residential concrete

d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e

residential concrete
d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e

preface
This technical manual is published by the Cement & Concrete Association of New Zealand with funding assistance from the New Zealand Concrete Masonry Association. The construction details contained within this manual have been developed based on extensive research both locally and internationally. They are designed to give examples representative of good practice, rather than a complete range of possible alternatives. The manual is written by Morten Gjerde, Lecturer and CCANZ Fellow at Victoria University of Wellington, School of Architecture. Heartfelt thanks to the following people, without whose assistance this would not have been possible: Research assistance: Rachel Chan Peter Lough Oliver Markham Nancy Bakker Grant Taylor Peer review: Daniel Bagust Philip Blair Ross Cato John Gibbons Derek Lawley Nigel Marshall Andy Wilton Typing: Tricia Hawkins Editing: Grant Thomas Dene Cook

Waterproof with us
Resene X-200 Acrylic Waterproofing Membrane occupies pride of place in the Resene range of waterproofing products. With Resene X-200, most surfaces can be waterproofed and weatherproofed with a two-coat system*. Application costs are therefore similar to any two coats of conventional paint, combined with the benefits of multi coat high build systems. Resene X-200 uniquely combines low viscosity with high build ensuring excellent penetration into cracks and pores, resulting in superb adhesion. Resene X-200 high build properties allow the development of a tough, durable and continuous membrane, while nonasbestos fibre reinforcement increases tensile strength. Resene also manufactures and sells a full range of textured coatings and specialist finishes to give you and your client the finish you desire. From high builds to aggregate textured coatings, we have the range to suit every taste. To find out more and obtain copies of the X-200 Data Sheet (D62) or textured coatings and specialist finishes specifications (21e/i), call 0800 RESENE (737 363), see your nearest Resene ColorShop, or visit the Resene website at www.resene.co.nz

* An additional coat of X-200 may be required on concrete block due to regional variations in standards.

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contents
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Concrete Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Insulating Concrete Formwork . . . . . .35 Precast Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Concrete Cast In-Situ . . . . . . . . . . . .77 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95

ISBN 0-908956-12-6 TM36 Cement & Concrete Association of New Zealand Level 6, 142 Featherston St, Wellington. P O Box 448, Wellington. Tel: (04) 499 8820, Fax: (04) 499 7760. Email: admin@cca.org.nz

© Cement & Concrete Association of New Zealand 2000 Except where the Copyright Act allows, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system in any form, or transmitted by any means, without the prior permission in writing of the Cement & Concrete Association of New Zealand. The information provided in this manual has been prepared with all due care; however the Cement & Concrete Association of New Zealand accepts no liability arising from its use.

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r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Mann House in Auckland by Ian Juriss. 6 .

The details shown here have been checked for suitability for New Zealand conditions. The processes involved in building in concrete are different to those employed in timber framing and cladding. In the construction industry. The designer or the builder using this manual may find the need to change relationships or sizes shown to suit their own purposes. New Zealanders continue to favour timber framing for the construction of their houses. The building industry in New Zealand is well resourced to construct in concrete. Many designers and homeowners in this country prefer to continue to use systems and techniques with which they are familiar. garages and sculptures stand as testament to this hands-on experience. concrete is the most widely used material both here and overseas. Provided the detailing principles are adhered to. Market research has been carried out in an effort to identify why concrete is not used more readily in the residential construction sector in New Zealand. Raw materials are readily available throughout the country. garden walls. The techniques for constructing formwork. While the research pointed to an enthusiasm for concrete homes. Footpaths. It is not unusual to see a design modelled on the massive homes of the Mediterranean. It does not however claim to fulfil all their information needs. For all that. Adolf Loos and more recently Herzog and deMuron without conjuring up images of concrete. is largely constructed of the material. It has been structured to give an overview of the principles and highlight the critical issues facing designers and builders. Builders comfortable with concrete have tended to become established in commercial construction.G e n e ra l I n f o r m a t i o n General Information introduction Concrete is well known to many New Zealanders as a building material. from underground pipes to bridges. The existence of several quality suppliers of precast structural systems and other proprietary elements in the marketplace allow designers and builders competitive pricing. The intention has been to present a starting point from which specific details can be developed. Most residential construction is based on the concrete ground floor slab and our infrastructure. placing concrete. Commercial structures from single to multi-storey continue to be built in concrete. built using spaced timber studs with a thin cladding of stucco or acrylic plaster on rigid board. designers and builders tend to stay with familiar materials and processes. The construction industry has been widely consulted and research has been carried out both locally and internationally. The design of concrete structures by local engineers lead the world in many areas. others should perform equally well. 7 . extensive system choice and excellent technical support. There is also a lack of builders who are comfortable building concrete walls and suspended floors in the domestic context. The details have been prepared to present a broad range of construction scenarios. This publication seeks to bridge the knowledge gap for designers and builders of concrete homes. These results indicates that there is inadequate information for those wanting to design and build concrete houses. erecting precast elements and building in masonry are to a very high standard internationally. The raw materials for concrete are readily available. Concrete construction has been widely used for housing throughout Europe and to a lesser extent in the United States. It would be difficult to think of the work by Le Corbusier. Being a country of ‘doers’ has meant that not only are we familiar with concrete but also many have had personal experience with it.

Others have recently come into the local market and industry experience with some of these may be limited. To do so would inaccurately present the range of materials available here. Although this manual does not specifically address fire resistance and sound transmission ratings. The Cement & Concrete Association of New Zealand produces a range of other publications that may be of interest to the designers and builders of concrete homes. We have specific and often unique ways of doing things. the adjacent table demonstrates the values that can be achieved with appropriate detailing. veneer Insulation Paving level Structural conc. The construction. such as timber joinery and concrete itself. The New Zealand environmental conditions are also unique. Concrete masonry is one such format with NZS 4229 having been revised in 1999. have been in use for several generations. While it does touch upon topics such as thermal performance and structural engineering.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e scope This document has been prepared as a general guide to the design and construction of the single family house and projects of similar scale in New Zealand. Further information is available at www. it is not meant to serve as a guide in these areas. slab Non structural conc. specification and detailing issues are presented in the New Zealand context. Structural design is still best left to the professionals except in those areas where non-specific design standards are available. panel SILL DETAIL Typical fire and sound transmission ratings that can be achieved with concrete systems when appropriately detailed.org. It presents materials and systems that are commonly available in New Zealand. 8 . building products not available in New Zealand have not been incorporated. Panel Thickness 100 mm 120 mm 150 mm 200 mm Fire Rating 90 minutes 120 minutes 180 minutes >240 minutes Sound Transmission Class (STC) rating 44 48 55 58 Recessed timber door & sill Butyl rubber sill flashing Floor coverings Reinforced conc.nz. On the other hand. Some. This book is principally concerned with design and construction issues.cca.

the building appearance can deteriorate quickly. or as general humidity Concrete has a number of special and unique qualities that make it an ideal construction medium. The designer may make value judgments through the process. placing the importance of one aspect above another. • • • • • Specific environments can vary from site to site and even on different faces of the same building. These may come under headings such as: • • • • • cost appearance and aesthetics buildability materials usage routine maintenance All successful design and detailing efforts will consider these factors. it is important to be able to clearly identify the detailing objectives.detailing considerations Objectives Successful architectural detailing requires attention to many factors. either rising from the ground. While exposed concrete masonry may be appropriate on the sunny north face of a house. First off. quickly see mould and other organic growth develop. The critical thing is to be aware of these considerations and to understand the consequences of favouring any one over the other. even with regular cleaning. its use on the south side of a damp site could Along with these qualities are some inherent limitations that the designer should bear in mind: 9 . As with most aspects of building. it is often necessary to think laterally to achieve results that are both poetic and satisfy pragmatic goals. These include: • • • • • • • high durability thermal mass benefits when used appropriately ability to form and shape enclosure of space and structure in one material ability to form integral surface finishes and colour relatively inert and compatible with most other buildings materials excellent acoustic and fire resistant properties Frank Lloyd Wright was an innovator with concrete. particularly in domestic applications. Material properties It is also important to consider the specific environment that the details are to exist in. Environment Grigg House by Miles Warren. If inappropriate materials are used or poor detailing choices are made. It is critical to acknowledge and design for: • prevailing winds and wind patterns created by the landscape or other buildings rain and other weather that can be expected UV exposure dust and pollutants that may be in the air and settle on the building corrosive elements in the air such as salt spray moisture.

In all cases. replacement of seals and sealants and re-application of waterproofing coatings. Decisions made by the builder or designer may place high demands on the homeowner to maintain certain details. Sargent House in Auckland by Ron Sang An example of exposed aggregate finish. This Guide is one resource to help with this planning. should be consulted with over maintenance issues. and in particular of the details. The lifetime success of the project will benefit. The best way of ensuring this is through adequate and considered planning. the designer and the builder must find ways of optimising the positive attributes while minimising the negative aspects of concrete.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e • • • once cast it is difficult to change not sufficiently waterproof on its own sharp corners or edges can be vulnerable to mechanical damage Once the decision to use a concrete structure in residential projects is made. All materials and details perform better when they are maintained. Homeowners. they should be made aware of routine maintenance requirements. Often the homeowner is not consulted or considered at the time. a point that is particularly true of homes built speculatively. Such maintenance may include washing. must be borne in mind. where appropriate. Maintenance Planning for routine maintenance of the building. 10 .

is not generally considered to be sufficiently waterproof for housing without supplementary waterproofing systems. although used in the construction of water tanks.G e n e ra l I n f o r m a t i o n moisture control Concrete. insulation placement. Finishes that are applied to exterior surfaces of concrete which have not dried adequately. The best method of assuring that the concrete home performs well in this regard is to insulate well and to specify appropriate finishes in those rooms where high moisture levels can be anticipated. The enjoyment of a well designed concrete home will be enhanced by the designer considering the environment. Designers wishing to check thermal properties of concrete homes for code compliance should refer to two New Zealand standards: NZS 4214 provides the means of calculating the thermal resistance of building elements. If a strategy of reliance on painted membrane systems has been adopted. As a rule of thumb concrete requires one month per 25 mm of thickness to dry (from each exposed face) assuming dry conditions. Internal moisture control is often not considered by designers but is critical to the comfort and enjoyment of the home. A contemporary concrete house. Maximising the thermal mass benefits of concrete requires consideration of a number of issues including: site and building location and orientation. continue to plague the homeowner. These systems are continuing to develop and there are a number that have proven records in New Zealand conditions. Also obtain test results and manufacturer’s guarantees of performance. and NZS 4218 defines minimum requirements for the various elements of a house (ie walls. floor). it is advisable to thoroughly investigate the systems under consideration. Their use has increased the options for designers but at the same time designers must ensure that sound detailing and building principles are not ignored. This moisture can. it also contains excess water from the construction process that must be allowed to escape. to mention a few. material properties and sound detailing principles. Speak to those who have applied the products and have experience of their performance. thermal performance and insultation Thermal mass within the building envelope can provide significant benefits in terms of both energy efficiency and comfort. This house will be left unpainted until all construction moisture has escaped. glazing placement and orientation. roof. if not dealt with. The external moisture clauses of the New Zealand Building Code are increasingly being complied with through the use of painted membrane systems. This could lead to bubbling of the surface finish. Not only is concrete water permeable. and usage patterns. This means that under ideal conditions a 100 mm thick concrete wall will require two months drying time if both faces are left exposed for that period. This manual does not attempt to cover issues which need to be considered in maximising the benefits of thermal mass. may be affected by the tendency of water to escape to the warm side. 11 .

. .16 Specification .19 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C o n c re t e M a s o n r y Concrete Masonry General . . . . . . . .15 Design Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Details .

