EXAMPLE OF PRESTRESS LOSSES CALCULATION ACCORDING TO AASHTO-LRFD 2007 REFINED METHOD By March 19, 2007 PRESTRESS LOSS – 2005

PROVISIONS SIGN CONVENTION Positive terms are: o Tension in steel o When prestress loss is labeled as such it is assigned a positive sign o When prestress gain is labeled as such it is assigned a positive sign o Compression in concrete o Bending causing bottom fiber tension o Eccentricity of deck relative to composite section if deck is above girder as in common practice o Eccentricity of prestress force if prestress is below section centroid as in common practice NOTATION Ac = Ad = Ag = Ati = Aif = Act = Aps = Ecd = Ect = Ep = ed = epc = epg = epti = eptf = area of section calculated using the gross composite concrete section properties of the girder and the deck and the deck-to-girder modular ratio (in.2) area of deck concrete gross area of precast section (in.2) area of transformed section calculated using the initial girder concrete modulus of elasticity area of transformed section of girder calculated using the girder concrete modulus of elasticity at service area of transformed composite section calculated using moduli of elasticity of girder and deck at service area of prestressing steel (in.2) modulus of elasticity of deck concrete (ksi) modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer or at time of load application (ksi) modulus of elasticity of deck concrete eccentricity of deck with respect to the transformed gross composite section, usually negative as it is above centroid eccentricity of prestressing force with respect to centroid of gross composite section, positive if below centroid eccentricity of prestressing force with respect to centroid of gross girder section, positive if below centroid eccentricity of prestressing force with respect to centroid of initial transformed section of girder eccentricity of prestressing force with respect to centroid of final transformed section

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diaphragms and other loads introduced before composite action is effected (kip-in. If concrete age at time of initial loading is unknown at design time. shrinkage and relaxation and including elastic stress change (loss or gain) due to initial prestress.) effective prestressing. but excluding any elastic stress gain due to composite dead loads or due to live loads (kip) prestressing force immediately prior to transfer (kip) 2 .4.3-1 moment of inertia of section calculated using the gross composite concrete section properties of the girder and the deck and the deck-to-girder modular ratio at service (in.) midspan moment due to dead loads after deck has become composite with girder (kip-in.3. f'ci may be taken as 0.4) moment of inertia of transformed section calculated using the initial concrete modulus of elasticity (in.eptc = fcgp = f'ci = fpi = fpt = H= Ic = Ig = Iti = Itf = Itc = Kdf = Kid = kf = khc = khs = Kid = ktd = kvs = Mg= Md= MSIDL= MLL= Pe = Pi = of girder eccentricity of prestressing force with respect to centroid of composite transformed section of girder and deck the concrete stresses at the center of gravity of the prestressing tendons due to the prestressing force immediately after transfer and the self-weight of the member at the sections of maximum moment (ksi) specified compressive strength of concrete at time of prestressing for pretensioned members and at time of initial loading for nonprestressed members. including long term effects due to creep.2.80f'c (ksi) prestressing steel stress immediately prior to transfer (ksi) stress in prestressing steel immediately after transfer (ksi) relative humidity (%). In the absence of better information.4) moment of inertia of gross precast section (in.) midspan moment due deck weight. deck weigh and all other loads introduced before composite action takes effect. H may be taken from Figure 5. girder weight.) midspan moment due to live load (kip-in.4) moment of inertia of transformed section calculated using the girder concrete modulus of elasticity at service moment of inertia of transformed composite section calculated using concrete moduli of elasticity at service transformed section coefficient that accounts for time-dependent interaction between concrete and bonded steel in the section being considered for time period between deck placement and final time transformed section coefficient that accounts for time-dependent interaction between concrete and bonded steel in the section being considered for time period between transfer and deck placement factor for the effect of concrete strength humidity factor for creep humidity factor for shrinkage (%) transformed section coefficient that accounts for time-dependent interaction between concrete and bonded steel in the section being considered for time period between transfer and deck placement time development factor factor for the effect of the volume-to-surface ratio of the component midspan moment due to member self weight (kip-in.

