o use "!e language) =m-ro0e learnersC cogni"i0e -rocessing) *c"i0a"e sc!ema) Jel.er >elpers. or some com/ina"ion o5 /o"!W P!en is learning Usel5$"eac!ing6 in a s"ra"egies con"ex"W P!ic! s-eci5ic s"ra"egies do Dou "!inE "!e s"uden"s in "!is class are u"ili9ing as "!eD do "!e ac"i0i"iesW Bne "!ing "!e "eac!er "alEed a/ou" >as "!e c!allenges !er s"uden"s !ad) P!a" >ere some o5 "!ese c!allenges and !o> did "!eD a55ec" learningW P!a" Einds o5 c!allenges do Dour o>n s"uden"s 5aceW 2) Com-are no"es on language$s-eci5ic sEills and ac"i0i"ies) Jo> are "!e sEills in"egra"ed in "!e ac"i0i"iesW P!a" s"ra"egies does "!e "eac!er model or use "o !el.=) Com-are Dour no"es >i"! "!ose o5 o"!ers in Dour grou./ =n "!e resources -ro0ided in "!is sec"ion.s"uden"s 5ocus on im-or"an" -oin"s and unders"and con"en"W (o Dou use anD o5 "!eseW =5 so. (e-ar"men" o5 Bo"anD Pe/ si"e: !""-:AA>>>)as-/)orgAeduca"ionA-os"er)c5m 6ro!eac. 5or =n"erne" accessi/ili"D. 1ni0ersi"D o5 Pas!ing"on. 5ulletin 5oard :deas Pe/ si"e: !""-:AA>>>)-ro"eac!er)comA03000&)s!"ml !eac.er. or 5or "alEing >i"! 5oreigners) <alE a/ou" Dour ideas >i"! a -ar"ner or >i"! Dour grou-) II/2/ = @<R1C<=B @ BD Doursel5 or >i"! a -ar"ner.s"uden"s "rans5er "!eir sEills "o a--ro-ria"e language use in Dour si"ua"ion. >!ic! ones.

and -roduce language as i" is used in "!e "arge" cul"ure) _ <!eD re5lec" real use o5 language in cul"urallD a--ro-ria"e con"ex"s) _ <!eD are in"eres"ing and mo"i0a"ing) _ <!eD can /e c!osen according "o learner in"eres"s or needs. @"ra"egD <raining 5or @econd ?anguage ?earners. learners can /egin "o de0elo. see: 2#? A 2@? ?essons and ?esson +lans 5rom =n"erne" <2@? %ournal 7go "o "!e Fideo sec"ion8 Pe/ si"e: !""-:AAi"eslj)orgA?essonsA Pe/$/ased Resources 5or 2nglis! ?anguage <eac!ing \ ?earning: Fideo *u"!or: ?eslie B--$BecEman Pe/ si"e: !""-:AAoel-)uoregon)eduA"eac!T0ideo)!"ml (O%%O<-UP =n "!e resources -ro0ided in "!is sec"ion.a "olerance 5or >!a" "!eD canno" unders"and in order "o ge" as muc! in5orma"ion as "!eD can 5rom >!a" "!eD do unders"and) STEP 1/. Mul"imedia <7I%E-6IE<I"$ = @<R1C<=B @ Farious 5orms o5 mul"imedia can /e 0alua/le "ools in "!e language learning classroom) =n "!is segmen" Dou >ill see se0eral exam-les o5 mul"imedia use and one ac"i0i"D using 0ideo) 1) MaEe no"e o5 "!e 0arious "D-es o5 mul"imedia ma"erials Dou no"ice or !ear a/ou" in "!is segmen") #(TER-6IE<I"$ = @<R1C<=B @ *ns>er: 1) Ja0e Dou used 0ideo or o"!er mul"imedia ma"erials in Dour o>n classroom or >!en Dou >ere learning 2nglis!W =5 so. learning "o de0elo. >!ic! ones >ere e55ec"i0eW =n"eres"ingW #or more ideas on "!e use o5 0ideo in "!e language classroom.sur0i0al language sEills. = @<R1C<=B @ 176 . read. CI"DI6IDU#% <ORLG$ROUP <ORLD: #UT7E"TIC '#TERI#%S Go "o !""-:AA>>>)Dou"u/e)comA>a"c!W0^8mg>P!Pa0R8: Fideo @egmen" &. 2ric (iges" 2(B$#?$03$02 *u"!or: *ndre> Co!en !""-:AA>>>)cal)orgAresourcesAdiges"Adiges"T-d5sA0302co!en)-d5 #cti*it8 1: Usi g aut:e tic materials *u"!en"ic Ma"erials <!e "ex"/ooE is a -o>er5ul "eac!ing "ool "!a" -ro0ides manD /ene5i"s "o "eac!ers) Recen"lD. 2R=C 2C (iges" Q2638: @"ra"egD =ns"ruc"ion *u"!or: +a" BecEman !""-:AA>>>)!oagiesgi5"ed)orgAericAe638)!"ml Readi g A. or /e c!osen /D learners "!emsel0es 5or "!eir o>n -ur-oses) _ <!roug! "!eir use.RESOURCE #RTIC%ES Readi g #. Dou !a0e seen a 5e> exam-les and ideas 5rom o"!er "eac!ersC classes) Step . "ex"/ooEs !a0e /egun "o include more au"!en"ic ma"erials) <eac!ers are also using more and more au"!en"ic ma"erials "o su--lemen" "!e "ex"/ooE) *u"!en"ic ma"erials are "!ose used in "!e "arge" cul"ure 5or ac"ual communica"i0e needs) Jere are some reasons 5or using au"!en"ic ma"erials in "!e classroom: _ <!eD ena/le "!e learner "o !ear.

and a--s8. s"imula"ing learners "o do /D "!emsel0es. i<unes !as a -odcas" sec"ion. as o--osed "o reNuiring "!e user "o /e in 5ron" o5 a com-u"er >i"! an in"erne" connec"ion) Jo>e0er. and i"s im-ac" is no" "!e same) 7o@ to fi d G do@ load podcastsO +odcas"s can /e accessed 5rom aggrega"ors 7>e/si"es or so5">are "!a" allo> "!e user "o do>nload or su/scri/e "o "!e media 5iles8) <!e mos" common and -o-ular o5 -odcas" aggrega"ors is iTu es) *s >ell as /eing an en"er"ainmen" s!o. manD indi0iduals and ins"i"u"ions "alE a/ou" -odcas"s >!en re5erring "o anD media 5ile dis"ri/u"ed online. >!ere -odcas" -ro0iders dis"ri/u"e "!eir audio and 0ideo 5iles 5ree o5 c!arge) +odcas"s can /e do>nloaded indi0iduallD or "!e user can su/scri/e "o "!em "o au"oma"icallD recei0e ne> ins"almen"s o5 a series) 177 . 0ideo.o>. asE "!e "rainer or ano"!er ex-erienced "eac!er 5or 5eed/acE #cti*it8 5: 'oder tec: iFues a d tools Com-u"er$assis"ed language learning 7C*??8 is reac!ing an u. !o>e0er.1) Step 0 = @<R1C<=B @ @!are Dour -lan >i"! o"!ers) 2x-lain >!a" ac"i0i"ies mig!" /e used >i"! Dour ma"erials) Ge" ideas and 5orma"i0e 5eed/acE) Step 1 = @<R1C<=B @ 1-da"e Dour design. suc! as m-3 -laDers or mo/ile -!ones.mos" -osi"ion in "!e -edagogical 5ield o5 2nglis! as a @econd or #oreign ?anguage 72@?A2#?8) ="s -o>er5ul -resence !as 5os"ered learner au"onomD and a >ide range o5 o--or"uni"ies 5or au"!en"ic in"erac"ion in "!e "arge" language 72nglis!8 in com-u"er$/ased condi"ions) Pe/$/ased learning is /ecoming an e0en more -o>er5ul in"erac"i0e source "!a" increases learnersY Eno>ledge and "!a" guaran"ees Nuan"i"D and Nuali"D o5 language in-u" and ou"-u") *dded "o "!is. -odcas"ing is no di55eren" 5rom s"reaming or do>nloada/le audio. regardless o5 >!e"!er i" is -ar" o5 a series or >!e"!er i" can /e su/scri/ed "o "!roug! an R@@ 5eed) Pi"!ou" R@@ sDndica"ion. as needed) <rD i" >i"! Dour class) =5 Dou are no" "eac!ing. in -rac"ice. "!inE a/ou" Dour o>n classes) Jo> >ell do Dou Eno> Dour s"uden"s 7or s"uden"s o5 an age Dou are liEelD "o "eac!8W _ P!a" are some general in"eres"s o5 s"uden"s "!a" ageW B5 "!e girlsW B5 "!e /oDsW _ P!a" are some liEelD indi0idual in"eres"s o5 s"uden"s in "!e grou-W _ #rom >!a" sources are "!eD mos" liEelD "o !ear au"!en"ic use o5 2nglis!W _ =n >!a" si"ua"ions mig!" "!eD need "o use 2nglis!W =5 Dou donC" Eno> "!e ans>ers. and acEno>ledging learners o5 "!eir commi"men" 5or sel5$mo"i0a"ed o--or"uni"ies "o use "!e language 5or au"!en"ic communica"i0e -ur-oses) #/ PODC#STI"$ (OR %#"$U#$E %E#R"I"$ <:at is itO * -odcas" is a series o5 regularlD$u-da"ed audio or 0ideo 5iles "!a" can /e -laDed on a num/er o5 de0ices 7ei"!er -or"a/le. "!e c!anging role o5 "!e "eac!er is more res-onsi0e "o s"uden"sC sel5 direc"ed learning: "!a" o5 "eac!ing learners !o> "o learn. >!ic! are au"oma"icallD deli0ered "o su/scri/ers 0ia R@@ su/scri-"ion and "!a" once do>nloaded "!eD can /e accessed anD"ime and anD-lace. !o> >ill Dou ge" "!em 7!in": asE "!e s"uden"sb8) (iscuss Dour ideas >i"! o"!ers) Step 2 = @<R1C<=B @ (esign a lesson "!a" includes "!e use o5 some au"!en"ic ma"erials "!a" Dou can 5ind locallD and "!a" Dou "!inE >ill 5i" >i"! Dour ans>ers in @"e. /u" also s"a"ic. suc! as desE"ocom-u"ers8 and are dis"ri/u"ed o0er "!e in"erne" 0ia a su/scri-"ion ser0ice) <!e EeD di55erences /e">een -odcas"s and o"!er audio or 0ideo 5ile dis"ri/u"ion 5orma"s is "!a" -odcas"s 5orm -ar" o5 a series.7>!ere cus"omers can -urc!ase music.

suc! as "!e use o5 au"!en"ic ma"erials. "!e ma"erials are deli0ered in a 5orma" "!a" is -or"a/le. 2005. suc! as 5orums. 200'8)  +odcas"ing also 5i"s >i"! mo/ile learning. o5"en -ro5essionallD made resources on a >!ole range o5 "o-ics) *nd "!eD are 5ree)  @ome researc!ers also men"ion "!e -o"en"ial "o allo> con"ac" "ime >i"! s"uden"s in "!e classroom "o 5ocus on in"erac"ion. or >!en "!e learner l"aEes ad0an"age o5 "!e learning o--or"uni"ies o55ered /D mo/ile "ec!nologies 7[uEulsEa$Julme. language learners s!ould no" ex-ec" "o unders"and e0erD >ord "!eD !ear) (e-ending on "!eir le0el. in5ormal and li5elong learning. "o ena/le s"uden"s "o lis"en "o a -iece o5 audio a" "!eir o>n -ace. s!or" con0ersa"ionsc some o5 "!ese include su--or" ma"erials suc! as "ranscri-"s) *sE "!em "o searc! 5or di55eren" "D-es) P!ic! do "!eD liEe /es"W P!DW  *sE Dour o>n s"uden"sb (e-ending on "!eir ages. "!eD are liEelD "o /e more 5amiliar >i"! "!e "ec!nologD and -ro/a/lD Eno> more "!an Dou) ="Cs -ro/a/lD /es" "o carrD ou" "!ese ac"i0i"ies ou"side class "ime and "!en engage "!e s"uden"s in -resen"ing >!a" "!eD !a0e 5ound)  *no"!er o-"ion is "o asE s"uden"s "o crea"e "!eir o>n audio or 0ideo -odcas" -rojec"s descri/ing "!eir !ouse. and "!en "o res-ond "o i" and commen" on i" >i"! o"!er learners using a 5orum. ra"ings. 5orma". and easD "o access) <!e user can con"rol "!e -ace a" >!ic! "!e in5orma"ion is deli0ered "o "!em L using "!e -ause /u""on. allo>ing "!e ins"ruc"or "o maEe "!e mos" o5 "!eir con"ac" "ime >i"! s"uden"s) <!e deli0erD medium. -or"a/ili"D. Dou can do "!e same >i"! "!e audio and 0ideo ma"erial a0aila/le as -odcas"s) Jere are some sugges"ions "o engage s"uden"s >i"! -odcas"s 5or language learning: • *sE "!em "o do a searc! in "!e "arge" language i<unes s"ore 5or au"!en"ic ma"erials on ei"!er a "o-ic "!a" is rele0an" "o Dour "eac!ing or anD "o-ic "!a" is o5 in"eres" "o "!em -ersonallD) P!en "!eD !a0e 5ound some"!ing. -rede"ermined loca"ion. 20068 as >ell as in"egra"ing in$class and ou"$o5$class ac"i0i"ies and ma"erials 7<!orne \ +aDne. and "!e commen"s 5rom o"!er lis"eners "o ascer"ain !o> o"!ers !a0e ra"ed "!e ma"erial) *sE "!em "o lis"en "o "!e 5irs" ">o minu"es "o decide i5 i"Cs >or"! lis"ening anD 5ur"!er) Can "!eD gras."!e con"en" o5 "!e ma"erialW Remind "!em "!a" >!en lis"ening "o au"!en"ic ma"erials. 5or exam-le) <!e 5orma" is also mo"i0a"ing and a""rac"i0e: s!or". asE "!em "o read "!e descri-"ion. and "!e 5ac" "!a" "!e ma"erials can /e su/scri/ed "o and do no" !a0e "o /e sourced 5rom a li/rarD maEe "!is Nui"e a di55eren" -ro-osi"ion "o reading a c!a-"er or ar"icle as !ome>orE)  Bne o5 "!e >aDs Dou can use -odcas"s is /D u-loading "!em "o en0ironmen"s suc! as F?2s or Dour sc!ool or college >e/si"e) Xou can use -odcas"s "oge"!er >i"! o"!er "ools. -) 186)  +odcas"ing o55ers manD -o"en"ial /ene5i"s: 5or ins"ance. con0enien" and easD "o use.<:8 @ould I use podcasts i m8 teac:i gO <!e -o-ulari"D o5 -or"a/le media -laDers and -odcas"ing !as increased in "!e las" 5e> Dears) @ome researc!ers >ere NuicE "o iden"i5D "!e -o"en"ial uses and /ene5i"s o5 -odcas"ing 5or language learning:  +odcas"ing can su--or" -rinci-les ad0oca"ed /D se0eral "!eories o5 learning. s!i5"ing -re-ara"orD >orE "o ou"side "imes and loca"ions 7Blaisdell. 5or ins"ance. >!ic! "aEes -lace U>!en "!e learner is no" a" a 5ixed. "!e use o5 learning o/jec"s 5or "!e -ro0ision o5 learning ma"erials and jus" in "ime "eac!ing 7Rosell$*guilar. or >ri"e a colla/ora"i0e -iece on i" in a >iEi) Suggestio s for teac:ers Xou maD >is! "o "!inE o5 -odcas"s as Us-oEen >e/si"es6) %us" liEe Dou mig!" asE Dour language s"uden"s "o go online "o 5ind language learning resources or in5orma"ion in "!e "arge" language. 20058) #or exam-le. "o>n or sc!ool in "!e "arge" language) <!is can /e 0erD mo"i0a"ing and "ec!nicallD easD "o do L "!ere are 0erD good guides "o do "!is a0aila/le online) <!en u-load i" "o i<unes and ge" "!em "o "ell all "!eir 5riends) A/ USI"$ #UD#CITKZ (OR %#"$U#$E TE#C7I"$ <:at is itO 178 . 5 or 10k or jus" gras-ing >!a" i"Ys a/ou" is enoug!)  *l"erna"i0elD asE s"uden"s "o do a searc! 5or language learning -odcas"s) <!ere are manD >i"! manD di55eren" a--roac!es including 0oca/ularD lis"s. use5ul ex-ressions. s"uden"s can /e asEed "o >a"c! or lis"en "o ma"erial as -re-ara"ion >orE 5or discussion during a class.

