# The Root Locus Method

Outline

The Root Locus Method Closed-loop p poles p Plotting the root locus of a transfer function Choosing a value of K from root locus Closed-loop response Key MATLAB commands used: feedback, feedback rlocfind, rlocus, sgrid, step, pzmap, zpk , rltool

g. a simple gain adjustment or the location of compensation p zero). then the closed-loop p pole p locations depend on the value of the design parameter. If system has a variable design parameter (e.. The root locus of a system is the plot of the paths (loci) of all possible closed loop poles as the design parameter takes on a range of possible values. . ).Root Locus Method Closed-loop response depends on the location of closed-loop poles.

. Since finding the roots of polynomials of degree higher than 3 is laborious. The older. older graphical aids are still relevant since the ability to quickly sketch root loci by hand is invaluable in making fundamental decisions early in the design process and in checking Matlab results. computer-aided design tools such as Matlab provide a convenient computer solution. The closed-loop poles are the roots of the system's system s characteristic equation. The poles that provide the desired closed-loop response are selected and the proper value of the design parameter is thereby established. graphical aids were devised in the late 1940s to help construct the root loci. Recently.

then this equation has the form: den( s ) + k num( s ) = 0 den( s ) + num( s ) = 0 k .Closed Loop Poles Closed-Loop Transfer Function C ( s) G ( s) = R( s) 1 + G ( s) H ( s) Where G(s) is the forwardpath transfer function and H(s) is the feedback-path transfer function Characteristic Equation The poles of the closed loop y are values of s such system that 1 + G(s) H(s) = 0 or G(s) H(s) = -1 If G(s)H(s) =k num(s)/den(s).

Geometric Properties Num( s ) 1+ K =0 Den( s ) Num( s ) K = −1 Den( s ) Complex number =>Amplitude and angle Num( s ) Magnitude Condition K Den( s ) =1 or Amplitude relation Num( s ) ∠K = 180 ± 360o Den( s ) Angle Condition or Angle relation .

Example K G (s)H (s) = sN K sN i ∏ (τ j = N +1 m k s + 1) j ∏ (τ k =1 n s + 1) i ∏ (τ j = N +1 m k s + 1) j ∏ (τ k =1 n s + 1) =1& ⎧(1 + 2q ) *180 f for K i > 0 ∠(τ k s + 1) − N∠s − ∑ ∠(τ j s + 1) = ⎨ ∑ 2 * q * 180 for K i < 0 k j ⎩ .

1 EX 1 : 1 + K s ( s + 2) s+3 EX 2 : 1 + K s +1 ( s + 1)( s + 2) EX 3 : 1 + K s ( s + 3) . Where the root locus starts and where it ends.Questions 1 As 0 ≤ K ≤ ∞.

The path of a closed-loop pole on the s-plane is called a branch of the root locus. each branch starts at a pole of GH(s) ( ) and g goes to a zero of GH(s). In this case. m < n and we say that GH(s) has zeros at infinity. and is the number of branches of the root locus that go to infinity (asymptotes). The root locus must have n branches. The number of zeros at infinity y is nm. . the limit of GH(s) ( ) as s -> infinity y is zero. where n is the number of poles of GH(s). No matter what we pick k to be.Answer As K ranges from 0 to infinity the closed-loop poles migrate from the open-loop poles to the open-loop zeros. the number of poles minus the number of zeros. ( ) If GH(s) has more poles than zeros (as is often the case). the closed-loop system must always have n poles.

What is the part of the real axis that belongs to the Root locus.Question 2 As 0 ≤ K ≤ ∞. ( s + 1)( s + 2) =0 EX 1 : 1 + K s ( s + 3) .

.Root Locus Example R( ) R(s) + – E( ) E(s) K s ( s + 2) C(s) The closed closed-loop transfer function is C (s) K = R( s) s( s + 2) + K The characteristic equation is 2 s + 2s + K = 0 Consider the characteristic roots as K =0→∞.

with a real value of –1 and an imaginary value increasing with gain K . jω K=1 σ X K=0 X –2 .R Root Locus L Example E l s = −1 ± 1 − K loci of closedclosed-loop roots K→∞ For K = 0 the closedclosed-loop poles are at the openopen-loop poles. For 0 < K < 1 the closedclosed-loop poles are on the real axis. Fo K > 1 the closedFor closed-loop poles are complex.

) .8 0.2 0 0 K=1 σ X K=0 X –2 2 4 6 8 10 Time (sec.0 K = 1.6 0.0 K = 15.5 K→∞ jω Amplit tude 1 0.Root Locus Example: Step Responses Step Responses 1.4 0.6 1.4 1.0 K = 0.2 K = 50.0 K = 2.

Idea .

K( s + 7) G(s)H(s) = with K ≥ 0 s( s + 5)( s +15)( s + 20) . Example 1: Consider the open-loop open loop transfer function.Answer for Q2 Root Loci on the Real Axis: For k>=0 k> 0 (k< (k<=0) 0) branches on the real axis lie to the left (right) of an odd number of open open-loop loop poles and zeros.

