ACADEMIC YEAR: 2013-2014

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I, Dr. Vinay Pandit hereby certify that JAY BHAGAT of SYBMS (Div – C) of Lala Lajpat Rai College of Commerce and Economics has successfully completed a Research Project on the topic ―A Study on OUT OF HOME MEDIA‖ in the academic year 2013-2014. The Information submitted is True and original to the best of my knowledge.

________________________ Signature of the Internal Guide

_____________________ Signature of BMS Co-ordinator

________________________ Signature of the External Guide

_____________________ Signature of the Principal

Date: Place:

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I, JAY BHAGAT of SYBMS (Div – C) hereby declare that I have completed this project on ―A Study on OUT OF HOME MEDIA‖ in the academic year 2013-2014. This information provided by me is true and original and to the best of my knowledge.

_______________________ Students Signature

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I would like to thank my professor, Dr. Vinay Pandit who gave me this opportunity to make this Research project through which I gained valuable information on ―OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI‖. I would also like to thank all my friends for helping me out and making this project successful. These acknowledgements are one way where I can actually thank the people who have been instrumental in the making of this research project. With their help, the project was done with ease. Lastly, I would like to thank a lot of people without whose co-operation and support, working on this project would not have been so pleasurable and interesting.

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multinational media corporations to small. print. waiting (such as in a medical office). in transit. independent.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Out-of-home advertising licence (OOHOLIC) (or outdoor advertising license) is made up of more than 100 different formats. family-owned businesses.7 billion in annual revenues in 2012 in the USA. and alternative. These out of home media companies range from public. is focused on marketing to consumers when they are "on the go" in public places. This medium is in contrast with broadcast. Out of home advertising. totaling $6. street furniture. therefore.[1] Outdoor advertising is essentially any type of advertisingthat reaches the consumer while he or she is outside the home. and/or in specific commercial locations (such as in a retail venue). Page | 5 .100 operators in 50 states representing the major out of home format categories.[2] The OOH advertising industry in the USA includes more than 2. and Internet advertising. Outdoor advertising formats fall into four main categories: billboards. transit.


Page | 7 . this form of advertising provides benefits to communities. We might look at advertising as the mass selling of a product. on gas pumps. promotion and customer service are. which helps businesses address an audience while traveling. and 9 percent public service ads. newsracks. just as sales. Advertising is one of the integral elements of the marketing process. Airport advertising. truckside. What business is an advertising agency in? In the advertising creation and placement business. lunch trucks. billboard revenue is 73 percent local ads. subway advertising. Traditional roadside billboards remain the predominant form of outdoor advertising in the US with 66 percent of total annual revenue. What business is the media in? The advertising delivery business. for example. product design. and other non-traditional formats. This form of outdoor advertising is mainly seen in urban centers. such as buses. Street furniture is made up of formats such as bus shelters. 18 percent national ads.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Billboard advertising is a traditional out of home advertising format.500 digital billboard displays have been installed in the United States alone. but there has been significant growth in digital out of home advertising (billboards and place-based networks) in recent years. alternative advertising includes ads in stadiums. Transit advertising is typically advertising placed on anything which moves. rest areas. is also included in this category. mall kiosks. Additionally. Where is advertising seen or heard? In the media. Today. Municipalities often accept this form of advertising. bike racks. as it provides revenue to city and port authorities. Alternative advertising provides a way to address consumers in places they may not expect. but also includes fixed static and electronic advertising at train and bus stations and platforms. Finally.and taxis. about 1. food trucks. as street furniture companies are often responsible for building and maintaining the shelters people use while waiting for the bus. and telephone booth advertising.

Accordingly. Accordingly we will examine new media from cultural. The media industry has unique qualities that distinguish it from other industries. streamed digital broadcasting. we will cover numerous areas with a focus on the Internet.) have and are currently changing society into what many people refer to as the. and psychological perspectives. However. computers..in contrast to the "legacy" media routinely studied in telecommunications programs. etc. networking. historical. "Digital Age. and production companies can capture.g. One is its privileged legal position under the First Amendment guarantee of freedom of the press. and other emerging media forms. and successfully market the best material possible while drastically cutting investments on ineffective to outright misguided story and project development – with more consistent results. The change is both quantitative as well as Page | 8 . networks. The media and Information Technology (IT) scenario has undergone a radical change in the recent past in India as it has happened elsewhere in the world. Everyone will have a common creative language.. it is difficult to distinguish between convergent media systems and forms often labeled "new media" . making the media exempt from government restraints and oversight as compared with other businesses. Thus. and the World Wide Web. Many critics have expressed dissatisfaction with how the mass media industry has lived up to such responsibility." These developments are not solely dependent on technological factors as much of the popular "hype" asserts. legal. on occasion we will discuss other new media technologies including. The convergence of different types of media forms (e. Newspapers and television news media programs have been criticized for simply covering the latest murder or sensational crime story rather than substantively investigating the causes of and solutions to crime. networks.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Professionals throughout the entertainment & media industries can help develop stories to capture and move audiences in ways many did not know were possible – while drastically enhancing the collaborative process from concept to successful release. digital television. satellites. virtual reality are only a few examples. The Internet. "Cyberspace and Communication" encompasses a wide array of issues and topics. Studios. develop. film innovations. Media coverage of political elections has been criticized for focusing on campaign tactics and personal foibles of political candidates rather than substantive issues. In the past decade information technology has undergone substantial changes.

It spreads to smaller towns and rural areas also in reasonable time. Earlier technologies took comparatively longer time to develop roots in the country. print or information technologies. But now days.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI qualitative. the growth has been very rapid in the last decade and a half. Take any technology. It is also found that the growth is not necessarily restricted only to urban areas as it used to happen in the past. soon after a new technology is developed anywhere in the world. The growth also contributes to expansion of the reach as well as access. It will be seen in later part of the article how the individual technologies have grown during this period. Page | 9 . Apart from the rapid growth. It is also observed that the gap between invention of new technology in the Western world and its use in India is also reducing day by day. whether it is electronic. the change is also facilitated largely due to the increased user friendliness of the technology. it starts getting used in India too.

3% in 2011 to about $26. Spending on digital billboards and posters is expected to double in the next five years. but for less than 5% in street furniture and billboards. Jean-Charles Decaux. ads in airport terminals—a type of publicity known as out-of-home advertising—used to be the dull end of the industry. sound and sometimes interactive features. as people continue moving to cities and travel more. especially newspapers. thinks that in some countries more than 90% of its business will be digital by the decade's end. His arch-rival.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ABSTRACT 1 The future of out-of-home advertising is rosy. Page | 10 . William Eccleshare. who runs the international operations of Clear Channel. shopping malls and other controlled environments. Digital displays already account for about one-quarter of his company's sales in transport hubs. Mr Decaux thinks. MagnaGlobal. but mainly inside airports. posters on buses and subway escalators. to $5. streets. railway stations. an American firm which is one of the largest out-of-home ad companies. The falling price and improving quality of flat-screen displays mean that static posters printed on paper are being replaced by snazzy digital commercials with moving pictures.2 billion. As some advertising media. faster growth than that seen for other noninternet forms of advertising (see chart). the boss of France's JCDecaux. agrees that there will be a significant switch to digital. Ads in bus shelters and other outdoor spots at risk of vandalism will take a lot longer to move away from paper. and digital ROADSIDE billboards.4 billion. see their audiences fade. predicts that worldwide spending on out-of-home advertising will expand by 8. a media researcher. airports and other public spaces are becoming crowded with more potential viewers than ever. No more.

we are witnessing some outstanding creativity in out of home advertising. Place and product plays a vital role when it comes to OOH advertising and sharing his thoughts on how important place is for advertising as also the next best opportunity.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI ABSTRACT 2 Flexibility & creating possibilities key to selling OOH for brands: Ron Graham It‘s a known fact that consumers are spending more time out of their home and the chances of seeing billboards and other mediums of out of home advertising is much more.‖ Page | 11 . location tagging or demographic – it works as a helping hand for all the OOH advertising tools such as billboards. digital and other location-based marketing can be a game changer. gadgets. and as technology is developing – be it apps.‖ Graham shared that connecting all media for advertisement is a better idea – be it OOH. OOH includes everything that engages once you are out of home. Ron Graham. One of the other points that Graham highlighted was to target thelife pattern. television or others. This demographic marketing will help the brand to get the feedback and enhance the product. Media on the Go noted. Give them an opportunity and engage consumer with use information about locality. Mobile. Brands are getting influenced from the consumer behaviour such as tagging and notifications and they need to engage the consumer with the information of their locality. With the world going digital at a fast pace. He said. ―Things are going to be much more fragmented and size of the content is going to be tiny in OOH as new dynamics will come into play. Chief Consultant. ―We get influenced by consumer interest places and by linking with activities and motions.