and -as"ing audio cli-s. co-D. Dou need "o Eee. and mix audio 5iles on "!eir com-u"er) <!eD can "!en su/mi" "!eir >orE "o "!eir "eac!er. or mix sounds "oge"!er 5or "!eir mo/ile de0ices) %us" liEe >i"! anD o"!er classroom ma"erial. au"!en"ic in"erac"ions /e">een na"i0e s-eaEers. and Dou can do>nload i" 5rom "!e ne" a" !""-:AAaudaci"D)source5orge)ne"A <:8 @ould 8ou @a t to use #udacit8Z for 8our teac:i gO 1) Because i" allo>s Dou "o ex-ose s"uden"s "o a di0ersi"D o5 au"!en"ic ?2 audio resources)  Xou can record radio -rograms 7or "!e audio "racE o5 a <F -rogram8. and com-are all or 0erD s-eci5ic -ar"s o5 "!eir 7or "!eir -eersY8 recorded -roduc"ions) <!eD can sa0e "!eir oral -roduc"ions "o lis"en "o "!em again la"er on and assessAmoni"or "!eir -rogress 7as -ar" o5 5or "!eir s"uden" -or"5olio8) 5) Because i" encourages crea"i0i"D)  <eac!ers * ( s"uden"s can easilD crea"e audio and musical documen"s in ?2) 6) Because i" 5acili"a"es a "asE$/ased a--roac! "o learning  =" allo>s s"uden"s "o learn "!e language >!ile crea"ing original audio resources 7learning /D doing8) ') Because i" a--eals "o "!e s"uden"s $ "!is "ec!nologD is -ar" o5 "!eir >orld)  #or ins"ance.*udaci"Dm is a 5ree. 0isuali9e. commercial or educa"ional -ur-ose. i" /ecomes 0erD easD "o crea"e ac"i0i"ies s-eci5ic "o "!e -ronuncia"ion needs o5 one or se0eral s"uden"s. language 5ocus.cus"om -ronuncia"ion ac"i0i"ies)  1sing "!e edi"ing and "!e sound e55ec"s "ools o5 *udaci"Dm 7cu""ing.lis"ening com-re!ension ac"i0i"ies using "!e edi"ing "ools o5 *udaci"Dm) 2) Because i" ena/les Dou "o con"inue "o use analogue resources in a digi"al en0ironmen")  =5 Dou !a0e /een "eac!ing 5or a >!ile. remo0ing noise. record. "asE$/ased a--roac!. lis"ening com-re!ension and oral -roduc"ion) =" also allo>s s"uden"s "o indi0iduallD and a" "!eir o>n -ace. o-en source so5">are dis"ri/u"ed under "!e G 1 General +u/lic ?icense 7G+?8. more 5lexi/le and more di0erse uses 75or ins"ance. e"c) and easilD de0elo. Microso5" Pindo>s. Dour s"uden"s are liEelD "o !a0e used *udaci"Dm "o ex-or" songs and audio 5iles in M+3. 0ia email or a course managemen" sDs"em suc! as Moodle) 179 . am-li5Ding sound. am-li5Ding sounds8M  con0er"ing old "a-es and records in"o digi"al recordings or C(sM  ex-or"ing audio 5iles in 5orma"s suc! as M+3. music and songs 5rom =<unes. au"!en"ici"D. >!ic! means "!a" Dou can use i" 5or anD -ersonal. e"c)8) Suggestio s for teac:ers *udaci"Dm is an in"eres"ing and easD$"o$use "ool 5or "!e "eac!er "o >orE on ?2 -ronuncia"ion. edi" audio 5iles. *=## or Bgg For/isM =" is a0aila/le 5or Mac B@ ]. edi" "!em."!e -edagogical considera"ions in mind 7e)g) learning o/jec"i0es. Dou can s!are "!em >i"! Dour s"uden"s and Dour colleagues more easilD. remo0ing noise. -as"e8M  mixing sounds "oge"!erM  a--lDing di55eren" e55ec"s on "!e audio 5ile 7suc! as c!anging "!e s-eed or -i"c! o5 a recording. co-Ding. or s!are i" >i"! "!eir -eers. +odcas"s and audio cli-s 5rom "!e =n"erne". crea"e. Dou !a0e -ro/a/lD de0elo-ed a collec"ion o5 in"eres"ing audio resources on "a-es o0er "!e Dears) *udaci"Dm allo>s Dou "o digi"ali9e all "!ese analogue resources 5or easier. including ins"alling i" on as manD di55eren" com-u"ers as Dou >is!) Pi"! i"s user$5riendlD in"er5ace *udaci"Dm ena/les "eac!ers "o crea"e oral ac"i0i"ies 5or 5ace$"o$5ace andAor online language "eac!ing en0ironmen"s 7i)e) -ronuncia"ion. e"c)8) 3) Because i" allo>s Dou "o de0elo. G 1A?inux. lis"en "o. c!anging "!e s-eed or -i"c! o5 a recording. adding silences8. lis"ening com-re!ension and oral -roduc"ion ac"i0i"ies8 /D:  recording li0e audioM  recording +odcas"s and audio cli-s 5rom "!e =n"erne"M  edi"ing audio 5iles 7cu". in a 5ace$"o$5ace or online en0ironmen") &) Because i" su--or"s "!e de0elo-men" o5 me"acogni"i0e sEills and s"ra"egies o5 Dour s"uden"s)  @"uden"s can easilD lis"en. P*F.

5orums or elec"ronic dro. and organi9ing all "!ese s-eaEing assignmen"s is made ex"remelD e55icien" and easD 5or "!e "eac!er >!o recei0es all "!ese audio 5iles 0ia email.cus"om lis"ening com-re!ension ac"i0i"ies. or "!e :nsert silence /u""on. sa0ing. edi" "!eir >orE "o -er5ec" i". or sounds suc! as ScloseS hElo9i and SclosedS hElo9di. de-ending on "!e "eac!ersY needs and "!e s"uden"sY le0el o5 language -ro5iciencD) <!e $. lis"en "o i" 5or sel5 andAor -eer assessmen". can lis"en "o and re-ea" "!e u""erances) =n order "o do "!a".'istening tas0s 1sing "!e $op7G$utG6aste /u""ons. an in"eres"ing e55ec" "o -laD >i"! >!en dealing >i"! di55eren" le0els o5 di55icul"D 5or lis"ening "o au"!en"ic ma"erial) 8ural discrimination and pronunciation activities *l"!oug! researc! !as consis"en"lD indica"ed "!e im-or"ance o5 -ronuncia"ion "raining in 5oreign language classes. clicE on l<aEe a <ourM and 5ollo> "!e ex-lana"ionsM "!eD co0er crea"ing a sur0eD. in"ona"ion uni"s and con"ours. "o de0elo. "!a" "!eD !a0e so muc! con"en" "o co0er in "!eir classes "!a" "!eD do no" !a0e "ime "o go in"o "!e in"ricacies o5 -!one"ics. or "!a" "!e "ec!nologD needed "o >orE in de-"! on s"uden"sY -ronuncia"ion is "oo cum/ersome) *udaci"Dm allo>s "!e "eac!er "o easilD record au"!en"ic or -re$edi"ed ma"erials "o crea"e s-eci5ic aural discrimina"ion ac"i0i"ies 75or ins"ance ac"i0i"ies allo>ing 2@? s"uden"s "o !ear and discrimina"e /e">een s"ressed and uns"ressed sDlla/les. redo "!e ac"i0i"D i5 !eAs!e is no" sa"is5ied. indi0iduallD and a" !isA!er o>n -ace. !eAs!e needs "o go "o +re5erences in "!e *udaci"D menu and c!ecE "!e S+laD o"!er "racEs >!ile recording ne> oneS /ox in "!e *udio =AB "a/) <!e s"uden" can "!en lis"en "o !isA!er -ronuncia"ion and com-are i" >i"! "!e model. adding -eriods o5 silence in /e">een u""erances as a 5ree s-ace 5or "!e s"uden" "o re-ea" "!em) 2ac! s"uden". and su/mi" i" "o "!eir ins"ruc"or) <!e "asEs o5 collec"ing. so one >aD o5 ge""ing "o gri-s >i"! "!e /asics is "o go "o "!e >e/si"e./oxes) C/ Usi g >Sur*e8 'o =e8? i class <:at is Sur*e8 'o =e8O @ur0eD MonEeD is a "ool "!a" allo>s users "o crea"e "!eir o>n sur0eDs using Nues"ion 5orma" "em-la"es) <!e /asic 0ersion o5 @ur0eD MonEeD is 5reeM an en!anced 0ersion is also a0aila/le a" a cos") 7!""-:AA>>>)sur0eDmonEeD)comA 8 @ur0eD MonEeD o55ers sel5$guided "u"orials.a sur0eD and analD9ing i" 7!""-:AA>>>)Dou"u/e)comA>a"c!W0^X"E0"F<T0*88) <:8 @ould I @a t to use Sur*e8 'o =e8 i m8 classroomO 1) Because Dou can use i" in 5ace$"o$5ace and online "eac!ing and learning en0ironmen"s)  Xou can crea"e a sur0eD and discuss "!e resul"s ei"!er in Dour 5ace$"o$5ace class or in a sDnc!ronous or asDnc!ronous en0ironmen") 2) Because i" is a rela"i0elD sim-le >aD o5 ge""ing "!e s"uden"s "o in"erac" >i"! eac! o"!er  =" gi0es Dou -ossi/ili"ies "o "acEle a "o-ic in a more in"erac"i0e >aD 180 .ange tempo /u""on 5rom "!e %ffect menu allo>s 5or c!anging "!e s-eed o5 "!e audio >i"!ou" c!anging "!e -i"c!. ge""ing res-onses and analD9ing resul"s) Xou can also >a"c! "!e Xou<u/e 0ideo crea"ed /D lCool <eac!ers‟ C!ris JasEell and Bar/ara @c!roeder >!ic! "aEes Dou "!roug! "!e s"e-s o5 se""ing u. sa0e !isA!er 5ile in !isA!er -or"5olio andAor email i" "o !isA!er "eac!er or "o -eers 5or -eer$e0alua"ion) (pea0ing activities 1sing *udaci"Dm s"uden"s can indi0iduallD or colla/ora"i0elD record manD "D-es o5 s-eaEing assignmen"s. arc!i0ing. all o5 >!ic! !a0e s"rong incidences on "!e a/ili"D "o ca-"ure "!e meaning o5 an oral in"erac"ion8 and -ronuncia"ion exercises. i" is o5"en considered as secondarD) <eac!ers mig!" 5eel "!a" "!eD donY" !a0e "!e -ro-er "raining in -!one"ics "o "eac! -ronuncia"ion. allo>s 5or crea"i0e mixing and edi"ing o5 audio 5iles origina"ed 5rom di55eren" sources.

Dou !a0e ">o o-"ions: • Xou can in"roduce "!e "o-ic in class /e5ore s"uden"s "acEle "!e sur0eD so "!eD !a0e "!e o--or"uni"D "o discuss some o5 "!e issues and are ex-osed "o some o5 "!e 0oca/ularD needed) • Xou can s"ar" >i"! "!e s"uden"s crea"ing "!eir o>n sur0eD and carrDing i" ou". Dour s"uden"sC in"eres"s e"c)M secondlD. carrDing ou" and analD9ing sur0eDs 7learning /D doing8 %us" liEe >i"! anD o"!er classroom ma"erial. -oli"ical o-inion -olls.o5 uni0ersi"D or ma"ure s"uden"s) =" s!ould /e -ar" o5 a "eac!ing /locE dealing >i"! in"ercul"ural communica"ion and can /e com/ined >i"! using ma"erials 5rom "!e = C* -rojec" 7!""-:AA>>>)inca-rojec")orgAindex)!"m8) <!e o/jec"i0es o5 "!e sam-le ac"i0i"D are as 5ollo>s: • learning a/ou" in"ercul"ural com-e"enceM • -rac"ising rele0an" 0oca/ularDM • designing. carrDing ou" and analD9ing a sur0eDM • discussing 5indings o5 "!e sur0eDM <!e "asE is organi9ed in"o 5our 60L90 min sessions) @"uden"s can organi9e sessions 2 and 3 in "!eir o>n "ime /u" some "eac!er in-u" mig!" /e use5ul) @u55icien" "ime >ill !a0e "o /e allo>ed in$/e">een session 2 and session 3 so -eo-le can res-ond "o "!e sur0eD) S' T SUR6EK 'O"LEK STEPS %E#R"ER OAJECTI6ES DUR#TIO" C%#SS #CTI6ITIES #"D I"TER#CTIO"S TO #C7IE6E T7E OAJECTI6ES '#TERI#% G TOO%S (OR'#T 181 .includes some/odD >!o is con5iden" a/ou" using "ec!nologD) Sample acti*it8 <!is is a "asE "!a" is a--ro-ria"e 5or an u--er in"ermedia"e A ad0anced grou.  i" allo>s s"uden" "o learn "!e language >!ile crea"ing. "!e use o5 "!e media. Dou can crea"e a sur0eD Doursel5 a/ou" anD as-ec" o5 Dour course. e"c)8) <!ere are ">o main >aDs o5 using @ur0eD MonEeD >i"! Dour s"uden"s) #irs"lD. Dour s"uden"s are liEelD "o !a0e 5illed in online Nues"ionnaires) 6) Because i" 5acili"a"es a "asE$/ased a--roac! "o learning."!e -edagogical considera"ions in mind 7e)g) learning o/jec"i0es. language 5ocus. or "!eir dailD rou"ineM • ma"ure s"uden"s a" in"ermedia"e le0el could ex-lore as-ec"s around "!e >orld o5 >orE. Dou need "o Eee. or o"!er more sensi"i0e "o-ics s"uden"s mig!" 5eel reluc"an" discussing in class) =n "erms o5 in"egra"ing "!e sur0eD in"o Dour sDlla/us. Dour "eac!ing. -e"s. Dou can ge" "!e s"uden"s "o do "!eir o>n sur0eD and Nues"ion ei"!er "!eir class ma"es or o"!er -eo-le) Suggestio s for teac:ers <!e "o-ic "!a" Dou c!oose 5or "!e ac"i0i"D needs "o /e one >!ic! is o5 in"eres" "o Dour s"uden"s. au"!en"ici"D. e)g) • a" /eginners le0el and >i"! Dounger s"uden"s "!e ac"i0i"D could 5ocus on !o//ies. or "!e 5u"ure o5 "!e "radi"ional 5amilDM • a" a more ad0anced le0el Dou could linE i" in"o an examina"ion o5 in"ercul"ural issues.3) Because i" crea"es some in-u" 5or class discussions or e0en assessmen" -ur-oses  =" is jus" a ma""er o5 5inding an a--ro-ria"e "o-ic &) Because "!e au"!en"ici"D o5 "!e ma"erial and "!e communica"i0e si"ua"ion allo>s s"uden"s "o 5ocus on /o"! language and con"en"  Xou can gi0e s"uden"s "!e c!ance "o asE "!eir o>n Nues"ions) 5) Because i" a--eals "o "!e s"uden"s L usuallD i" is -ar" o5 "!eir >orld  #or ins"ance. and "!en use "!eir 5indings as a s"imulus 5or in"roducing a ne> "o-ic and a -ossi/le >aD o5 Ude$ -ersonalising6 sensi"i0e issues) @"uden"s s!ould >orE in small grou-s and Dou maD >an" "o ensure "!a" e0erD grou.

and send linE "o -o"en"ial -ar"ici-an"s in sur0eD P!i"e/oard @mall grou-s +re-ara"ion o5 sur0eD 728 Crea"ing sur0eD in @M @M @mall grou-s @ur0eD "aEes -lace Collec"ing da"a *nalDsis o5 sur0eD *nalD9ing sur0eD resul"s @"uden"s examine resul"s 5rom sur0eD and summari9e "!em @M @mall grou-s +resen"a"ion o5 sur0eD resul"s +resen"ing sur0eD resul"s Grou-s -resen" "!eir 5indings "o "!e class +-" -resen"a"ion or !andou"M @M s"a"s 7-oss) *s -rin"ou"s8 P!ole class (iscussion o5 resul"sM discussion o5 sur0eD +ossi/le 5ollo>$u- (iscussing sur0eD resul"s @ession & 30 mins Pri"ing re-or" Bu"side class "ime A !ome$ >orE =den"i5ica"ion o5 in"eres"ing A sur-rising resul"sM discussion o5 resul"sM discussion o5 use5ulness o5 sur0eD Nues"ions Based on "!e sur0eD resul"s and discussions. !ands ou" ins"ruc"ions and -ossi/lD ge"s "!e s"uden"s "o 5ill in a /rie5 @M Nues"ionnaire <eac!er ex-lains "asE: s"uden"s -lan and carrD ou" sur0eD on in"ercul"ural com-e"enceM s"uden"s are organi9ed in"o small grou-s Farious language ac"i0i"ies 5ocusing on asEing Nues"ions and on >ords and ex-ressions used in sur0eDs P!i"e/oard 5or no"es and 0oca/ularD Com-u"erM !andou" >i"! ins"ruc"ionsM -ossi/lD @M Nues"ionnaire +oss) !andou" >i"! ins"ruc"ions P!ole class @ession 1 30 mins P!ole class <asE ins"ruc"ions and grou5orma"ion ?anguage 5ocus Ge""ing o0er0ie> o5 "asE and 5orming grou-s Re0ising !o> "o asE Nues"ionsM learning rele0an" ex-ressions used in sur0eDs (esigning Nues"ions @ession 1 10 mins P!ole class @ession 1 30 mins Jandou"s P!ole class +re-ara"ion o5 sur0eD 718 @ession 2 30 mins 7-oss) ou"side class "ime /u" "eac!er in-u" use5ul8 @ession 2 30 mins 7-oss) ou"side class "ime8 *" leas" 1 >E 7ou"side class "ime L asDnc!ronous >orE8 @ession 3 30L60 mins 7-oss) Bu"side class "ime8 @ession & 30 mins @"uden"s discuss -ossi/le Nues"ions 7sDnc!ronouslD or asDnc!ronouslD8 710 max8 @"uden"s u-load Nues"ions in"o @M. discuss >!o "!eD >ill "arge". re$using language genera"ed P!ole class @mall grou-s or indi0idual >orE 182 .?ead$in +resen"a"ion o5 "ool Raising issues around "o-icM re!earsing rele0an" language =ni"ial 5amiliari9a"ion >i"! @M @ession 1 20 mins (iscussion: P!a" is in"ercul"ural com-e"ence and !o> can i" /e de"erminedW <eac!er "alEs s"uden"s "!roug! "!e "ool.

al"!oug! muc! o5 "!e general in5orma"ion is also rele0an" 5or "!e o"!er audio$con5erencing "ools) *s >e s!all see. as >ell as a 5ollo> u-) @M ^ @1RF2X MB [2X @<2+@ ?ead$in ?anguage 5ocus #ollo> u?2*R 2R BB%2C<=F2 @ (1R*<=B C?*@@ *C<=F=<=2@ * ( = <2R*C<=B @ <B *CJ=2F2 <J2 BB%2C<=F2@ M*<2R=*? A <BB?@ #BRM*< M*R[= G @CJ2M2 #ssessme t descriptors +BBR # al8tical scales *F2R*G2 2]C2??2 < <B<*? 100 + D/ USI"$ #UDIO-CO"(ERE"CI"$ (OR %#"$U#$E %E#R"I"$ T#SLS *udio$con5erencing "ools ena/le users "o "alE "o 7and some"imes see one ano"!er8 in real "ime o0er "!e =n"erne") =n "!is ac"i0i"D >e >ill ex-lore !o> "!ese "ools can /e used "o -ro0ide learners >i"! o--or"uni"ies "o -rac"ise "!eir s-eaEing online in -airs or small grou-s) (ue "o i"s >ides-read -o-ulari"D and ease o5 use. a marEing sc!eme 5or "!e -resen"a"ion o5 "!e sur0eD resul"s. CP#IR <ORLD: P%#""I"$ = @<R1C<=B @ C!oose a "o-ic 5or ad0anced s"uden"s 7o"!er "!an "!e one in "!e sam-le lesson -lan8 and 5ill in "!e "a/le) Pri"e: a lead$in. >e >ill concen"ra"e s-eci5icallD on @ED-e. "!us ena/ling "eac!ers and s"uden"s "o re-laD "!e con0ersa"ions) <:at is audio-co fere ci g soft@areO *udio$con5erencing so5">are uses Foice o0er =n"erne" +ro"ocol 7Fo=+8 "ec!nologD "o allo> ">o or more users "o !a0e a s-oEen con0ersa"ion online in real "ime) 2xam-les o5 5our 5reelD a0aila/le audio$con5erencing "ools are: @ED-e: >>>)sED-e)com Google <alE: !""-:AA>>>)google)comA"alEA 2llumina"e 0Room: !""-:AA>>>)learncen"ral)orgAuserA0roomreg #las!Mee"ing: !""-:AAo-enlearn)o-en)ac)uEAcourseA0ie>)-!-Wid^3101 <:8 @ould I @a t to use audio-co fere ci g i m8 classroomO 183 .STEP 5/. 2 ac"i0i"ies 5or "!e V?anguage 5ocusC sec"ion. @ED-e sessions can /e easilD recorded using call recording so5">are.