Time pressures and increases in the cost of construction have meant that this effective traditional method of construction has generally been replaced by the single skin masonry wall. These changes have been incorporated into the recently released update of NZS 4229:1999. New research carried out by New Zealand universities has lead to a reduction in the amount of horizontal reinforcing steel and grout fill required. The outer skin of the wall also serves to conceal the waterproofing membrane on the outer surface of the inner skin. The use of concrete masonry has been well supported by the block manufacturers throughout the country. Traditional cavity wall construction assumes moisture will be able to penetrate the outer skin. the Standard for non-specific concrete masonry design. particularly when they are manufactured using the lightweight pumice aggregate typical of the upper half of the North Island.C o n c re t e M a s o n r y Broderick House by Warren & Mahoney C oncrete masonry or blockwork has a long association with residential construction in New Zealand. Until the nineteen -seventies New Zealand houses built of blockwork used cavity wall construction techniques. The range of products continues to be expanded as blocks with special surface finishes. Concrete masonry is more porous than most other forms of concrete. It is however the mortar joints which are the real culprit. 140 mm wide (15 Series) concrete masonry has also been shown to be structurally appropriate for most residential projects. As the mortar dries and shrinks. This is often in conjunction with rigid insulation. NZS 4229: 1999 has adopted the use of acrylic membranes as appropriate waterproofing solutions. Advantages of concrete masonry • economy – particularly when the construction module is fully exploited • does not require special or costly equipment to install • modular units are relatively easy to handle and can be delivered to most buildings sites • stop and start of construction is easy to incorporate structurally and architecturally • range of profiles allowing for most detailing requirements • interesting architectural scale and surface textures The qualities and advantages of concrete masonry certainly make it an appealing material to consider for residential construction. The blocks themselves are permeable. In effect concrete masonry is a type of permanent formwork for concrete. Special profiles are available to suit all the detailing conditions that can be anticipated. but then drop to the bottom of the cavity and out through weep holes without affecting the inner skin. sizes and thermal characteristics are put to the market. cracks develop against adjoining blocks. 15 . The grout fill working in conjunction with the reinforcing steel provides the structural strength. As well as offering all the positive attributes of the other forms of concrete it is an easy format to use. As has been discussed earlier in this guide the change has been justified through the development of new materials which effectively seal the external surfaces while also serving as paint or plaster finishes.

the modular nature of blockwork directs many design considerations. Bonding patterns vee concave The way in which the concrete blocks are laid presents another opportunity to affect the overall appearance of a wall. This applies to overall heights of walls as well as openings within walls. Another function of the joint is to take up construction or manufacturing tolerances as slight variations in block sizes may occur. Combining joint profiles.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e design issues Modular setout Common mortar joint profiles raked flush While other forms of concrete construction allow freedom of shape and size. however. The industry norm of a 10 mm joint is generally considered to be a good proportion when compared to the individual masonry unit. The traditional bonding pattern for concrete masonry is the ashlar or running bond. the modular height of units – typically 100 mm or 200 mm – should be adhered to. however. Joints struck weathered The mortar joint between blocks has a number of functions. Sticking to a running module of 200 mm will provide economy. Profiles of typical joints that can be specified are shown in the illustration to the left. or raked horizontals and flush vertical joints can be effective. the designer may wish to specify the position of the cut units. For reasons of economy and ease of construction. This width can be varied by the designer to suit particular requirements. such as alternating flush with struck to suggest a different module. This is a permanent requirement for those blocks that are not to have filled cores. Finally the joint contributes significantly to the appearance of the concrete masonry wall. It is. the length of units can be easily cut. The grout fill will otherwise take over as the bonding mechanism. the colour of the joint is a consideration. Its primary function is to bond adjoining blocks together. the profile which offers the designer the greatest number of variations to suit aesthetic or weathering requirements. When blockwork is designed to be left exposed. If the module is seen. Another option is the stacked bond. Beyond these Running bond Stacked bond 16 .

Partially filling a stacked bond wall at 800 mm centres will leave every second block unbound which then becomes vulnerable under earthquake loading. Such systems allow both faces of the concrete masonry. Insulation was often not included in the traditional cavity blockwork which gave these houses the reputation of being cold. The most common method of insulating a concrete masonry wall is to strap and line the internal face. The most common is timber framing but combining structural and veneer masonry with a cavity between will allow the designer to take full advantage of the external appearance. is renowned for combining blocks of various colour. It is therefore recommended to fill cells at 400 mm centres or closer when using stack bonded concrete masonry. While cavity construction allows insulation to be installed in the cavity. Note that the bracing values for partial filled concrete masonry in NZS 4229 are based on the running bond. for which it is ideally suited. thermal mass and the blockwork aesthetic. height and laying position to create wonderful patterns that become an integral part of his architecture. Concrete masonry built using the cavity method allows for effective use of insulation. the detailing should ensure that the cavity will allow free drainage and that the type of insulation specified is capable of withstanding moisture. Mario Botta. This is achieved through the use of a biscuit of polystyrene fixed in a cavity near the exterior surface of the block. 17 weep hole 10 series concrete masonry veneer over 15 series structural wall. Non-structural applications 15 series structural concrete masonry veneer tie concrete masonry veneer insulation in cavity water proofing membrane Concrete masonry is generally used in a structural capacity. fitting insulation between the strapping. It can also be used as an external veneer cladding in conjunction with other structural systems. . a Swiss architect. durability and thermal mass benefits. Method of insulation Appearance requirements and thermal mass objectives must be considered at the same time as the insulation strategies.C o n c re t e M a s o n r y it is over to the designer’s imagination to consider the surface patterns and textures that can be achieved. texture. An alternative approach is to fix insulation externally either in the form of rigid polystyrene sheet fixed in place with an external coating or by strapping and cladding with insulation between. Cavity should be insulated. Proprietary self-insulating concrete block systems are available in New Zealand.

It is important nevertheless to bear in mind the affect water can have on the masonry. It is most important to consider appropriate and effective waterproofing strategies for concrete masonry due to its porosity. Cracks that develop between the mortar and blocks are also areas of vulnerability that the waterproofing system must be capable of bridging. Water can bring salts to the surface in the form of efflorescence. leaving an unsightly and unpredictable white pattern on the surface. 18 .r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Waterproofing The considerations for choice of waterproofing system are set out in the General Section. horizontal reinforcing steel vertical reinforcing steel sealant both faces Plan view of bond beam at control joint shrinkage central joint debonded bar vertical reinforcing Shrinkage control joint bond beam full height shrinkage control joint Unpainted and unsealed blockwork is an option in some circumstances such as when using veneer construction or in garages and uninhabited basements.

AS/NZS 4548 Guide to long-life coatings for concrete and masonry NZS 4251:1974 Code of practice for solid plastering NZS 3604:1999 Non specific design – Light timber frame buildings Materials All materials should be procured from a dependable source. specification There are several New Zealand Standards that may be relevant to the written specification. Steel reinforcing should be maintained free of dirt and organic material. Where appropriate. The designer should take charge of the control joint setout and carry out detailing as illustrated on the previous page to avoid any surprises on site. These include the following: NZS 4229:1999 Concrete masonry buildings not requiring specific engineering design NZS 4230:1990 Code of practice for the design of masonry structures NZS 4210:1989 Code of practice for masonry construction: materials and workmanship Concrete blocks stacked on pallets. These should occur at approximately six metre centres and will affect the appearance of the project when the masonry is to be left exposed or painted. 19 . NZS 4229 specifies requirements for control joints.C o n c re t e M a s o n r y Shrinkage control joints Shrinkage control joints are necessary to ensure that shrinkage cracking occurs in a controlled manner and allows movement due to thermal changes. should they be required. Applied finishes such as stucco plaster should also acknowledge the control joint to avoid consequential cracking. Concrete blocks should be dry and remain so until they are used. ensure that quality records are obtained and kept for easy retrieval.5 MPa. Manufacture must comply with AS/NZS 4455 Excess moisture in any of the materials can reduce structural quality and require the blocks to have to dry longer before surface finishes can be applied. Mortar mixing ratio (cement/sand/lime/water) to comply with NZS 4210 To provide a compressive strength of not less than 12.

contain reinforcing 2. 15 series 10 series A selection of concrete masonry profiles that are available.5 MPa. Coordination should take place well in advance of the work being done. The block layer must coordinate his work with the work of other trades. In some instances. Once concrete masonry work is complete all block work must be cleaned. such as detailed structural work. Workmanship Concrete masonry work should ideally be carried out by qualified tradesmen. Form construction joints in accordance with NZS 4210 between grout pours and between the blockwork and any hardened concrete. 20 .04% by dry weight of sand Water one of the most important yet overlooked components of high quality concrete. it is desirable to employ a Registered Mason. bolts. Grout all cells that 1. salt. To provide a compressive strength of not less that 17. The block layer must build in all elements including fixings. Spread value 450 – 530 mm Sand chloride levels should not exceed 0. Water must be clean and free from excess alkali. and/or necessary for the completion of the job. silt and organic matter.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e 20 series Grout mixing ratio to comply with NZS 4210. Consult with manufacturers to determine the full range. tradesmen should have experience in the required areas of construction. are required to be filled as part of the design requirements Grouting should follow the procedures set out in NZS 4210. All concrete masonry work should be carried out under adequate supervision. ties and any service requirements as called for. As a minimum.

or between lifts of. The economy of concrete masonry block work can only be maximised with proper planning. grouted cells. Note that foundation stirrups typically occur at 600 mm centres meaning that only one in every four stirrups can be extended as vertical steel. Try to minimise the number of cut units and to maximise the sizes of any units to be cut. This is especially important with respect to services that will occur in masonry walls. Wet weather can cause build up of water in the blocks. This is particularly important with blockwork and veneer that has been designed to be left exposed. Kew House by Melling Morse Architects 21 . affecting the appearance and possibly the structural strength of the mortar joints. Concrete masonry and grout should not be placed in temperatures less than 4°C. Rain onto fresh mortar can erode its surface. Excess water can reduce the strength of grout. Setting out Reinforcing steel must be set out at foundation levels to fall within the planned location of cells. Plan the sequence of activities carefully. It is therefore recommended that the blocks be wet lightly on those surfaces which will be against the mortar or grout. Builders should take extra care when setting out services that will be concealed in masonry walls. as they are relatively porous. This is particularly of concern where water is retained at the bottom of. These include • allowing for any specified overhangs of concrete block or veneer • allowing for set downs or insets at door openings.C o n c re t e M a s o n r y construction Planning the job One of the most important activities when building in concrete masonry is planning the project. While in most cases it will be impractical to erect full protection for the masonry it should be possible to anticipate work that will create risks to the completed walls. Weather conditions It is necessary to coordinate reinforcing placement with block setout. Provided the blocks are not too dry the curing of the mortar and grout does not require special care. Consider the module. Overly dry blocks will draw moisture out of the grout or mortar too quickly thereby affecting the bond with the blocks. Normally the concrete masonry requires a vertical steel setout of 800 mm centre to centre spacing. Hot weather conditions are generally not a problem for concrete masonry in New Zealand. Setting out of foundations to suit the specific requirements of the design is also critical. This requires full coordination between trades such as plumbers or electricians and the reinforcing steel trade. Cold conditions will not allow the mortar or grout to set properly. If strong hot winds or direct sunlight in the middle of the summer are anticipated it would be prudent to ensure the mortar and block surfaces are kept moist for the first three to four days after being placed. Protection Builders should take care to protect finished concrete masonry from damage which could arise through the building process. However. Doing so will also serve to keep costs to a minimum. Check with the designer who may have specified the placement of any cut units. Plywood sheets serve as an excellent form of protection. prolonged dry conditions may warrant attention when laying or grouting the masonry.

It also allows the concrete masonry to be expressed as an architectural finish externally. masonry WALL TO ROOF Insulation External waterproofing system ° acrylic plaster & paint ° acrylic paint system ° sand/cement plaster system & paint ° sealer Bond beam at floor level Continuous boundary joist on DPC Internal linings on timber strapping MDF skirting Particle board flooring These details separate the thermal mass of the concrete masonry from the interior space. Unpaved G.L.L.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Roofing on building paper on wire netting Timber trusses Internally insulated wall section This wall section presents: • single wythe 15 series concrete masonry Fascia Ceiling lining on battens Continuous timber plate on DPC Cast in bolt fixings External waterproofing system • building paper on the inside face of the masonry acting as a second line of defence against moisture penetration • strapping and lining on the interior • insulation between strapping • concrete masonry foundation wall acting as permanent formwork for concrete slab on grade. 15 series conc. masonry vertical & horizontal reinforcing per NZS 4229 Internal lining Insulation Building paper continuous Timber strapping Waterproofing system extend min 50 below floor level 100 x 50 on DPC Reinforced concrete slab 150 MIN 100 MIN Paved G. masonry foundation wall. Bond beam in accordance with NZS 4229 15 series conc. Starter bars at required spacing. Bolt connection to bond beam per NZS 4229 Joist hanger INTERMEDIATE FLOOR 15 series conc. DPC over 25mm sand blinding Compacted granular hardfill Reinforced concrete footing WALL TO FLOOR 22 .

C o n c re t e M a s o n r y D e t a i l s Externally insulated wall section This wall section presents • single wythe 15 series concrete masonry • exterior insulation and waterproofing system • concrete roof system • concrete intermediate floor system • reinforced concrete slab with thickened edge perimeter foundation. WALL TO ROOF Suspended ceiling system for services & lighting Proprietary external insulation system Acrylic plaster system Proprietary concrete floor system Bond beam Suspended ceiling system for services & lighting INTERMEDIATE FLOOR Internal finishes Proprietary external insulation system Acrylic plaster system Fix skirting & other elements by plug & screw on DPC ° paint system ° plaster system ° none Reinforced conc. Reinforced concrete perimeter edge beam Sand blinding on compacted hardfill DPC WALL TO FLOOR 23 .L. slab 100 MIN 50 MIN 150 MIN Paved G. Bond beam Acrylic plaster waterproofing system External insulation system FALL Extend insulation and waterproofing over butyl with sealant bead Butyl as upstand dressed & sealed into chase in mortar joint Butyl on plywood on insulation on DPC Concete floor system This construction allows full advantage to be taken of the thermal mass in the house. Unpaved G. The texture/finish of concrete masonry can be expressed internally.L.