‖ Marketers need to understand the basics of targeting consumers. The medium has unquestionablyhelped in creating an iconic brand like Amul.‖ he said. She is the iconic polka dot dressed Amulgirl with whom we have grown-up. held in Gurgaon on March 20. you need to have opportunities to meet. ―OOH provides immense opportunities to meet and connect with our customers. young and vibrant. Ron Graham was sharing his views on the topic ‗Place Based Media‘s Next Opportunity‘ at the fourth edition of exchange4media‘sOOH Conference and Awards. In order to get a relationship started. According to him. the higher will be the customer engagement. butterly delicious Amul. which will led to more attention and greater consideration. witty. laughed. In the outdoor medium. Brands are built on relationships and relationships on the other hand are built by staying committed.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI He added. and ate the utterly. technology combines beautifully with creativity to deliver an amplified impact and there is no limit to the number of touch-points provided by the out-of-home medium. Some of the factors that will sell OOH for any of the brands is to be more flexible and create possibilities. engage and attract. making realistic promises and keeping them. can deliver an amplified effect" She was born in 1966 and is still cute. The more the technology improves. there are no boundaries to innovation in this medium. combined with creativity in OOH. Amul‘s advertisements have always brought to light the relevant and current issues from all across the world through witty and humourous OOH hoardings. celebrated. Pavan Kumar. ABSTRACT 3 "Technology. 2014. AGM-Marketing. connect. believes that the game of brand building has never been media-specific. they cannot simply push to mobile or engage with any such app. ―Location and audience data collected and applied make the data accessible for searching and planning automated systems between sellers and buyers systems make OOH easier to sell and buy improve accountability and growth. Amul. Page | 12 . Gathering of data and engagement is the first basic step in OOH.

there is nothing better than OOH advertising. ―The agencies must be willing to discover more and more media options and become the custodians of clients‘ budget.‖ he advised. It demonstrates the level of trust that exists between the client and the agency. wittiness. For the last fifty years. It covers diverse topics such as politics.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Kumar strongly believes that in terms of attracting attention. He also shared a few suggestions to build a healthy relationship between clients and agencies.‖ he said. don‘t change it. the Amul girl has been covering the most topical and relevant issuesfacing the society in a clever and amusing manner. The advertising should be integrated and it should continue over a period oftime. The agency doesn‘t have to take the approval of the client before releasing the ad. The aim must be to effectively utilise the budget that is provided to them. It is widely recognised as the longest running outdoor campaign in the world. Bollywood and international affairs.‖ he explained. ―I want the agency to put themselves in the consumer‘s shoes.‖ he added. Kumar emphasisedthat if a campaign is working well. I also want them to go beyond the brief and create innovative formats. the agencies should understand the client rather than just listen to them. They should regularly interact with consumers and conduct genuine research. but also holding it. ―The campaign has worked because of consistency in strategy and execution over a very long period of time. There needs to be a sense of excitement and humour to keep the relationship going with customers. The uniqueness of the campaign is that the clients and consumers see it at the same time. topicality and relevance. They should also learn to conceive and execute in local languages. Page | 13 . The campaign has been a huge success due to its longevity. The combination of creativity and technology in this medium has the power to dazzle and attract but he also pointed out that building a relationship goes well beyond the initial attraction. ―It is not only about building attraction. According to him. Kumar believes that it has helped to keep the brand fresh and relevant. cricket. They should understand their business model and industry dynamics.

OOH helps in publicisinga message to a larger audience in the least possible time. Maruti Suzuki.‖ Bhandaribelieves that this medium is going to be much more popular and meaningful with the advent and integration across technologies. The rapid development in infrastructure will continue to boost the outdoor medium with significant technological developments in this space. ABSTRACT 4 Outdoor has gone way beyond billboards. ―We are comparatively conservative and traditional in our approach. Head. Subramaniam pointed that there is a need to identify whether the target audience needs OOH or not. will OOH be relevant? Sevantika Bhandari. but will continue to be relevant? The OOH industry is growing at a fast pace for the last couple of years. Director. However. ITC. Principal Manager-Media. the outdoor industry formed 6. In 2013. We use OOH mainly when there is a big launch.Digital Marketing & Media International Global Excellence. He also explained that the existing supply of outdoorhas increased and it is becoming pricePage | 14 . Manohar Bhat. Marico. With the advent of mobile technology and augmented reality.‖ Aditya Save. VP-Marketing. Marketing. brought to light the challenges faced with this medium. We are also innovatively using digital to attractthe niche audience. The integration of OOH with activation will make it more and more relevant especially for categories like insurance which is not as exciting as FMCG. MaxBupa. OOH works as a very good point-of-sale and almost 15-20 per cent of ITC‘s budgets is allocated to OOH.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Kumar was expressing his views at the 4th edition of the OOH Conference & Awards. ―We have spent considerable amount on the OOH medium and we will continue to do so. the ROI received from OOH has become far more quantifiable. The only problem of OOH is that there is lack of measurement of ROI but we are working our way through these things. said. said.2 per cent of the total advertising spends according to the Pitch-Madison Advertising Outlook report. According to Siddharth Subramaniam. But with the growth of digital media.

The consumers are interacting with OOH through multiple touch-points. The challenge here is not about fewer hoardings and spending moreon those fewer hoardings. However. The holding company made the investment for Rapport U. Bhandari said.‖She also explained that brands are just translating TV ads into outdoor. a tech platform that automates some of the out-of-home media planning and buying process. (Well. even if advertisers are only putting a small portion of budget toward it and publishers a minimal amount of inventory. Experts also questionedwhether outdoor is only limited to billboards or advertisers have now started exploring various innovative formats. ABSTRACT 5 Much of the digital world of advertising has been automated. We are not thinking differentlyenough to capitalize on the OOH opportunities that consumers are providing to us. Bhat believes that the idea is to think differently and out-of-the box to monetize this medium. Page | 15 ..S. This was apparent last week when Interpublic Group invested in ADstruc. some will tell you advertisers are spending big and publishers are holding nothing back. automating online media-buying is in. the team has to put in more effort because the idea is to attract attention in small intervals at various touch points. We need to go out where they are andinteract with them in the most innovative and clutter-breaking form.) Either way.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI sensitive. but some are focused on bringing it out -meaning outside. The idea is to create experiential things through activation. The lack of creativity in this medium is also affecting the growth of this medium as compared to TV and digital. that depends on whose data you read. ―Outdoor has gone way beyond billboards. He made an interesting point that marketers need to invest differently in cities that are not traditionally exposed to outdoor. They forget that the two experiencesare very different. its agency that focuses on OOH campaigns.

Cooper hopes this makes OOH advertisers use their brains a little more. ADstruc gives Rapport access to 98% of U. New data and the ability to measure campaigns in ways other than ―what looks good?‖ or ―where does traffic back up?‖ is changing that. ADstruc‘s platform already has data about the inventory if offers. Cooper said they can now measure campaigns ―in direct correlation with other media. buying. some will argue it doesn‘t. market share. Historically. Page | 16 .S. What is automated. ―All too often OOH is bought purely from the heart. U. out-of-home inventory. while in Europe it's about 10%.can now be automated. and data collection of OOH campaigns -. and why bring it to the OOH world? As for the why.‖ For example. to a large traffic flow or even to an opinion of what looks good from a selection of photographs and a map.S.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI But what exactly is being automated here.which will come from automating the planning. told RTM Daily that the agency is turning toward automation to take some weight off of the humans.‖ but Cooper has a different take: freeing hu mans to focus more on customer service. Mike Cooper.‖ he said. all of which can be seen in one place and bought through the platform. Some may argue that counts as automation. but the ability to connect social media buzz to specific OOH campaigns will give advertisers fresher data to work with.S. We often hear of companies using automation to ―free humans to be more creative.S. though. And it does have room to grow: Cooper said OOH sees about 4% of the U. is the ability to link digital events to OOH advertising. even if the OOH ad is not on a digital billboard. Cooper claimed.. president of Rapport. which is an art in its own right. site selection has been based on everything from proximity.will help the U. As for the what.and any desired subsequent reaction from brands -. ―Who is tweeting about your brand right now in proximity to your billboards? Would the client like to reply to the tweets?‖ The data collection bit -. He believes the improvements in accountability and delivery -. In turn. ad market grow in this area.

transit mediums. Madison Outdoor Media Solutions (MOMS) has rolled out the campaign across eight states. Political campaigns come with their own set of challenges. dwell time at different destinations etc for planning this OOH campaign. One of the biggest challenges was getting permissions from administrative bodies of both local and state level. ―It has been an honour to plan and execute a campaign of this magnitude. transit hubs of all cities and towns were identified for OOH placements. MOMS. The depth and the width of the campaign is strategically mapped keeping in the mind the spread of the constituencies. with a total of 814 million people eligible to vote – 100 million more voters than the last elections five years ago. city markets. The key objective of this campaign was to connect with the people locally. Hence we took into cognizance multiple factors – demographic. but also with each and every one who votes. Page | 17 . The OOH campaign has been rolled out in different states of the country. BJP has rolled out a massive nation-wide OOH campaign for the upcoming Lok Sabha elections 2014. socio-economic profiling. etc. COO. The campaign is a clarion call to urge all Indians to vote for the BJP. foot over bridges. especially if the campaign is for the opposition party. the bugle has been sounded by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Key congregations points. The focus has been in connecting not only with the youth of the country. It has been an endeavor to use local language wherever feasible to connect with the local populace. key arterial roads/highways. According to Dipanker Sanyal.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI ABSTRACT 6 BJP rolls out nation-wide OOH campaign As the country readies for the biggest Parliamentary elections. gantries.‖ Multiple OOH formats – including billboards. The campaign sports the slogan ―Abki Baar Modi Sarkar‖. The OOH communication has been customised for each state keeping in context the state dynamics. bus shelters. mode of travel. with different themes to connect with the people of the country. – have been used to communicate the messaging impact fully.

The platform. we set about developing a website for students by students.au at any given time will be amplified via oOh!‘s Study network of digital billboards. Hijacked. launched across more than 50 universities across the country. code of conduct restrictions and other logistical barriers. both on and off campus. at home or when they are out and about. said allowing users to ―hijack‖ th e conversation was the key to creating unprecedented engagement. exclusive student deals and an entirely student focused ―My Future‖ section to help prepare students for life in the real world. ―The campaign was installed overcoming all hurdles of inclement weather in few states. Sanyal further said.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Approximately 30 lakh sq ft of vinyl across 8. culture.com.000-plus units has been utilised for this massive spread. views and pop culture on campus. In addition to content about politics. The innovative new Hijacked platform by Australia‘s largest out-of-home media company. arts. Brendon Cook. technology and sport.‖ Mr Cook said. entertainment. ―As there was nothing like it in the market. Written by students for students. Page | 18 . oOh! Chief Executive Officer.‖ ABSTRACT 7 Ooh digital signs Hijacked by tertiary students Ooh Media has launched an integrated online and digital out-of-home content platform targeting the tertiary education sector. The announcement: Australia‘s first integrated online and digital out-of-home content platform in the notoriously hard to reach tertiary education sector has launched today across more than 50 universities across the country. is like a giant digital campus where every tertiary student in the country can hang-out and a discuss news. etc. Hijacked publishes event listings. which gives them a place to publish their content to a national platform and amplify it through our increasing network of digital signage on campus. the hottest content on hijacked. oOh! Media.

who most recently was an editor of street press title The Brag. ―Our commercial partners see Hijacked as an innovative channel that enables the tertiary student community to connect and share content on a national platform. we are delivering content that‘s directly relevant to students in places where they spend most of their time.au. and backed by an editorial team of writers and editors who also work with campus-specific student publications. students and Australian corporates including founding partner Telstra and Australian retailer.com. Former News Corp. Lisa Omagari. Page | 19 .‖ Mr Cook said.‖ Hijacked is operated by an independent editorial team. Mr Cook said Hijacked has already gained tremendous support from university partners. Australia senior marketer Danika Houghton also joins the Hijacked team as Marketing and Partnerships Manager. Officeworks. ―With more than 100 digital screens in universities and plans to substantially increase this. led by Managing Editor.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI ―Two-thirds of our digital billboards on-screen content will come from the most popular articles on hijacked. which gives student contributors a way to share their content among an even wider audience.