"asEs) =n order "o com-le"e "!e ac"i0i"D success5ullD eac! -ar"ici-an" !as in5orma"ion "!a" mus" /e communica"ed "o "!e o"!er) Researc! !as s!o>n "!a" "!ese "D-es o5 "asEs are muc! more e55ec"i0e in genera"ing "alE "!an "!ose in >!ic! s"uden"s sim-lD exc!ange "!eir o-inions) Pi"! "!is in mind. are no" "!e onlD -ossi/le use 5or audio$con5erencing) @"uden"s /elonging "o "!e same class could /e asEed "o do -air or small grou. "!e /asic -rinci-les o5 5ace$"o$5ace -air or small$grous-eaEing "asEs s"ill a--lD) #irs" o5 all. see "!e 5ollo>ing 5rom "!e <andem @er0er: !""-:AA>>>)sl5)ru/)deA"andemAEul"urAenglis!Aindex)!"ml8 Bnline s-eaEing "asEs mus" /e care5ullD s"ruc"ured and !a0e clear ins"ruc"ions so "!a" s"uden"s Eno> exac"lD >!a" "!eD are ex-ec"ed "o do) 1nliEe 5ace$"o$5ace con"ex"s >!ere "!e "eac!er can immedia"elD ans>er Nues"ions. -ro0ide "!em >i"! di55eren" -rin" documen"s.suc! an exc!ange. "!e "eac!er mig!" gi0e one -!o"oco-D "o s"uden" * and ano"!er "o s"uden" B) <!is is o/0iouslD no" -ossi/le in an online si"ua"ion. /elo> are a 5e> exam-les o5 "asE "D-es "!a" are more liEelD "o Dield meaning5ul in"erac"ion:  =n5orma"ion ga. s"uden"s mus" /e -ro0ided >i"! a reason "o "alE "o and. 5eed/acE. e"c)8W STEP 5/0 CP#IR <ORLD: STUDE"TS #"D #UDIO CO"(ERE"CI"$ 184 ."asEs 7i)e). "!is is no" -ossi/le in a si"ua"ion >!ere s"uden"s are in an audio$ con5erence on "!eir o>n) <!ere5ore. "!e 5ollo>ing si"es are excellen" sources o5 in5orma"ion: • <!e =n"erna"ional <andem e">orE: !""-:AA>>>)cisi)uni"o)i"A"andemAemailAidxeng00)!"ml • <!e e<>inning +rojec": !""-:AA>>>)e">inning)ne"AenA-u/Aindex)!"m <andem exc!anges. so care5ul "!oug!" needs "o /e gi0en on !o> "o deli0er "!e in-u" "o "!e s"uden"s) Bne >aD "o do "!is is "o u-load di55eren" documen"s "o "!e Pe/ and -ro0ide s"uden"s >i"! "!e 1R?s) Remem/er "!a" >!en -lanning cul"ural exc!anges /e">een di55eren" coun"ries Dou s!ould "aEe in"o accoun" "!e di55eren" "ime 9ones and o"!er -ossi/le "ime cons"rain"s 5or "!e sDnc!ronous online mee"ings) STEP 5/2 CI"DEPE"DE"T <ORLD: #UDIO CO"(ERE"CI"$ USI"$ SLKPE = @<R1C<=B @ Consider "!e 5ollo>ing: #ind$"!e$di55erences "asEs are exam-les o5 ">o$>aD in5orma"ion ga. "!e /ene5i"s 5or /o"! grou-s could /e reci-rocal. in"egra"ion in"o curriculum) Can Dou "!inE o5 ano"!er in5orma"ion ga. !o>e0er. direc" "!em "o di55eren" Pe/ -ages. "!is in5orma"ion mus" /e communica"ed "o and com-re!ended /D "!e o"!er -ar"ici-an"s)8  RanEing "asEs  +ro/lem$sol0ing "asEs  @imula"ions  Cul"ural exc!anges 75or ideas 5or "asEs. 2ac! -ar"ici-an" !as /i"s o5 in5orma"ion "!e o"!ers donC" !a0e) =n order "o com-le"e "!e "asE success5ullD.s-eaEing "asEs online ou"side o5 class as !ome>orE) Suggestio s for teac:ers P!en designing an online s-eaEing "asE.7i)e). >i"! a--roxima"elD !al5 "!e "ime de0o"ed "o "!e language Dour s"uden"s are learning and "!e o"!er !al5 "o "!e language "!e o"!ers are s"udDing) =5 Dou are in"eres"ed in se""ing u."asE Dour s"uden"s could do using @ED-eW Jo> >ould Dou se" "!is u. cruciallD. !o> >ould Dou use an audio con5erencing "ool suc! as @ED-e "o encourage Dour s"uden"s "o communica"e >i"! one ano"!erW Consider "!e 5ollo>ing as-ec"s: -ossi/le -airingsAgrou-ings. "!is "D-e o5 "asE o5"en resul"s in a series o5 mini$monologues) Pi"! "!is in mind. ac"i0i"D "o-ics. i" is im-or"an" "!a" areas "!a" mig!" /e con5using /e -re$em-"ed as muc! as -ossi/le) *no"!er considera"ion is !o> "o -ro0ide s"uden"s >i"! in-u" or 0isual s"imuli in order "o do "!e "asE) =n a 5ace$"o$5ace classroom. "o lis"en "o one ano"!er) Remem/er "!a" "asEs "!a" onlD reNuire s"uden"s "o gi0e "!eir o-inion on a "o-ic "end no" "o genera"e muc! meaning5ul in"erac"ion) 1nless -ar"ici-an"s !a0e a com-elling reason "o -aD a""en"ion and reac" "o >!a" "!eir in"erlocu"ors saD.<!ere are a num/er o5 reasons >!D Dou mig!" >an" "o use audio$con5erencing in a 5oreign language class) Bne o5 "!e mos" o/0ious >ould /e 5or a "andem s-eaEing exc!ange "o allo> Dour learners "o come in"o con"ac" >i"! na"i0e s-eaEers o5 "!e language "!eD are learning) =5 "!e na"i0e s-eaEers are also learning "!e language o5 Dour s"uden"s.

0ia easilD accessi/le online s-aces) 2) <!eD o55er au"!en"ic >ri"ing -rac"ice) 3) <!eD allo> s"uden"s "o /e ac"i0elD engaged in reading and >ri"ing: correc"ing.9i0i9i0i” -Ja>aiian 5or U0erD NuicE” PiEis are sim-le >e/-ages >i"! onlD ">o 5unc"ionali"ies. -!rases. !o> >ould Dou use an audio con5erencing "ool suc! as @ED-e "o encourage Dour s"uden"s "o communica"e >i"! one ano"!erW Consider "!e 5ollo>ing as-ec"s: -ossi/le -airingsAgrou-ings."asEs) =n order "o com-le"e "!e ac"i0i"D success5ullD eac! -ar"ici-an" !as in5orma"ion "!a" mus" /e communica"ed "o "!e o"!er) Researc! !as s!o>n "!a" "!ese "D-es o5 "asEs are muc! more e55ec"i0e in genera"ing "alE "!an "!ose in >!ic! s"uden"s sim-lD exc!ange "!eir o-inions) Pi"! "!is in mind."!eir o>n roug! 0ersion o5 a "ex" 7or "!eorD8 >!ic! can "!en /e u-da"ed and edi"ed /D o"!ers) Pri"ing /ecomes a colla/ora"i0e -rocess. and -rac"ising language in colla/ora"ion >i"! -eers. and also >i"! a readD$made audience) <:8 @ould I @a t to use @i=isO * 5e> good reasons 5or using >iEis in language "eac!ing: 1) <!eD are NuicE and sim-le "o use and allo> colla/ora"ion. >i"! !el. an au"!or or co$au"!or and a reader) C!ecEing. or sen"ences) STEP 5/2 CI"DEPE"DE"T <ORLD: #UDIO CO"(ERE"CI"$ USI"$ SLKPE = @<R1C<=B @ Consider "!e 5ollo>ing: #ind$"!e$di55erences "asEs are exam-les o5 ">o$>aD in5orma"ion ga. s"uden"s need "o alreadD !a0e a minimum le0el in "!e language "!eD learn and /e a/le "o -roduce some >ords. inde-enden"lD o5 "ime and s-ace. namelD reading and edi"ing) <!eD can /e >ri""en and u-da"ed 0erD NuicElD using "ex" edi"ing) <!e sEills users need "o >ri"e and u-da"e a >iEi are com-ara/le "o sim-le "ex" -roduc"ion in >ord -rocessing so5">are."asE Dour s"uden"s could do using @ED-eW Jo> >ould Dou se" "!is u. -ro0ide "!em >i"! di55eren" -rin" documen"s. e"c)8W 185 . >iEis can also su--or" "eac!ers in "!eir classroom managemen") Suggestio s for teac:ers PiEis are es-eciallD sui"a/le 5or reading and >ri"ing) <!eD are less use5ul 5or lis"ening ac"i0i"ies) Because mos" >iEis 5ocus on >ri"ing. e)g) Pord) PiEis also allo> "!e im-or" o5 images and o"!er media 5iles in"o "!e >e/-age) Because "!e >iEi is so sim-le. edi"ing. i5 Dou /elie0e "!a" s"uden"s learn /e""er /D ac"i0elD -ar"ici-a"ing in "!e learning -rocess.and su--or" 5rom -eers 7ra"!er "!an solelD 5rom "!e "eac!er8.Dour email8) ') <!eD can -o"en"iallD /e s!ared >i"! a >ider audience and made -u/lic) 8) Mos" s"uden"s >ill alreadD Eno> a" leas" one >iEi 7UPiEi-edia68) =n addi"ion.7i)e). and u-$da"ing) &) <!eD "eac! s"uden"s "!e sEills o5 colla/ora"ion alongside language sEills) 5) <!eD -resen" "!e s"uden" >ri"ers >i"! a readD$made audience and cri"ics) 6) <!eD are 5lexi/le enoug! "o incor-ora"e mul"i$media con"en" 7>i"!ou" clogging u. ac"i0i"D "o-ics. genera"ing "!eir o>n U"!eories6 a/ou" !o> language >orEs. >iEi-ages can /e edi"ed >i"!in seconds and made a0aila/le "o "!e nex" user) <!is maEes "!em ideal colla/ora"i0e >ri"ing and reading s-aces on "!e >e/) PiEis 5i" >ell >i"!in "!e -rac"ice o5 cons"ruc"i0is" "eac!ing and learning) BasicallD. correc"ing and u-$da"ing "!e >iEi en"ries can /e a -o"en"iallD 0alua/le >aD o5 learning "o >ri"e in a 5oreign language. 5eed/acE. consider "!e 5ollo>ing Nues"ions: 1) Jo> did "!e ac"i0i"D goW P!a" >as Dour ex-erience as "!e "eac!erW P!a" >as "!e learnersC ex-erienceW P!a" >ere "!e mos" and leas" success5ul as-ec"s o5 "!e ac"i0i"DW P!ic! as-ec"s >ould Dou im-ro0e i5 Dou re-ea"ed "!e ac"i0i"D >i"! ano"!er grou-W E/ USI"$ <ILI I" C%#SS <:at is @i=iO . in"egra"ion in"o curriculum) Can Dou "!inE o5 ano"!er in5orma"ion ga. and e0erD con"ri/u"or /ecomes a" once a cri"ic o5 o"!er en"ries. "!en >iEis are a "ool Dou canno" neglec") PiEis su--or" "!is Eind o5 colla/ora"i0e learning as "!eD allo> users "o de0elo. direc" "!em "o di55eren" Pe/ -ages.= @<R1C<=B @ =5 Dou !a0e alreadD im-lemen"ed a "asE using audio con5erencing >i"! Dour s"uden"s.

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"eac!ers laD ou" a course o5 ac"ion 5or mee"ing "!ose goals) * >ell "!oug!" ou" lesson -lan >ill !a0e clearlD de5ined goals) ex" "!e s"e-s "!a" mus" /e "aEen "o ac!ie0e "!e goal s!ould /e ou"lined) *" "!is s"age a goal maD /e /roEen do>n in"o se0eral VminiC goals.ttp GGfindarticles@comGpGarticlesG 8 @e""ing goals >!en -lanning a lesson can !el. ac"ions and "ime reNuired "o accom-lis! eac! s"e-) =n -lanning "o ac!ie0e an o/jec"i0e >e mus" 5irs" iden"i5D i" and do researc! "o 5ind ou" >!a" s"e-s "o "aEe along "!e >aD and >!a" resources >ill /e needed) 2ac! s"e. and ma"erials and ac"i0i"ies. and considering goals and >aDs o5 ac!ie0ing "!em) #rom "!is -oin" o5 0ie>. "o increase ins"an" success and -ro0ide "!e V>inningC 5eeling "!a" /oos"s eac! -erson "o>ards more in"ense e55or"s "o reac! "!e 5inal o/jec"i0e) +ossi/le o/s"acles mus" also /e recogni9ed and addressedM -lans can /e laid "o com/a" "!ese /locEs and ul"ima"elD ac!ie0e "!e goal) #inallD. condi"ions. enric!ing and de0elo-ing "!e curriculaM "o ena/le "!e "eac!er "o Eno> "!e -riori"ies o5 "!e "eac!ing -rocessM "o gi0e "!e "eac!er "!e o--or"uni"D "o -redic" -ossi/le -ro/lems and "!ere5ore consider solu"ionsM "o maEe sure "!a" lesson is /alanced and a--ro-ria"e 5or classM "o gi0e "!e "eac!er con5idenceM "o em-!asi9e "!e 5ac" "!a" "o -lan lessons is generallD good -rac"ice and a sign o5 -ro5essionalismM #cti*it8 . lesson -lanning can /e de5ined as a sDs"ema"ic de0elo-men" o5 ins"ruc"ional reNuiremen"s."!e "eac!er in ac!ie0ing "!e educa"ional o/jec"i0es easilD on /e!al5 o5 !is -u-ilsM "o !el.: $oals a d Tec: iFues for %esso Pla i g +lanning and organi9ing sEills are use5ul "!roug!ou" li5e /ecause >!ene0er >e !a0e a major o/jec"i0e. -lanning is a -sDc!ological -rocess o5 en0isioning "!e 5u"ure."!e "eac!er in im-ro0ing. a 5irm deadline s!ould /e se" in -lace 5or com-le"ion o5 eac! goal and miles"one on "!e >aD "o "!e goal) <!is >ill crea"e "!e "ime line 5or "!e goalCs ac!ie0emen") 16 a0aila/le on "!e C( 0ersion onlD 191 . "!e s"uden".: Goals and <ec!niNues 5or ?esson +lanning #cti*it8 2: @"ages in ?esson +lanning #cti*it8 0: ?esson +lanning $ 255ec"i0e 0s) =ne55ec"i0e #cti*it8 1: <i-s 5or lesson -lanning #cti*it8 5: 2duca"ional linEs 16 #cti*it8 6: @am-les o5 lesson -lans O)9ecti*es o o o o o o o o o o o "o !el. educa"ional ex-erience and "!e class en0ironmen"8M "o !el. arrangemen"."!e "eac!er "o 5ace "!e di55eren" educa"ional si"ua"ions aided /D a !ig! degree o5 sel5$con5idenceM "o !el.#cti*it8 .in "!e "eac!erCs con"inuous -ro5essional gro>"!M "o !el. as >ell as "es"ing and e0alua"ion o5 "eac!ing and learning) 7.is a goal in i"s o>n rig!") Mee"ing a series o5 small goals !el-s s!o> clear -rogress "o>ards "!e o/jec"i0e) *ccording "o ClarE \ (unn 719918. >e need "o -lan "!e s"e-s "!a" !a0e "o /e "aEen "o ac!ie0e i" and organi9e "!e resources."!e "eac!er in organi9ing -u-ilsC learning 0ia organi9ing "!e sides o5 "!e educa"ional si"ua"ion "!a" are7 "!e "eac!er."!e "eac!er "o a0oid "!e a>E>ard si"ua"ions in 5ron" o5 !is -u-ils or >!ene0er classroom -ro/lems maD riseM "o !el.