As with all masonry. This example shows the veneer stopping short of the soffit lining as a way of expressing the nature of the masonry on a veneer. block veneer Masonry ties in accordance with NZS 4229 Waterproofing on sloped plaster 75mm high weep holes @ 800 centres 50 MIN 100mm insulation Internal lining Bottom plate bolted to foundation Skirting Reinforced conc. This also stops the lining from meeting the masonry off the height module. The principle of a ventilated cavity can give a greater source of security to the homeowner and designer alike. Fascia Continuous 10mm gap for ventilation Masonry ties. block veneer WALL TO ROOF 75 max 40 min Ventilated cavity Building paper continuous 10 series conc. Material to suit environment 10 Ceiling lining on battens Ventilated cavity 10 series conc. 150 MIN 100 MIN Paved G.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Roofing on building paper on wire netting Timber trusses Concrete masonry veneer Concrete masonry veneer has been widely used in New Zealand house construction.L. Unpaved G. slab Note the requirements in NZS 4229 and NZS 3604 for the base material and protection for masonry ties in certain exposures.L. it is important to consider the modular height in setting out openings and heights of walls. Sand blinding on compacted hardfill DPC WALL TO FLOOR 24 .

Timber weatherboards are illustrated here. External waterproofing and insulation system Internal finish Timber skirting Particle board flooring Bond beam Timber stringer on DPC 15 series conc. Perimeter edge beam Sand blinding on compacted hardfill DPC WALL TO FLOOR Foundation crawl space This construction detail is ideally suited to a sloping site. masonry footing on concrete bed RAISED GROUND FLOOR 25 . External cladding fixed over building paper Timber strapping fixed to solid filled cells over DPC 150 MIN Paved G.C o n c re t e M a s o n r y D e t a i l s Externally insulated wall Insulation 15 series conc.L. particularly on sloping sites or those with limited access. The use of concrete masonry as a foundation footing can be both economical and time saving. slab 100 MIN 50 MIN This system is designed to allow a traditional external appearance. Almost any external cladding can be chosen. masonry M16 bolt to comply with NZS 4229 Sisalation or under floor insulation Openings in wall for ventilation to comply with NZS 3604 20 series reinforced conc. The internal finish should be applied directly to concrete masonry to allow the full advantage of thermal mass. Unpaved G. masonry Cement/sand plaster or acrylic plaster internal finish Fix skirting & other elements by plug & screw on DPC Reinforced conc.L.

r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Timber window details External waterproofing system Interior lining Insulation Building paper 15 series lintel block Timber strapping Sealant over backing rod Architrave Timber frame on packing. It is important to build these windows units in to ensure weathertightness. Modern timber windows are well made and draft free. masonry Timber strapping Building paper SILL DETAIL 26 . Timber reveal Glazing in timber window frame HEAD DETAIL TImber reveal Galvanised metal flashing Extend waterproofing over plaster screed to falls and under sill generally Architrave Interior lining External waterproofing system Insulation 15 series conc. The details illustrated here indicate an appropriate method for doing so. Plug and screw to masonry Timber joinery is still the preference for many homeowners.

DPC should lap onto membrane and over building paper. Timber strapping Continuous sealant bead A Waterproofing system Interior lining Building paper Insulation 20 series rebated block. The rebated block allows a positive step for the frame to fit against.C o n c re t e M a s o n r y D e t a i l s Aluminium window details 20 series rebated lintel block Aluminium is the most common material for exterior door and window frames in residential construction. When using an exterior membrane system be sure to extend it under the window frames prior to their installation. Interior lining Building paper Insulation Timber strapping A Build up waterproofing membrane and form drip Continuous sealant bead DPC over waterproofing membrane and over building paper HEAD DETAIL Timber reveal Note the requirement by some window manufacturers to fit an angle (note A) in high wind areas to relieve the pressures on the sealant joint. Waterproofing system Remove projecting sill Timber reveal It is quite common to remove the projecting profile from the sill block to achieve a more flush appearance. SILL DETAIL 27 . Reinforce per NZS 4229 JAMB DETAIL Position frame to allow drainage from within Run waterproofing up under reveal Timber strapping DPC over waterproofing membrane and over building paper Interior lining Building paper Insulation 20 series rebated sill block. These details demonstrate the use of aluminium window frames in 20 series blockwork using rebated blocks. Note that this may cause staining under windows as dirt that has settled on the sill gets washed down by rain.

The plaster system should be reinforced across this piece. Neatly finish to timber frame External Insulating Finishing System (EIFS) DPC 15 series lintel block Timber packing The external ridgid insulation system allows the concrete masonry to be left exposed.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Timber door details Acrylic interior plaster system. The timber frame is supported on timber packing which is continuous and plastered over. Neatly finished to timber frame DPC External Insulating Finishing System (EIFS) 15 series lintel block on end Timber packing Timber door jamb Timber bead Sealant Glazed timber door JAMB DETAIL EIFS beyond Timber door sill Glazed timber door Rebate slab for timber sill Timber angle fillet DPC Conc. or receive a thin finish as illustrated here. Timber door head and bead Sealant Continuous head flashing Glazed timber door HEAD DETAIL Acrylic interior plaster system. There may be thermal benefits to the home owner in adopting this strategy. slab Fairface concrete foundation beyond Form recess at openings SILL DETAIL 28 . Sealant is applied between the timber frame and the insulation system as a weather seal.

It may be preferable to use rebated block profiles in openings as this gives maximum weathering protection. EIFS Aluminium door frame with weather strip on botttom edge Shaped timber threshold Aluminium door sill frame Bring DPC over leading edge of slab Fairface conc.C o n c re t e M a s o n r y D e t a i l s Aluminium door details Sand/cement plaster system These details show the aluminium door frame set in 15 series blockwork not using the rebated profile. This presents greater flexibility for the designer to position frame in depth of block. Leave 50mm high gap at bottoms of jambs for water to escape Glazed hinged door in aluminium frame HEAD DETAIL Sand/cement plaster system Express control joint External Insulating Finishing System (EIFS) 15 series block DPC Sealant bead. This prevents it being damaged by being walked over. Leave 50mm high gap at bottoms of jambs for water to escape Glazed hinged door in aluminium frame JAMB DETAIL The detail shows that the upstand leg from the sill frame across the threshold has been removed. foundation beyond Paving level Concrete slab Form recess at openings SILL DETAIL 29 . External Insulating Finishing System (EIFS) 15 series lintel block Express control joint DPC Sealant bead. Details show that the thermal mass is fully available to the interior space as the insulation is placed externally.

Veneer window details HEAD DETAIL The position of window frames in a DETAIL Timber window frames. angle lintel Lap building paper over M. will allow the frame to bridge the cavity. Fixing through the reveal. adequate closure of the gap while ensuring adequate fixing for the frame. as shown. as shown. angle lintel fixed back to framing Sealant Aluminium frame with timber reveal Weep holes Timber Lintel per NZS 3604 Architrave Timber window frame Galvanised metal head flashing. before timber and aluminium may be able to Most aluminium window frames for span across the sill without fixings.S. angle lintel Weep holes Timber Lintel per NZS 3604 125 x 125 x 8mm Hot dipped galvanised M.S. Fix over building paper Interior lining Interior lining 10 series masonry veneer Insulation SILL DETAIL SILL DETAIL 30 .S.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Masonry ties in accordance with NZS 4229 Interior lining Masonry ties in accordance with NZS 4229 Interior lining Insulation Insulation Lap building paper over M. may require framing support in the veneered wall is critical to ensure cavity. Sealant between aluminium window frame and sill tile Sill tiles on plaster Galvanised metal sill flashing. Units fabricated in the factory. Lap over sill tile Timber window sill Timber window frame Architrave Timber framing with insulation between Building paper Sill tiles on plaster Masonry ties in accordance with NZS 4229 10 series masonry veneer Masonry ties in accordance with NZS 4229 Continuous support for timber sill. residential use are delivered to the site with reveals fixed in the factory. on the other HEAD hand.

Provide secondary overflow capacity to ensure rainwater does not back up inside house. Opening size to match downpipe. Bond beam Butyl as upstand dressed & sealed into chase in mortar joint Butyl on plywood on 75x40 furring to falls Metal roofing to falls Furring to falls 15 series conc. Dimensions of such a gutter should be to suit the expected rainwater flow. Bond beam Proprietary external insulation system Acrylic plaster system Gutter overflow. Soffit Casement bead Bond beam Metal flashing Timber purlins/rafters (cantilevered verge) Metal roofing on building paper Solid blocking Ceiling lining on battens Internal linings over 50mm timber strapping Sand/cement plaster system (19mm textured surface) Insulation Building paper ROOF VERGE FALL Bond beam Proprietary external insulation system Acrylic plaster system Metal flashing dressed & sealed into chase in mortar joint Metal roofing to falls Furring to falls Bond beam Internal linings on ceiling joists/rafters PARAPET / METAL ROOF FALL The use of an internal gutter suits many of the contemporary expressions of architectural design. Care must be taken to: • ensure adequate bond of sand/ cement plaster to concrete masonry • follow control joints in masonry through sand/cement plaster A suitable paint finish will provide weatherproofing. Position below gutter freeboard height. but in no case should it be less than 600 mm for ease of cleaning. masonry Insulation Internal linings on ceiling joists/rafters PARAPET / METAL ROOF 31 .C o n c re t e M a s o n r y D e t a i l s Roof details The use of sand/cement plaster allows a smooth uniform texture finish using a material similar in nature to concrete masonry.

Suspended deck details are critical to get right particularly if they sit above interior spaces. It is advisable to cast sleeves into the bond beam to allow these services to be reticulated easily. 32 . it is critical to ensure the full module carries through floor level and that the detailing reflects this. When the concrete block module is seen from outside.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Suspended floor details Insulation 10 series concrete block veneer External waterproofing system ° acrylic plaster & paint ° acrylic paint system ° sand/cement plaster system & paint ° sealer 25 series bond beam 20 series concrete block Timber floor joist Ceiling on timber strapping Timber plate bolted to bond beam on DPC Internal linings on timber strapping on building paper Blocking Flooring A hybrid form of construction with concrete masonry ground floor structure and a lightweight structure above. When using partial fill concrete masonry. Casting in additional sleeves to anticipate future alterations is also recommended. The durability aspects and appearance of concrete masonry is continued with 10 series veneer over the timber framing. particularly as a retrofit. When using masonry veneer construction it is tempting to reticulate services in the cavity but this is specifically prohibited in NZS 4229. BLOCK WALL / VENEER JUNCTION Services details As with most forms of concrete construction. dropping services from ceiling level in an empty cell can make the job much easier. it is critical to plan for appropriate services reticulation when detailing in concrete masonry.

C o n c re t e M a s o n r y D e t a i l s 33 .