1 RESEARCH PROBLEM The problem to under study the advertising effect of out of home media in south Mumbai. This study enabled to have a wider overview about the practicality of Outdoor Advertising. 3.  The scope of the study is restricted only in South Mumbai. Page | 20 .   3.4FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS H0: There is no significant difference (or no relationship) between the people occupation and the mode of advertising media affecting their perception. which I could study through the ad campaign in contrast with the theoretical context. H1: There is significant difference( or relationship) between the people occupation and the mode of advertising media affecting their perception. 3.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.     Process and the impact of Outdoor Advertising. Different medias and methods used in Outdoor Advertising.3SCOPE OF THE STUDY     The scope of the study is mainly to understand the impact of home media.2 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY    To know about Outdoor Advertising and it‘s growth.

The questionnaire so formed includes both open ended & closed ended questions. Open ended questions were used to find out the reviews of the respondents so that proper recommendation can be made by the researcher. 3. 3.  Collection of primary data. Textbooks and Internet.  3.2 Secondary data: Secondary data is collected from various Magazines on Outdoor Advertising.5.1 Primary Data:  A one-to-one communication was carried out with the concerned officials of the organization through a drafted and finalized questionnaire.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI 3.  Information regarding the various media vehicles is obtained from the ad agency and the makers of Outdoors.6 Research Instrument: To collect the appropriate data the researcher has used questionnaire as the research instrument.5.5 The methodology of the study is classified into the following steps:    Collection of secondary data. Page | 21 . Close ended questionnaire were used so that appropriate statistics could be calculated.

 Thus. experimental design if applicable. market study could not be carried out. 3. correlational. review. data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan. review.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI 3. semiexperimental. meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.9RESEARCH LIMITATIONS:  The project had to be completed within a very short span of time. independent and dependent variables. The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive.8 Sampling Plan: Random Sampling has been adopted as a sampling technique.  The study was curtailed also due to financial constraints. meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.: descriptivelongitudinal case study). research question and hypotheses.7 Research Design: A research design encompasses the methodology and procedure employed to conduct scientific research. research question and hypotheses.  Not much of first hand information could be gathered from agency as most of them outsource Outdoors. experimental design if applicable.g. 3. Page | 22 . experimental. The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive. independent and dependent variables. experimental. data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan. A research design encompasses the methodology and procedure employed to conduct scientific research. semi-experimental.g.: descriptive-longitudinal case study). correlational.

to mall kiosks to painted building walls. and can reach and impact your target market in a way that no other medium can. Outdoor is roadside. The use of a brand icon in outdoor creative has been found to make an ad 40% more memorable than an ad without a brand icon and if your goal is to turn your product or service into a brand no other medium can do this as cost effectively as Outdoor. to surface street poster panels to airplane banners to subway/train and platform advertising to buses and bus shelters.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI CHAPTER 4: AN OVERVIEW OF OUTDOOR ADVERTISING MEDIA 4. Page | 23 . Outdoor can brand. frequency and overall awareness in one cohesive media package.1 Introduction The term "out-of-home" media refers to all forms of advertising seen outside the home that target consumer audiences. in airports and malls or in any number of growing outdoor media settings. Outdoor reach people on-the-go and offers extremely targeted messaging designed to intercept consumers. wherever they go in an urban market or on suburban highways. above and below ground and on the move. Everything and anything used for advertising out-of-the-home. Outdoor is a comprehensive mix of effective media delivery mechanisms that reach people in their cars or on subways. Outdoor advertising includes everything from the large freeway type billboards to airport displays. Outdoor is more than just billboards! Most advertisers look to create product recognition and allegiance in the market as part of their marketing strategy. outside and inside. Combining traditional billboards with other newer forms of outdoor media products can make a tremendous impact improving reach. create and maintain awareness.

it's the point of sell before the point-of-sale. Outdoor advertising is defined as any sign that publicly promotes a product or a service. Outdoor advertising's large physical characteristics create greater visual impact on your audience. shop or play. exposed to virtually everyone who goes out of the house to work. bold and colorful. Because of its continuous presence. Simple.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Outdoor is the most universal of all advertising media. You can pinpoint your prime marketing areas exactly. Outdoor advertising bridges the gap between the in-home message and the out-ofhome purchase. outdoor is capable of producing frequency levels unmatched by any other medium. Outdoor is big. When Perk was launched in the late 90‘s it bombarded the hoardings with Preity Zinta saying ― Kabhi bhi Kahi bhi‖ so is the today‘s scenario of outdoor advertising it is actually there everywhere. hoardings etc… talk to large numbers of people at the same time. powerful and innovative outdoor advertising can jump start the life of a new product or service create awareness and interest your offering. fast market reach. This medium has accustomed to be known as larger than life medium. influence your target markets purchase decision or build brands equity. Outdoors advertising like posters. You can replace your outdoor advertising in locations reaching everyone coming into or leaving your specific market area. Outdoor provides broad. Outdoor advertising is the final reminder of your product or service. Today outdoor advertising is everywhere. in so many unexpected places and unusual ways. no medium puts advertising message before ones eyes so constantly. Page | 24 .

From chiseling messages on stone in the ancient times to state-of-the-art billboards and interactive displays. also come under this umbrella. better tools like longer-lasting billboard substrates. large-format. And with the advent of lithography. and creative use of 3-D.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Outdoor advertising is a constantly evolving medium of communication. or rather. malls. creativity in advertising took off. Hence the race to catch their attention out of doors as much or more than within the four walls of their home. sports arenas. translites. outdoor advertising covers a vast number of 'vehicles'. and transit shelters. In addition to the billboard. Thus it includes. scrollers. there is a lot more to this medium of communication than these large format visual arresters. Today. street furniture (such as newsstands and benches). Also. A brief outline of some of the commonly used vehicles in outdoor advertising. underground shelters). fibre optics and other spectacular effects on billboards. airports. outdoor advertising has a come a long way. etc. high-speed digital technology. the entire concept has changed in recent times to Out-Of-Home advertising. among others. Outdoor Advertising is so extensively used for the simple reason that it works. This can be defined as signs that promote a business outside premises. The increasing importance being given to OOH is largely due to the fact that people today are less home-bound than earlier. station platforms. signages. bus shelters. have greatly increased the scope of and interest in outdoor advertising. spectaculars and painted walls. commuter rail cards. vehicles as they are called in advertising parlance. Outdoor advertising encompasses a large variety of tools. In fact the word billboard has its origins in the late nineteenth century practice of posting bills on wooden boards. and displays in airports. transit (bus exteriors. In fact. It encompasses advertising not just on hoardings but also in other places that get high pedestrian or vehicular traffic. in-store displays. in the nineteenth century. mobile advertising. Page | 25 . The fifteenth century invention of the printing press saw the origin of bill posting in Europe in the 1500s. more people nowadays go out of doors to earn a living than they used to. Although billboards are the first ones that come to mind.

announcing the availability of rooms and stable facilitates. the Egyptians employed a tall stone obelisk to publicize laws and treaties. One of the first known methods of advertising was an outdoor display. a black smith would adorn the entrance of the lane leading to his smithy with the rim of a hoarse carriage wheel or a horseshoe or such others of his wares as would attract the attention of the passerby. tricks or eye catching devices resorted to by the traders in ancient times can be truly termed as the forerunners of modern outdoor advertising. In regards to use of outdoor media for commercial advertising in ancient times. An outdoor advertisement excavated in Rome offers property for rent. Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BC had utilized the medium of outdoor Advertising for communicating government policies and for propagating Buddhism as is evident from his rock edits. The earliest forms of Outdoor Advertising is perhaps between 15th and 17th century when the Church and the State would affix posters on doors of churches to make announcements and proclamations. These gimmicks. Archaeologists have uncovered many such signs. notably in the ruins of ancient Rome and Pompeii.2 History of Outdoor Advertising Outdoor advertising can trace its lineage back to the earliest civilizations. While formats have certainly changed and as advertising ideas have evolved. In India. outdoor is still here. and one found painted on a wall in Pompeii calls the attention of travelers to a tavern situated in another town. an innkeeper would hang his shingles out side the door of his inn. usually an eye-catching sign painted on the wall of a building. a bright trader in order to promote his sales would scribe the name of the products he was selling and nail the messages on his shop front. According to historian Frank Presbrey the first hoarding for commercial advertising appeared around 1740 when a London based textile merchant secured permission from the city council to Page | 26 .A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI 4. Thousands of years ago.