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indi0idual8 and modali"D 7e)g). "eac!er made !andou"s.0nabling ob"ectives are "!e /asic sEills 7language sEills suc! as 0oca/ularD. o0er!ead -rojec"or. re-e"i"ion8 "o a less s"ruc"ured or 5ree 5orma" 7e)g). s-eaEing. -aired. c!ecEs learner com-re!ension o5 "!e ne> ma"erial.ac"i0i"D readDW =5 "!e lesson >asnC" com-le"ed as -lanned. and models "!e "asEs "!a" "!e learners >ill do in "!e -rac"ice s"age 1/ PracticeZ-ro0ides o--or"uni"ies "o -rac"ice and a--lD "!e ne> language or in5orma"ion 5/ E*aluatio Zena/les "!e ins"ruc"or and learners "o assess !o> >ell "!eD !a0e gras-ed "!e lesson * good lesson -lan in0ol0es considera"ion o5 more "!an jus" >!a" is going "o /e "aug!" 7"!e o/jec"i0e8 and !o> i" >ill /e "aug!" 7ma"erials. a lesson is com-osed o5 "!e 5ollo>ing s"ages: . 5li. 5ollo>ed /D o--or"uni"ies 5or learners "o -rac"ice and /e e0alua"ed on >!a" "!eD are learning) =n general. e"c) Activities generallD mo0e 5rom more con"rolled 7e)g). >!ole grou-. is "!ere a /acEu. and ac"i0i"ies8) <!e 5ollo>ing elemen"s also need "o /e "!oug!" a/ou" and -lanned 5or: • @eNuencingZ(o "!e ac"i0i"ies mo0e logicallD so learners are -rogressi0elD /uilding on >!a" "!eD alreadD Eno>W (o "!e ac"i0i"ies 5lo> >ellW *re "ransi"ions /e">een ac"i0i"ies smoo"!W • +acingZ*re ac"i0i"ies "!e rig!" leng"! and 0aried so "!a" learners remain engaged and en"!usedW • Gauging di55icul"DZ(o "!e learners !a0e enoug! sEill and Eno>ledge "o do "!e -lanned ac"i0i"iesW *re "!e ins"ruc"ions clearW • *ccoun"ing 5or indi0idual di55erencesZ(o "!e ac"i0i"ies allo> 5or learners o5 0arDing -ro5iciencD le0els "o recei0e ex"ra a""en"ion "!eD mig!" need. grammar and -ronuncia"ion8 and "!e li5e sEills 7including cul"ural in5orma"ion8 "!a" are necessarD "o accom-lis! "!e o/jec"i0e) 5aterials and eHuipment s!ould /e iden"i5ied and secured >ell /e5ore class "ime "o ensure "!a" ac"i0i"ies can /e carried ou" as -lanned) <!ese maD include realia 7real li5e ma"erials liEe /us sc!edules and c!ildrenCs re-or" cards8.c!ar" and marEers. "ex"/ooEs. 5 i di*idual @or= P!a" do Dou "!inE are "!e /ene5i"s o5 -re-aring lesson -lansW Step 2/2 5 i di*idual @or= P!a" do Dou "!inE are "!e di55icul"ies o5 -re-aring lesson -lansW Step 2/0 5 i di*idual @or= (esign a lesson -lan 5or "!e "o-ic Ehopping L5ollo> "!e s"ages men"ioned a/o0e and donC" 5orge" "o men"ion "!e o/jec"i0es. >ri"ing8) Good lesson design /egins >i"! a re0ie> o5 -re0iouslD learned ma"erial) e> ma"erial is "!en in"roduced. 0isual aids. eNui-men". lis"ening./ <arm-upGRe*ie@ Zencourages learners "o use >!a" "!eD !a0e /een "aug!" in -re0ious lessons 2/ I troductio to a e@ lesso Z5ocuses "!e learnersC a""en"ion on "!e o/jec"i0e o5 "!e ne> lesson and rela"es "!e o/jec"i0e "o "!eir li0es 0/ Prese tatio Zin"roduces ne> in5orma"ion. in"er0ie>ing eac! o"!er8) <!eD s!ould /e 0aried in "D-e 7e)g). !o> can "!e nex" class /e adjus"ed "o 5inis! "!e ma"erial Step 2/. ma"erials AeNui-men" and ac"i0i"ies Dou >ill use "o "eac! "!is "o-ic) ?ooE a" "!e sam-le lesson -lan 5orma" /elo>: 193 . -roducing and ini"ia"ing languageW • <imingZPas "!e amoun" o5 "ime allo""ed 5or eac! -ar" o5 "!e lesson su55icien"W =5 "!e -lanned lesson 5inis!es earlD. >!e"!er /elo> or a/o0e "!e normW *re all s"uden"s ac"i0elD in0ol0edW • Moni"oring learner 0ersus "eac!er "alEZP!a" is "!e /alance /e">een learner "alE and "eac!er "alEW (oes "!e lesson allo> a "ime 5or learners "o in"erac". "a-e recorder.

194 .

and "!ose Dou >ill add. grammar s"ruc"ures8 Dou need "o in"roduce and -rac"ise) <!e "ex"/ooE s!ould /e a s"ar"ing -oin" so c!ecE i" and selec" "!e con"en") Xou s!ouldnC" consider "!e "ex"/ooE as "!e "eac!ing "ool "!a" >ill decide "!e direc"ion o5 "!e lesson) Consider i" as a guide. on "!e o"!er !and. 5ormal lesson -lans are o5"en di0ided in"o "!ree sec"ions: • • • /acEground in5orma"ion a/ou" "!e class.in "!a" lesson) *l"!oug! Dour c!oice maD /e limi"ed /D "!e sDlla/us or "!e "ex"/ooE. Pre. "!inE o5 "!e ac"i0i"ies Dou >ill Eee. language and content 7Jarmer. s0ills.is "!e language 7e)g) lexical i"ems. >i"! a descri-"ion o5 ac"i0i"ies. Dou s!ouldnC" 5eel com-elled "o use all "!e ac"i0i"ies in i" e"c) Xou can re-lace >!a" is gi0en in "!e "ex"/ooE >i"! some"!ing else) Xou are. "!e "eac!er. o5 "!e sEills. 20018) • (ecide >!a" "!e -u-ils >ill /e doing in "!e classroom and !o> "!eD >ill /e grou-ed) <!inE >!a" Eind o5 ac"i0i"D >ould 5i" "!em a" anD -ar"icular -oin" in "!e lesson) <!e ac"i0i"ies s!ould /e c!osen a--ro-ria"elD so "!a" eac! -u-il >ill /e mo"i0a"ed and >ill /e an ac"i0e -ar"ici-an") • <!inE o5 "!e language sEill7s8 Dou >ill de0elo. "o-ics "!a" are no" -ar"icularlD in"eres"ing can /ecome 0erD success5ul i5 Dou assign a "asE "!a" Dour -u-ils 5ind engaging) Step 2/. "!e class "eac!er >!o Eno>s "!e -u-ils -ersonallD and can -redic" >!ic! "o-ics >ill /e 5ound in"eres"ing and >!ic! /oring) Remem/er !o>e0er. a5"er all.7"aEen 5rom >>>)cal)org 8 2/. language and con"en" Dou >ill "eac!) 2/2/ T:e formal lesso pla *ccording "o @cri0ener7?earning <eac!ing 20058. Dou also need "o Eno> "!e sDlla/us) =n Dour lesson -lan Dou >ill need "o include 5our main elemen"s: activities. "!eir mo"i0a"ion and "!eir learning s"Dles) Besides Eno>ing Dour -u-ils. "!a" "!e mos" in"eres"ing "o-ic >ill /ecome /oring i5 "!e "asE se" 5or "!e -u-ils is unin"eres"ing and "!a".pla i g lesso acti*ities +lan for 7our pupils) #irs" o5 all Dou need "o Eno> as muc! as -ossi/le a/ou" "!e class /e5ore Dou decide >!a" "o "eac!) Xou !a0e "o consider "!eir le0el o5 language./ C!oose a "ex"/ooE and iden"i5D a cer"ain lesson) Baring in mind "!e in5orma"ion -resen"ed a/o0e. "!eir aims and es"ima"ed "imingM 195 . Dou s"ill need "o -lan !o> "!e -u-ils >ill >orE on "!ose sEill7s8 ) • <!e nex" s"e. "!eir /acEground. "!e ma"erials and "!e o0erall aim o5 "!e lessonM language analDsis o5 i"ems "!a" >ill /e >orEed on in "!e classM a de"ailed c!ronological s"age$"o$s"age descri-"ion o5 "!e in"ended -rocedure 5or "!e lesson Mos" 5ormal lesson -lans need "o include: • • a clear s"a"emen" o5 a--ro-ria"e aims 5or "!e >!ole lessonM a clear lis" o5 s"ages in "!e lesson.

-resen"a"ion.• a lis" o5 s-eci5ic "arge" language i"ems7i5 i" is a language "!a" includes language sDs"em >orE8 *5"er >ri"ing "!e /acEground in5orma"ion. grou-$>orE. -rac"ice. "!e dura"ion. suc! as -air$>orE. indi0idual . e0alua"ionA 5eed/acE8) <!e -lan s!ould gi0e sim-le and clear ou"lines 5or eac! s"age and s!ould include 7@cri0ener8: • • • "!e essen"ial s"e-s o5 eac! s"ageM classroom managemen" in5orma"ion. in"roduc"ion. in"erac"ion. >!o >ill "alE e"c)M assum-"ions regarding cer"ain -ro/lems) ="Cs no" ad0isa/le "o: • • • gi0e long descri-"ions o5 e0erD"!ing "!a" >ill !a--enM descri/e in de"ail "!e rou"ine ac"ions 7e)g) Us"and u-6 e"c)8M gi0e >ord$5or$>ord "ex"s o5 all "!e ins"ruc"ions and ex-lana"ions Jere >e !a0e a sam-le o5 a 5ormal lesson -lan 7s!or" 0ersion8$ "!e /lanE 5orm is "aEen 5rom @cri0enerCs U?earning <eac!ing6) 196 . an im-or"an" -ar" o5 "!e -lan is a Us"a"emen" o5 "!e in"ended -rocedure o5 "!e lesson67@cri0ener8) <!is means >ri"ing a lis" o5 se-ara"e s"ages con"aining indica"ions o5 >!a" "!e "eac!er and s"uden"s >ill do. "!e aims o5 "!e s"age e"c) 2ac! s"age can /e num/ered or named as men"ioned earlier 7>arm$u-.

>orEs!ee"s >i"! exercises.<eac!erCs name Class name (a"eA ?esson s"ar" "ime ?eng"! o5 lesson Main lesson aims Gre"a 5"! B$2lemen"arD 12"! MaD 50 minu"es BD "!e end o5 "!e lesson "!e -u-ils >ill /e a/le "o: • com-are sc!ool su/jec"s. Jarmer saDs in !is U<!e +rac"ice o5 2nglis! ?anguage <eac!ing6 "!a" no one can saD exac"lD >!a" a 5ormal -lan s!ould looE liEe. "!eD !a0e s"udied 0oca/ularD rela"ed "o -!Dsical a--earance) <alEing a/ou" degrees o5 com-arison o5 irregular adjec"i0es >ill /e "!e nex" s"e- *ssum-"ions +u-ils alreadD !a0e some Eno>ledge a/ou" "!e 0er/ U"o !a0e6. so discussing and com-aring "ime"a/les using "!is 0er/ s!ould no" /e a -ro/lem) =ncorrec"lD using "!e >ord U"!an6 in su-erla"i0e sen"ences) 1sing Umore6 in su-erla"i0e sen"ences and U"!e mos"6 in com-ara"i0e ones) +o>er$+oin" -resen"a"ion. "!eD !a0e 5ormed sen"ences >i"! degrees o5 com-arison o5 s!or" adjec"i0es. or >!a" in5orma"ion s!ould /e gi0en) Jo>e0er. so =Cll "rD "o use a game >i"! sc!ool su/jec"s and adjec"i0es +ersonal goals <ime"a/le 5i" +u-ils !a0e /een -rac"icing degrees o5 com-arison o5 s!or" adjec"i0es 5or "!e -as" ">o lessons) <!eD !a0e lis"ened "o a descri-"ion o5 se0eral -ersons and "!eD !a0e c!ecEed "!e correc" in5orma"ion in a "a/le 5or exam-le. a 5ormal -lan s!ould !a0e "!e 5ollo>ing 7some o5 "!em can /e seen in @cri0enerCs 0ersion a/o0e8: 197 . 5las!cards. using "!e long adjec"i0es in "!e com-ara"i0e and su-erla"i0e 5orms • use "!e 0er/ U"o !a0e6 in discussions a/ou" "!eir "ime"a/le and com-are i" >i"! o"!er -u-ilsC • 5orm accura"e oral and >ri""en sen"ences using com-ara"i0e and su-erla"i0e 5orms o5 long adjec"i0es =n "!is lesson =Cm going "o use 0isual aids "o "eac! degrees o5 com-arison o5 long adjec"i0es as >ell as a +o>er +oin" -resen"a"ion) = >an" "o !a0e mD -u-ils mo"i0a"ed and ac"i0e. "ime"a/les o5 di55eren" -u-ils in 1[ +redic"ed -ro/lems Ma"erials used Bn "!e o"!er !and.

Dou design more e55ec"i0e ins"ruc"ion) 198 .Dour o>n -ersonal "eac!ing s"Dle) #ollo>ing are some >aDs Dou mig!" use suc! a journal $ *s Dou are -lanning Dour ins"ruc"ion.#ims 5 "!e resul"s >!ic! >e >ill "rD "o ac!ie0e) *ims s!ould re-resen" >!a" a "eac!er !o-es "!e -u-ils >ill /e a/le "o do 7/D "!e end o5 "!e lesson8. no" >!a" "!e "eac!er is going "o do) * lesson >ill !a0e more "!en one aim. peer observation. self reflection. 5unc"ions. vie9ing a videotape of 7our teac.>i"! -ossi/le solu"ions) #or exam-le "!e -u-ils mig!" 5ind i" di55icul" "o unders"and "!e use o5 +resen" +er5ec" @im-le.Dou Eno> >!a" Dou are doing "!a" 5acili"a"es "!e learning o5 "!e s"uden"s and i" >ill !el. Dou can use "!e 5ollo>ing resources: student feedbac0.maEe Dou a>are o5 anD di55icul"ies "!eD maD /e !a0ing >i"! Dour ins"ruc"ion) =" allo>s Dou "o maEe adjus"men"s needed /D s"uden"s in Dour class /e5ore "!e end o5 "!e semes"er and >ill 5os"er a 5eeling among Dour s"uden"s "!a" Dou care a/ou" Dour "eac!ing) B5"en minor adjus"men"s on Dour -ar" can maEe a "remendous di55erence in "!e classroom) Self Reflectio [ee-ing a "eac!ing journal can /e a use5ul "ool "o !el.a "eac!er needs "o do is "o !a0e a s!or" -os"$lesson re5lec"ion "ime /D asEing !imsel5A!ersel5 Nues"ions suc! as: P!a" >en" >ell in "!e lessonW P!a" -ro/lems did = ex-erienceW *re "!ere "!ings = could !a0e done di55eren"lDW Jo> can = /uild on "!is lesson "o maEe 5u"ure lessons success5ulW =den"i5Ding success5ul and less success5ul organi9a"ion o5 class "ime and ac"i0i"ies >ould maEe i" easier "o adjus" "o "!e con"ingencies o5 "!e classroom) #or addi"ional 5eed/acE on -lanning and managing class "ime. 0oca/ularD or -ronuncia"ion Timeta)le fit: "!is means "!e lesson >!ic! is a/ou" "o /e "aug!" needs "o /e -laced in a seNuence o5 classes. >!a" !a--ens /e5ore and a5"er i") *n exam-le can /e 5ound in "!e "a/le a/o0e) #ssumed pro)lems a d possi)le solutio s : 20erD "eac!er s!ould "aEe in"o considera"ions "!e 9ea0 spots o5 "!e lesson. in >!ic! case "!e "eac!er s!ould /ring ex"ra exercises >!ic! s!ould 5ocus on i") 2/0 Post-pla i g co sideratio s * lesson -lan maD no" >orE as >ell as ex-ec"ed due "o a num/er o5 ex"raneous circums"ances) <eac!ers s!ould no" ge" discouraged L i" !a--ens "o e0en "!e mos" ex-erienced onesb o one can mo0e 5or>ard >i"!ou" some re5lec"ion and im-ro0emen" and a desire "o e0ol0e) @o "!e las" s"e. a staff member@ Stude t feed)ac= Recei0ing s"uden" 5eed/acE in "!e middle o5 "!e semes"er can !el. >ri"e in Dour journal "!e goals o5 a class session and !o> Dou -lan "o reac! "!ose goals) =5 Dou ar"icula"e >!a" Dou >an" s"uden"s "o /e a/le "o do a5"er a -ar"icular class -eriod. >!a" "!e -u-ils mig!" 5ind di55icul" and s!ould also come u. usuallD an o0erall o/jec"i0e 75or exam-le -rac"icing lis"ening sEills8 and s-eci5ic aims 75or exam-le lis"ening 5or s-eci5ic in5orma"ion.ing and consultation 9it. i" >ill !el.Dou re5lec" on Dour "eac!ing and can assis" Dou as Dou >orE "o de0elo. guessing or -redic"ing "!e con"en"8 #ssumptio s: "eac!ers s!ould assume >!a" "!e -u-ils Eno> and can do) Perso al aims: "!ese are >!a" "eac!ers "rD ou" 7>!ic! "!eD !a0e ne0er done /e5ore8 or "rD "o im-ro0e a "eac!ing "ec!niNues) *n exam-le o5 suc! -ersonal aim can /e read in "!e "a/le a/o0e) S=ills a d la guage focus: naming "!e s"ruc"ures.