. . . . . . . . . .37 Design Issues . . .43 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Construction . . . .41 Details . . . . . . . . .38 Specification . . . .I n s u l a t i n g C o n c re t e Fo r mwo r k Insulating Concrete Formwork General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

where concrete residential construction is quite common. a closed cell polymer. The reinforced concrete core provides all the structural capacity of the wall. Block systems are widely available in New Zealand. ICF systems have been available in New Zealand for the last 10 years and during that time have been increasingly used for both commercial and residential construction. • long life expectancy 37 . I A contemporary house built using insulated concrete formwork. ICF construction has been used for some 30 years in Europe. The forms are typically made of expanded polystyrene. This is true of both new construction and refitting work. Plank and panel systems are available internationally but not currently in New Zealand. The main advantages of these systems are: • excellent insulation properties • low levels of air infiltration • blocks are easy to lay and fill • relatively easy to run services concealed in polystyrene layer.I n s u l a t i n g C o n c re t e Fo r mwo r k nsulating concrete formwork (ICF) is a proprietary formwork system for concrete that is left in place to become part of the building.

in the order of 1000 to 1500 mm with many bridges between the faces. Confirm the dimensions with the selected supplier. provided the blocks are appropriately finished or clad for protection from the effects of UV radiation and weather. With block sizes like these. Module The modular height of systems available in New Zealand is typically 300 mm. ICF systems comply with NZBC durability requirements. ICF blocks are relatively long. there are some important differences for the designer to consider. 38 . it is easy to see how these systems can be laid so quickly. Modified acrylic plaster and paint systems. Modified acrylic plasters. As with concrete masonry. thereby not favouring any one supplier. Proprietary systems This part of the guide has been prepared with information obtained from the suppliers of ICF blocks in New Zealand. This allows the blocks to be easily cut to length without compromising the structural qualities. timber strapping with weatherboards. The greater thickness will give greater reveal depth at openings which is often sought after by designers. Applied finishes Typical ICF block format. little if any insulating increase and potentially reduce the interior floor space. Unit widths correspond to different concrete thicknesses.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e design issues Although the principle of ICF construction is similar to that of concrete masonry. As soon as a particular system is adopted it is advisable that the designer confirm all details with the particular supplier. The wider blocks offer increased structural capacity. concrete masonry and stone veneers are examples of external claddings that ICF suppliers have recommended for use. ICF suppliers will give guidance to the methods of fixing linings using adhesives and screws. plasterboard or fibre cement sheet are typically used as internal linings. Most systems mechanically lock together along top and bottom edges. 250 and 300 mm. As much as possible. it will be more economical to work to the modular height for openings and wall heights. it has been the intention of the writers to present this information in a generic manner. Most ICF suppliers require that claddings or finishes are approved for use with their system. ICF systems are available in widths of 200.

offer limited fixing capacity. To make allowances for timber skirtings to be secured. This includes fixings for both structural and architectural elements. These are typically 150 mm long and are secured into the concrete core by pairs of nails that protrude off the back face. The method for fixing timber floor framing to ICF walls is to secure a stringer on fixings cast into the concrete core. specification It should be the objective of the specification writer to structure the documents in such a way as to encourage competitive pricing. Structural elements such as concrete flooring systems can be accommodated and are installed after the concrete has been cast to the soffit level. provided the necessary planning has allowed them to be in the right places. NZS 3101: 1995 The design of concrete structures NZS 3104: 1991 Specification for concrete production – high grade and special grade NZS 3109: 1997 Concrete construction NZS 3402: 1989 Steel bars for the reinforcement of concrete Materials There is at present no New Zealand Standard for the manufacture of ICF units. The formwork units. or some other evidence of structural capacity should be required by the specification. It may also be possible to include the erection of the system in that subcontract. Accordingly the designer should reserve the right to approve the supplier. steel reinforcing requirements and construction requirements. as they are made of polystyrene. it is necessary to cast in timber fixing blocks. the fixing of windows into openings and joinery fittings to be positioned. This includes wall thicknesses. A Producer Statement: Design. Fortunately there are several suppliers of the forms in most parts of New Zealand. This apparently low technology detail is very effective. This will assist the Territorial Authority in approving its use. 39 . building in details. Once a system has been selected it is advisable to confirm all details and other design issues with the selected manufacturer. It is desirable to structure the ICF sub-contract on the basis of engineering design and supply. Manufacturer’s literature and guarantees should also be required by the specification. The seating depth can vary between 50 and 75 mm. Standards referred to: Timber inserts facilitate fixing of door frames.I n s u l a t i n g C o n c re t e Fo r mwo r k Detailing – fixings One of the most important detailing considerations with ICF systems is that of fixings. skirtings and other joinery items.

Workmanship Erection and filling of the system should be carried out either by the ICF supplier or by a firm approved by them. The blocks are fitted together and propped in place before filling with concrete. It is prudent to limit tolerances and to ensure subcontractors are aware of them so they can make appropriate allowances. 5 mm 10 mm 5 mm 10 mm . Temporary wire ties may be necessary to prevent the blocks floating on the concrete fill. Steel reinforcing to comply with NZS 3402. These should be installed every four courses. Typically. to ensure they are correct. Recommended limits are as follows: Deviation from plan location Deviation from vertical within a storey Relative displacement between load bearing walls in adjacent stories intended to be in vertical alignment Deviation from line to plan Any length up to 10 metres Any length over 10 metres Deviation from horizontal Any length up to 10 metres Any length over 10 metres 40 Concrete floor systems can be easily accommodated in ICF construction. such fixings are supplied by the relevant trade or by the builder. Before placing concrete. Expansive additives must not be used in any circumstances as these can blow out the forms. A 100 mm slump is typical. These must be specified as not all ICF blocks provide adequate fire resistance. Concrete infill to achieve a minimum compressive strength of 20 MPa. In situations where fire resistance ratings are required. Concrete slump should comply with the ICF manufacturer’s requirements. All necessary and appropriate equipment and construction techniques to be employed. ensure all cells are clean and reinforcing is secured in place. The ICF trade must coordinate with all other trades. Allow to build in all fixings and services as detailed and required by various trades. Significant construction tolerances for ICF are to be expected given the nature of the material. Consolidate concrete with a max 25 mm diameter poker vibrator or by rodding. 20 mm 10 mm per 3 m 5 mm Diagram showing ICF components. The installation should be carried out by persons with experience in this type of work. Vibration should ensure that all cells are filled with well compacted concrete. Extent and height of lifts to be in accordance with ICF manufacturer’s recommendations. Allow to locate and form construction joints in accordance with NZS 3109. Maximum aggregate size to be 14 mm.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e ICF Blocks should be made of fire retardant materials.

ICF blocks are easy to cut. it is important to plan well ahead. that the ICF walls have no structural capacity until the concrete core is cast. It is important to consider.I n s u l a t i n g C o n c re t e Fo r mwo r k construction Planning the job Due to the speed with which ICF systems can be erected. This must be confirmed prior to casting of foundations. it is important to set out reinforcing to suit the ICF block width. The ICF forms can be used for internal and external walls. allowing opportunities to deviate from the block module. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for the height of each lift. Setting out As with other systems covered in this guide. Therefore it is important to provide adequate propping and support for these elements until the concrete has achieved the appropriate structural strength. from a construction viewpoint. 41 .

r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e

Weather conditions

Due to its insulating qualities, in theory concrete can be placed in colder conditions than it can into other types of formwork. However, this is rarely a factor in New Zealand conditions. The forms themselves can be placed in most weather conditions, although the unfilled forms are susceptible to displacement in high winds. Concrete can be placed in the forms when it is raining provided measures are taken to remove water in the bottom of the forms, which if left will mix with the concrete thereby reducing its strength.
Curing and drying

ICF systems enhance concrete curing by slowing water evaporation. This effect can increase concrete strengths. Obtain, and comply with the ICF and coating manufacturer’s recommendations for drying times prior to the application of surface finishes.
Protection

ICF is vulnerable to mechanical damage particularly before claddings are applied. Protection, such as plywood sheeting, should be considered in areas of high risk during construction. At exposed corners and edges PVC protection is recommended as part of the cladding system. Prolonged exposure to sunlight can cause surface deterioration of the polystyrene. If the surface becomes scaly after a period of exposure, this scaliness must be removed prior to the application of surface finishes. The minor deterioration that may occur will have no effect on the structure of the wall. Some reduction of the insulation properties may occur, depending on the depth of deterioration.

It is important to prop ICF units appropriately until concrete has set.

Stone and other veneers can be used to give the house a traditional appearance. 42

I n s u l a t i n g C o n c re t e Fo r mwo r k D e t a i l s

Wall section
These details indicate how the ICF construction system can be combined with various concrete floor systems. The roof details indicate a concrete floor slab system with topping formed to falls. With all parapet conditions it is important to make allowance for overflow in case primary drain becomes blocked. Insulation is shown on top of roof slab to allow thermal mass to help moderate indoor temperatures and to prevent condensation that may develop in certain conditions. Suspended floor detail indicates precast beam and infill system. A suspended ceiling can be included to conceal services and the soffit of the flooring system. With appropriate planning and good workmanship, it is possible to leave these surfaces exposed, thereby saving the cost of the ceiling, enjoying greater floor/ceiling heights and the thermal mass benefits of the concrete. ICF can be used as permanent formwork for foundations.

Reinforce corners of plaster systems

FALL

Fix Butyl into chase cut into wall. fix 90° PVC angle cap to Butyl edge and seal in place. Plaster down onto PVC angle Butyl on Plywood base Insulation over DPM

External plaster finish

Reinforcing mesh Construction joint

Concrete topping to falls

ICF block system Reinforcing

Concrete slab. Prop in place until conc. is cured

Metal frame suspended ceiling

CONCRETE ROOF
Internal finish External plaster finish Reinforcing mesh Rough broomed surface to ensure good key Skirting fixed to intermittent timber block cast into conc. Reinforced conc. topping

Construction joint TImber formwork Conc. beam & timber infill floor system Cut hole in block at each conc. beam

ICF block system

Reinforcing

Metal frame suspended ceiling Internal finish

CONCRETE FLOOR

ICF block system External finish Internal finish Reinforced conc. slab PVC starter strip, forming a drip edge
150 100

Paved G.L.

Unpaved G.L.
DPC Sand blinding Compacted granular hardfill

Reinforced concrete footing

WALL / SLAB

43

r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e

Roofing Building paper & timber purlin Timber truss Connection plate between top plate and truss Top plate fixed @ 750max ctrs with cast in bolts

Wall section
The details on this page indicate a traditional sloping roof with overhang. Planning is required to cast in appropriate fixings for structural and architectural elements, as ICF will not support or transfer any loads.

Gutter Fascia board

Ceiling battens Insulation DPC

Soffit lining Internal lining Timber stringer, fixed @ 750max ctrs. with cast in bolt ICF block wall

ROOF OVERHANG

Skirting fixed to intermittent timber block cast into conc. Flooring Timber joists

External finish

Malthoid strip between timber and concrete or use H3 treated timber

ICF block system

Joist hanger Continuous slot cut in block wall for stringer

The suspended timber floor must be securely anchored to the wall to transfer vertical and lateral loads. This should also coincide with a horizontal bond beam. As the intermediate floor acts as a diaphragm in this case, only one horizontal bar is required in the bond beam. The timber frame floor/ceiling assembly allows electrical services to be easily reticulated, but acoustic performance is somewhat compromised in comparison with a concrete system. The concrete slab on grade forms a perfect base for the insulated concrete formwork system. It is important to coordinate reinforcing steel starter bars and fixings for skirtings and the like.

TIMBER FLOOR

ICF block system External plaster finish. Extend to ground level

Internal finish Skirting Reinforced concrete slab

PVC channel
100

150

Paved G.L.

Unpaved G.L.
DPC Extend insulation down to bottom of foundation Compacted sand blinding Granular hardfill

WALL / SLAB

44

I n s u l a t i n g C o n c re t e Fo r mwo r k D e t a i l s

Aluminium window details
ICF block system

The key to fitting doors and windows into openings in ICF partitions is to plan for, and cast in, appropriate fixings. These fixings must be H3 treated or higher, as they are generally in full contact with concrete. These fixings are intermittent, about 150 mm long at 450 mm centre spacings. The nails on back help anchor the timber to the concrete. These details also make use of aluminium flashings and sealant to ensure a weathertight opening. The flashings must be compatible with the exterior finishing systems and fixed in a manner that will not cause the acrylic plaster system to break down.

External plaster finish.

Intermittent H3 timber blocks. Fix galv. nails skew nailed to timber & cast in concrete infill.

Corner strip
Internal finish Form drip edge PVC flashing Sealant bead

Timber reveals Aluminium window section

HEAD DETAIL

Aluminium window section PVC flashing Sealant Corner strip

Timber reveals

Internal finish

Timber packer Intermittent H3 timber blocks. Fix galv. nails skew nailed to timber & cast in concrete infill.

External plaster finish. ICF block system

JAMB DETAIL
Timber reveals

Aluminium flashing External plaster finish Timber plate

Corner reinforcing ICF block system

Internal finish Intermittent H3 timber blocks. Fix galv. nails skew nailed to timber & cast in concrete infill.

SILL DETAIL
45

Carry under flashing. nails skew nailed to timber & cast in concrete infill. Fix galv. Internal finish. Return at reveal These details. shaped to fall ICF block system Internal finish SILL DETAIL 46 . Timber plate Continuous H3 timber. Return to reveal Corner strip ICF block system JAMB DETAIL Timber sill Fit timber sill over flashing & timber packing Sill flashing External finish. rely on the fixing capacity of cast in timber blocks. This is effective in creating a “massive” look to the walls. External corners of ICF are vulnerable and must be protected with PVC corners integrated with the plaster system. Corner strip Corner protection Form drip edge Sealant & backing rod PVC flashing Sealant Timber window frame HEAD DETAIL Timber window frame Sealant & backing rod Sealant Modified acrylic plaster finish Corner protection Intermittent timber blocks. like those on the facing page. The interior finishes here are shown to return in to the window frame as a reveal.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Timber window details ICF block system Modified acrylic plaster.