Television do not regard outdoor as a competitor: even if they are over-whelmed by the inherent advantage of outdoor advertising and use it to reach a mass transit populace. cable television. bright bold colors and creative graphics.  Ads on billboards are free to consumers. Outdoor ads cost 80% less than television commercials. Other forms of advertising media have always resorted to outdoor to promote themselves. or a newspaper to see your advertisement. Cinema. it is the oldest medium yet as we are into the new millennium arguably the most dynamic. Thus.  Outdoor advertising does not interrupt consumers in any way. There's no obnoxious sound. 4. Outdoor is old yet new.  Outdoor advertising has a lower cost per thousand than any other type of advertising. and 50% less than radio ads. Presses. minimum means‖ captures the essence and the penetration of Outdoor Advertising. you do not have to buy a magazine. Page | 27 . ―Maximum meaning. 60% less than newspaper ads.3 Outdoor Advertising – why is so great?  People spend more time in their vehicle than they do to read the paper and watch the news. which was the first established fee for making proclamations. Billboards are noticed because of their messages. smell or other type of negative attention grabber. It is primitive and yet sophisticated. Theatre. Outdoor advertising grew significantly with the growth of cars and improvements of roads.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI position his shop‘s advertisement bill next to the official decrees at a fee-.

 Outdoor advertising is the only type of media that has constant exposure. a specific market. People are driving further and further every day. the outdoor plant. outdoor media commands an ever-growing share of all ads spend. Its stock in trade is the location it has leased or bought under local zonal regulation permitting the Page | 28 . Thus.  Outdoor advertising help increase your products awareness.4 Process of Outdoor Advertising The basic business unit of the outdoor industry is the local outdoor company.  Outdoor advertising has a larger audience than any other type of advertising.  Repetition is extremely helpful when you are trying to increase your product awareness. outdoor advertising is the one answer to target mass audiences effectively. seven days a week.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI  Outdoor advertising allows you to reach more people faster and easier than any other type of media.  Outdoor advertising makes it extremely easy to target. or not to target. 4. or when you simply want to get your message across to millions of people. all this proves that in today's fragmented media world. This task can easily be accomplished with billboard campaigns. and knowledge which also increases your sales and profits. No other type of advertising allows your message to be displayed 24 hours a day. As a result. With brands fighting for recall advertisers are committing larger budgets to the medium each year in order to deliver high impact displays in busy town and city centers throughout the world.

It is the responsibility of the local outdoor company to maintain the ad in good condition during the life of the advertisers contract.g.Reliance has its own creative department to work on its ads. As soon as the contract is over the place is leased out to another wishing to place the ad in that place or the same company. thus. acquired a place the company then leases out the place to a company wanting to do an outdoor advertising by painting or posting the advertisers message on the same. The boards are inspected regularly to make sure that the traffic flow has not changed. For e.5 Types of Outdoor Advertising    Hoardings Billboards Posters Page | 29 . 4. A representative of the agency drives around to inspect the signs (called riding a show) to make sure that all boards are in proper working order. monthly. or on half yearly basis. The contract is made either weekly. and if poster is used – then that the posters are not peeling. ad agencies usually do the creative work for national advertisers. the advertising agency is notified. that no obstruction (such as foliage of a tree or new construction etc. . After the signs are up.) impedes the view of the sign. Having. and all flashing and lighting arrangements are working properly. Also the plant operators may have its own art staff to supply creative services for local advertisers. It has also been found that many big companies may have their own private advertising department which works on the creative part and the plant operators only have to put on this ads on their plants and maintain the same.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI erection of signs.

A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI         Neon Signs Street Furniture: Bus Shelters Bus Benches News stands and news racks Kiosks Public Telephones In-Stores       Transit: Buses Subways and rails Airports Truck sides Taxis        Alternative Media: Stadiums Airborne Recreational resorts Parking places Petrol pumps Mobile bill boards HOARDINGS A GROWING TREND Page | 30 .

In the past few years‘ hoardings have become an important part of media-mix. bonus etc. can range in various sizes.). hoardings are synonymous with outdoor advertising. along with the spiraling costs. short term campaigns (announcing rebate. Regardless of size or orientation. his perception is to be treated like gospel! And so hoardings reign in the outdoors. hoardings or billboards can lay claim to grasping the maximum amount of attention. The cost effective medium is ideal for new launches. maximally used by the advertiser. the most other Available billboards common Page | 31 . It is the form of outdoor advertising. it reinforces brands with the arrival of high-tech innovations. confectioneries) and local campaigns considered to be a reminder medium. advertisers are now opting to go out into the open. HOARDINGS — LARGER THAN LIFE Hoardings. or billboards.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI With the increasing clutter in the print and the audio-visual medium. in the largest outdoor formats as they are. The hoarding comprises a PVC skin stretched across its frame and backlit by dozens of tube lights inside the box. converted into digital codes that then control the airbrushes that actually paint the advertisement on the PVC skin. outdistance all advertising tools in terms of sheer visibility. but hoardings remain unassailably number one. and digital printing new dimension to hoarding advertising. To the layman. Since the layman is the one whose attention is being sought to be captured by advertising. It is designed to accommodate Hoardings sales are messages printed by the of gather has given a advertiser. which is conventional ways advertising. impulse purchase products (soft drinks. teaser campaign. Outdoor advertising today encompasses a whole gamut of vehicles. The original artwork is scanned on a computer. large hoardings around the streets attention of the passerby. hoarding are now drawing more attention than even before. The first. the indisputable leaders.

There was a series of hoardings too. What was interesting was that the advertisement itself did not need much customization although the billboards ranged in size and format from the traditional 10 x 10 to horizontal bus shelters to vertical building hoardings. The persuasive hoardings with the sheer white background. agents. No other brand comes even close to it. Their ability to take on customization only increases their utility. etc that they look at and project the company image and products with a new perspective. new being the operational word. The advertisement is one of the few where monitoring effectiveness has been easy and quick results have been seen. they have the advantage of giving the product repeated exposure to the target audience.000 tones a year in 1997. in keeping with the press ads. All because a thumb-sized girl climbed on to the hoardings and put a spell on the masses.EFFECTIVE REMINDERS Hoardings are primarily used as reminders as. The press ads formed a series with interesting and catchy body copy like 'You see a mischievous child. actuaries. A case in context is the recent launch of Timesgroup's glamour and entertainment channel. A very successful ad campaign done recently by Bates for Tata AIG Life Insurance included television commercials ably backed by press ads and billboards.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI one on highways and main arterial roads. Brand awareness and recognition have increased exponentially post advertisement. Amul's sale figures have jumped from 1000 tones a year in 1966 to over 25. contrasting red and black graphics and the teasing tagline. The ad's tagline 'A new look at life' has been so successful as to prompt the company to issue a directive to employees. Hoardings command high-density consumer exposure as they target vehicular traffic. Page | 32 . which is why our insurance solutions are one step ahead'. we see a future yoga expert' supporting the statement 'Life inspires us to think ahead. AMUL AND ITS HOARDINGS… 50 years after it was first launched. especially have a huge impact in the outdoor marketplace. Although television commercials reach a much wider audience it is the hoarding that keeps reminding the consumer of the product or service. HOARDINGS -. Zoom. being stationary. were all over Mumbai.

The butter. Utterly Butterly Delicious Amul. clinched the account for Amul butter. food was something one couldn't afford to fool around with. ASP. which had been launched in 1945. boring image. It was a matter of just a few hours before the daCunha office was ringing with calls. That October. for too long. It had been taken too seriously. Not just adults. It all began in 1966 when Sylvester daCunha. gimmickry and all else." Page | 33 . the country saw the birth of a campaign whose charm has endured fickle public opinion. primarily because the earlier advertising agency which was in charge of the account preferred to stick to routine.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI For 30 odd years Amul and its hoardings has managed to keep her fan following intact. "The response was phenomenal. had a staid. even children were calling up to say how much they had liked the ads. corporate ads. "We knew our campaign was going to be successful." recalls Sylvester daCunha. The ultimate compliment to the butter came when a British company launched butter and called it Utterly Butterly. lamp kiosks and the bus sites of the city were splashed with the moppet on a horse. then the managing director of the advertising agency. The year Sylvester daCunha took over the account. last year. One the first Amul hoardings of In India. So much so that the ads are now ready to enter the Guinness Book of World Records for being the longest running campaign ever. created as a rival to the Polson butter girl. Sylvester daCunha decided it was time for a change of image. The baseline simply said. Thoroughbred. The Amul girl who lends herself so completely to Amul butter.

and doubt a primitive form of advertising. 28 inches by 42 inches. This was done to attendance at these theatrical performances. existence fences or on boards around the town. Mohammad Khan and Usha Bandarkar. The most popular size is 24-sheet poster. The word billboard has its origin in the playbill posted outside the theatre. The playbill was pasted outside the that passerby could see it. This is the size of a structure for which 24 individual sheets of the above-mentioned size are required to fill the board. It is pure and simple. They don't pander to your nationality or certain sentiments. but it is in even today. then the creative team working on the Amul account came up with a clincher -. Sylvester daCunha. The word poster is used to convey an advertising message. the Amul ads have come a long way. From then on Amul began playing the role of a social observer. theatrical theatre. so promote was no The first use of this advertising was in promoting programmes. Bombay reacted to the ad with a fervour that was almost as devout as the Iskon fever. From the Sixties to the Nineties. The ―bills‖ were pasted on walls. the outside poster at the roadside became a useful medium for advertising. when the city first saw the beginning of the Hare Rama Hare Krishna movement. Several such ―one-sheets‖ could be combined to make larger posters to fit different frames. Where does Amul's magic actually lie? Many believe that the charm lies in the catchy lines. Over the years the campaign acquired that all-important Amul touch. and it is posted on a structure built for that purpose. everyday fun. While most people agree that the Amul ads were at their peak in the Eighties they still maintain that the Amul ads continue to tease laughter out of them. That was the first of the many topical ads that were in the offing. After automobiles came in and the road network became increasingly extensive.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI In 1969. That we laugh because the humour is what anybody would enjoy. The original poster was a sheet of paper. BILLBOARDS Outdoor Advertising is mostly billboard advertising.'Hurry Amul. Hurry Hurry'. Page | 34 .