Effecti*e *s/ I effecti*e <o /e e55ec"i0e. "!is -erson o5"en can !el. o/ser0a"ions a/ou" a -ar"icular s"uden". "!e lesson -lan does no" !a0e "o /e an ex!aus"i0e documen" "!a" descri/es eac! and e0erD -ossi/le classroom scenario) or does i" !a0e "o an"ici-a"e eac! and e0erD s"uden"Cs res-onse or Nues"ion) =ns"ead.>i"! ano"!er "eac!er and si" in on eac! o"!erYs classes$$"!is -a0es "!e >aD 5or discussion a/ou" "eac!ing "!a" can /e /ene5icial "o /o"! "eac!ers) 6ideotapes a d Co sultatio Bne o5 "!e mos" -o>er5ul and !el-5ul 5orms o5 5eed/acE on Dour "eac!ing can /e "!e 0ie>ing o5 a 0ideo"a-e o5 one o5 Dour class sessions) =" >ill gi0e Dou in5orma"ion on Dour "eac!ing una0aila/le anD o"!er >aD$$i" >ill !el. >!ic! is ine55ec"i0e. >!a" didnY" >orE as >ell as Dou >ould liEe.$ =mmedia"elD a5"er a class session.Dou see "!e >!ole -ic"ure. and means "o accom-lis! "!em) =" is a reminder o5 >!a" Dou >an" "o do and !o> Dou >an" "o do i") * -roduc"i0e lesson is no" one in >!ic! e0erD"!ing goes exac"lD as -lanned. and al"erna"i0e "!ings Dou mig!" "rD ano"!er "ime) *lso >ri"e do>n anD"!ing Dou learned: e)g). /u" one in >!ic! /o"! s"uden"s and ins"ruc"or learn 5rom eac! o"!er) Good -lanning or e55ec"i0e -lanning s!ould : • Eee.and 0isuals in a logical seNuenceM • encourage re5lec"ion and im-ro0emen"M +oor -lanning.Dou unders"and "!e dDnamics o5 Dour classroom) ManD "eac!ers 5ind i" /ene5icial "o -air u. a com/ina"ion o5 s"uden"s in small grou-s "!a" >orEed >ell."!e "eac!ers and -u-ils on "racEM • ac!ie0e "!e o/jec"i0esM • !el. >!a" >orEed. leads "o: • 5rus"ra"ion 5or "!e "eac!er and -u-ilsM • unme" o/jec"i0esM • no connec"ions "o -rior learningM • lacE o5 needed ma"erialsM • disorgani9a"ionM • a >as"e o5 "imeM • -oor managemen") #cti*it8 1: Tips for lesso pla i g ?esson -lanning >ill !el. or some"!ing "!a" Dou learned a/ou" Doursel5 as a "eac!er) Peer O)ser*atio Ja0ing ano"!er "eac!er si" in on a class -eriod can /e a ric! source o5 in5orma"ion) *s an o/ser0er. "!e more im-or"an" i" is "o !a0e a good lesson -lan) Jere are some "i-s "o consider) • Pla #lter ati*e #cti*ities $ al>aDs !a0e one or ">o al"erna"i0e ac"i0i"ies in case "!e ma"erial DouY0e selec"ed doesnY" "aEe all "!e "ime Dou "!oug!" i" >ould) Jo> >ill Dou 5ill an ex"ra 10 minu"esW 20 minu"esW 199 . re5lec" on >!e"!er Dou reac!ed "!e goals. assis" Dou in 5ocusing on Dour /e!a0iors "!a" 5acili"a"e s"uden" learning and s"imula"e a discussion a/ou" al"erna"i0e >aDs o5 a--roac!ing as-ec"s o5 Dour "eac!ing "!a" Dou >ould liEe "o c!ange) #cti*it8 0: %esso Pla i g ."eac!ers a0oid un-leasan" sur-risesM • en!ance s"uden" ac!ie0emen"M • -ro0ide "!e road ma.Dou "eac! >i"! con5idence) <!e longer Dour class session.Dou see Doursel5 as o"!ers see Dou) Fie>ing "!e "a-e >i"! a consul"an" can /e e0en more use5ul) * consul"an" can !el. learning o/jec"i0es. i" s!ould -ro0ide Dou >i"! a general ou"line o5 Dour "eac!ing goals.

c!oose ac"i0i"ies "!a" are rela"i0elD easD "o do liEe 5ill$in$"!e$/lanE exercises or guided discussion Nues"ions) =5 Dour con"en" is 5airlD sim-le.• • • • • • Auild o Pre*ious 'aterial $ "rD "o con"inuouslD -rac"ice ma"erial "!a" DouY0e co0ered recen"lD) ="Ys o5"en -ossi/le "o "eac! "!e same "!eme se0eral sessions in a ro> >!ic! can !el.ingrain 0oca/ularD and conce-"s) Aala ce t:e C:alle ge of Co te t a d #cti*it8 T8pe $i=5 Dour con"en" is c!allenging. Bucure. Macmillan +u/lis!ing Jouse.de0elo-ed /D @*B2@ and *C?@a0aila/le on !""-:AA>>>)scri/d)com $ U2nglis! (ic"ionarD6. maEing sure "o >ri"e no"es on "!em a/ou" "!e success o5 0arious ac"i0i"ies and >!e"!er Dou modi5ied "!e lesson during class) #cti*it8 5: Educatio al li =s !""-:AA>>>)nclrc)org !""-:AA>>>)ones"o-englis!)com !""-:AA>>>)el"!illside)com !""-:AA>>>)esl/ase)com !""-:AA5indar"icles)comA-Aar"icles !""-:AA>>>)ad-rima)comA>lo5)!"m !""-:AA>ri"ing)colos"a"e)eduAguidesA"eac!ingAeslAlesson"i-s)c5m Refere ces 1) Ari to H D/') U<eac!ing 2nglis! as a @econd or #oreign ?anguage6."!e 5ocus on "!e learners and minimi9e "!e "ime Dou s-end "alEing as a "eac!er) =n o"!er >ords. >ri"e a /rie5 log o5 >!a" Dou did) =nclude no"es a/ou" >!a" >orEed or didnY" >i"! ideas 5or im-ro0emen") Pri"e do>n s-eci5ic -age num/ers Dou co0ered in a "ex"/ooE) Xou could also Eee. ?ongman +u/lis!ing Jouse.+rograms (i0ision o5 *dul" and Career 2duca"ion ?os *ngeles 1ni5ied @c!ool (is"ric" 200& 7re0ised8 a0aila/le on !""-:AA>>>)scri/d)com $ U?esson +lanning Resource Guide6. 2002 &) 'urp:8H Ra8mo d L U2ssen"ial Grammar in 1se6. 200& $ "!e 2nglis! Curriculum 5or 5"! grade. DouYll cu" do>n on Dour -re-ara"ion "ime >!en Dou are ac"uallD -lanning lessons) Ce ter %esso s #rou d t:e Stude t $ Eee. Cam/ridge. "rD more c!allenging ac"i0i"ies liEe role -laDs or -ro/lem$sol0ing) Create Kour O@ 'aterials $ /uild Dour o>n li/rarD o5 ma"erials "o su--or" Dour lessons) Xou can 5ind se0eral ideas in "!e ?esson +re-ara"ion sec"ion o5 "!is guide) Be crea"i0e) =5 Dou in0es" some "ime in"o de0elo-ing and collec"ing ma"erials. Cam/ridge.1998 $ U?esson +lanning and ?esson +lan =deas6 on !""-:AA>>>)scri/d)comAdocA38539'21A?esson$+lanning $ U<ools 5or 2@? ?esson +lanning6 7second edi"ion8M 2@? and Ci"i9ens!i.1991 2) Ce:a H #)$ UMe"!odologD &6$ a uni0ersi"D course 3) 7armerH Jerem8 L l<!e +rac"ice o5 2nglis! ?anguage <eac!ing6. Cam/ridge 1ni0ersi"D +ress. Bos"on: Jeinle and Jeinle +u/lis!ers. 2005 6) UrH P/. #e/r) 2008.alle0ia"e i"W <rD asEing "!e s"uden"s "!emsel0es >!a" "!eD >ould liEe "o learn) Leep a %og $ a5"er eac! class. maEe "!e lesson as in"erac"i0e as -ossi/le) #ocus on communica"ion) #ssess "eeds $ -eriodicallD "aEe "ime "o "!inE "!roug! Dour -ar"icular learnersY needs) <!inE a/ou" cul"ural 5ac"ors as >ell as language de5iciencies) <!is can !el."i.Dour lesson -lans collec"ed "oge"!er.U* Course in ?anguage <eac!ing6. ?ondon.Dou -riori"i9e >!a" Dou c!oose "o s"udD) *re anD o5 Dour s"uden"s dealing >i"! cul"ure s!ocEW P!a" Eind o5 language sEills mig!" !el. 2009 $ !""-:AA>>>)eas"o5"!e>e/)comAs!or"$s"oriesA1BooEsA#oxCro>)s!"ml $ !""-:AA>>>)nclrc)org $ !""-:AA>>>)ones"o-englis!)com $ !""-:AA>>>)el"!illside)com $ !""-:AA>>>)esl/ase)com $ !""-:AA5indar"icles)comA-Aar"icles 200 . Cam/ridge 1ni0ersi"D +ress. 2006 5) Scri*e erH J)$ U?earning <eac!ing6$ Macmillan.

1 #SSESS'E"T 201 .$ $ $ !""-:AA>>>)ad-rima)comA>lo5)!"m >>>)crl")umic!)edu !""-:AA>>>)scri/d)com 'ODU%E .

#cti*it8 .: *ssessmen" -ur-oses #cti*it8 2: <es" "D-es #cti*it8 0: +rinci-les o5 "es"ing #cti*it8 1: @el5$assessmen":<!e 2uro-ass ?anguage +ass-or" #cti*it8 5: MarEing scales #cti*it8 6: @am-les o5 "es"s #cti*it8 .: #ssessme t purposes Classroom *ssessmen" can /e de5ined according "o i"s -ur-oseM "es"s can /e: ./ Placeme t tests - "es"s usuallD gi0en "o a s"uden" en"ering an educa"ional ins"i"u"ion "o de"ermine s-eci5ic Eno>ledge or -ro5iciencD in 0arious su/jec"s 5or "!e -ur-ose o5 assignmen" "o a--ro-ria"e courses or classes 2/ #c:ie*eme t tests- "es"s designed "o measure "!e Eno>ledge or -ro5iciencD o5 an indi0idual in some"!ing "!a" !as /een learned or "aug!" o0er a -eriod o5 "ime) 0/ Progress tests- <!ese "es"s measure -rogress in a s-eci5ic "ex"/ooE series) <eac!ers usuallD -re-are "!eir o>n -rogress "es"s, al"!oug! manD "ex"/ooE series o5"en -resen" some -rogress or uni" "es"s) 1/ Sta dardi,ed testi g @"andardi9ed "es"ing is anD "es"ing >!ic! is gi0en "o large num/ers o5 s"uden"s under s"andard condi"ions and >i"! s"andardi9ed -rocedures) 1suallD "!eD are mul"i-le c!oice) <odaD manD sc!ools adminis"er a s"andardi9ed ac!ie0emen" "es" "o -re-are 5or "!eir s"a"eYs annual assessmen" 7 in Romania$ B*C 8 5/ Pu)lic e;ami atio s a d proficie c8 tests- Ce;it testsD de"ermine >!a" le0el a s"uden" !as reac!ed a" anD one "ime and are used /D em-loDers and uni0ersi"ies >!o >an" a relia/le measure o5 a s"uden"Cs language a/ili"ies)<!is "D-e o5 "es"ing is o55ered /D <!e 1ni0ersi"D o5 Cam/ridge 2@B?, +i"man or <rini"D College in "!e 1[ and in "!e 1@, "!e 1ni0ersi"D o5 Mic!igan and <B2#?) 2orm-re/erenced and 4riterion-re/erenced assessment * dis"inc"ion in "es"ing is made /e">een norm-referenced and criterion-referenced assessmen" as >ell) * "es" can /e used, 5or exam-le, "o com-are a s"uden" >i"! o"!er s"uden"s, >!e"!er locallD 7e)g), in a class8, regionallD, or na"ionallD as in @*< "es"s) Classroom, regional, or na"ional norms maD /e es"a/lis!ed "o in"er-re" jus" !o> one s"uden" com-ares >i"! ano"!er) @ome"imes "eac!ers s-eaE o5 using a Ucur0e,6 >!ic! sim-lD means "!a" "!eD "es" a s"uden"Cs -er5ormance in com-arison >i"! "!a" o5 o"!er s"uden"s in "!e same class or in o"!er classes)7con"es"s, BlDm-iads8) * "es" can also /e used "o de"ermine >!e"!er a res-onden" !as me" cer"ain ins"ruc"ional o/jec"i0es or cri"eria) #or "!is reason, suc! a "es" >ould /e re5erred "o as Ucri"erion$re5erenced6 assessmen")7 B*C, C*MBR=(G2, <B2#?8) Step ./.-I<$ Jig! jum-ing is cri"erion$re5erenced$ can a"!le"es jum- 1m 50, 1m 60 or1m '0 , and so onW =5 "!eD can, "!eD !a0e me" "!e cri"erionM i5 "!eD canC", "!eD !a0enC") Com-le"e "!e lis" >i"! o"!er exam-les o5 cri"erion$re5erenced "es"s o5 language:

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Etep %$:-*'- /,ic, of t,e t,ree t7pes of anal7sis normall7 preceeds a proficienc7 test- deficienc7, error or needs anal7sis? /,7? #cti*it8 2: Test t8pes %$ According to the purpose o/ testing there can be: #/ Summati*e assessme t • • • =s usuallD a--lied a" "!e end o5 a -rede"ermined -eriod o5 ins"ruc"ion 75or exam-le, mid$"erm, 5inal8 Ra"es "!e s"uden" in rela"ion "o an ex"ernal s"andard o5 correc"ness 7!o> manD rig!" ans>ers are gi0en8 =s "!e usual "radi"ional and s"andardi9ed "es"s a--roac!

A/ (ormati*e assessme t • • • • <aEes -lace on an ongoing /asis as ins"ruc"ion is de0elo-ing Ra"es "!e s"uden" in "erms o5 5unc"ional a/ili"D "o communica"e, using cri"eria "!a" "!e s"uden" !as !el-ed "o iden"i5D Jel-s s"uden"s iden"i5D >aDs o5 im-ro0ing "!eir learning =s more o5 an an al"erna"i0e assessmen" a--roac!

2/ <:e desig i g tests @e ca disti guis: )et@ee : #/Discrete L * com-le"elD discre"e$-oin" i"em "es"s sim-lD one -oin" or o/jec"i0e suc! as " es"ing 5or "!e meaning o5 a >ord in Ga-$5ill e)g) #ill in "!e s-ace >i"! one >ord onlD) +eo-le !a0e /een di0ing >i"!ou" mec!anical aids))))))) ancien" "imes) *ns>er: since Mul"i-le c!oice e)g) (ecide >!ic! >ord 7*, B, C or (8 /es" 5i"s eac! s-ace) <!e ele-!an" !as some)))))))))) rela"i0es called mammo"!s, >!ic! li0ed in "!e @"one *ge) *) 5ar B) dis"an" C) remo"e () dis"inc" *ns>er: B) dis"an" A)I tegrati*e L =n"egra"i0e "es"s7 see 5ur"!er on$(irec" "es"s i"ems8 @uc! "es"s reNuire "!e s"uden"s "o demons"ra"e simul"aneous con"rol o0er se0eral as-ec"s o5 language, jus" as "!eD >ould in real language use si"ua"ions 7 ">o or more language sEills "o com-le"e a "asE8$eg) clo,e-procedureH dictatio H i formatio tra sfer7a non or semi$0er/al "ex" L ma-, diagram, -ic"ure$con"ains all "!e mos" im-or"an" in5orma"ion 5rom all or a large -ar" o5 "!e "ex")=" assesses glo/al com-re!ension8 0/ # ot:er disti ctio ca )e made )et@ee #/ I direct tests items$ di55eren" >aDs o5 "es"ing "!e s"uden"sC Eno>ledge o5 language elemen"s

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'ultiple c:oice >!ere s"uden"s are reNuired "o c!oose "!e correc" ans>er 5rom "!ree or more al"erna"i0es and dual c:oice "o "es" reading or lis"ening com-re!ension) P!en cons"ruc"ing "!e "es", assessors s!ould /e 0erD care5ul a/ou" distractors C "!e incorrec" al"erna"i0es8 >!ic! !a0e "o maEe i" Nui"e di55icul" 5or s"uden"s "o c!oose "!e correc" ans>er, due "o i"s degree o5 similari"D >i"! "!e incorrec" ans>ers)

*ssessmen" /D "rueA5alse or mul"i-le$c!oice can /e relia/le /u" i" !as a nega"i0e >as!/acE e55ec" since i" can !ardlD !el- "raining s"uden"s /ecome /e""er language learners) • • • (ill-i items are easD "o >ri"e , maEing marEing a li""le more com-lexe Clo,e procedure 5 ga-s are -u" in"o a "ex" a" regular in"er0als and s"uden"s !a0e "o -roduce a >ide range o5 di55eren" >ords /ased on di55eren" grammar ca"egories) 'odified clo,e$ *s random selec"ion o5 ga-s can gi0e rise "o di55icul"ies "o guess "!e correc" >ord or "o manD al"erna"i0es, mos" designers use modi5ied clo9e "o coun"erac" "!is si"ua"ion)