Fix galv. ICF block system Lining Corner strip Form drip edge Front sealant after planter Back sealant before planter Intermittent H3 timber blocks. nails skew nailed to timber & cast in concrete infill. Fix galv. this may require the aluminium frame profiles to be modified. It is also advisable to allow for a threshold that is robust and easy to pass over. This requires particular coordination between the concrete placer.I n s u l a t i n g C o n c re t e Fo r mwo r k D e t a i l s Aluminium door details It is good practice to step back the concrete slab edge at door openings to avoid an awkward and vulnerable sill outside the door. Aluminium door frame with timber reveals HEAD DETAIL Aluminium subframe Front sealant after planter Back sealant before planter Corner strip ICF block system External plaster finish Intermittent H3 timber blocks. JAMB DETAIL Aluminium door frame with timber reveals Aluminium door frame over sill flashing Step back concrete slab edge to suit reveal Paving level Shaped Timber on DPC Reinforced conc. slab SILL DETAIL 47 . nails skew nailed to timber & cast in concrete. ICF contractor and metal door and window supplier.

Fix galv.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Timber door details Exterior plaster finished ICF block system Interior finish. Sealant Timber door & frame The timber frame is set in the centre of the massive ICF wall. Plaster smooth Paving level SILL DETAIL 48 . Careful coordination of the rebate for the door sill will allow a near seamless transition from inside to out. JAMB DETAIL Timber door & sill. HEAD DETAIL Timber door & frame Sealant Interior finish. Return to reveal Sealant & backing rod Aluminium flashing Corner strip Exterior finished plaster ICF block system Intermittent timber blocking. Butyl rubber sill flashing Flooring Reinforced conc. Plug & screw into conc. All timber must be separated from concrete by DPC. slab ICF block system. This massiveness is accentuated by returning the interior and exterior wall finishes into the reveal. nails skew nailed to timber and cast in concrete infill. nails skew nailed to timber and cast in concrete infill. EPS stripped. Recess sill into slab. Return to reveal Corner strip Slope to form drip edge Sealant & backing rod PVC flashing. Fix galv. Intermittent timber blocking.

L. The important coordination exercise here is to ensure that the timber framing is set out to allow the exterior finishes to continue flush from the ICF to the Exterior Insulation Finishing System. slab To overcome the thermal mass being separated from the internal space. DPC Reinforced concrete footing Sand blinding Granular hardfill HIGH THERMAL MASS DETAIL 49 . Interior EPS removed Internal plaster finish Reinforced conc. Exterior insulation system Timber framing Continuous top plate fixed @ 750max ctrs with cast in bolts Exterior finish system ICF block system DPC Internal plaster finish HYBRID CONSTRUCTION DETAIL High thermal mass detail Exterior finish system ICF block system.L. it is possible to remove the inner skin of ICF to reveal the concrete cores which can then be plastered smooth to a finish that is tough and durable.I n s u l a t i n g C o n c re t e Fo r mwo r k D e t a i l s Hybrid construction detail Interior lining It may be desirable to combine structural systems as this detail indicates. Unpaved G. Note that the acoustic separation provided by this timber framed floor is minimal. Extend plaster finish to footing 100 150 Paved G. Refer to the manufacturer’s literature for guidance on details that can improve acoustic performance.

r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Cavity Concrete masonry veneer Waterproofing membrane Veneer ties extending to vertical reinforcing ICF block system Internal finish Skirting & lining on intermittent fixing blocks Concrete masonry veneer It is possible to combine the excellent durability and appearance of concrete masonry with the insulating qualities of ICF. The veneer (10 series) must be secured to the structure by way of ties that are embedded in the concrete cores. Fix galv. Strip outer face of ICF FOUNDATION Cavity Concrete masonry veneer Veneer ties 2 coats waterproofing membrane ICF Block system Lining Timber blocks. This will require special attention to coordination of ties with anticipated joints. nails skew nailed to timber & cast in concrete infill. slab Paved G.L.L. Unpaved G. Waterproofing of the ICF outer face (in the cavity) is usually by a painted on system such as bituminous paint. MS angle Fibre cement sheet Aluminium flashing Aluminium Window section with Timber Reveals HEAD Aluminium window joinery Timber reveals Tile sloping sill on 9mm fibre cement board on shaped timber Timber plate Timber block 2 coats waterproofing membrane ICF block system Concrete masonry veneer Veneer ties extending to vertical reinforcing Internal fininsh SILL 50 . DPC Sand blinding Granular hardfill Weep holes @ 800 crs Reinforced conc.

External finish Apply sealant in chase then insert flashing. Fascia Insulation Soffit DPC Ceiling batten Top plate embedded in ICF block. Internal gutters should be wide to allow ease of service and deep enough to accommodate the expected runoff. Finish Plaster down onto PVC angle Fix Butynol on Plywood base to form gutter as shown Ensure adequate provision is made for overflow should the primary system block up. All three of these details show typical fixings that must be allowed for. bolt. External finish Purlins on edge Joist hanger ICF block system Reinforcing Plywood base fixed to timber framing Stringer fixed to block with galv. fix 90° PVC angle cap to Butynol edge and seal in place. Flashing Roofing on purlins ICF block system Steel reinforcing Ceiling batten Rafter fixed to block with galv. bolt cast in Conc. 12mm Galv. PARAPET DPC Slope top of blocks in towards gutter. bolt. ICF block system Internal finish OVERHANGING VERGE Slope top of blocks in towards gutter. PARAPET 51 .I n s u l a t i n g C o n c re t e Fo r mwo r k D e t a i l s Roof details Flashing Roofing Building paper Timber rafter Providing adequate and appropriate fixings for additional structural or architectural elements is critical. Fix Butynol into chase in block.

Reinforced Conc. Detailing of terraces presents a number of challenges in Fix waterproofing membrane into chase cut into wall. A step in raised concrete floor levels requires a special coordination effort to ensure continuity of structure and support of the concrete flooring systems. roof Construction joint Construction joint ICF block system Reinforcing Precast concrete slab Insulating plasterboard lining Linings Timber Decking Aluminium Door section Waterproofing Membrane carried up under door joinery. topping Precast concrete slab Insulation ICF block system Reinforcing Linings 52 . Plaster down onto PVC angle • allowing ease of transition – inside vs. Fix 90° PVC angle cap to Membrane edge and seal in place.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e FALL Terrace details Raised terraces over living space are now very popular. outside • preventing water ingress at door openings • preventing water ingress at walls. especially at construction joint between slab and upstand External finish Timber decking Waterproofing membrane on Conc.

Plasterboard is generally able to span across the gaps but care must be taken to not place a sheet joint on the chase. The chases must then be covered over by the finishing process. Plaster systems will require a bandage. Services can also pass through the walls but positions and sizes must be approved by the manufacturer. 53 . The supplier should be contacted for details. Services up to 40 mm. can be accommodated by cutting away a chase. Generally these services must be securely fixed to the concrete core by way of lamps and tappets.I n s u l a t i n g C o n c re t e Fo r mwo r k D e t a i l s Services ICF present the easiest way of reticulating services of any concrete structural system. depending on the thickness of the polystyrene face.

. . . . . . . . . . . . .P re c a s t C o n c re t e Precast Concrete General . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Details . . .65 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Construction . . . . . . . . .57 Design . . . .58 Specification . . . . .

P re c a s t C o n c re t e he development of concrete precasting techniques in this country has allowed reinforced concrete to compete favourably with other forms of construction. Precasting. • • • • The Pascal House in Auckland by Cook. lower costs for the reasons noted above. This later period has coincided with the development of proprietary self insulating precast systems. by casting walls flat rather than standing upright and through the ability to better control environmental conditions. It is possible to set up a house in two days with an experienced crew. Advantages of precast concrete construction systems include the following: • quality control – the quality is better able to be controlled by casting multiple units in the same mould. finishing options inherent in solid concrete construction interesting shape and texture possibilities speed of construction – with off site production the panels and other precast elements can be made while the site is being prepared. offers the opportunity to control the quality to a high standard. whether done in factory conditions or on site. Curiously it has not made a serious entry into the residential construction market until the past 10 years. The New Zealand industry is well developed and generally acknowledged as a world leader. 57 . There are good supplies of the raw materials and technology in most parts of the country. Details of such systems are presented in this section but there is also plenty of scope for applied insulation systems. T Concrete precast methods were pioneered in the US early in the 20th century. Hitchcock & Sargisson.

they can be planned to include penetrations and openings and are cost competitive with timber flooring systems. This can be achieved with colour throughout the mix. The screeded face (topface) generally becomes the ‘second side’ or back. The size and layout of individual panels is essentially limitless. but are also suitable for the span and loading demands that can be anticipated in residential construction. Suppliers generally offer design services which can be incorporated into the overall structural design philosophy. They are also not prone to annoying squeaks that can occur with timber floor systems. efficient repetitive use of special moulds site access capacity of lifting equipment or transport the positioning of panel joints relative to openings. design As with in-situ concrete (refer to In-situ section). 58 . A number of different flooring systems are currently available in New Zealand. it is possible to place coloured concrete on the exposed face with standard concrete behind. or alternatively. However. durability. acoustic and thermal performance. These proprietary systems have been developed for commercial buildings. These flooring systems can be categorised as follows: • • • • flat slab hollow core slab rib and infill steel tray permanent formwork The systems all offer excellent stiffness. Finishing techniques for the formed (underside) face are described in the surface finishes section. This may be an area of a floor slab or a separate temporary casting slab.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Precast flooring systems are ideal for use in a concrete home. Panel or unit format Combining surface finishes can help break down the scale of a building. Texture options include: • • • • exposed aggregate acid etched ground and polished board formed Colour Concrete used in precast work can be coloured. there are some practical limitations. there are choices to be made with respect to the following: Surface Texture There are many opportunities with precast concrete to create interesting surface textures. Typical parameters that may dictate panel size are: • • • • • the area available for casting (when casting on site). Precast concrete systems include floor units in addition to walls.

the most commonly used detail in the face-sealed joint. These considerations are best made in the context of the joint design but should also look at corners. Edge details Typical panel jointing details. to the floor. The width and depth of joints between panels.P re c a s t C o n c re t e • there are also aesthetic considerations to be made. Commonly panel thickness varies between 100 mm and 150 mm. The designer must also take into account panel thickness. Jointing Details Sandwich construction allows concrete panel to be left exposed inside and out. top edges and junctions to other materials. It is very difficult to successfully cast a crisp 90° corner on any concrete panel. Options include expressing plates and bolts. especially during placement of panels. openings. These deliberations will most certainly include the structural designer for the project. it is therefore advisable to chamfer the corners. are a design opportunity. as well as the profile of the panel edges. countersinking and plastering over welded plates or to conceal entirely by using pressure grouted tubes. Examples of weatherproofing details are shown to the left. texture and surface articulation of the house design. must be considered by the designer. Other considerations include how connections are made between panels. The designer may be particularly interested in panel thickness when considering opening reveal depths and thermal mass benefits. There are structural aspects to consider for both transport and permanent positions. 59 . Panel edges are vulnerable. especially when exposed to view. and to any other structural or non-structural elements. Panel size will dictate joint set out and affect scale. Individual panel edges.

Insulation can be placed on the exterior. interior or between skins of concrete. It may be prudent to require the contractor or precaster to produce sample panels for evaluation of such aspects as surface finishes. which can be applied direct or as part of a plaster finish system. between an outer skin or veneer of concrete. precast concrete is still permeable to water and requires waterproofing. such as masonry. Waterproofing can be achieved by application of acrylic paint systems. A proprietary system supplier may be required to provide Producer Statements. the specification should be generic to allow a range of proprietory systems to be evaluated. guarantees and construction recommendations. and an inner skin which typically acts as the structure. Designers have a choice to make between proprietary ‘sandwich’ construction and the traditional forms of precast. This latter strategy has given rise to a number of specialist panel systems which allow all the positive aspects of concrete to be realised without compromise. The two faces are held together by thermally non-conductive ties which are cast into each wythe. These systems make use of a polystyrene sheet. 60 . If the choice is to use a proprietary system. Veneer cladding systems can also provide the required waterproofing.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Insulation and weatherproofing Although more waterproof than other forms of concrete. specification Sandwich construction detail. Work should not be allowed to proceed without the designer’s approval of these samples. The Standards which apply to precast concrete construction are as follows: NZS 3101:1995 Concrete Structures Standard The design of concrete structures NZS 3104:1991 Specification for concrete production – High grade and special grade NZS 3109:1997 Concrete construction NZS 3112 Methods of test for concrete NZS 3113:1979 Specification for chemical admixtures for concrete NZS 3114:1987 Specification for concrete surface finishes NZS 3402:1989 Steel bars for the reinforcement of concrete NZS 3121:1986 Specifications for water and aggregate for concrete NZS 3421:1975 Specification for hard drawn mild steel wire for concrete reinforcement Joining plate can be left exposed as a design feature.