but we still call this size a 24-sheet poster. Billboard formats offer high-impact. Even when words are used they are pithy. particularly when the billboard is exposed to rains and is likely to get spoiled soon. A 30-sheet poster has also acquired a wide acceptance nowadays providing a copy area of 115 inches by 259 inches. there is a need for illuminating the posters. bigger size sheets can be printed. When night traffic is dense in metropolitan areas. called bleed posters.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Now. Page | 35 . with only 10 sheets. of size 125 inches by 272 inches. Billboards can deliver on so many levels:    Clean eye-popping exposure 24/7 Clutter free messages in a uniquely customized environment Desirable suburban coverage filling gaps left by other media POSTERS Posters are of great value in developing countries like India with a great deal of diversity of languages and problem of illiteracy. Instead of printing on sheets of paper. Painted boards constitute another major outdoor advertising. have also gained popularity. A 24-sheet poster has a copy area. Poster panels may be illuminated or regular. the message is painted. which is 104 inches high and 234 inches long. with the modern printing press. the painted poster is the most acceptable. The bigger posters. Posters are a part of commercial art used most extensively in India to advertise feature films. This is very important. The same space can now be filled say. It is visual medium par excellence most of times. which have a longer life span. strategic positioning and market-to-market coverage with an unprecedented means of reaching today's highly mobile consumer audience. But that's not all. Of the outdoor boards.

they are only seen at glance. But this is compensated by repetition of viewing. Mostly posters remain in position for a period of time say several weeks. moreover. Such are more expensive than posters and important These systems bulletins attract Page | 36 . The drawback of this Outdoor medium is that posters can easily be defaced or torn off. Posters communicate with a large number of people at the same time. The task of the poster is though simple but is an insistent one. and rarely read fully. The repetition is ideal for sinking the name or registering a slogan or sales point or pack design in the mind of the audience. play. shop and so on. Its message delivery is dependent upon the passerby traffic. It acts as an impulse-trigger. therefore. It is a real mass medium. In a city like Mumbai neon signs are an medium as the nightlife is very busy. It gives exposure to one and all. electronic signs use computerized lighting that are eye catching and effective. NEON SIGNS They are attractive form of advertising mainly for the cities. Business organizations too have gone in for expensive ad campaigns using the poster medium. eg. We. They may be on their way to office.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI The Bombay Municipality has used this medium effectively for social education campaigns like ‗Save Water‘ and ‗ Clean Bombay – Green Bombay‘. which have a nightlife . work. Coverage could be according to our choice. say that they enjoy 24-hour exposure and long life. The fact is that audience gets only a fraction of a second to view the advertisement.

The most compelling signs were figural: imaginative. vinyl and neons. If you are in the business of selling. Typically. Sometimes it becomes a question of not wanting to be the only shop on the street. all the rest are static signs. It comes to 5 percent of the total money spent on outdoor advertising. and therefore can be used only by big advertisers. frontlits. Without it your chances of getting noticed fall dramatically. with a growth rate of 10 percent. which doesn‘t have a neon! Today neons are also pitched against a giant and thriving digital printing industry. Globally. is a living sign which winks and blinks invitingly at customers. Today. Television programmes are also not far behind to make use of the bright illumination of neons. in contrast. Neons have proved to be more effective more than any other form of onsite advertising. which is specific and does not spread. You may have the best merchandise. The popular ‗Movers & Shakers‘ show on Sony TV has its logo in neon in the backdrop. acrylic. That‘s really the baseline for the sign business around the world. with new techniques and improved effects. Except for the last one. backlits. No other light source can match its brilliance and intensity.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI greater attention. neon constitutes 15 percent of the total electric sign sales. The neon. but if you can‘t attract customers. you will soon be shutting down. a neon sign with 5‖ tall letters can be read approximately 200 ft away or across a 4-lane highway. Page | 37 . It is estimated that in India. Most Indian shopkeepers agree that a neon attracts more customers. During the middle of the 20th century. A neon has an almost mesmerizing effect-often you cannot take your eyes off it waiting for its colours to change or gain new designs. The cost of producing and maintaining such electronic displays is enormous. cartoon drawings in light. neon signs turned North America‘s roadside into a luminous wonderland. the finest store. the choices are hugedigital prints. the first thing you need to work on is your sign.

It can effectively target population segments or be used to reach a broad-based marketplace. the technology behind neon sign making has not changed much over the last half century. This is very fashionable in developed markets where the skill of the sign maker and the materials used are of the highest quality. which runs on acrylic cutouts.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI The options in neon are many. so it becomes expensive. Formats range from simple to interactive. The most expensive is the concentric circles or parallel lines neons. which have a flasher inside. Neons. The reverse also works – acrylic letters with neon behind them. which gives a backlit effect. High maintenance and higher electricity bills are the two biggest fears. It‘s the same gases – neon and argon that are still being used. locations vary from dense urban centers to suburban roadways. This doubles as a day sign. For this reason. The procedure has remained the same for the last few decades. street furniture advertising is ideal for generating high awareness and brand recognition near a point-of-purchase. What you get are ever-changing lines. are a saturated science – there is very little new stuff that can be done with. Then there is the single line tubing. which looks as though the sign has been written in running hand. these outdoor products provide a last reminder for consumer‘s just moments before a potential purchase decision is made. Surprisingly. Because many street furniture displays are located near shopping and commerce centers. which is really just the neon tubing. which put off potential buyers STREET FURNITURE Street furniture advertising is versatile. it all depends on the creativity of the sign maker. and neon sign makers contend that it makes the letters look bigger. They have remained the same from the time they were invented. and each line needs a transformer. Page | 38 . The simplest is the Skeletal Neon.

ATM advertising : When there is no interaction. transit products offer extremely targeted outdoor messaging solutions designed to reach target consumers. frequency and overall impact in one cohesive media package. train or automobile. In fact. bus or cab. the ad keeps on flashing on the screen. Page | 39 . construction companies and estate brokers. with particular strength during rush hour. coaching classes. whether moving or being moved. they are visible at all hours. They are also effectively used for local advertising by retailers. Take your pick of the product pack . given the nature of transit products. and on foot. opticians and even astrology.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Various Types of Street Furniture:- Station and shelter posters: Mostly station posters are used for film advertising. the monitor carries an ad of the bank or the portfolio of a product. Zip phones: After dialing the number while the call is on.mix and match. Combining transit products can make a tremendous impact improving: reach. Advertising on bus shelters is now gaining popularity as it easily grabs attention of the passerby & of the people waiting for the bus. TRANSIT ADVERTISING Reaching Consumers On The Go With Transit Displays that reach people traveling .by plane.

Here's why: You can't zap it. Transit advertising costs less than television.again and again.and it demands attention. Transit ads stimulate immediate recognition of who you are. and maximize your advertising investment? If so. newspaper or billboards. Transit vehicles go where people go: where they live. like increased name recognition and top-of-mind awareness. it's not cluttered up with dozens of competing messages in the same space.  Building Long-Term Name Recognition. healthcare centers. What's more. It is a very effective medium for showcasing product related advertisements as well as public service messages.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Transit Advertising or advertisements on wheels occupies a major segment of Outdoor Advertising all over the world. shop and play. Do you want to revolutionize how you reach potential customers. radio. what you have to offer and where to find you. like other commercial media. The larger-than-life impact makes your business appear larger than life. too. work. tuned out like radio. All kinds of businesses have discovered the benefits of transit advertising.  Reaching a Captive Audience. They travel through busy downtown areas and are essential to reach major educational institutions. Instead. financial centers and entertainment venues. or discarded like newspaper and magazines. You can reach the key drive-time audience of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. It's a proven and powerful vehicle for reaching potential customers . Transit ads complement and reinforce your overall advertising program. major malls and retail centers.all day. They give you coverage in upscale suburban communities. and builds exceptional recall when people are seeking your product or service. advertising goes with them. You can't ignore it. as transit routes cover nearly all major streets and highways. transit advertising is the solution.  Creates top-of-mind awareness. Page | 40 . Transit advertising can't be turned off like television. every day . And wherever those vehicles travel. Transit gets results! Benefits Of Transit Advertising:  Greater Reach and frequency. it puts your message at eye-level in front of thousands of consumers .

Every Day. Unlike the posters which cannot be read at length commuters in trains have ample of time to reach the ad. Local trains also have advertising space on their walls. and therefore a longer ad can also be used.  Fits into virtually any advertising campaign... They are less expensive and have a higher possibility of being read by commuters through the message is obviously very brief. Page | 41 . as they are cheaper than hoardings & could be used anywhere.  Inexpensive. BEST buses rent out the entire bus that can be attractively painted with the ad message. which could be anything from cars to cans upto 50 feet high. Air balloons: Balloon advertising is a novel way of promoting products customized to a product shape. Various Types of Transit Advertising Interior cards or car cards: Buses and subways usually have overhead and wall mountings for advertising. In city like Bombay where local trains operate these entire trains are also painted with a particular ad. These are especially useful when catering for a specific target groups such as women. Bus ticket: Innovative media planners also use bus tickets to advertise their products. Exterior posters: Buses also have display ads on the outside space.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI  Reaching People All Day.

Thus. the alternative outdoor products have today grown into a sophisticated and viable billion-dollar business. the Mobile Vehicles can also be designed as per the specifications given by over valued customers as per their requirements. and every strategy. and their synergy within micro markets. Alternative outdoor media can cover a market far and wide or provide synergies with locations strategically placed around a town. Originally developed to bridge gaps in urban centers. alternative outdoor media is a cost efficient means to promote a big brand with "round the clock presence" on a local level. Apart from this the MDV is also very effective for Road Shows. Outdoor offers a treasure trove of choices that suit every target. The beauty of these ad forms is the targeting they provide. Outdoor advertising has come a long way from its humble beginnings as a roadside poster. Mobile Display Vehicles: This new concept of MDV is certainly more effective in this field than any other means because it attracts almost every commuters/passerby when it moves on roads whereas the earlier ideas of hoarding was stationery and only limited people could see them. Use one specific form of alternative outdoor or go "hog wild" with multiple executions. beautifully rendering a product's benefits and whereabouts. a whole new field of advertising formats has emerged to impact consumers head-on during the course of daily activities. The diversity and variety provides a marketer creative expression that knows no limits and a geographic dispersion that offers both deep and wide market coverage. Not an afterthought to fund editorial content. outdoor advertising is pure and unfettered . which attracts people now a days.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Wall painting: It is mainly used in rural areas where other advertising cannot reach and it one of the cheap method also.a proud beacon. It is even found in cities but to a very small. Moreover. Page | 42 . A New Twist Is Alternative Outdoor Media Beyond billboards. Today outdoor offers a portfolio of settings and frames that are custom built for every imaginable need a marketer might have. However it's done. Alternative outdoor media provides the impact of outdoors‘ 'power of presence' with the intimate messaging of print media. every geography.