per Eq.3.4.3.t= td = tf = ti = V/S = ybc = yb = ybti = ybtf = ybtc = εsh = εbdf = εbid = εddf = Ψ(t. ksi.2.4.3-1 shrinkage strain of deck concrete between placement and final time per Equation 5.2.3.4. and time being considered for analysis of creep or shrinkage effects age at deck placement (days) final age (days) age of concrete at transfer of prestressing (days) volume-to-surface ratio eccentricity of bottom fibers with respect to centroid of gross composite section.4.4.9.3.2-1 girder creep coefficient at time of deck placement due to loading introduced at transfer per Equation 5.2-1 deck creep coefficient at final time due to loading introduced shortly after deck placement.3-1 shrinkage strain of girder between time of deck placement and final time per Equation 5. defined as age of concrete between time of loading for creep calculations.2.2.2.3a-1 (ksi) Elastic gain in prestressing steel stress.4.2-1 girder creep coefficient at final time due to loading introduced at transfer per Equation 5.2. or end of curing for shrinkage calculations.3.td) = ∆fcd = ∆fcdf = ∆fpCD = ∆fpCR = ∆fpES = ∆fpES1 = ∆fpES2 = maturity of concrete (days).4.3.2. per Equation 5.4.3.2.3.2. 5.ti) = Ψd(tf.2. combined with deck weight and superimposed loads change in concrete stress at centroid of prestressing strands due to shrinkage of deck concrete prestress loss due to creep of girder concrete between time of deck placement and final time (ksi) prestress loss due to creep of girder concrete between transfer and deck placement (ksi) sum of all losses or gains due to elastic shorting or extension at the time of application of prestress and/or external loads (ksi) sum of all losses or gains due to elastic shorting or extension at the time of application of initial prestress and member self weight. end of member curing and time at which shrinkage effects are determined.2-1 change in concrete stress at centroid of prestressing strands due to long-term losses between transfer and deck placement.td) = Ψb(tf.3-1 concrete shrinkage strain of girder between the time of transfer and deck placement per Equation 5.ti) = Ψb(td. positive when shortening.3.5.31 concrete creep coefficient at time t due to loading applied at time ti per Equation 5. at the time of application of deck weight 3 . Equation 5.4. positive if below centroid eccentricity of bottom fibers with respect to centroid of gross girder section.ti) = Ψb(tf.2-1 girder creep coefficient at final time due to loading at deck placement per Equation 5. positive if below centroid eccentricity of bottom fibers with respect to centroid of initial transformed section of girder eccentricity of bottom fibers with respect to centroid of final transformed section of girder eccentricity of bottom fibers with respect to centroid of composite transformed section of girder and deck shrinkage strain of concrete.

Construction schedule allows for the following assumptions: Concrete age at prestress transfer. ksi. ksi.4 of the precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute Bridge Design Manual. f ci 4. Cast-in-place concrete strength at 28 days. V/S = 3. Equation 5. Volume-to-surface ratio.9. Prestressing steel: 48-0. Precast gross section properties are: Ag = 767 in.4.4. ti = 1 day.0 ksi. The girders are designed to act compositely with the 8-in.∆fpES3 = ∆fpES4 = ∆fpLT = ∆fpR = ∆fpR1 = ∆fpR2 = ∆fpSD = ∆fpSR = ∆fpSS = ∆fpT = γh = γ st = Elastic gain in prestressing steel stress. The bridge consists of six. at the time of application of superimposed dead loads (barriers.5. . of the deck is assumed to be worn out with time. H = 70.4 ksi for low relaxation strands and 10 ksi for stress relieved strands prestress loss due to relaxation of prestressing strands between time of transfer and deck placement per Equation 5. tf = 20000 days. at the time of application of live load losses due to long-term shrinkage and creep of concrete.9. y b = 36. 270-ksi low relaxation strand. It is included in weight calculation but not in cross section properties.5.92” from bottom girder fibers. td = 90 days.2c-1 (ksi) prestress loss due to relaxation of prestressing strands in concrete section between time of deck placement and final time per Equation 5.3-3 EXAMPLE This example uses the data of Example 9. f c' = 6. The bridge is constructed in a region with relative humidity (%). of the 2005 Interim of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. The bridge crosssection is shown in Figure 1. and at service. 4 . etc.5. deep AASHTO-PCI bulb-tee girders spaced at 9-ft.51. 2 . wearing surface.5.3-2 correction factor for specified concrete strength at time of prestress transfer to the concrete members.3c-1 (ksi) prestress loss due to shrinkage of girder concrete between time of deck placement and final time (ksi) prestress loss due to shrinkage of girder concrete between transfer and deck placement (ksi) prestress loss due to shrinkage of deck in composite section (ksi) total losses (ksi) correction factor for relative humidity of ambient air. Precast concrete strength at ' = 5. which may be calculated as the sum of ∆fpR1 and ∆fpR2 .5 ksi.5.5 in. both are assumed for calculation of losses and stresses to be introduced immediately after the deck has gained design strength. I g = 545894 in.5-in. The cast-in-place haunch over the girder top flange is assumed to be 0.9. They are listed in Table 1. thick and 42 in. age at deck placement.60 in . The top ½ in. 120-ft simple span 72 in.9. The prestress losses and concrete stresses are calculated using the Refined Method of Article 5. with a centroid at 6. The superimposed dead loads consist of the railing and a 2 in. Third Edition.9. and relaxation of the steel (ksi) total prestress loss due to relaxation of prestressing steel. f c' = release. Bending moments at the mid-span cross section are as reported in the PCI BDM. cast-in-place concrete deck to resist the superimposed dead loads and live loads. Final conditions are assumed to occur at concrete age. wide.8 ksi.4. future wearing surface. or estimated as 2. diameter.) Elastic gain in prestressing steel stress. Deck V/S ratio = 3. 4 . per Equation 5.