A/ Tra sformatio i"ems reNuire s"uden"s "o c!ange "!e 5orm o5 >ords and -!rases "o s!o> "!eir Eno>ledge o5 sDn"ax and >ord grammar) C/ Direct test items re5er "o reading, lis"ening, s-eaEing and >ri"ing com-e"ences and "!eir s-eci5ic 7C2#8 iden"i5Ding >!a" s"uden"s can do >i"! "!e language in di55eren" circums"ances ins"ead o5 "es"ing !o> "!e language i"sel5 >orEs)$eg 7 5ollo> "ex" ins"ruc"ions , gi0e an oral -resen"a"ion on a "o-ic, inerac" orallD or in >ri""en >i"! someone)8) ManD reading and lis"ening "es"s are a /lend o5 direc" and indirec" "es"ing) Pe can asE s"uden"s "o /e "ex"$5ocused7 direc" language8 or "es"ing "!eir glo/al unders"anding) <!ese i"ams, >!ic! are considered an al"erna"i0e "D-e o5 assessmen" ,!ig!lig!" >!a" s"uden"s can do >i"! language, laDing s"ress on "!eir s"reng"!s more "!an on "!eir >eaEnesses) *l"erna"i0e assessmen" "ools are no" onlD designed and -a""erned di55eren"lD 5rom "radi"ional "es"s, /u" are also graded or scored di55eren"lD) Because al"erna"i0e assessmen" is -er5ormance /ased, i" !el-s "eac!ers em-!asi9e "!a" "!e -oin" o5 language learning is communica"ion 5or meaning5ul -ur-oses) <!e 5ollo>ing cri"eria de5ine aut:e tic assessme t acti*ities: • • • • • • <!eD are desined around "o-ics or issues o5 in"eres" "o "!e s"uden"s <!eD are real$>orld communica"ion liEe con"ex"s and si"ua"ions <!eD de5ine s"age "asEs and real -ro/lems "!a" asE 5or crea"i0e use o5 language ra"!er "!an sim-le re-e"i"ion <!eir e0alua"ion cri"eria and s"andards are Eno>n "o "!e s"uden" <!eD im-lD in"erac"ion /e">een assessor 7ins"ruc"or, -eers, sel58 and -erson assessed <!eD allo> 5or sel5$e0alua"ion and sel5$correc"ion as "!eD de0elo-

#ccordi g to CE( t:ere ca )e: . *c!ie0emen" assessmen" 2) +ro5iciencD assessmen" 0 orm$re5erencing 7 R8 1Cri"erion$re5erencing 7CR8 5Mas"erD learning CR 6Con"inuum CR 2 Con"inuous assessmen" M#ixed assessmen" -oin"s Q #orma"i0e assessmen"

204

.4@umma"i0e assessmen" .. (irec" assessmen" .2=ndirec" assessmen" .0 +er5ormance assessmen" .1[no>ledge assessmen" .5 @u/jec"i0e assessmen" .6B/jec"i0e assessmen" .2 C!ecElis" ra"ing .M+er5ormance ra"ing .Q =m-ression 24Guided judgemen" 2. Jolis"ic assessmen" 22*nalD"ic assessmen" 20 @eries assessmen" 21Ca"egorD assessmen" 25*ssessmen" /D o"!ers 26@el5$assessmen" Step 2/.- (e0elo- an au"!en"ic "D-e o5 "es", adaminis"er i" "o "!e class and ex-lain: 0 >!o "!e "es" >as desined 5orM 0 >!D$ "!e -ur-ose o5 "!e "es"M 0 >!a" language i"ems Dou included in "!e "es" and >!DM 0 !o>$ >!ic! "es"ing "ec!niNues Dou c!ose and >!DM 0 >!en and >!ere Dou adminis"er "!e "es" and anD s-ecial -ro/lems, cons"rain"s and circums"ances Step2/ 2- Jere is a lis" o5 "!e main "ec!niNues o5 o/jec"i0e "es"ing) Classi5D eac! one as ei"!er discre"e L-oin" 7(8 or in"egra"i0e 7=8
D 1Ma"c!ing elemen"s 2<rans5orma"ion 3BlanE com-le"ion &*dding elemen"s 5(ic"a"ion 6Clo9e -rocedure 'Re-lacing elemen"s 8Mul"i-le c!oice 9*rranging elemen"s 10(ual c!oice 11=n5orma"ion "rans5er I

#cti*it8 0: Pri ciples of testi g 20en "!oug! "rends in "es"ing c!ange in "ime, some -rinci-les o5 assessmen" are -ermanen" and are no" a55ec"ed /D curren" a--roac!es) <!eD mus" /e Ee-" in mind /D assessors >!ene0er "!eD /uild a "es", >!e"!er "!is /e a common class ac"i0i"D, an essaD or an examina"ion 5or cer"i5ica"ion ) <!e mos" im-or"an" o5 "!ese -rinci-les are: 0alidi"D, relia/ili"D and >as!/acE) ./ 6alidit8

205

Cla-!am \ Pall 1995: 8'$898M /u" i5 "!e "es" consis"s o5 an essaD or an oral in"er0ie>. in a s!or" "ime. i5 i" is in"ended "o "es" a s"uden"Ys le0el o5 reading com-re!ension in a 5oreign language /u" ins"ead "es"s in"elligence or /acEground Eno>ledge) * "eac!er de0ising a classroom ac"i0i"D maD no" !a0e "!e "ime or "!e s-ecial concern "o c!ecE >!e"!er "!e "es" is 0alid. a relia/ili"D es"ima"e suc! as "!e *l-!a Coe55icien" or [uder Ric!ardson 21 maD /e calcula"ed 7see *lderson. /u" "!e use o5 "!e "es" 5or a -ar"icular -ur-ose. /u" "!e cons"ruc"ors o5 an examina"ion >!ic! >ill a55ec" candida"esY 5u"ures !a0e "o examine as manD as-ec"s o5 0alidi"D as -ossi/le) =" s!ould /e remem/ered "!a" i" is no" "!e "es" i"sel5. "!a" s!ould /e examined) 2/ Relia)ilit8 <!e relia/ili"D o5 a "es" is an es"ima"e o5 "!e consis"encD o5 i"s marEsM a relia/le "es" is one >!ere. "o candida"es learning ma"erial /D !ear" or ac!ie0ing !ig! marEs /D sim-lD a--lDing "es"$"aEing sEills ra"!er "!an genuine language sEills 7see Pall 199'8) 1/ Practicalit8 Bne o5 "!e cri"eria /D >!ic! a "es" is assessed) +rac"icali"D is "!e ex"en" "o >!ic! a "es" is NuicE and con0enien" "o adminis"er and score)<es"s >i"! !ig! -rac"icali"D usuallD "es" large num/ers o5 s"uden"s a" "!e same "ime. as a "es" canno" /e 0alid unless i" is relia/le) Jo>e0er. 5or exam-le. "!e con0erse is no" "rue: i" is -er5ec"lD -ossi/le "o !a0e a relia/le "es" >!ic! is no" 0alid) #or exam-le. a s"uden" >ill ge" "!e same marE i5 !e or s!e "aEes "!e "es". /u" i" is no" 0alid i5 "eac!ers are no" in"eres"ed in "!e gramma"ical a/ili"ies o5 "!eir s"uden"s andAor i5 grammar is no" "aug!" in "!e rela"ed language course) =5 "!e "es" consis"s o5 rig!"A>rong i"ems suc! as multiple-c:oice items or some sor"s o5 s:ort a s@er Fuestio s.-P<$ =" is generallD agreed on "!a" o/jec"i0e7B8 and su/jec"i0e7@8 "es"s !a0e -ar"icular and and con"ras"ing c!arac"eris"ics) MarE B or @ in "!e a--ro-ria"e /ox "o iden"i5D "!ese c!arac"eris"ics) 2asier "o se" 2asier "o score BnlD one rig!" ans>er Rig!"A>rong scoring Be""er relia/ili"D Be""er 5ace 0alidi"D 2asier "o guess ans>er 2ac! i"em "es"s one "!ing Jarder "o se" Jarder "o score o single rig!" ans>er @coring /ased on o-inion +oorer relia/ili"D +oorer 5ace 0alidi"D Jarder "o guess ans>ers 2ac! i"em "es"s manD "!ings 206 . 5or exam-le. a mul"i-le$c!oice "es" o5 gramma"ical s"ruc"ures maD /e >onder5ullD relia/le. /D >!ic! = mean "!a" "!e e55ec" o5 "!e "es" on "!e "eac!ing mus" /e /ene5icial) <!is s!ould /e Ee-" in mind /D "!e "es" /uildersM i" is onlD "oo easD "o cons"ruc" a "es" >!ic! leads.YFalidi"DY is rela"ed "o Nues"ions a/ou" >!a" "!e "es" is ac"uallD assessing) =s "!e "es" "elling Dou >!a" Dou >an" "o Eno>W (oes i" measure >!a" i" is in"ended "o measureW * "es" is no" 0alid. are easD and economical "o su-er0ise and are NuicE and sim-le "o score)<!eD "end. 5or exam-le. 5or exam-le. -ossi/lD >i"! a di55eren" examiner. on a MondaD morning or a <uesdaD a5"ernoon) * "es" mus" /e relia/le. "!en o"!er 5orms o5 "es" relia/ili"D mus" /e es"ima"ed) 0/ <as:)ac= *nD language "es" or -iece o5 assessmen" mus" !a0e -osi"i0e >as!/acE 7/acE>as!8. "!ere5ore "o /e descre"e$-oin" and o/jec"i0e and "o "es" rece-"i0e language sEills ra"!er "!an -roduc"i0e ones) Step 0/. >i"! li""le eNui-men".

>!ic! commonlD in0ol0e de"ermining "!e num/er and "D-e o5 assignmen"s "!a" are reNuired ) A/ $uided practice @it: assessme t tools @"uden"s do no" learn "o moni"or or assess "!eir learning /D "!emsel0esM "!eD need "o /e s!o>n s"ra"egies 5or sel5$ moni"oring and sel5$ assessmen") <!e "eac!er models "!e "ec!niNue 7use o5 a c!ecElis" or ru/ric.a c!ecElis" 5or assessing i"s lcommunica"i0eness6 )Jere is a series o5 Nues"ions >i"! >!ic! Dou e0alua"e Dour "es")<!e more lXes6 ans>ers i" recei0es. -rocesses. s"uden"s discuss >!e"!er and !o> >ell "!e "ec!niNue !as >orEed and >!a" !as "o /e c!anged nex" "ime) @"uden"s can use no" onlD c!ecElis"s and ru/rics 5or s-eci5ic communica"ion "asEs. learning goals) Bne >aD "o /egin "!e -rocess o5 in"roducing s"uden"s "o sel5$assessmen" is "o crea"e s"uden"$ "eac!er con"rac"s) Con"rac"s are >ri""en agreemen"s /e">een s"uden"s and ins"ruc"ors. s"uden"s "end "o ignore "!e learning -rocess "!inEing more a/ou" "!eir learning s"ra"egies and "!eir -rogress as language learners) @uc! sel5 assessmen" encourages s"uden"s "o /ecome inde-enden" learners and can increase "!eir mo"i0a"ion) <!e success5ul use o5 s"uden" sel5$ assessmen" de-ends on "!ree EeD elemen"s: Goal se""ing is 0erD im-or"an" /ecause s"uden"s can e0alua"e "!eir -rogress more clearlD >!en "!eD !a0e aims "!eD can rela"e "!eir -er5ormance "o) =n addi"ion. /u" also /roader sel5$assessmen" "ools "o maEe a good selec"ion o5 "o-ics "!eD !a0e s"udied. and ac!ie0emen" in s-eci5ic areas) +or"5olio assessmen" is a join" -rocess 5or "eac!er and s"uden") +or"5olios assess s"uden"sY -rogress. organi9ed collec"ions o5 s"uden" >orE "!a" "ell "!e s"orD o5 a s"uden"Ys e55or"s. sEills "!eD !a0e learned and "!eir s"udD !a/i"s) C/ Portfolios +or"5olios are -ur-ose5ul.Assessment @"uden"s can /ecome /e""er language learners >!en "!eD 5eel res-onsa/le 5or >!a" "!eD are learning and !o> "!eD are learning i") <!a" is >!D.(iscuss "!e "es" /elo>. I# it ea#y to a(mini#te!8 #cti*it8 1: Self-assessme t:T:e Europass %a guage Passport A$ Eel/. -rogress. 5or exam-le8M s"uden"s "!en "rD "!e "ec!niNue M 5inallD. s"uden"sY mo"i0a"ion "o learn increases >!en "!eD !a0e sel5$de5ined. and "!ere5ore rele0an". "!e more communica"i0e i" is) 1) 2) 3) &) 5) 6) ') 8) 9) (oes "!e "es" assess meaning and con"en" as >ell as 5ormW (oes "!e "es" assess in"egra"i0e ra"!er "!an discre"e$-oin" languageW *re "!e in-u" "ex"s au"!en"ic or au"!en"ic LliEeW (oes "!e "asE gi0e "!e learner a real$>orld -ur-oseW(oes "!e "asE re-lica"e a real$ >orld real "asEW (oes "!e "asE reNuire "!e learner "o in"erac" >i"! someone7 in >ri"ing or in s-eec!8W (oes "!e "asE in0ol0e an in5orma"ion$ga-W =s "!e ou"-u" au"!en"icW =s "!e communica"i0e si"ua"ion one >!ic! learners can recognise as -lausi/le or necessarD in "!e real >orldW (oes "!e "es" !a0e a -osi"i0e >as!/acE e55ec"W 10. and -er5ormance o0er "ime) <!eD: • Re-resen" a colla/ora"i0e a--roac! "o assessmen" 207 .Step 0/2-$<. dra>ing u.

• • • • • • • •

*ssess a s"uden"Ys -er5ormance in reading, >ri"ing, s-eaEing, and lis"ening as >ell as cul"ural unders"anding Jig!lig!" >!a" s"uden"s can do ra"!er "!an >!a" "!eD canno" do Re-resen" a s"uden"Ys -rogress o0er "ime Ge" s"uden"s es"a/lis! ongoing learning goals and assess "!eir -rogress "o>ards "!ose goals Measure eac! s"uden"Ys ac!ie0emen" >!ile allo>ing 5or indi0idual di55erences /e">een s"uden"s in a class Re0eal im-ro0emen", e55or", and ac!ie0emen" 2na/le assessmen" o5 -rocess and -roduc" ?inE "eac!ing and assessmen" "o learning

Europass la guage passport <!e 2uro-ass ?anguage +ass-or" is a documen" in >!ic! Dou can record Dour sEills and com-e"ences in ?anguages, a5"er Dou maEe a sel5$assessmen" o5 Dour language sEills in unders"anding 7lis"ening and reading8, s-eaEing 7s-oEen in"erac"ion and s-oEen -roduc"ion8, and >ri"ing) <!is sel5$assessmen" is made according "o "!e Common 2uro-ean #rame>orE o5 Re5erence, >!ic! is a six$le0el grid de0elo-ed /D "!e Council o5 2uro-e) <!e grid consis"s o5 "!ree /road le0els as 5ollo>s: • Basic user 7le0els *1 and *28 • =nde-enden" user 7le0els B1 and B28 • +ro5icien" user 7le0els C1 and C28