 Cost : Outdoor offers the lowest cost per exposure of any major advertising medium. zapped. With computerization.3 percent). income.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI 4. The audience is mostly young.4 percent compared with spot TV (76. its possible to characterize outdoor audiences by age. Rates vary depending on market size and intensity. put aside.  Reach : For the same dollars. outdoor delivers a reach of 86.  Demographic flexibility : Messages can be concentrated in areas frequented or traversed by young people. educated.  Frequency : Nine out of 10 people reached with a 100 GRP showing receive an average of 29 impressions each over a 30-day period. and newspaper (72.5 percent). regionally.2 percent) for the same target audience in the same city. or turned off. and mobile – an attractive target to many national advertisers. sex. and lifestyle down to the block level. or people of specific ethnic backgrounds. or locally in more than 9. upper-income people. but the GRP system makes cost comparisons possible from market to market.  Geographic flexibility : Outdoor advertisers can place their advertising where they want it nationally.000 markets across North America. radio (72.6 Pros & Cons of Outdoor Advertising THE PROS: Accessibility : Outdoor carries the message 24 hours per day and cannot be fast-forwarded. affluent. Page | 43 .

 Visual pollution : Some people object to outdoor advertising as visual pollution.e. so some media buyers distrust reach estimates. and backlit display technologies offer more creative options.  Control : Unlike print and broadcast ads. businesspeople on their way to work. and brilliant color. neon signs.  Environmental influence : Outdoor messages are influenced by their environment. thereby influencing shoppers just before they make a purchase decision.7 Outdoor v/s Other Media There are some basic differences between outdoor advertising and advertising in other media.  Creative flexibility : Outdoor offers a large display and the spectacular features of lights. simple. and dogmatic message. etc. Placement in a run-down area can detract from a products image.  Location : Outdoor can target consumers by activity. or travelers on their way to the airport. painted bulletins. i.  Audience measurement : Audience demographics are difficult to measure. Though we have highlighted some of them in the foregoing paragraphs.. its hard to physically inspect each outdoor poster panel. The design and copy must tell a story briefly and crisply. animations. outdoor is ideal medium for those with a short. so outdoor advertising must intrude to be effective. Not every passerby sees or reads the ad.. giant video screens. They have a negative reaction to advertisers who use it. it is out of the home or place of business. THE CONS  Fleeting Message : Customers pass quickly. Some authors have used the term out-of-home to distinguish this medium from the rest of the media. hoardings. 4.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI  Impact : Because advertisers can build up GRPs very fast. whatever may be Page | 44 . New fiberoptics. and the words must sell.  Availability of locations : Oudoor is so popular that demand now exceed supply. reaching shoppers on their way to the store. outdoor advertising is literally out of door. They have indicated that out-ofhome media include outdoor posters.

though they view it in the course of their other activities.71 186.15 109. They are referred to as signs. are not classified strictly as outdoor ads. it is the audience who go to the message. In the USA. which has established certain standards on size. which are not of standard sizes and/or designs.8 Outdoor Market Report on Media Usage for March 2005 Product Category Telecom – Service Providers Insurance .83 117. either at the same place or on an identical billboard at another location.73 439. 4. Roadside and on premises devices. Display Charges (Figure in Lacs) 877. Outdoor ads offer repeat opportunities for looking at the ad message. An ad message is not brought to the audience.15 295. Only such billboards are qualified as outdoor media. The viewer has to incur no expenditure.85 161. Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA). whereas this is not so with other media.12 233. nor has he to make any effort to see an outdoor advertising.60 .Life Entertainment Automobile – 4 Wheeler Finance Banking Finance – Mutual Funds Publications Retail Food & Beverages Construction & Accessories Telecom Handsets Consumer Durables Page | 45 Approx. design and method of the construction of these billboards. all outdoor ads have no editorial vehicle to carry the messages.65 109.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI the slight difference in the interpretation.74 224.85 138.

Hydre bad.60 88.15 28.20 36. Full train paintings. Pune. Mobile Vans. Lucknow. Indore. Foot Over Bridges. Station Signages. Banga lore. Kolkat a. Bhopal.73% in comparison to February 2005 spends.75 37.10 42.34 66.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Liquor Airlines Garments Computers & Peripherals Electrical Accessories Travel & Tourism Real Estate Automobile – 2 Wheeler Internet Services Jewellery Energy Sector Auto Accessories Petroleum 93.37 62. Chenn ai.67 29.15 73. 4. Amritsar.00 24. Raipur. Glow Sings. Ludhiana. Delhi. Solus Buses. Chandigarg. Gantries.55 41.00 40.90 Total numb er of cities covere d is 16 Mumb ai.9 Ten Commandments Page | 46 . Vehicles covered are Billboards.90 47. Ahme dabad. The Total Outdoor Advertising spends in March 2005 have decreased by 10. Cochin. Pole Kiosk. Bus Shelter.

are not readily visible. Use graphics to organize the text. The key word or phrase can be highlighted in the colour box. 8. The message should be brief consisting of 3-5 words. the more media weight it requires. like red and green. Colours are used to contrast each other. 7. 5. The brand name works harder if it preceded the slogan. Page | 47 . Teaser campaigns can be effective in outdoor. the more mundane the creative. 10. Conversely. although they account for a small portion of outdoor campaigns. the more intriguing and the more humorous the creative execution of an outdoor ad is. The disruption of expectation: The consumer today enjoys a challenge. 2. Complementary colours. 4. 3. The minimum type height on a normal 20‘ x 10‘ hoarding should be upwards 30 cms. Ornate lettering may reduce legibility. Lower case is suitable for longer headlines and sentences. and has the ability to deal with the abstract. 6. Build a uniquely recognizable format or layout and repeat it often enough. It requires briefest eye contact to identify the brand. the less media weight it needs.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Pratap Bose from O&M gives ten considerations that should go into the making of outdoor creatives. The pictures that are most effective are pictures of ordinarily people. Faces used should not overwhelm the brand name. 1. Capitals are used for display headings. The message should be legible. The more innovative. 9.

and broadcast and cable television are not in the entertainment business. What business is an advertising agency in? In the advertising creation and placement business. Without the media to reach large numbers of consumers with an ad or commercial. When people talk about the media. viewers. Advertising agencies would not exist if there were no media to run the ads they created. What business is the media in? The advertising delivery business. they are referring to the distributors of news and entertainment content – television. such as ―Friends. The media are dependent on advertising. magazines are not in the fashion business. as well as the other media – yellow pages and out-of-home – are supported all or in part by advertising and are. and the Internet. People love and depend on their media – their favorite television program.1 Introduction to Media Advertising is one of the integral elements of the marketing process. newspapers. promotion and customer service are. Where is advertising seen or heard? In the media. such as The Wall Street Journal. their favorite country music radio station.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI CHAPTER 5: MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK OF MEDIA 3. The reason marketers and advertisers are dependent on the media is because the media are pervasive and popular with consumers (readers. such as People. radio. magazines. therefore. just as sales. product design.‖ their favorite magazine. We might look at advertising as the mass selling of a product. listeners) and are their link to the global village. or their favorite newspaper. Because of this affection and Page | 48 . and advertising. marketers would have to go door to door and try to sell their goods one-on-one through personal selling or consumers would have to wondering which sold the product they needed – both very expensive undertakings. is co-dependent on the media. newspaper are not in the news business. All of these media. However. in the advertising delivery business. as an integral part of a larger marketing system.

For example. Americans seem to blame all the ills of society on the media. higher than in most other industries. celebrities. expose. just as the media get the advertising revenue from losing political candidates. The role of the media is to expose consumers to advertising. newspapers. television. the media is a profitable industry. A television statement does not expand the programming time if it does not have commercials to run. Newspapers in large markets are usually monopolies or close to it because of joint operating agreements. at a television station. The profit margins in the media are. it costs nothing to add a commercial – there are no incremental costs involved. it has to build one with all of the concomitant costs involved (labor. and Interactive. On the other hand. The media are just that – a medium. the cost of adding an additional ad has no or very low incremental costs involved. a connection between advertisers and consumers. Thus. except for the software industry. in television. The reason for high profit margins is because in an advertising supported medium such as radio. in spite of a love-hate relationship between the public and the media. magazines. Many of the great fortunes in the world have been built in the media. and profit margins often reach or exceed 30 percent. Page | 49 . and glorify. perhaps. not to guarantee sales or results to advertisers.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI dependency. Even if new products do not survive in the marketplace. as a rule. so if a commercial is not scheduled in a commercial pod. Finally. if an automotive manufacturer sells a car. or perhaps because of it. the time for commercials is baked into most programming. the media still receive the advertising dollars invested to introduce the product. a promotion or public service announcement will run. the media are actually the most powerful business in the country – more powerful than the industries. Top-rated radio and television stations in major markets often have profit margins of 50 percent or greater. and politicians they cover. Popular national magazines often have similarly high profit margins. It is because of this enormous power coupled with a perception that the media emphasize negative news or sex and violence that people probably have such a low opinion of the media.