Steel connection plates It is recommended to galvanise any mild steel fixings that will be exposed to weather. Pay particular care to edge details. range and depth of exposure. Curing should be carried out for at least 7 days. 61 . size. Rigging and lifting must be done using the lifting points specified. -10 ±10 ±5 ±15 ±7 ±10 Over 6 +0. All aggregate to comply with NZS 3121. Panel erection underway. the builder must ensure that quality records are kept for all precast concrete work. Workmanship Tolerances for precast panels (measured as defined in NZS 3109) shall be: Panel dimension (metres) Up to 3 Width (mm) Height (mm) Planeness (mm) Squareness (mm) Edge straightness (mm) Thickness (mm) +0. Reinforcing steel To comply with NZS 3402. Concrete Readymix concrete to the specified compressive strength and to the requirements of NZS 3104. At all times during the construction process. Allow to cast in all items required for fixings or services. Where appropriate. Formwork Formwork requirements are detailed in NZS 3109. The installation should be carried out by contractors experienced in precast construction. This requires coordination between the trades before the panels are designed and cast. colour. Take care not to knock or drag panels along the ground.P re c a s t C o n c re t e NZS 3422:1975 Specification for welded fabric of drawn steel wire for concrete reinforcement Materials Comprehensive lifting systems are available. Surface finishes shall be as specified by the designer and as defined in NZS 3114. -5 ±5 ±5 ±5 ±5 ±10 3–6 +0. the health and safety of all workers and the public must be ensured. Place and cure concrete to produce the specified finishes and tolerances. -12 ±10 ±5 ±15 ±10 ±10 Construct formwork in the configuration necessary to produce the required set out and detail of panels. Panels must be secured in place before any temporary supports are removed. These records must be easily retrievable should they be required. sealants and flashings should be supplied and fitted. Ensure existing surfaces all comply with the tolerance requirements. Special aggregates For special finishes specify the aggregate type. NZS 3422. All materials should be procured from a dependable source. but especially the lifting of panels. It is important to match the lifting inserts with the apparatus that will be used for lifting and the processes that will be adopted for casting and lifting. All necessary components such as gaskets. Lifting inserts Proprietary lifting devices are preferable. The construction and casting of panels should be carried out by tradesmen experienced in precast concrete construction.

Good planning will allow the panels to be cast earlier and will allow work to carry on around the panels once they are cast. With on-site casting planning the site is critical. The crane must be able to access the site 62 . The tilt-up panel erection process begins with the separation of panels. windy weather it is important to prevent excessive surface evaporation which can lead to plastic cracking. Suppliers of these panels have delivery and erection systems in place which should be of benefit to the builder. The sequence of casting panels must be logical if they are to be cast one on top of the other. It must be rated to achieve the panel lift at the maximum anticipated working radius. prior to constructing the panels. The crane is critical to the erection process. the construction process need not be affected by the weather.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Concrete panel will be set over the reinforcing steel. due to their large surface area. Weather conditions The wall panels must not be cast in rain or cold conditions below 4°C. The location to be used for casting must be of appropriate size and in a location that can continue to be accessed as the panels are erected. Note that release agents used to facilitate the stripping of formwork in in-situ construction are not suitable as bond breakers. can save substantial time and frustration. The lifting capacity of a crane reduces considerably with larger working radii. Particularly in hot. Setting out If the panels are to sit on the ground floor slab. A common method of providing protection is to use anti-evaporative spray. Normally panels are erected sequentially from one corner. Precast panels are particularly prone to this potential problem. Access must be available for materials and for the crane. it is critical to confirm constructed dimensions of the slab. It is also critical to coordinate and check positions of starter bars and grout tubes. construction Planning the sequence of activities. Panel erection & finishing Preparation for the second concrete skin in sandwich type wall panel. The performance of the bond breaker during this operation is critical. The bond breaker must: • • • • permit clean complete separation of panels not discolour the panel surface minimise suction at time of separation be compatible with the curing components that may be used. last on is first off. especially if the panels are to be cast on site. After factory produced panels are cast and adequately cured. Once the panels are cast and ready for erection. they must be transported to site.

As lifting points will be on the back face. it is the builder or precaster who must ensure the specified finish is achieved. Face lift points may require plastering or alternatively they can be deliberately featured. • Face supported panels will hang slightly off vertical. this allows the bottom face to be completely monolithic. The surface finish treatment must be coordinated with the lifting and casting strategy. The rigging. The most common face to treat with an integral finish is the face cast down. The crane must move the panels smoothly into position. the engineer will be concerned that the support points are structurally appropriate and the designer will want to make sure the lifting inserts can be hidden from view after the panels are in place. avoiding shock loading which can induce cracking in the unit. Panels must be supported entirely by the crane until they have been secured into final position and propped. however. they can easily be plumbed with adjustable props once in position. One of three strategies can be adopted: • Top edge lifted panels will hang vertical but this is not economical for units over 3-4 metres in height. 63 . It is important to select propping positions that will not interfere with other construction activities. While the design and specification of surface finishes falls within the scope of the designer. lifting point and support design for movement of panels is critical. Surface finishes Planning for crane access is important. • The use of lifting points on the face and top edge is sometimes used but requires a crane with two separate ropes.P re c a s t C o n c re t e and be adequately supported in each position it will be set. The table indicates common methods for achieving surface textures. The builders concern will be access for fixing operations and ease of panel handling. The strategies must be discussed and agreed between the appropriate parties.

Combed. Sandblasting is also an option but has largely fallen out of favour with the introduction of the processes described earlier. Chemical retarders are often used to allow the surface to be etched. 64 . The use of chemically impregnated paper can simplify this process but also gives the designer additional scope for achieving patterns in the surface. A three level project planned using off site precast concrete panels. Formliners Timber forms. Architects Herzog and de Muron have experimented with retarder impregnated paper to achieve stunning concrete effects. grooves and patterns Plain. Types of Finish Face-up (single casting) Face-down (single or stack casting) Rebates. Imprinted. Formliners Exposed Aggregate Fine Textures Coarse Textures Cutaway of door opening in a precast sandwich type wall. smooth surfaces Hammer form into top surface (Position and depth difficult to control) Finish panel with bull float and trowel (Common paving technique) Water washed (Special aggregates and patterns difficult to control) Broomed. Polythene over stones. Profiled steel sheeting. The cement matrix can then be removed with a water blaster once the panel has been lifted. independent of concrete mix) Timberforms. Rolled Fix form to base slab (Position and depth easy to maintain) Finish off floor or casting pad (Reproduces all imperfections of that surface) Sand embedment (Special aggregates and patterns easy to achieve.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e The exposed aggregate finish warrants special consideration.

panel Skirting on cast-in fixings Flooring External waterproofing system Bolt connection Rigid insulation panels Joist hanger Continuous stringer on DPC Seal concrete. site precast wall panels and timber framed intermediate floor and roof. Lifting inserts will be covered by rigid insulation. If skirting is required. slab Insitu concrete between slab & wall panels 150 MIN PAVED UNPAVED Site precast panel. 50mm below floor level 100 MIN 50 MIN Reinforced conc. This is very efficient structurally and economically but requires special consideration if the floor slab is to be exposed. Vertical panel joints will be seen internally and should be detailed accordingly.P re c a s t C o n c re t e D e t a i l s External insulation on tilt panel The details illustrated here are of the exterior envelope consisting of a concrete slab on grade. Roofing on building paper on wire netting 100mm insulation Plywood ceiling panels Rigid insulation panels External waterproofing system Roof beams @ 1200 cts Timber plate on DPC with cast-in anchor WALL TO ROOF Structural conc. In this case the panels. (Tilt slab) Sand blinding on compacted hardfill Reinforced concrete footing Extend DPC under footing WALL TO FLOOR 65 . allowance should be made to cast-in fixing blocks. designed to be seen from the inside should be cast with this face down. Exposed finish INTERMEDIATE FLOOR Rigid insulation panels Waterproofing system extend min. The panel to slab connection is made after the panels are erected. External weatherproofing and insulation is provided by one of many rigid polystyrene systems with acrylic plaster/paint.

Unpaved G.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Continuous aluminium angle screw fixed over butyl & sealant 18mm construction ply screw & adhesive fixed on DPC Butyl roofing membrane extend up & over parapet Sandwich panel construction These details indicate the use of polystyrene insulation between concrete panels in wall section. which must be carefully considered in the elevation design. panel WALL TO ROOF Structural conc.L. panel INTERMEDIATE FLOOR Insulation Structural conc. veneer Timber plate on DPC secured by bolt 18mm Plywood Insulation Insulation between framing Joist hanger Ceiling lining Structural conc. and for the floor slab to be cast in one operation. or supported on a surface mounted steel angle. Sand blinding Compacted hardfill Reinforced conc. as shown. panel Non structural conc. Grouted duct connections allow shorter panels than the detail shown previously. panel Preformed duct filled with expansive grout Sealant joint with weep holes @ 900 ctrs Skirting fixed to cast-in timber fixing blocks 150 MIN 100 MIN Paved G. slab on grade WALL TO FLOOR 66 . Non structural conc. topping Insulation 75 seating Concrete flooring units Structural conc. as shown on the following page. which can be an advantage if it is intended to leave the slab exposed. Also shown is a horizontal joint detail. This makes it easier to achieve a uniform finish. veneer Preformed duct structural joint Skirting fixed to cast-in timber fixing blocks Sealant joint with weep holes @ 900 ctrs 50 MIN Insitu conc.L. Concrete flooring system can be designed to lock into supporting walls.

veneer Structural concrete panel Suspended plasterboard ceiling system Internal finishes options ° plasterboard ° paint system only ° acrylic plaster system ° unfinished Structural concrete panel WALL TO ROOF Non structural conc. Insulation thickness is maintained. at the expense of the structural panel thickness. This eliminates the need for a horizontal joint between panels which is often not architecturally desirable. Concrete parapet Continuous aluminium flat screw fixed over butyl Butyl membrane on 18mm construction ply Vapour barrier Rigid insulation External waterproofing system Concrete flooring units Rigid insulation Non structural conc. This allows veneer to cantilever as parapet. veneer Skirting fixed to spaced timber blocks Steel reinforcing connector cast-in Rigid insulation Concrete flooring units INTERMEDIATE FLOOR Structural conc. panel Non structural conc. Apply sealant with weepholes @ 900 crs Skirting adhesive fixed Mortar Reinforced concrete slab Floor covering 150 MIN UNPAVED LEVEL DPC WALL TO FLOOR 67 .P re c a s t C o n c re t e D e t a i l s Sandwich panel construction This wall section indicates precast panels (site or factory) which extend from floor slab to parapet in one section. veneer Rigid insulation Panels set on packing. Veneer panel is shown to thicken near the top.

Non structural conc. panel Bolted plate connection countersunk to maintain flush surface. how the edges are shaped. veneer Rigid insulation Structural conc. veneer Rigid insulation 10mm .20mm joint 6mm arris all edges Backing rod & sealant Weep holes @ 900 crs Non structural conc. panel 10mm . CORNER JOINT Structural conc. The structural fixings can be expressed as steel plates or hidden from view. Oversize hole in plate to allow for potential movement.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Jointing details Fibre composite/ non metalic connector Hole to expel grout (when cavity full) Rigid insulation The architectural expression of joints between panels requires consideration.20mm joint 6mm arris all edges Backing rod & sealant Weep holes @ 900 crs Donut seal Structural panel Threaded connector Steel reinforcing HORIZONTAL JOINT Non structural conc. Oversize hole in plate to allow for potential movement. It is important that these sealants are checked and maintained periodically. panel Structural conc. integration with other details. Grouted duct Hole to feed grout Backing rod & sealant 10mm . panel VERTICAL JOINT 68 . the width of joints. and proportions that result from their set out. Flexible silicon based sealants are typically used to weatherproof the joints.20mm joint 6mm arris all edges Backing rod & sealant Weep holes @ 900 crs Bolted plate connection countersunk to maintain flush surface. veneer Structural conc. Design decisions include.

reminiscent of warehouse structures. Continuous aluminium angle screw fix over butyl membrane 18mm construction ply capping to falls screw fix to parapet Butyl roofing membrane on 18mm construction ply on rigid insulation Conc. but sound transmission can be a problem. panel Continuous steel angle support bracket INTERMEDIATE FLOOR 69 .P re c a s t C o n c re t e D e t a i l s Miscellaneous details It is important to limit heat conduction through cold bridges by insulating adequately. This can add architectural interest and allow long spans. topping to falls Precast conc. flooring units Continuous steel angle support bracket WALL TO ROOF Structural conc. An aluminium extrusion is used to secure the end of the butyl and provide a crisp edge to the parapet. Timber flooring Rigid insulation Open web floor framing members Structural conc. panel The open web steel framing members allow a spacious ceiling. This detail shows rigid insulation fixed to the back face of the concrete parapet to limit this transfer. Plywood is fixed over this as a substrate for the butyl rubber roofing membrane.

placing high requirements on the standard of finish in this area.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Steel joinery details Rigid insulation fixed on site over conc. the window reveal is left as natural concrete. panel Mild steel fixing plate cast into concrete reveal Acrylic plaster system JAMB DETAIL Folded GMS flashing painted to match frame Mild steel window frame Mild steel fixing blocks welded to plates Mild steel fixing plate cast into concrete reveal Sloping sill tile adhesive fixed. panel Mild steel fixing plate cast into concrete reveal Acrylic plaster system Mild steel fixing blocks welded to plates PVC head flashing screw fixed to concrete panel Mild steel window frame Steel door and window sections are regaining popularity with designers in many circumstances. HEAD DETAIL PVC angle flashing screw fixed to concrete panel Mild steel window frame Mild steel fixing blocks welded to plates Rigid insulation fixed on site over conc. Steel frames are narrower than aluminium or timber therefore presenting a finer line in the elevation design. These details indicate the window frame screw fixed to steel fixing blocks which have been welded to steel plates cast into the opening reveal. Inside. Cut around frame fixings Rigid insulation fixed on site over conc. panel Acrylic plaster & waterproofing system SILL DETAIL 70 .