208

2uro-ean language le0els $ @el5 *ssessmen" Grid B1 B2 C1 C2 = can unders"and "!e main -oin"s o5 clear = can unders"and s"andard s-eec! on = can unders"and -!rases and "!e !ig!es" 5amiliar ma""ers ex"ended s-eec! and = can unders"and 5reNuencD 0oca/ularD = can unders"and regularlD lec"ures and 5ollo> ex"ended s-eec! e0en = !a0e no di55icul"D in rela"ed "o areas o5 mos" 5amiliar >ords and encoun"ered in >orE, e0en com-lex lines o5 >!en i" is no" clearlD unders"anding anD Eind immedia"e -ersonal 0erD /asic -!rases sc!ool, leisure, e"c) = argumen" -ro0ided "!e s"ruc"ured and >!en o5 s-oEen language, rele0ance 7e)g) 0erD concerning mDsel5, can unders"and "!e "o-ic is reasona/lD rela"ions!i-s are onlD >!e"!er li0e or /asic -ersonal and ?is"ening mD 5amilD and main -oin" o5 manD 5amiliar) = can im-lied and no" /roadcas", e0en >!en 5amilD in5orma"ion, 1 immedia"e concre"e radio or <F unders"and mos" <F signalled ex-lici"lD) = deli0ered a" 5as" na"i0e s!o--ing, local area, n surroundings >!en -rogrammes on ne>s and curren" can unders"and s-eed, -ro0ided) = !a0e em-loDmen"8) = can d -eo-le s-eaE slo>lD curren" a55airs or a55airs -rogrammes) = "ele0ision -rogrammes some "ime "o ge" ca"c! "!e main -oin" in e and clearlD) "o-ics o5 -ersonal or can unders"and "!e and 5ilms >i"!ou" "oo 5amiliar >i"! "!e accen") s!or", clear, sim-le rs -ro5essional in"eres" majori"D o5 5ilms in muc! e55or") messages and " >!en "!e deli0erD is s"andard dialec") announcemen"s) a rela"i0elD slo> and n clear) di = can unders"and long n = can read 0erD s!or", = can unders"and = can read ar"icles and and com-lex 5ac"ual = can read >i"! ease g sim-le "ex"s) = can 5ind "ex"s "!a" consis" re-or"s concerned = can unders"and and li"erarD "ex"s, 0ir"uallD all 5orms o5 "!e s-eci5ic, -redic"a/le mainlD o5 !ig! >i"! con"em-orarD 5amiliar names, a--recia"ing >ri""en language, in5orma"ion in sim-le 5reNuencD e0erDdaD -ro/lems in >!ic! "!e >ords and 0erD dis"inc"ions o5 s"Dle) = including a/s"rac", e0erDdaD ma"erial suc! or jo/$rela"ed >ri"ers ado-" Reading sim-le sen"ences, can unders"and s"ruc"urallD or as ad0er"isemen"s, language) = can -ar"icular a""i"udes or 5or exam-le on s-ecialised ar"icles linguis"icallD com-lex -ros-ec"uses, menus unders"and "!e 0ie>-oin"s) = can no"ices and -os"ers and longer "ec!nical "ex"s suc! as manuals, and "ime"a/les and = can descri-"ion o5 e0en"s, unders"and or in ca"alogues) ins"ruc"ions, e0en s-ecialised ar"icles and unders"and s!or" sim-le 5eelings and >is!es con"em-orarD li"erarD >!en "!eD do no" li"erarD >orEs) -ersonal le""ers) in -ersonal le""ers) -rose) rela"e "o mD 5ield) = can "aEe -ar" = can ex-ress mDsel5 = can deal >i"! mos" e55or"lesslD in anD = can in"erac" in a 5luen"lD and si"ua"ions liEelD "o con0ersa"ion or sim-le >aD -ro0ided = can communica"e in = can in"erac" >i"! a s-on"aneouslD >i"!ou" arise >!ils" "ra0elling discussion and !a0e a "!e o"!er -erson is sim-le and rou"ine "asEs degree o5 5luencD and muc! o/0ious in an area >!ere "!e good 5amiliari"D >i"! -re-ared "o re-ea" reNuiring a sim-le and s-on"anei"D "!a" searc!ing 5or language is s-oEen) = idioma"ic ex-ressions or re-!rase "!ings direc" exc!ange o5 maEes regular ex-ressions) = can use can en"er and colloNuialisms) = a" a slo>er ra"e o5 in5orma"ion on 5amiliar in"erac"ion >i"! na"i0e language 5lexi/lD and un-re-ared in"o can ex-ress mDsel5 @-oEen s-eec! and !el- me "o-ics and ac"i0i"ies) = s-eaEers Nui"e e55ec"i0elD 5or social con0ersa"ion on 5luen"lD and con0eD 5iner in"erac"ion 5ormula"e >!a" =Ym can !andle 0erD s!or" -ossi/le) = can "aEe an and -ro5essional "o-ics "!a" are s!ades o5 meaning "rDing "o saD) = can social exc!anges, e0en ac"i0e -ar" in -ur-oses) = can 5amiliar, o5 -ersonal -reciselD) =5 = do !a0e a asE and ans>er "!oug! = canY" usuallD discussion in 5amiliar 5ormula"e ideas and in"eres" or -er"inen" -ro/lem = can /acE"racE sim-le Nues"ions in unders"and enoug! "o con"ex"s, accoun"ing o-inions >i"! -recision "o e0erDdaD li5e 7e)g) and res"ruc"ure around areas o5 immedia"e Eee- "!e con0ersa"ion 5or and sus"aining mD and rela"e mD @ 5amilD, !o//ies, "!e di55icul"D so need or on 0erD going mDsel5) 0ie>s) con"ri/u"ion sEil5ullD "o >orE, "ra0el and smoo"!lD "!a" o"!er 5amiliar "o-ics) "!ose o5 o"!er e curren" e0en"s8) -eo-le are !ardlD a>are s-eaEers) a o5 i") Ei = can connec" n -!rases in a sim-le g >aD in order "o = can -resen" clear, = can -resen" a clear, = can use a series o5 descri/e ex-eriences = can -resen" clear, de"ailed descri-"ions smoo"!lD$5lo>ing -!rases and sen"ences and e0en"s, mD de"ailed descri-"ions = can use sim-le on a >ide range o5 descri-"ion or argumen" "o descri/e in sim-le dreams, !o-es and o5 com-lex su/jec"s -!rases and su/jec"s rela"ed "o mD in a s"Dle a--ro-ria"e "o "erms mD 5amilD and am/i"ions) = can in"egra"ing su/$ @-oEen sen"ences "o 5ield o5 in"eres") = can "!e con"ex" and >i"! an o"!er -eo-le, li0ing /rie5lD gi0e reasons "!emes, de0elo-ing -roduc"ion descri/e >!ere = ex-lain a 0ie>-oin" on e55ec"i0e logical condi"ions, mD and ex-lana"ions 5or -ar"icular -oin"s and li0e and -eo-le = a "o-ical issue gi0ing s"ruc"ure >!ic! !el-s educa"ional /acEground o-inions and -lans) = rounding o55 >i"! an Eno>) "!e ad0an"ages and "!e reci-ien" "o no"ice and mD -resen" or mos" can narra"e a s"orD or a--ro-ria"e disad0an"ages o5 and remem/er recen" jo/) rela"e "!e -lo" o5 a conclusion) 0arious o-"ions) signi5ican" -oin"s) /ooE or 5ilm and descri/e mD reac"ions) = can >ri"e clear, de"ailed "ex" on a >ide = can ex-ress mDsel5 = can >ri"e clear, range o5 su/jec"s in clear, >ell$ smoo"!lD$5lo>ing "ex" in = can >ri"e a s!or", rela"ed "o mD s"ruc"ured "ex", an a--ro-ria"e s"Dle) = sim-le -os"card, 5or = can >ri"e sim-le in"eres"s) = can >ri"e ex-ressing -oin"s o5 can >ri"e com-lex exam-le sending connec"ed "ex" on = can >ri"e s!or", sim-le an essaD or re-or", 0ie> a" some leng"!) = le""ers, re-or"s or !olidaD gree"ings) = "o-ics >!ic! are no"es and messages) = -assing on can >ri"e a/ou" ar"icles >!ic! -resen" a can 5ill in 5orms >i"! 5amiliar or o5 can >ri"e a 0erD sim-le in5orma"ion or gi0ing com-lex su/jec"s in a case >i"! an e55ec"i0e Pri"ing -ersonal de"ails, 5or -ersonal in"eres") = -ersonal le""er, 5or reasons in su--or" o5 le""er, an essaD or a logical s"ruc"ure >!ic! exam-le en"ering can >ri"e -ersonal exam-le "!anEing or agains" a -ar"icular re-or", underlining !el-s "!e reci-ien" "o mD name, le""ers descri/ing someone 5or some"!ing) -oin" o5 0ie>) = can >!a" = consider "o /e no"ice and remem/er na"ionali"D and ex-eriences and >ri"e le""ers "!e salien" issues) = signi5ican" -oin"s) = can address on a !o"el im-ressions) !ig!lig!"ing "!e can selec" a s"Dle >ri"e summaries and regis"ra"ion 5orm) -ersonal signi5icance a--ro-ria"e "o "!e re0ie>s o5 -ro5essional o5 e0en"s and reader in mind) or li"erarD >orEs) ex-eriences) *1 *2

209

+ro5icien" user 7le0els C1 and C28

Step 1/.- #ill in "!e c!ar" >i"! in5orma"ion a/ou" Doursel5 7 sel5$assessmen" grid8 %OTE Teac:er Compete cies for Professio al De*elopme t CO''U"ITIES STR#"D
CORE L"O<%ED$E I = o@ @a8s to access a d use t:e la guage a d its cultural resources )e8o d t:e sc:ool setti g/ S#'P%E PR#CTICES $OOD 7some o5 "!e "ime AETTER 7mos" o5 "!e "ime8 ERE'P%#RK 7almos" all o5 "!e "ime8

I = o@ :o@ to use t:e la guage for lifelo g lear i gH perso al e ric:me tH a d career de*elopme t/

I: nOmo"i0a"e s"uden"s "o inde-enden"lD -ursue -ersonal enric!men" ac"i0i"ies using "!e language 7e)g), "ra0el, researc!, reading, ne">orEing8) nO-ro0ide ex-eriences and im-lemen"s learning ac"i0i"ies >!erelanguage sEills are used 5or -ersonal enric!men" 7e)g), -ar"ici-a"ion in social, ci0ic, and 0oca"ional e0en"s8) nO!el- s"uden"s disco0er !o> "!e language and cul"ure can /e used in 0arious careers and s!o>s s"uden"s >!ere and !o> "!eD maD access "!is in5orma"ion 7e)g), uses career si"ua"ions and /usiness li"era"ureA5orms in classroom ac"i0i"ies8) nOassis" s"uden"s in 5inding a--lica"ions 5or "!e language in jo/ se""ings 7e)g), in"erns!i- -rograms8) nO/ring local and area resources and resource -ersons in"o "!e classroom "o ad0ise and in"eres" s"uden"s in career a--lica"ions 5or language) nOencourage s"uden"s "o see "!emsel0es as >orld ci"i9ens and !el-s "!em unders"and "!a" language -ro5iciencD is an asse" "!a" >ill !el- "!em 5unc"ion success5ullD in "!e >orld communi"D I: nOmo"i0a"e s"uden"s "o inde-enden"lD -ursue -ersonal enric!men" ac"i0i"ies using "!e language 7e)g), "ra0el, researc!, reading, ne">orEing8) nO-ro0ide ex-eriences and im-lemen"s learning ac"i0i"ies >!erelanguage sEills are used 5or -ersonal enric!men" 7e)g), -ar"ici-a"ion in social, ci0ic, and a0oca"ional e0en"s8) nO!el- s"uden"s disco0er !o> "!e language and cul"ure can /e used in 0arious careers and s!o>s s"uden"s >!ere and !o> "!eD maD access "!is in5orma"ion 7e)g), uses career si"ua"ions and /usiness li"era"ureA5orms in classroom ac"i0i"ies8) nOassis" s"uden"s in 5inding a--lica"ions 5or "!e language in jo/ se""ings 7e)g), in"erns!i- -rograms8) nO/ring local and area resources and resource -ersons in"o "!e classroom "o ad0ise and in"eres" s"uden"s in career a--lica"ions 5or language) nOencourage s"uden"s "o see "!emsel0es as >orld ci"i9ens and !el-s "!em unders"and "!a" language -ro5iciencD is an asse" "!a" >ill !el- "!em 5unc"ion success5ullD in "!e >orld communi"D

#cti*it8 5: 'ar=i g scales *ccording "o C2# "!ere are /asicallD "!ree >aDs in >!ic! descri-"ors can /e -resen"ed 5or use as assessmen" cri"eria: _ #irs"lD, descri-"ors can /e -resen"ed as a scale Q o5"en com/ining descri-"ors 5or di55eren" ca"egories in"o one !olis"ic -aragra-! -er le0el) <!is is a 0erD common a--roac!) _ @econdlD, "!eD can /e -resen"ed as a c,ec0list, usuallD >i"! one c!ecElis" -er rele0an" le0el, o5"en >i"! descri-"ors grou-ed under !eadings, i)e) under ca"egories) C!ecElis"s are less usual 5or li0e assessmen") _ <!irdlD, "!eD can /e -resen"ed as a grid o5 selec"ed ca"egories, in e55ec" as a se" o5 -arallel

210

scales 5or se-ara"e ca"egories) <!is a--roac! maEes i" -ossi/le "o gi0e a diagnos"ic -ro5ile) Jo>e0er, "!ere are limi"s "o "!e num/er o5 ca"egories "!a" assessors can co-e >i"!) <!ere are ">o dis"inc"lD di55eren" >aDs in >!ic! one can -ro0ide a grid o5 su/$scales: Proficie c8 Scale: /D -ro0iding a -ro5ile grid de5ining "!e rele0an" le0els 5or cer"ain ca"egories, 5or exam-le 5rom ?e0els *2 "o B2) *ssessmen" is "!en made direc"lD on"o "!ose le0els, -ossi/lD using 5ur"!er re5inemen"s liEe a second digi" or -luses "o gi0e grea"er di55eren"ia"ion i5 desired) <!us e0en "!oug! "!e -er5ormance "es" >as aimed a" ?e0el B1, and e0en i5 none o5 "!e learners !ad reac!ed ?e0el B2, i" >ould s"ill /e -ossi/le 5or s"ronger learners "o /e credi"ed >i"! B1f, B1ff E;ami atio Rati g Scale: /D selec"ing or de5ining a descri-"or 5or eac! rele0an" ca"egorD >!ic! descri/es "!e desired -ass s"andard or norm 5or a -ar"icular module or examina"ion 5or "!a" ca"egorD) <!a" descri-"or is "!en named V+assC or V3C and "!e scale is norm$re5erenced around "!a" s"andard 7a 0erD >eaE -er5ormance ^ V1C, an excellen" -er5ormance ^ V5C8) <!e marEing o5 "es"s is no" di55icul" i5 s"uden"s onlD !a0e "o "icE /oxes or indi0idual >ords) *ssessmen" /ecomes more com-lex >!en >e !a0e "o e0alua"e an in"egra"i0e "D-e o5 ac"i0i"D) B/jec"i0e "es"s are easD "o assess) <!e -a-er can /e gi0en an o0erall score 7 10 or 100 or '5k, e"cc8) *s 5or "!e su/jec"i0e "D-e o5 "es"ing assessors usuallD use marEing sc!emes >!ic! can maEe e0alua"ion more o/jec"i0e) M*R[= G @C*?2@ ?2<<2R@, @<BR=2@ '#RLS
9$10

Tas= #c:ie*eme t
$Co0erage o5 all -oin"s reNuired $<o"al rele0ance "o "asE

%a guage #ccurac8
$ oA0erD 5e> grammar errors $ oA0erD 5e> s-elling errors $Pide range o5 grammar s"ruc"ure $5e> grammar errors $5e> s-elling errors $good range o5 grammar s"ruc"ure $@ome grammar errors $@ome s-elling errors $Good range o5 grammar s"ruc"ure $ManD grammar errors $ManD s-elling errors $?imi"ed range o5 grammar s"ruc"ure $Grammar errors some"imes !inder communica"ion $@-elling errors some"imes !inder communica"ion $?imi"ed range o5 grammar s"ruc"ure $Grammar errors o5"en !inder communica"ion $@-elling errors o5"en !inder communica"ion $FerD limi"ed range o5 grammar s"ruc"ure

Register a d *oca)ular8
$Pide range o5 0oca/ularD $*--ro-ria"e regis"er

Orga isatio H co:esio H
$FerD clear organi9a"ion $ManD linEing de0ices $#ullD correc" -aragra-!ing $#ullD correc" laDou"

'$8

5$6

3$&

1$2

$Co0erage o5 all -oin"s reNuired $+ar"ial rele0ance "o "asE $Co0erage o5 mos" -oin"s reNuired $@ome rele0ance "o "asE $Co0erage o5 a 5e> -oin"s reNuired $?i""le rele0ance "o "asE $Co0erage o5 5e> -oin"s reNuired $FerD li""le rele0ance "o "asE

$Faried 0oca/ularD $*--ro-ria"e regis"er $@ome>!a" 0aried 0oca/ularD $Mos"lD a--ro-ria"e regis"er $Basic 0oca/ularD $Mos"lD a--ro-ria"e regis"er $Basic 0oca/ularD $@ome"imes ina--ro-ria"e regis"er

$FerD clear organi9a"ion $2noug! linEing de0ices $Mos"lD correc" -aragra-!ing $Mos"lD correc" laDou" $clear organi9a"ion some linEing de0ices $mos"lD correc" -aragra-!ing $mos"lD correc" laDou" $1nclear organi9a"ion $#e> linEing de0ices $Mos"lD incorrec" -aragra-!ing $Mos"lD incorrec" laDou" $1nclear organi9a"ion $FerD 5e> 7ina--ro-ria"e8 linEing de0ic $=ncorrec" -aragra-!ing $=ncorrec" laDou"

