Chapter 19: The Industrial Age

Section 1, 2 & 3

Second Industrial Revolution
 

Period of rapid growth in the U.S. manufacturing in the late 1800s US had become the world’s industrial leader

Steel Industry

Steel = Iron that has been made stronger by heat and the addition of other metals

Bessemer Process
 

Invented by Henry Bessemer A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities Use to take a day or more. Now takes 10-20 mins

Riding the Rails
 

As steel decreased in price, so did cost of building railroads Increased western growth

Oil

Important technological breakthrough
 

Using petroleum (oil) as a power source Convert crude (unprocessed) oil into kerosene

Could be used for cooking, heating and lighting

Electricity
 

Became a critical source of light and power Thomas Edison
 

Became interested in inventing uses of electricity Held more than 1,000 patents
 

Exclusive rights to make or sell inventions

1879 – Light bulb

Few houses could get electricity

Built power plant to supply

Communication
 

1861 – Telegraph wires connected east/west 1876 – Alexander Graham Bell

Patented the telephone

Automobiles
  

1893 – Gasoline engine to build first practical motorcar in US 1900’s – Thousands of cars being built in US 1908 - Henry Ford
 

Model T First to implement the moving assembly line in manufacturing

Greatly reduced the cost of building a product, making cars more affordable

Planes

Wilbur & Orville Wright
 

Built lightweight airplane that used small, gas-powered engine December 17, 1903
 

Kitty Hawk, NC Orville Wright made the first piloted flight in a gas-powered plane

Big Business

Corporations formed
 

Businesses that sell portions of ownership called stock shares Stockholders aren’t responsible for company debt, only for the stock they have invested in the company

Business Leaders

Andrew Carnegie

One of the most admired businesspeople  Great success in steel industry

John D. Rockefeller
 

Successful in combining businesses Owned the country’s largest oil refinery

Leland Stanford
 

Sold equipment to miners Founder of Stanford University & Central Pacific railroad

Social Darwinism

View of society based on scientist Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection

Thought that “survival of the fittest” theory decided which human beings would succeed in business and in life in general
Many business leaders believed that the rich had a duty to aid poor

Became philanthropists

Gave money to charities

Antitrust Movement

Sherman Antitrust Act

Law that made it illegal to create monopolies or trusts that restrained trade

Total ownership of a product or service

Industrial Workers

Working conditions declined

Low paid workers could be replaced easily

Lower skilled workers can man machines

 

Injuries increased Workers looked for change

Organizations
 

Formed labor unions to get better wages and working conditions 1870s - Knights of Labor
 

First national labor union Pushed for:
  

8 hour work day

Equal pay for equal work
End to child labor

Organizations

American Federation of Labor (AFL)
  

Led by Samuel Gompers Limited membership to skilled workers Tried to get:

Better wages, hours and working conditions

Collective Bargaining

All workers acting together, they had a better chance to negotiate

Labor Strikes

May 1886 - Haymarket Riot
 

Protestors and Police in Chicago Resulted in the decline of Knights of Labor

1892 – Homestead Strike
 

Pennsylvania

Left workers and Pinkerton guards dead

Labor Strikes

1893 – Colorado Miners’ Strike

Went on strike for higher wages and shorter workday

1894 – Pullman Strike

Stopped traffic on railroads

1894 – California Railroad Strike

Halted passenger, freight, and mail trains for months