P re c a s t C o n c re t e D e t a i l s Timber window details Timber joinery can be an attractive design option in an exposed concrete wall. panel Acrylic plaster system Precast conc. panel JAMB DETAIL Counter sunk & plugged fixing Timber sash & sill Sealant Sloping sill Timber architrave Flashing under sill SILL DETAIL 71 . panel PVC head flashing Timber architrave. It is critical to plan for adequate fixings for the frame. and to separate the timber frame from the concrete by DPC. The colour. texture and substance of exposed timber is a positive choice in this detail. Rigid insulation fixed on site over conc. Scribe cut. panel Acrylic plaster system Backing rod & sealant 10mm arris Precast conc. Timber sash & sill Counter sunk & plugged fixing HEAD DETAIL Counter sunk & plugged fixing Sealant Timber frame on packing Flashing Rigid insulation fixed on site over conc.

Form drip PVC angle cast-in as flashing raglet. Fill with sealant over flashing Timber reveal HEAD DETAIL Timber reveal Timber strapping PVC angle cast-in as flashing raglet. Timber reveals give a more traditional appearance inside. The insulation in this example separates the thermal mass from the internal space. A second line of defence is the building paper. The window frame is fitted against the angle with a space allowed for sealant. The sealer should be applied to the concrete around the window opening before installation of the frames. Fill with sealant over flashing Interior lining Building paper External waterproofing Insulation JAMB DETAIL Position framing to allow drainage from within Flashing Tiled sill Timber strapping External waterproofing system Interior lining Insulation Building paper SILL DETAIL 72 .r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Aluminium window details External waterproofing system Insulation Interior lining Building paper Reinforced concrete wall Timber strapping A step in the concrete reveal is formed and maintained by the casting in of a PVC angle. The exterior face of the concrete is shown to be sealed.

panel Rigid insulation fixed on site over conc. It is achieved by stopping the external installation short of the concrete edge. Timber reveal Rigid insulation fixed on site over conc. The step for the door frame. a practice quite common in ICF detailing.P re c a s t C o n c re t e D e t a i l s Aluminium door details These details demonstrate the use of intermittent cast-in fixing blocks around the entire opening. Blocks are about 150 mm long and placed at approximately 450 mm centres. nails skew nailed to timber & cast in concrete infill. slab Reinforced Acrylic plaster system over slab edge Paving level SILL DETAIL 73 . panel Acrylic plaster & waterproofing system PVC head flashing Structural conc. allows a more positive weathering detail. Internally the concrete can be left exposed and the edges are shown to be arrised. Sealant here is used architecturally to conceal the packing space between the concrete and the timber reveal. panel Sealant over packing space HEAD DETAIL PVC flashing Sealant over packing space Intermittent timber blocks. This detail requires close tolerances which can be achieved with precast concrete. Structural conc. Fix galv. panel Acrylic plaster & waterproofing system JAMB DETAIL Aluminium door frame over sill flashing Aluminium door frame with timber reveals Shaped timber on DPC Reinforced conc.

Fixing for the frame is by plug and screw into the concrete. Head flashing 6mm arris to all exposed edges HEAD DETAIL Timber frame Counter sunk & plugged fixing Sealant Flashing Timber architrave Non structural conc. veneer Insulation Structural conc. panel SILL DETAIL 74 . veneer Insulation Paving level Structural conc. veneer Insulation Intermittent timber fixing block These timber door frames are shown to mask the exposed edge of polystyrene sheeting. Architrave profile has been scribe cut to follow concrete.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Timber door details Non structural conc. panel JAMB DETAIL Intermittent timber fixing block Recessed timber door & sill Butyl rubber sill flashing Floor coverings Reinforced conc. slab Non structural conc.

In this example.P re c a s t C o n c re t e D e t a i l s Services installation Internal gutter Electrical and other cable services can be easily accommodated by all precast concrete systems with adequate planning. Services flush box cast into wall WALL TO ROOF PVC or metal conduit cast into wall Window section Services flush box cast into wall Skirting Externally insulated concrete wall Services face plate mounted to skirting Reinforced concrete slab WALL TO FLOOR 75 . These details indicated conduits cast into the concrete panels from ceiling to skirting level. the actual service point is located in a deep skirting.

. .85 77 . . . . . . . . . .81 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S i t u Concrete Cast In-Situ General . . . . . .83 Details . .79 Design Issues . . . . . . . .C o n c re t e C a s t I n . . . . .

Cast in-situ concrete has become a material that designers exploit for its structural qualities above all else.S. There are however some situations where in-situ is the ideal structural material. The work of Le Corbusier. is still dominant. it still widely used in many other countries. 79 .C o n c re t e C a s t I n . are toward entire buildings being poured monolithically. Current developments in the U. in-situ concrete. While in-situ concrete above ground level is used less in New Zealand with the advent of precast systems. In developing parts of the world. A house designed by the renowed architect Enrique Norten in Mexico City. such as building sites that have difficult access. Until the early part of the 20th century it was the main method used. The perception of their work is very closely linked to their ability to exploit the qualities of in-situ concrete. Briefly. • a wide variety of surface textures and colours can be achieved. suspended floors and roofs which are beautifully detailed – appeals to many designers both in New Zealand and offshore. • a robust material which does not require much maintenance • it is a universally available material. I Systems are being developed and used in both Europe and the U.S i t u n-situ concrete is the traditional form of concrete construction. The chance to cast monolithic building elements – walls. beams.S. to allow cast in place concrete to be cost and time efficient. Louis Kahn. In New Zealand it is often not cost effective to design traditional load bearing cast-in-situ concrete structures in the face of competition from precast and modular systems. Carlo Scarpa and more recently Tadao Ando in Japan is familiar to many. columns. which relies on higher labour input than other forms of concrete construction. they are: • limitless flexibility of size and shape with no modular restrictions. • it can be cast as a “sandwich” incorporating an integral polystyrene sheet insulation.

• fairface surface finish with a pattern of holes created by the removal of formwork ties. Work closely with the builder to understand his strategies for use of formwork on the particular job. others as ‘dummy’ joints to mask the impact. These joints should be shown on the drawings. • coloured concrete. control joints should be placed at 6 metre centres. which must cope with dynamic loading during the placement and consolidation phases of work. • exposed aggregate – this is more difficult with in-situ concrete than with precast. settle and lean. The colour of the concrete can vary slightly from one batch to the next. The desire for a particular surface finish or “look” may have drawn the designer to cast in-situ concrete. the concrete will shrink as it dries. Oxides and pigments can be used to tint the concrete to a wide variety of colours. As a general rule. The detail and set out of these joints should be practical and coordinated with the overall design of the project. The use of a retarding agent combined with waterblasting is an effective method of achieving an exposed aggregate finish. who can advise specific requirements for shrinkage control joints.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e design issues Most of the design issues begin and end with the formwork possibilities. it may be necessary to provide control joints to allow for shrinkage and thermal movements in walls. In addition to construction joints. Detailing must therefore consider these and allow adequate tolerances. achieved by constructing the formwork of roughsawn timber planks. These joints can be unsightly if not properly planned and constructed. The relative cost of this element is reduced significantly when the formwork is able to be re-used. all of which have the potential to induce small variations in the structure. Some possibilities are: • board formed surfaces. but it can be done by washing the surface with acid. In addition. The major cost of any cast concrete is that of the formwork. The effective construction of formwork is the key to in-situ concrete walls 80 . The boards can be arranged in a pattern which will be mirrored in the final product. There are many textures and combinations thereof that have been explored to date. some as construction. However repetitive uses on the same project suggests the need for construction joints. Construction joints occur between different placements of concrete. No doubt there are an equal number that have not. and with the structural engineer. Shuttering can bulge. This finish has been made popular recently by Japanese architects and is achieved through careful consideration of the formwork and casting processes. In-situ concrete is only as good as the formwork. for domestic construction. In large wall or soffit areas it may be desirable to introduce many joints in a pattern.

As discussed earlier. The concrete can be left exposed from below due to its monolithic form.C o n c re t e C a s t I n .S i t u Edge details should take into account the difficulty of filling all corners of the formwork with concrete. Standards NZS 3104 Concrete production – high grade and special grade NZS 3109 Concrete construction NZS 3114 Concrete surface finishes NZS 3402 Steel bars for the reinforcement of concrete NZS 3422 Welded fabric of drawn steel wire for concrete reinforcement NZS 3604 Light timber frame buildings not requiring specific design NZS 3101 Concrete structures standard NZS 3610 Formwork for concrete Board formed concrete texture. Concrete may not find its way into corners. load bearing walls are not the only form insitu concrete may take. Formwork for a suspended concrete floor. at minimum. Such systems can also be used in combination with walls. The use of cast in-situ floor and roof planes can give the benefits of concrete systems such as acoustic and thermal performance. 81 . specification The written specification for in-situ can follow the form of specifications for commercial work with a greater emphasis placed on workmanship issues. The designer can consider a column and beam structure with infill or hung curtain wall or claddings. Such a concrete structure would have the advantages of allowing large internal and perimeter spans which will give opportunities for expansive open walls spaces and access to sun and views. a bead of sealant in the corner of the form smoothed out with a finger. It is recommended practice to soften these edges with a chamfer or bullnose or. leaving them vulnerable to being damaged during removal of the formwork.

82 . Materials Reinforcing Bars Bars are to be to the requirements of NZS 3402 Spacers and Chairs One strategy for the formation of a construction joint. in-situ concrete must be waterproofed and insulated to meet NZBC requirements. Maximum aggregate size 19 mm.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Formwork construction to achieve a board formed texture. Ready Mixed Concrete High or Special grade to NZS3104. Concrete spacer blocks to only be used where the concrete surface is not exposed in the finished work. Precast concrete or purpose made moulded PVC to approval. Most often waterproofing is achieved by the use of acrylic paint and/or plaster systems. Insulation may be placed on either interior or exterior faces or may be cast within the wall. Insulation and waterproofing As with all concrete wall systems. Concrete strength as specified by the engineer.