0

$Co0erage o5 5e> -oin"s reNuired $ o rele0ance "o "asE

$Basic 0oca/ularD $Mos"lD ina--ro-ria"e regis"er

$<o"al lacE o5 organi9a"ion $<o"al lacE o5 linEing de0ices

# al8tical criteria

6er8 good

(OR'#%G I"(OR'#% %ETTER $ood

#deFuate

<ea=

211

>ell ex"ended. al"!oug! minor inconsis"encies are -ossi/le) <!ere is a logical -rogression al"!oug! minor inconsis"encies are -ossi/leM "!e -aragra-!s are >ell /uil" /u" could /e more ex"endedM a range o5 co!esi0e de0ices is used e55ec"i0elD) * range o5 0oca/ularD is used a--ro-ria"elD and accura"elDM occasional errors in >ord c!oiceA 5orma"ion are -ossi/leM s-elling is >ell con"rolled >i"! occasional sli-s) * range o5 gramma"ical s"ruc"ures is used accura"elD and >i"! some 5lexi/ili"DM occasional errors are -ossi/leM -unc"ua"ion is >ell con"rolled >i"! occasional sli-s) <!e "ex" !as a good e55ec" on "!e reader) 64-54 <!e le""er addresses "!e reNuiremen"s o5 "!e "asE /u" no" all con"en" -oin"s are includedM "!e 5orma" maD /e 5aul"D a" "imesM "!e -ur-ose o5 "!e le""er is -resen"ed /u" i" is no" 0erD clearM "!ere are inconsis"encies in regis"er) <!e "ex" is generallD co!eren" /u" "!e in"ernal organi9a"ion o5 some -aragra-!s maD /e 5aul"DM "!e "o-ic sen"ence is no" al>aDs clear or maD /e missingM co!esi0e de0ices are used /u" some"imes "!eD are no" accura"e) <!e range o5 0oca/ularD is adeNua"eM errors in >ord c!oiceA 5orma"ion are -resen" >!en more so-!is"ica"ed i"ems o5 0oca/ularD are a""em-"edM s-elling can /e 5aul"D a" "imes) * mix o5 com-lex and sim-le gramma"ical s"ruc"ures is -resen"M errors are -resen" >!en com-lex language is a""em-"edM -unc"ua"ion can /e 5aul"D a" "imes) <!e e55ec" on "!e reader is sa"is5ac"orD) 14-04 <!e le""er does no" co0er "!e reNuiremen"s o5 "!e "asEM /ulle a""em-"ed /u" manD irrele0an includedM "!e 5orma" is 5aul"DM 5or >ri"ing is missingM "!ere ar inconsis"encies in regis"er) <!ere is serious inconsis"enc organi9a"ion o5 "!e "ex"M "!e se ideas can /e 5ollo>ed >i"! di5 -aragra-!ing maD /e missing de0ices are limi"ed or mos" o5 5aul"D) 6oca)ula r8 * limi"ed range o5 0oca/ularD less common i"ems o5 0oca/ rare and maD /e o5"en 5aul"DM errors can maEe "ex" unders" di55icul") * limi"ed range o5 gramma"ica is -resen"M com-lex language maD /e o5"en 5aul"DM -unc"ua"i can maEe "ex" unders"anding Structure s $e eral effect <!e "ex" !as no" a rele0an" e5 reader) <!e scales o5 descri-"ors maEe u.a conce-"ual grid >!ic! can /e used "o: a8 rela"e na"ional and ins"i"u"ional 5rame>orEs "o eac! o"!er.at io a d co:esio M4-24 <!e le""er co0ers "!e reNuiremen"s o5 "!e "asE /u" "!e con"en" -oin"s could /e more 5ullD ex"endedM "!e 5orma" o5 "!e le""er is o/ser0edM "!e -ur-ose o5 "!e le""er is -resen"edM "!e regis"er is a--ro-ria"e .D Discourse ma ageme t $ rele0ance i5 ideas $ co!erence and co!esion $ "ime cons"rain"s $ 5luencD 2D $rammatical resource $ accuracD $ range o5 s"ruc"ures 0D 6oca)ular8 resource $ a--ro-riacD $ range &8 Pro u ciatio .44-Q4 <!e le""er is com-le"elD rele0an" "o "!e "asE.44 mar=s 212 .Tas= ac:ie*em e t . "!roug! "!e medium o5 "!e Common #rame>orEM /8 ma.-ronuncia"ion and in"ona"ion $ s"ress and r!D"!m Total 14 mar=s 10 marEs 10 marEs 10 marEs 10 marEs 24 mar=s 10 marEs 10 marEs 24 mar=s 10 marEs 10 marEs 24 mar=s 10 marEs 10 marEs ."!e o/jec"i0es o5 -ar"icular examina"ions and course modules using "!e ca"egories and le0els o5 "!e scales) Spea=i g 5 # al8tical scales . "!e "o-ic sen"ence is clearM a >ide range o5 co!esi0e de0ices is used e55ec"i0elD) * >ide range o5 0oca/ularD is used a--ro-ria"elD and accura"elDM -recise meaning is con0eDedM minor errors are rareM s-elling is 0erD >ell con"rolled) * >ide range o5 gramma"ical s"ruc"ures is used accura"elD and 5lexi/lDM minor errors are rareM -unc"ua"ion is 0erD >ell con"rolled) <!e in"eres" o5 "!e reader is aroused and sus"ained "!roug!ou") Orga i. 5ullD de0elo-ing all con"en" -oin"sM "!e 5orma" o5 "!e le""er is 5ullD o/ser0edM "!e -ur-ose o5 "!e le""er is clearlD and 5ullD ex-lainedM "!e regis"er is a--ro-ria"e "!roug!ou") <!ere is a logical -rogression "!roug!ou"M "!e -aragra-!s are >ell /uil".

us do /e""er in our dailD li0ing) @ome o5 "!em "eac! us a/ou" suc! "!ings as !ome decora"ing.-o)9ecti*e-dual c:oice T:eme-+u/lic domain Compete ce. "!e 5ierce animals and "!e 5an"as"ic >ild game +aren"s saD "!a" "!ese Eids are couc! -o"a"oes and indi55eren" "o nearlD e0erD"!ing) #ind "!e rig!" c!annels.$<. "!e <F >ill /e a grea" aid "o Dou) Pa"c!ing <F is an indis-ensa/le !o//D 5or e0erD/odD) Moreo0er. manD c!ildren s-end "oo muc! "ime /e5ore "!e li""le screen. is 0erD use5ul 5or us in manD areas) Farious -rogrammes 5i" e0erDoneCs need. !is"orD. and Dou >ill !a0e -rogrammes o5 educa"ion) =5 Dou are a conscien"ious s"uden". gi0es us in5orma"ion "o im-ro0e our li0es and -ro0ides a lo" o5 5un) Pa"c!ing <F >idens our !ori9ons) <!ere are numerous <F -rogrammes re-resen"ing all "!e >orld>ide a55airs) +eo-le learn manD "!ings "!roug! <F suc! as economics. >i"! "!e co55ee marEe" earning nearlD six"D /illion dollars annuallD) Coffee is t:e first @orld[s traded product Correct a s@er 5( Item 2 5semio)9ecti*e-matc:i g T:eme$+ersonal domain Compete ce. >!ic! !el-s -eo-le 5ind a girl5riend or /oD5riend) <odaD. as a con0enien" communica"ion "ool.Reading 5or de"ailed unders"anding o5 "!e "ex" %e*el A2 Read t:e essa8 )elo@ a d t:e matc: t:e )egi i g of eac: se te ce @it: its correspo di g e di g: <atc:i g T6 is m8 fa*ourite :o))8 Pa"c!ing <F -laDs an im-or"an" role in our dailD li0es) =n 5ac" i" is one o5 mD 5a0ori"e !o//ies) *lmos" e0erD/odD >a"c!es <F some "ime e0erD daD maEing i" -er!a-s "!e mos" common !o//D in modern socie"D) =" /rings us a lo" o5 /ene5i"s) Pa"c!ing <F can increase our Eno>ledge o5 "!e >orld. 5or ge""ing !el. cul"ure and clima"e /D >a"c!ing a <F -rogramme called (isco0er Mexico) =" is "!e same 5or o"!er coun"ries) = s"ill remem/er clearlD >!en = sa> *5rican "ri/es on "!e screen) = >as 5ascina"ed /D "!e mar0ellous jungles.and en"er"ainmen" -eo-le can "une in "o a -o-ular -rogramme called Bind (a"e. geogra-!D. and cul"ure) ManD <F -rograms -ro0ide "!e la"es" ne>s o5 domes"ic and in"erna"ional e0en"s) Pa"c!ing ne>s e0erD nig!" on <F is manD -eo-leCs mos" im-or"an" rou"ine) #or exam-le. ou"door ac"i0i"ies and e0en "!eir 5amilies) Pa"c!ing <F !as /ecome -ar" o5 our li0es) <F.(iscuss "!e issue o5 su/jec"i0i"D >!en i" comes "o marEing "es"s and s!o> !o> marEing scales can sol0e "!is -ro/lem #cti*it8 6: Samples of tests #/ RECEPTI6E SLI%%S Readi g Item . -eo-le >!o are li0ing in Canada /u" !a0e ne0er /een "o Mexico are a/le "o Eno> a/ou" Mexican !is"orD. "aEing a /acEsea" onlD "o -e"roleum.t a d decide if t:e follo@i g se te ce is true CTD or false C(D/ (id Dou Eno> "!a" co55ee /eans are "!e seeds o5 a 5rui" similar "o a c!errDW (id Dou Eno> "!a" mos" o5 "!e >orldCs co55ee is gro>n /D small$scale co55ee 5arming 5amiliesW Co55ee is ac"uallD "!e >orldCs second mos" "raded commodi"D. "!e color5ul >ea-ons. !ome reno0a"ing and 213 . liEe cooEing and exercise "o Eee.Step 5/.unders"anding reading #cti*it8.unders"anding reading #cti*i8-reading 5or de"ailed unders"anding o5 "!e "ex" %e*el A2 Read t:e te."!e /odD 5i") earlD e0erD 5amilD o>ns a <F and >a"c!es <F -rogrammes) Pe s!ould "eac! "!e Eids "o s-end "!eir "ime >iselD >i"! o"!er !o//ies and ou"door ac"i0i"ies) o"!ing is more en"er"aining and relaxing 5or me "!an >a"c!ing <F a5"er a >!ole daD o5 s"udD) <!ese Einds o5 -rogrammes al>aDs !el.. ignoring "!eir s"udies.

cul"ure and clima"e . e0a-ora"ion o5 organic com-ounds. -ollen dis-ersal. -oses li""le "!rea" "o "!e !eal"! o5 -eo-le and ecosDs"ems) 1/ <!oug! some -ollu"ion comes 5rom "!ese na"ural sources.tra :eadi g @:ic: 8ou do ot eed to use/ T:ere is a e. geogra-!D /8 our Eno>ledge o5 "!e >orld c8 >a"c!ing <F d8 and indi55eren" "o nearlD e0erD"!ing e8 ignoring "!eir s"udies. 0olcanic eru-"ions.t/ T:ere is o e e. and as a resul".ample at t:e )egi i g: *) una0oida/le causes B) "!e real "!rea" C) excessi0elD -ollu"ed -laces () unseen -oison 2) -ollu"ion caused /D !uman ac"i0i"D #) !armless -ollu"ion #ir pollutio D .-5D of t:e te. !is"orD. car/on monoxides./ <!ere are manD di55eren" c!emical su/s"ances "!a" con"ri/u"e "o air -ollu"ion) <!ese c!emicals come 5rom a 0arie"D o5 sources) *mong "!e manD "D-es o5 air -ollu"an"s are ni"rogen oxides. and na"ural radioac"i0i"D are all among "!e na"ural causes o5 air -ollu"ion) 0/ 1suallD. ou"door ac"i0i"ies and 5amilies 58 !ome decora"ing ./SSSSS2/SSSSS0/SSSSSS1/SSSSSS5/SSSSSS6/SSSSSSS2/SSSSSS # s@er =e8 : 1c 2/ 3a &g 5d 6e '5 Item 0/ T:eme-+u/lic domain Compete ce.car-en"rD )=" is no" unusual "o see "!e -eo-le and -laces "o"allD di55eren" 5rom Dour o>n anDmore /ecause -eo-le can see "!ese "!ings "!roug! <F) 1)<!e mos" common !o//D in our socie"D is 2) Pa"c!ing <F can increase 3) +eo-le learn manD "!ings &) +eo-le >!o are li0ing in Canada /u" !a0e ne0er /een "o Mexico 5)+aren"s saD "!a" "!ese Eids are couc! -o"a"oes 6)<odaD manD c!ildren s-end "oo muc! "ime /e5ore "!e li""le screen ')@ome o5 "!e -rogrammes "eac! us a/ou" a8 suc! as economics. and organic com-ounds "!a" can e0a-ora"e and en"er "!e a"mos-!ere) 2/ *ir -ollu"an"s !a0e sources "!a" are /o"! na"ural and !uman) #ores" 5ires. na"ural air -ollu"ion does no" occur in a/undance in -ar"icular loca"ions) <!e -ollu"ion is s-read around "!roug!ou" "!e >orld. >ind erosion. mos" -ollu"ion is "!e resul" o5 !uman ac"i0i"D) <!e /igges" causes are "!e o-era"ion o5 5ossil 5uel$/urning -o>er -lan"s and au"omo/iles 214 .unders"anding reading #cti*it8.Reading 5or gis" %e*el A2 Read t:e article a)out air pollutio a d c:oose t:e most suita)le :eadi g from t:e list #-( for eac: partC. !ome reno0a"ing and car-en"rD g8 are a/le "o Eno> a/ou" Mexican !is"orD.

54 @ordsG./ Discourse ma ageme t Rele0ance o5 ideas Co!erence and co!esion <ime cons"rain"s #luencD 2/ $rammatical resource *ccuracD range o5 s"ruc"ures 0/ 6oca)ular8 resource *--ro-riacD Range 1/ Pro u ciatio +ronuncia"ion and in"ona"ion @"ress and r!D"!m 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 #*erage 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 M M M M M M M M M M Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q E.-su)9ecti*e T:eme-+ersonal domain Compete ce. laDou". <rite a letter to a pe frie d descri)i g a )irt:da8 C. co!esion $ regis"er.4 .D 1A 5C 2# 0( A/ PRODUCTI6E SLI%%S .oral -roduc"ion Specific compete ce-descri/ing e0en"s %e*el #2 Xou a""ended a rela"i0eCs >edding) (escri/e Dour ex-erience) Re5er "o: 0 >!a" "!e a"mos-!ere >as liEe 0 >!o Dou me" "!ere 0 >!a" "!e /ride and groom looEed liEe 0 >!a" Dou did "!ere #ssessme t form for oral prese tatio s Poor . s"Dle C/$R#''#TIC#% CO'PETE"CE 215 .4 .4 .celle t . "!ese ">o sources are res-onsi/le 5or a/ou" 90k o5 all air -ollu"ion in "!e 1ni"ed @"a"es) 5/ @ome ci"ies su55er se0erelD /ecause o5 !ea0D indus"rial use o5 c!emicals "!a" cause air -ollu"ion) +laces liEe Mexico Ci"D and @ao +aulo !a0e some o5 "!e mos" deadlD -ollu"ion le0els in "!e >orld) # s@er =e8 .4 ."!a" com/us" 5uel) Com/ined. -resen"s "!eD /roug!"M +aragra-! 2: descri/e "!eir clo"!esM +aragra-! 3: >!a" Dou did and a"eM +aragra-! &: Dour im-ression) 'ar=i g scale $"asE ac!ie0emen" $ grammar accuracD $ range o5 0oca/ularD $ organisa"ion.4 .4 .4 .4 .4 ./ Spea=i g Item .5 li esD/ Use t:e follo@i g pla / +aragra-! 1: -eo-le >!o came L names.4 2/ <riti g Item 2-structured essa8 T:eme--ersonal domain Compete ce->ri""en -roduc"ion$-ersonal le""es Specific compete ce-descri/ing e0en"s %e*el-A.

720008) *ssessing "!e -or"5olio : +rinci-les 5or -rac"ice.-semio)9ecti*e Compete ce-using language s"ruc"ures correc"lD %e*el-A2 Complete t:e se te ces usi g t:e @ord i )old/ Use t@o to fi*e @ords/ %us" a5"er !e le5". "!ere are "imes >!en "!eD need "o /e "rained "o s"aD in "!eir dog !ouse) @ome o>ners e0en maEe i" as a conseNuence "o slee.inside "!e !ouse i"sel5. !e reali9ed !e !ad le5" "!e documen"s /e!ind) t:a occcccccccc)!e reali9ed !e !ad le5" "!e documen"s /e!ind) o sooner !ad !e le5" "!an !e reali9ed !e !ad le5" "!e documen"s /e!ind) # s@er =e8- Item 2-semio)9ecti*e Compete ce-using language s"ruc"ures correc"lDM reading com-re!ension %e*el A.t )elo@ a d fill i t:e @ord @:ic: )est fits eac: space/ Use o l8 o e @ord i eac: space) <!e !ome is no" onlD a s!el"er "o Dou and Dour 5amilD /u" "o Dour -e"s as 1)TTTTTTT =" is no" a sur-rise "!a" mos" !ome o>ners >ould -ro0ide s-ecial s"ruc"ures or -ro0isions 5or "!eir /elo0ed animals in and 2TTTTTTTTT"!e !ouse) #or dogs exam-le.Item . Co:e H #/ D) 7199&a8) *ssessing language a/ili"D in "!e classroom) 2nd 2di"ion) Bos"on: e>/urD JouseAJeinle \ Jeinle) 3.Mul"ilingual GlossarD o5 ?anguage <es"ing <erms 719988) 2di"ed /D *?<2 mem/ers $ Middle @"a"es Commission on Jig!er 2duca"ion) 2003) (tudent learning assessment Mptions and resources) +!iladel-!ia: Middle @"a"es Commission on Jig!er 2duca"ion 216 . and researc! 7>ri""en language8) CressEill. "!ere is e0en a cus!ioned slee-ing /asEe" inside 5or "!e dog "o lie do>n and ser0e as "!eir /ed) *l"!oug! mos" dogs &TTTTTTTTTT -re5er "o slee."!e dog >arm and sa5e >!en "!eD 3TTTTTTTTTa -lace "o slee-) @ome"imes. F*: @"Dlus) $ +rimarilD ins"i"u"ion$le0el and -rogram$le0el assessmen" . 7amp-%8o sH %/H Co do H </H I (arrH ') 72ds)8. %: Jam-"on +ress) &) 'a=iH Pegg8 %/ 200&) 8ssessing for learning 5uilding a sustainable commitment across t. "!eorD.ou"side 5or /ad /e!a0ior -er5ormed /D "!e dog) Bu" "!is is no" a" all "!a" !ars! as -ro-er 0en"ila"ion and insula"ion Eee-s "!e -e" com5or"a/le 5TTTTTTTTTTTTcold or !o" nig!"s) <!is also "eac!es "!e dog in /e!a0ing in good conduc" "o su55er 5rom a 5ar less com5or"a/le res"ing -lace) # s@er =e8 1) >ell 2/ outside 0/ eed 1/ @ould 5/ duri g Item 0-o)9ecti*e Compete ce-using language s"ruc"ures correc"lD %e*el #2 Circle t:e correct a s@er C#H AH CH DD #s soo as 7arr8 \\\// Auc:arest :e @as called )ac= to Rome/ #/ is reac!ing A/ reac! C/ >ill reac! D/ reac!ed # s@er =e8 ( Refere ces 1) #lderso H J/ C/ 720008 8ssessing &eading) Cam/ridge ?anguage *ssessmen" @eries) Cam/ridge:Cam/ridge 1ni0ersi"D +ress 2. Read t:e te. "!eir o>ners >ould /uild a dog !ouse accordinglD) <!e "inD !ouse !as "!e rig!" insula"ion and co0er "o Eee.e institution) @"erling.