A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI materials. and what will it cost us to do so? MEDIA PROCESS Media Strategy Media Planning Media Buying Media Scheduling Page | 50 . how can we reach them. the incremental cost of adding a page of advertising is very low in comparison with the cost of an ad to an advertiser.). there is more money to distribute to salespeople in the form of compensation than in less profitable industries. if any. What this profitable economic model means for salespeople is that advertising revenue is extremely profitable and. In newspapers and magazines. all additional advertising sold is 100 percent profit. that of subscriptions. including the advertising industry. etc. Media salespeople are among the highest paid of any industry.2 Media Process Once the advertising is created. once the cost of operating is recovered. transportation. which have an additional revenue stream. Who are the people we need to reach. the focus shifts to how best we can take it the people. 3. how often do we need to reach them. where and when can we deliver our ads to them. therefore. Once a radio or television station has sold enough advertising to cover its cost of operations and debt payment.

e. Geographic allocation usually marketing objectives. Page | 51 . This is known as ―weighting‖. It describes how the media planner will achieve the stated media objectives. the less will be the money wasted on delivering the messages to the consumers for whom the product was intended to. It is important for the media planner to distinguish between media types. The first step in media planning i.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI  The Media Strategy Media Strategy refers to a specific course of action with the media. The second step in media planning process will be the selection of the ―Media Mix‖ or the most optimal combination of media. Budgets may be allocated based on the importance of media types and/or geographic regions. to match the media with the target group. and what kind of media budgets are available to do so. vehicles and media units. There are 4 strategic decisions to be taken by the media planner:     Which media will be used? How often each will be used? How much of each will be used? When will they be used? The media planner has to take the following factors when developing a media strategy:    Scope of the target audience Consumer purchase patterns Mechanical considerations  The Media Planning The Media Planning process starts with looking at what objectives the media plans need to achieve. The better the match of the target with the media.  Media Buying Media planning also involves allocating media budgets to media types.

REGION SALES POTENTIAL BUDGET GOAL (based on sales potential SOUTH EAST WEST NORTH 25% 15% 30% 10% Rs. 50 lakhs Rs. 30 lakhs Rs. 60 lakhs Rs. 20 lakhs

Media buying may be defined as the process of executing a schedule of desired media weights for brands at a lowest possible cost. The media buying process can be divided into 2 broad stages: - Deciding what to buy - Setting out to buy at the most competitive rates.

Specialized Media Services With clients becoming particular about media buying rates, some agencies are creating their own specialized media buying houses. Such agencies are termed ―AOR‖ (Agencies Of Record). JWT‘s AOR is called FULCRUM, Lintas call it INITIATIVE MEDIA, Mudra‘s AOR i s called OPTIMUM MEDIA SOLUTIONS.

Agencies are now turning their attention towards independent media buying houses, because these days satellite channels and print media are offering heavy discounts on bulk buying. Two specialist independent networks are discussed below:  MINDSHARE: This is an independent network of WPP group, the larges agency conglomerate in the world. Mindshare entered the Indian market in 1996. it purchase media for its group agencies JWT, Contract, O&M and FCB ULKA. It is surprising to know that Mindshare got its first client no the day it opened its office. HLL purchased media worth 600 crore from Mindshare. Today, its annual billings are 1500 crore.
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A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI  CARAT MEDIA: this is Europe‘s leading media specialist. It entered into India in 1998. Carat offers the Indian clients media consultancy, which includes media strategy, research planning, buying, and media selection as a total package of services. It purchases media for agencies like Mudra, Clarion, and RK Swamy BBDO. Last years billing were 90 crore.

 Media Scheduling This is the final step in the media process (media plan). It refers to the timing of the media insertions. A media schedule is usually prepared for the entire campaign period, which is usually for a period of 6 months or 1 year. The following factors are taken into consideration in preparing a media schedule:  Seasonal patterns of the products (Monte Carlo advertises more in winters)  Repurchase cycles (FMCG‘s require more advertising)  Product life cycle (a product in introductory stage requires more advertising)  Competitor‘s media schedule (Coca-Cola and Pepsi)

Different patterns of Media Scheduling:

 Continuous Advertising: This refers to advertising without breaks. Products with short repurchase cycle that are purchased frequently are the examples. E.g. HLL, Coca-Cola, Pepsi etc.  Flighting: This is an intermittent pattern with gaps where no advertising is done. This is a case for seasonal products, where funding is limited and the products with a long repurchase cycle. E.g. CRY (Child Relief and You) cards and Monte Carlo woolen wears.  Pulsing: This is continuous advertising, which gets heavy during certain periods. Seasonal items follow this pattern of advertising. E.g. Rasna (Rozana and Utsav).  Blinkering: This is strong advertising during periods with short gaps in between. E.g. Eagle Diaries start advertising from September and stops advertising in October and again go for strong advertising (bursts) in November and December.

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A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Thus the media planning is very complicated and involves a lot of expertise. Media planners play a very crucial role in media budget decisions.

3.3 The Media Mix
Media planning follows the adoption of one of the media strategies, which forms part of the overall promotional strategy. A media plan is concerned with media selection – what type of media should be used? Magazines? Newspapers? Television? Radio? Outdoor? If magazines of what classes? General interest magazines, women‘s magazines, romance magazines, crime magazines, business magazines? If general magazines, which specific ones – India Today, Frontline? If newspapers, in which regions? If radio or television advertising is required, which radio and TV station should be covered? Once the media selection is decided upon, the next logical step is to determine the combination of ―mix‖ of the media one must use. This will be arrived at by considering the advertising company‘s marketing objectives, its target market, media characteristics, and it‘s matching with the target market. Also, the overall advertising budget does influence the nature of such mix, in addition to the available gross audience. As an example, to achieve certain advertising objectives, one may require to use a mix of 50 percent television, 35 percent magazine and 15 percent newspaper. However, more than one mix may fulfill the advertising objectives, and yet be within the overall budgeted cost. But one should aim at a balanced mix. It should not be heavily weighted in favor of either frequency or reach.

Some advertisers prefer to concentrate on one media type mix, whereas others like to have widely varied media mix. While the former offers the advertiser an opportunity to make a great impact on a specific market segment, the latter, being an assortment of media, can deliver different messages about the same product to different market segments. Furthermore, if an ad is released in a varied media mix having a varied editorial environment, there is the probability that the ad message will not ―wear out.‖ ―Wear out‖ refers to the time it takes for people to become bored with an ad or a commercial. The varied media mix also increases the reach of the ad message because no two media have entirely the same audience. A certain percentage of each medium‘s audience is not reached by any other medium.

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A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Commenting further on media mix, we may point out that those who are heavy viewers of television are light readers of magazines, and vice-versa. When one concentrates on advertising on television, one is achieving a greater impact on heavy viewers and very little impact on light viewers. Thus, the impact is uneven. A media mix that contains the component of advertising in magazines in addition to advertising on television will level out the imbalance. However, by increasing the number of media in a mix, the advertiser will have to increase his total budget. Therefore, as said earlier, a balance has to be struck.

Two more concepts, namely, duplication and gross audience, are worth considering now.

Duplication refers to the number of prospects who are reached by more than one of the media in a mix. Many executives who read Business India, for example, also read the Economic Times. These executives are counted in the circulation figures of both the publications. Ideally, every advertiser would like to have an unduplicated reach among its best prospects. But, actually, no two media have an ―overlapped‖ audience. A certain amount of duplication, therefore, is bound to occur. However, the objective should be to select a mix with the minimum duplication; but at times this is unavoidable, particularly when one desires to achieve other advertising objectives as well.

Gross audience refers to the total number of people exposed to all the forms of advertising used in a single campaign. This includes the audience for radio and television programmes, outdoor and transit displays, circulation figures of various publications, and the number of people who attend trade shows. While designing a media mix, the advertiser should know the gross audience size offered by each alternative campaign. This would help him to choose the mix that delivers the greatest number of exposure alternatives.

3.4 Media Vehicles

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e. Choices available are Internet. Many industries face seasonal fluctuations and pass through cycles.Neon Signs Direct Advertising Media . Companies often go in for a media mix.Hoardings . magazines. Therefore a company has to be very clear about its target audience.Envelop Enclosures .Local Trains . Everyone of this has its advantages and disadvantages. direct mails. TV.Bus Shelter . i. newspapers.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Selecting the proper media vehicle for communicating the message goes a long way in the success of any kind of advertising.Booklets And Catalogue Page | 56 . VARIOUS MEDIA VEHICLES IN INDIA Indoor Advertising (Media Conventional) Outdoor Advertising Media -Print -Radio -Television -Movie Theatre -Cable TV . A limited budget should be prudently allotted among these media vehicles. they select more than one of the available choices. radio and hoardings.Travel Displays .Posters . Each media vehicle has its positive and negative points with a different reach and impact. Timing is of great significance here. Therefore advertising should be timed that way to take care of these fluctuations.

A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI . television.Puppetry . The characteristics of newspaper coverage.Short Messaging Service (Sms) .Videos On Wheel .Wap Enabled Device .Atm’s -STD Booth’s (Zip Phone) . The major ones available for advertising purpose are: newspaper.  Newspaper: advertising are. magazines. outdoor displays and online advertising.Folk Theatre .Wall Paintings .Package Inserts Rural Advertising (Unconventional) Emerging Media (Innovative Media) . direct mail. low cost.Computer Kiosks 3. radio.Sales Letter .Internet .Gift Novelties .Post Cards . Low cost Page | 57 . Today. Ads can be placed in interest sections.high Newspapers come under the print media. short lead time for placing ads. a number of channels have been accepted as major advertising media.5 Media types for Advertising The opportunities for offering space and time to advertisers have mushroomed since the early days of Pompeii when messages were carved out with a stylus on the sides of buildings.

Well-segmented audiences. High cost/contact. etc. Can be used for coupons.Local coverage. Poor image (junk mail). The characteristics of this media are. High repetition. Reader controls exposure.  Direct mail: The characteristics of this media are. Poor image. Low cost.  Radio: It is a broadcasting media. Easily noticed. kiosks. Low production costs. Location specific.  Outdoor displays: This media includes posters.Flexible Timely (current ads). Local restrictions. Flexible.High selectivity. The characteristics of this media are. Low selectivity. High information content. transit. sky advertising. Online advertising: This includes Internet advertising. content Longevity. Quality reproduction. advertising on mobile phones (SMS advertising) etc. High prestige. hoardings. Visual only. Reader controls exposure. Selective reader exposure. High frequency. neon signs. High reach. Multiple readers. Opportunities for repeat exposures.  Television: It is also a broadcasting media. Clutter Low attention-getting capabilities. Short exposure time requires short ad. The characteristics of this media are.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Timely (current ads). The characteristics of radio as an advertising media are.Mass coverage. Poor reproduction quality. The characteristics of segmentation potential. Lack of flexibility. Short life. Low attention getting. High information. Long lead-time for ad placement. Fleeting message.High coverage. favorable image. Attention getting. Low cost per exposure.  Magazines: magazines are- Magazines are also included under the print media. Short message life High absolute cost High production costs. banners. Audio only. Impact Page | 58 .