2 -0.4 0.8 -1 -20 5 Im ag A x i s 4 3 2 1 0 -15 -10 -5 0 5 Real A x is .6 -0.6 0.8 0.2 0 -0.P ole-z ero m ap 1 0.4 -0.

the root loci are symmetrical with respect to the real axis. .Symmetry about Real Axis Symmetry: Since roots of the characteristic equation occur in complex conjugate pairs.

loop pole and zeros { } q = 0. +/-1.m) ) f for K > o⎫ Angle _ of _ the _ Asymptotes = ⎨ ⎬ o ⎩ 2q180 / (n .… ⎧( 2q + 1)180 o / (n ( .Question 3: Asymptotic Behavior The loci migrate to infinity (m<n) along y p with the following g asymptotes characteristics: ∑− p − ∑− z n m j i Re al _ Axis _ Intercept = j =1 i =1 n−m where − p j and {− zi } are open .m) for K < 0 ⎭ .+/-2.

Forming the auxiliary equation: Solving for s yields points where the root loci cross the imaginary axis.Question 4: Crossing of the Imaginary axis The value Th l of f K which hi h yields i ld imaginary i i closed-loop l dl poles can be found from the last three rows of the RH array of the characteristic equation. i. e1 (K )s 2 + e2 (K ) = 0 . s2 s1 s0 e1 ( K ) e2 ( K ) f ( K) g( K ) The value of K such that f (K ) = 0 is that which establishes imaginary closed-loop poles.e..

The angle of arrival at the zero. The angles of departure. θd from poles and arrival. θa to zeroes may be found by applying the angle condition to a point very near the pole or zero. -z1 is obtained from θaz1 + ∑ ∠( -z1 + zi ) − i =2 m ∑ ∠(-z + p ) = (2k + 1)π i =1 1 i n .A l of Angle f departure d t 7.

Solutions of the equation dK(s)/ds = 0 yield the breakaway points K(s) = .Q Question 5: leaving g or entering g the real axis Break away Point Real axis breakaway points occur at maxima and minima of K(s).den(GH(s))/num(GH(s)) .

B k Breakaway P Points: i t Breakaway Points: When two or more loci meet. they will breakaway from this point at particular angles. meet. The point is known as a breakaway point. It corresponds to multiple roots. Some examples x x o o x x x 45° x x x x x . point.

dK = d [GH ( s )] = 0 or 0 ds ds d [GH ( s)] = d [N ( s) D( s)] ds ds ′( s) N ( s) D′( s) N = − =0 2 D( s) D( s ) D( s) N ′( s) − N ( s) D′( s) = 0 . The location of the breakaway point is found from Note: K = − [GH ( s )]−1 ] −2 d [ ( ) dK = [ GH s =0 GH ( s )] d ds d ds Also.B k Breakaway P Points: i t 9 The 9. Th angle l of f breakaway is 180°/k where k is the number of converging loci.

π . GH ( s ) = K 2 + s( s 3) jω asymptotes 2j Real axis loci exist for the full negative axis.Root Locus Plot: Breakaway Point Example Consider the following loop transfer function. Asymptotes: angles = ( (2 2k+1)π = π/3 . 3 5π / 3 ( −3 − 3 − 0 ) − ( 0 ) σa = = −2 3 60° –4 X X –2 X σ +1 –2j .

− 3 .Root Locus Plot: B k Breakaway P Point i tE Example l Determine the breakaway points from ⎤ d ⎡ K ⎤ d ⎡ K = ⎢ 3 ⎢ 2⎥ ds ⎣ s ( s + 3) ⎦ ds ⎣ s + 6 s 2 + 9 s ⎥ ⎦ − K (3s 2 + 12 s + 9) = =0 3 2 2 ( s + 6s + 9s) –4 jω 2j X X –2 X σ +1 –2j then s 2 + 4 s + 3 = ( s + 1)( s + 3) = 0 s = −1 .

6° σ –2 X -p 90° 1 +1 Then 33.Question 6: Angle of departure d t and d angle l of f arrival i l Departure angle from p2 .6° + θp2 ) = 180° θp2 = – 352.7° – (90° + 116. 116 .1° -pX 3 –2j .6° -z1 ° θp3 = 90 O –4 θp 2 -p2 X 33. θz1 = tan-1( (2/3) / ) = 33.9° = + 7.7° θp1 = tan-1(2/ (2/-1) = 116.7° jω 2j 116.

root locus. K may be determined graphically from the root locus plot X B s jω 1 A O C X σ BCD K = A D X .How Can we determine the required K for a particular pole 10. For a point on the 10. K from s1 + p1 s1 + p2 K = s1 + z 1 s1 + z 2 Alternately. s =s1 calculate the gain.