Minimum concrete cover shall comply with table 5. Equally.S i t u Construction joint and rebates set out to a pattern. If any curing compounds are to be used they must first be approved by the designer and checked that they will not adversely affect the application of finishes. Note the use of plastic waterstop. This is generally done by keeping exposed surfaces moist during that time. the designer must consider. penetrations and surface finish requirements before concrete is placed in the forms. The general requirements are set out in NZS 3109. It is important to coordinate all services.5 of NZS3101 but shall in no circumstances be less than 40 mm. Coordinate with the supplier of the concrete to ensure appropriate specification of the concrete mix. The nature of the formwork will depend on the designer’s objectives. Pumping and placement of concrete is to be in accordance with NZS 3109. it is not a construction method of high technology. at an early stage. Setting out The exposed soffit of an in-situ concrete floor above. construction Formwork Workmanship Require that all formwork and reinforcing be inspected and approved prior to the concrete being placed. rebates. or 50 mm if using a damp proof membrane between the ground and the concrete. The formwork must be constructed to accommodate the plastic of concrete which has a mass of approximately 2400 kg/m3. 83 . the way in which the formwork will be made. This is an important consideration where the construction details call for the height of the wall to be cast in one operation. Concrete shall not be allowed to free fall more than 2 metres in any oneplacement operation. Poor communication between the designer and builder can result in diminished quality or cost escalation. It is important to consult with the designer regularly throughout the process to ensure the formwork is appropriate. Curing of concrete to occur for the first seven days after placement. Planning the efficient and effective use of formwork is critical to the success of in-situ concrete. Allow to build in all bolts and fixings as required by other trades and as shown in the drawings.C o n c re t e C a s t I n . This is an important consideration particularly for the main contractor who is responsible for facilitating the coordination between trades. While it is critical to get things right with in-situ concrete. Where concrete is cast against ground the minimum cover shall be 75 mm.

after casting is completed it is desirable for water to escape quickly to allow timely application of finishes. An early house built in Wellington combining in-situ walls with precast concrete roof elements. The excess water must not be allowed to escape too quickly as it is required for the curing process. Moisture Only a small proportion of the water in concrete is required for adequate hydration of the cement to occur. This often requires extensive heating of formwork which is not justifiable in our relatively mild climate. Often it is just the surface which is dry. Concrete dries at a rate of about 25 mm per exposed surface per month. concrete is placed in cold conditions throughout the winter. Contractors are advised to check moisture levels with appropriate measuring equipment and to coordinate with the manufacturers of applied finishes. depending on the time of year. is not recommended due to the unevenness in drying. Forced drying. 84 .r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Weather conditions Concrete should not be cast in wet or cold conditions. This implies that a 100 mm concrete wall will take around 2 months before moisture sensitive finishes can be applied. This is especially important in the first 7 days. Conversely. Interestingly. in places like Canada and Scandinavia. NZS 3109 provides guidance on precautions that should be taken for hot or cold weather concreting. through heating. Construction programmes must allow for adequate natural drying to occur.

L. In this case the chosen concrete floor system is supported on a steel angle bolted to the finished wall. At ground floor level the in-situ wall is connected to the slab and foundation by starter bars. The outside veneer face has weep holes formed to allow any water that enters above to trickle down the face of the insulation and escape without affecting the internal space.L. Unpaved G. The formwork must be set up to allow the insulation to remain in place while the concrete is placed in both faces. This is best done by balancing the pour to both faces up the height of the wall. Sand blinding on compacted hardfill Concrete footing starter bars at required spacing DPC WALL TO FLOOR 85 .C o n c re t e C a s t I n . topping Composite Connector Reinforced Concrete wall Proprietry suspended ceiling INTERMEDIATE FLOOR Proprietry Insulation system cast into concrete Composite Connector Weep hole formed at base of wall Wall keyed into slab Reinforced Concrete slab 150 MIN 100 MIN Paved G.S i t u D e t a i l s Sandwich construction details These details of the external envelope indicate how proprietary polymer ties and polystyrene insulation board can be used in an in-situ application. Butyl into chase cast in concrete wall Butyl on plywood Insulation laid to a fall Reinforced outer wythe Proprietry Insulation system cast into concrete Composite Connector Hollow precast unit landed on structural wall Reinforced Concrete wall WALL TO ROOF Proprietry Insulation system cast into concrete Hollow core flooring units & conc. At suspended floor level the wall is cast full height eliminating the need for a construction joint. This form of construction is best known in its precast context.

INTERMEDIATE FLOOR Plasterboard lining on strapping & building paper with insulation between. cost and thermal mass. The external walls are cast before the ground floor slab. Exposed soffit Clear sealer on in-situ formed wall Corbel @ columns Plasterboard lining on strapping & building paper & insulation between. These details indicate at upper level how such a roof can be supported on cast in-situ or precast concrete columns. Bed on sealant WALL TO ROOF Frame on sill section. enabling a controlled environment which may suit some finishes. At the lower level the in-situ wall is left exposed externally and insulated inside. Form drip Concrete column Commercial glazing section 80mm. This will allow expansive areas of glass to be used. Bed on sealant Construction joint Cast in-situ floor.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Dress butyl roofing into groove & seal Upstand beam Butyl on plywood on insulation laid to falls In-situ floor and roof plane detail One of the great advantages of in-situ concrete is the ability to create soffits that can be left exposed for reasons of aesthetics. Clear sealer on in-situ formed wall Ground & polished concrete floor slab on DPC Starter bars at required spacing Sand blinding on compacted hardfill Reinforced concrete footing WALL TO FLOOR 86 . Corbels and wall thickenings transfer the structural loads from above.

Waterproofing Cast Insitu Concrete Wall. Building Paper. Flashing Waterproofing membrane on cast in-situ gutter Timber rafters Insulation above suspended ceiling Stringer bolted to conc. At suspended floor level there may be a need to incorporate construction joints as part of the overall wall pattern. in this case to ventilate the crawl space. is able to provide architectural relief while serving a practical purpose. Joint detailed to express rather than hide the joint Building Paper. openings may be necessary for a variety of reasons. It is important to specify the appropriate joint profile and make allowances for barriers to water ingress. Continuous. Countersink bolt head Internal Linings. Timber strapping on DPC. dish channel Insulation foil faced Cast in-situ concrete wall Starter bars at required spacing. WALL TO ROOF Cast Insitu Concrete Wall. Reinforcing as required Internal Linings. Continuous. At foundation level. Reinforced concrete footing WALL TO FLOOR 87 . Internal Linings. Exposed. An integral gutter.S i t u D e t a i l s External wall details In-situ comcrete allows the designer to incorporate profiles and features which may not be possible with other forms of constrcution. Timber floor on floor joists Stringer bolted to wall Vent openings Conc. Reinforced concrete slab Construction joint Construction joint Precast flooring unit PVC waterstop cast into lower part INTERMEDIATE FLOOR Insulation. wall. or any other profile.C o n c re t e C a s t I n . Insulation. Exposed.

The veneer wall in this example is internal. slab Conc. Backing rod & sealant Composite connector INTERIOR Concrete structural panel This plan view of the vertical joint in a sandwich type wall suggests the edges are formed in sympathy with other joint details. topping Hollow core conc. veneer panel EXTERIOR 10mm gap. The concrete soffit is left exposed internally. Cast in-situ reinforced concrete upstand wall Overflow pipe Drip edge Commercial glazing section 75mm Cast in-situ conc. Weathersealing is by sealant over backing rod. supported on columns rather than walls. column GLASS WALL TO ROOF FALL Butyl rubber membrane on 18mm ply on furring to falls Rigid insulation Dress butyl into raglet and seal Conc. stopping short of the roof structure to avoid being loaded structurally. slab Structural concrete wall MS angle to support roof slab Detail joint edges in sympathy with other edge details Composite connector Suspended ceiling and insulation Cast in-situ wall sandwich construction WALL TO ROOF Detail joint edges in sympathy with other edge details Construction joint Conc.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e FALL Spaced timber decking Butyl rubber membrane on plywood on furring to falls Rigid insulation between furring strips Roof parapet details This roof is used as a trafficable deck with top laid insulation. CONSTRUCTION JOINT 88 . a minimum 10 mm gap is necessary.

C o n c re t e C a s t I n . At sill level. slab Aluminium door frame over sill flashing Step back concrete slab edge to suit reveal SILL DETAIL 89 . cast in-situ Internal lining Head flashing Intermittent H3 timber blocks. nails skew nailed to timber & cast-in concrete infill. the concrete slab edge should be set back to allow the threshold to overhang. a rebate is cast in by a removable insert in the formwork.S i t u D e t a i l s Aluminium door details These walls are insulated and lined internally. Timber reveal Aluminium door frame with timber reveals HEAD DETAIL Timber reveal Aluminium subframe 2 beads of sealant Continuous timber packer Timber strapping JAMB DETAIL Aluminium door frame with timber reveals Shaped timber sill on DPC Reinforced conc. giving a more traditional appearance. At the head. Reinforced conc. Fix galv. This delicate operation allows the head flashing to be seated securely.

which is scribe cut to the reveal.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Timber door details External insulation fixed to concrete External waterproofing system Reinforced concrete cast in-situ exposed finish Timber H3 fixing block cast-in These externally insulated walls have a pronounced chamfer on the internal reveal edge. Note the architrave. Weatherseal at the jambs is sealant. The frame. is fixed to cast in fixing blocks at head and jambs. which will require periodic maintenance. positioned in the centre of the finished wall. Butyl rubber sill flashing Flooring Reinforced conc. slab External insulation fixed to concrete Paving level SILL DETAIL 90 . Recess sill into slab. Flashing Timber architrave Timber window frame and sash HEAD DETAIL Sealant & backing rod Corner protection Timber architrave Timber H3 fixing block cast-in External insulation fixed to concrete External waterproofing system JAMB DETAIL Timber door & sill.

S i t u D e t a i l s Aluminium window details This set of details indicate the use of domestic joinery profiles in a concrete wall which is strapped and lined internally. Note that it is advisable to have the window supplier measure the opening after the formwork has been stripped. at the head a flashing is shown fitted into a formed rebate. Therefore. Fill with sealant over flashing Glazing in aluminium window frame Insulation Interior lining Building paper Timber reveal HEAD DETAIL Glazing in aluminium window frame Timber reveal PVC angle cast-in as flashing raglet. It is important to wait until the concrete has gained adequate strength before drilling. This detail has not incorporated timber fixing blocks for the frame. it will be necessary to install the frame by screw fixing into plastic plugs fitted into drilled holes in the concrete. External waterproofing Reinforced concrete wall cast in-situ Form drip Timber strapping PVC angle cast-in as flashing raglet.C o n c re t e C a s t I n . Fill with sealant over flashing Timber strapping Interior lining External waterproofing Building paper Insulation JAMB DETAIL Position framing to allow drainage from within Flashing External waterproofing/ plaster/tiled Timber reveal Timber strapping Interior lining Reinforced concrete cast in-situ Insulation Building paper SILL DETAIL 91 . The window frame is shown fitting flush to the outside. The insulation is placed between the strapping. While sealants provide adequate weathering at the jambs.

Note the use of fixing blocks cast into the opening allows the frame to be installed in a manner using standard nail fixings.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Timber window details External insulation fixed to concrete External waterproofing system Cast-in H3 timber fixing block Flashing Reinforced concrete cast in-situ exposed finish Sealant & backing rod The timber window frame is fitted into a wall with external rigid insulation and applied acrylic plaster as the weatherproofing. The joint lacks the crispness that may be possible with lightweight linings. but it is important to respect the nature of the concrete materials and allow the chamfer as shown here. Flashing details are incorporated using the proprietary flashings that can be ordered with most External Insulating Finishing Systems. The frame is set to the depth of the wall and is held away from the concrete visually by a 5 – 10 mm negative joint. Timber window frame and sash HEAD DETAIL Sealant & backing rod Corner protection Cast-in H3 timber fixing block Sealant & backing rod Reinforced concrete cast in-situ exposed finish JAMB DETAIL Timber internal sill Timber sill and sash Timber packer Galvanized metal sill flashing External insulation fixed to concrete External waterproofing system Reinforced concrete cast in-situ exposed finish SILL DETAIL 92 .

Fixing of the window frames to the structure is by way of lugs welded onto the frame before delivery to the site. the positions of which must be coordinated with lug positions. These lugs are screw fixed to intermittent timber fixing blocks. External waterproofing Reinforced concrete wall cast in-situ Form drip Rigid insulation Cast-in H3 timber fixing blocks Continuous sealant bead in PVC angle Glazed hinged door in steel frame Continuous timber fixing block Timber reveal HEAD DETAIL Glazed hinged door in steel frame Timber reveal Sealant in cast-in PVC angle Continuous timber fixing block Cast-in H3 timber fixing blocks Rigid insulation JAMB DETAIL Steel door sill & frame Timber threshold Flooring Silicon sealant Sloped paving Reinforced concrete slab SILL DETAIL 93 .C o n c re t e C a s t I n . The angle will stabilise the concrete edge and provide suitable backing for sealant. Frames are fitted against a PVC angle held in the formwork by the fixing blocks.S i t u D e t a i l s Steel door and window details Steel windows are regaining popularity in the residential construction market.

WALL TO ROOF PVC or metal conduit cast into wall Window section Services flush box cast into wall It may be prudent to allow spare capacity or spare dropper points for future alterations.r e s i d e nt i a l co n c r e te d e ta i l i n g a n d s p e c i f i c at i o n g u i d e Services Internal gutter Services flush box cast into wall It is possible to cast-in allowance for services in concrete walls. Be sure to allow sweeps in the conduit both at the top and bottom to allow the cables to be drawn easier. Skirting Externally insulated cast in-situ concrete wall Services face plate mounted to skirting Reinforced concrete slab WALL TO FLOOR 94 . An alternative would be to extend the service from the level below. Electrical services generally drop from the ceiling in the space to be served which demands a long conduit drop. It is important to coordinate this provision with the structural engineer and the relevant subtrades.

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