Poor image. Low attention getting. Selective reader exposure. video. Page | 59 .A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI of media (sound. animation and so on).

A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI CHAPTER 6: DATA INTERPRETATION & FINDINGS 1. of respondents 48 27 25 (billboards and hoardings) Interpretation A large size of population is influenced by Television and Newspapers. From where do you get information about the new product? Answers Television & other electronic media Newspapers and Magazines Outdoor advertizing No. Page | 60 .

Page | 61 .A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI 2. of respondents 28 72 Interpretation: People are more affected by advertisement with moving image. Which form of advertisement do you like more? Answers Still image Moving image No.

Page | 62 . of respondents 62 38 Interpretation: More number of people consider advertisement as a source of information rather than a source of entertainment.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI 3. For you advertisement is a source of : Answers Information Entertainment No.

of respondents 26 74 Interpretation: Entertaining advertisement does not affect the opinion of customer about the product Page | 63 . Does entertaining advertisement affect your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI 4.

Does information provided in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No. Page | 64 . of respondents 87 13 Interpretation: Information provided in the advertisement affect very much on the opinion of consumers about the product.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI 5.

A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI 6. Does language used in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No. Page | 65 . of respondents 63 37 Interpretation: Language used in the advertisement affects a lot on the opinion of consumers about the product.

Does presence of any celebrity in the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI 7. of respondents 69 31 Interpretation: Presence of any celebrity affects on the opinion of consumers about the product. Page | 66 .

A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI 8. of respondents 52 48 Interpretation: The effect of intensity is very powerful on the opinion of consumers about the product. Page | 67 . Does intensity of the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No.

A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI 9. of respondents 59 41 Interpretation: Presence of social issues in advertisements affects very much on the opinion of consumers about the product. Does presence of social issues in the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No. Page | 68 .

of respondents 87 13 Interpretation: Advertisement helps very much in increasing the sales of any product. Page | 69 .A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI 10. Do you think advertisement helps in increasing sales of any product? Answers Yes No No.

8 Step 4: Test statistic for testing H0 is: ℵ^2=∑(0i-Ei)^2/Ei Page | 70 .05.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI CHI-SQUARE TEST Aim.4 E22=(R2c2)/N=(48*20)/100=9.To find out is there a relationship between the occupation of the customer and mode of advertising media affecting their perception with regards to different products. E31=(R3C1)/N=(60*25)/100=15 E32=(R3C2)/N=(27*60)/100=16. Type of media⇒ Occupation of people⇓ Student Professional Household Total Outdoor media Print media Electronic media 10 10 5 25 8 9 10 27 2 1 45 48 20 20 60 100 Step 1: H0: There is no significant difference (or no relationship) between the people occupation and the mode of advertising media affecting their perception.4 E13=(R1c3)/N=(48*20)/100=9. Step3: Calculation for the expected frequency We use formula (Row total*column total)/Grand total E11=R1C1/N=(25*20)/100=5. Following is the information collected from the primary source .6 EE21=(R2C1)/N=(27*20)100=5. Step 2: Level of significance α considered in this analysis is 5% α=0.6 E23=(R2C3)/N=(25*20)/100=5. E12=(R1C2)/N=(27*20)100=5.2 E33=(R3C3)/N=(48*60)/100=28. HA: There is significant difference( or relationship) between the people occupation and the mode of advertising media affecting their perception.

e Print media .0.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Observed frequency Oi 10 8 2 10 9 1 5 10 15 `Expected Frequency Ei 5 5.488 Step6: ℵ^2 cal > ℵ^ tab.8 (Oi. of rows c= no.25 6.electronic media and Outdoor media Page | 71 . Hence People with different occupation are affected differently by different kinds of media i.4 9.05 level of significance..66 9.66 2.01 5 2.44 ( Oi-Ei)^2/ Ei 5 1.76 57.70 6. So (r=no. Step:7 Conclusion: There is a significant difference between the people occupation and mode of media affecting their perception regarding different products.1125 ℵ^2 =45. D(4. In this case we reject null hypothesis.76 25 12. Thus accept the HA.05)= 9.Ei)^2 25 6.4 7.4 9.96 100 16 262.6 15 6 28. The decision rule is to reject the null hypothesis if the calculated value of the ℵ^2 comes to be greater than the tabulated value of the ℵ^2 and to accept it otherwise.96 73.6 5 5. Tabulated value at 4 degree of freedom and 0.79 Step 5: Statistic follows a chi-square distribution. columns) Degree of freedom df=(r-1)(c-1) = (3-1)(3-1) = 2*2= 4.

     Social issues included in advertisement affects the perception of high age group people.      Language used in the advertisement also plays important role in increasing effectiveness of an advertisement.  Page | 72 .    Advertisement increases the sales of any product.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI FINDINGS  Advertisements with moving image are more effective than advertisement with still image.    Intensity of advertisement affects the perception of consumers towards the product and leads them for its purchase.     National advertisement has more influence on consumer’s perception about the product instead of local advertisement.    Information provided in the advertisement has more influence on consumer’s perception about the product.

may consist of advertisements. But if the banks really want to have a competitive edge over other banks they must constantly be on the run to advantage of every opportunity that comes their way. Indian Bank should undertake aggressive marketing tactics so as to reach out to potential customers and convert them into permanent customers.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI CHAPTER 7 : CONCLUSION All these things may appear very simple but their implementation requires a lot of patience and conscious efforts. with a view to making the customer empathetical to bank‘s limitation and predicaments and appreciative of bank‘s efforts to improve customer service. By taking to the customers or through any other form of interaction the bank should find out the loopholes if any in its service which the customers feel are worthwhile and thus try to remove them so as to work towards utmost satisfaction of the customers. Undertake Aggressive Marketing Although Indian Bank is taking many steps to market its products to the customers and make them aware about the same its efforts are less as compared to private banks that are constantly on the hunt for new customers. informative literature interfaces. Hence. After analyzing the behavior of different type of customers on the basis of their occupation I would like to make the following recommendations to Indian Bank so as to improve their services and provide augmented benefits to their customers. Customer education programmes. gives the customers what they want and not what you want to give them. so can you. Page | 73 . I think I can.e. This is the mantra that Indian Bank must adopt to retain its customers as well as make new customers and inculcate healthy banking habits in our citizens." Well. wherein bank‘s employees should also be involved . seminars etc. Do you remember the story about "The Little Engine That could"—the tiny train that had to pull the load of toys up the mountain for the children on the other side? He made it up by chanting "I think I can. Customer Relationship Management At present it is the age of customer concept of marketing i.

The millennium edition. Internet 1. http://books. Kotler Philip.html  http://www. Kapferer J.au/ooh-digital-signs-hijacked-tertiary-students-209036 Books 1. Printice hall. 3. (2009) Strategic Brand Management .mediapost.com/publications/article/221772/building-rapport-between-oohautomation.exchange4media. . Mohan M.L (2005). Excel Books.com. Kogan page India Pvt. 2.google. http://books. Advertising Management : concept and cases. Advertising and Sales Promotion Management.com/node/18587305  http://www. Tata Mc Grawhill.com/55030_technology-combined-with-creativity-in-oohcan-deliver-an-amplified-effect.A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI CHAPTER 8: BIBLIOGRAPHY  http://www.exchange4media. New Delhi. Strategic Brand Management – Kapferer 5.com/books?id=wAMsaLJoykYC&dq=marketing&cd=3  Page | 74 .com/books?id=t-yoHkKZ9ZsC&q=marketing&dq=marketing&cd=1 2.html  http://www.exchange4media. 4.com/55032_outdoor-has-gone-way-beyond-billboards-butwill-continue-to-be-relevant. Marketing Management.html  http://www.economist.exchange4media.html  http://www. Gupta S.com/55037_flexibility-creating-possibilities-key-to-sellingooh-for-brands-ron-graham.(2000).google. (1989). India.com/54993_bjp-rolls-out-nation-wide-ooh-campaign. Ltd. India.html  http://mumbrella.

Internet e.1 Name Q2. Your specific answers will be completely anonymous. Television b. Gender  Male  Female Q3. in combination with those of others. This survey is regarding the comparison of passenger rate in Mumbai with special reference to Western and Central Railway. Newspapers and Magazines c. The responses given will be used for the academic purpose to complete my research work. What is your current occupation?     Businessman Housewife Student Professional Q5. but your views. From where do you get information about the new product? a. Peers (friends/family) [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Page | 75 .A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI ANNEXURE QUESTIONNAIRE Please take a few minutes to complete this survey. Age     20 and below 21-40 41-60 above 60 Q4. Outdoor advertizing d. are extremely important. Q.

A STUDY ON OUT OF HOME MEDIA WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH MUMBAI Q6. Do you think advertisement helps in increasing sales of any product? a. b. b. b. Information Entertainment [ [ ] ] Q8. b. Yes No [ [ ] ] Q9.For you advertisement is a source of a. Yes No [ [ ] ] 11. Yes No [ [ ] ] 10 Does language used in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a. Still image (Banners and hoardings) [ ] b.Does an entertaining advertisement influences your opinion about the product? a.Does presence of any celebrity in the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a. Yes b. Yes b. Yes No [ [ ] ] 14. Yes b. No [ [ ] ] 13. No [ [ ] ] 12. Does presence of social issues in the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a. Does intensity of the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a. No [ [ ] ] Page | 76 . b. Moving image (Visual display board) [ ] Q7.Does information provided in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a. Which form of Outdoor advertisement do you like more? a.