915 Composite Barriers + FWS.14 + ⎟ 1000 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎞ ⎛ Deck: E c = (33000 )⎜ 0.5 ⎞ ⎛ Girder at release: E c = (33000)⎜ 0.4.Table 1 Moment at mid-span (k-in) Dead Load Non-composite Girder.5 f c ksi ' (5.5 6.14 + ⎟ 1000 ⎠ ⎝ 5.14 + ⎟ 1000 ⎠ ⎝ CREEP: (a) Girder 1. Md 17.5 6.082 51' 8" uniform deck thickness 3' 5 spaces @ 9' 3' Figure 1 Bridge Cross-Section MATERIAL PROPERTIES: Modulus of elasticity of concrete: E c = 33000 w1.480 Live Load plus Dynamic Load Allowance Composite HL-93. Mg Slab.5 ⎞ ⎛ Girder at final time: E c = (33000 )⎜ 0.5 6.5 = 4718 ksi 4 = 3607 ksi 5 .8 = 4456 ksi 1. MLL 32.258 19. MSIDL 6.4-1) 1.2.

99 )(1.45 − (0.13(V / S ) = 1.00 )(1)−0.8) + 89 = 0.13)(3) = 1. ψ b (t f .008 H = 1.13)(3.9k vs k hc k f k td t i −0.9k vs k hc k f k td t i −0.008 H = 1.56 − 0.118 = (1.06 )(1.13(V / S ) = 1.56 − 0.48 Girder creep coefficient.24 SHRINKAGE (a) Girder 6 .51) = 0.00 )(1.8) ⎛ ⎞ t 19999 k td = ⎜ ⎜ 61 − 4 f ' ci + t ⎟ ⎟ = 61 − (4 )(5.ti = 20000 .ti = 90 .19 ' 1 + f ci 1 + ( 0.9k vs k hc k f k td t i −0.t i ) = 1.00 )(1)−0.56 − (0.1 = 89 days.70 ⎜ 61 − 4 f ' ci + t ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ψ b (t d .19 )(1.t d ) = 1.118 = 2.9 )(0.118 = (1.008)(70 ) = 1.00 ⎝ ⎠ ψ b (t f .t i ) . at time of deck placement due to loading introduced at transfer: td = 90 days. and t = tf .48)(0.ψ b (t d .118 = (1.99 ≥ 0 Deck creep at final time due to loads introduced shortly after deck placement: ψ b (t f .45 − (0.8) + 19999 = 1.74 )(1.00 )(0.74 kf = ' 1 + f ci 1 + (5.9k vs k hc k f k td t i −0.9 )(1.00 5 5 kf = = = 1.7 ) = 1.t i ) = 1.87 (b) Deck: k hc = 1.118 = (1.45 − 0.1 = 19999 days k vs = 1.06 ≥ 0 k hc = 1.118 = 0.00 5 5 = = 0.04 Girder creep coefficient at final time due to loading at deck placement ti = 90 days ψ b (t f .t d ) = 1.56 − (0.45 − 0.t i ) t = tf .48)(90 )−0.008)(70 ) = 1.80 )(4 ) k vs = 1.Creep coefficient at final time due to loading at transfer. ⎞ ⎛ 89 t k td = ⎜ ⎟ = 61 − (4 )(5.118 = 1.

70 ⎜ 61 − 4 f ' ci + t ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ε bid = k vs k hs k f k td 0.000269 in. the haunch and deck width are first transformed to precast concrete. 2 . y b = 36.000579 in.70)(0. Similarly.000115 in. The gross composite section properties are then obtained using customary calculations./in.57 in.48 x10 −3 = (0./in.000384 − 0.14 H ) = 2.00 − 0.014 )(70 ) = 1.48 x10 −3 = (0. (b) Deck Shrinkage strain between end of deck curing and final time: ε ddf = k vs k hs k f k td 0. I g = 545894 in. Ag = 767 in.00 − (0.00 − 0. t=90-1 = 89 days: ⎞ ⎛ 89 t k td = ⎜ ⎟ = 61 − (4 )(5.11 in.000269 = 0. which are summarized in Table 2 7 .02 ε bdf = ε bif − ε bid = 0.02 (b) Gross Composite Section To obtain gross composite section. 4 . Transformed deck width = wdtf = wd E d / E c = ( 108 )( 3607 ) / 4718 = 82./in.02 )(1.00 )(0.00048) = 0.02 )(0.Shrinkage strain between prestress transfer and final time: ε bif = k vs k hs k f k td 0.000384 ) = 0.014 )(70 ) = 1.14 H ) = 2.99 )(1.00048) = 0.8) + 89 = 0.74 )(1.48 x10 −3 = (1. Girder shrinkage strain between deck placement and final time: k hs = (2.00 )(0.06 )(1.00 − (0. transformed haunch width = (24) (3607)/ (4718) = 32. CROSS SECTION PROPERTIES (a) Gross Precast Section: Gross precast section properties are given in the problem statement.000384 Girder shrinkage strain between initial time and deck placement time.19 )(1.60 in . k hs = (2.

(A)*(yb of Modular 2 nent b ness Elasticity ratio.76 82.04 37 6. n (n)(b) (in ) yb yb-yNA Icg yNA)2 (in4) 4 4 2 in. and strands transformed to precast concrete using a modular ratio ni = Es/Eci= 28.3 1160 17.22 0 31562 Sum 807 35.6 28072 -1.3 47219 21. Table 5.73 0 5049 Sum 1402 54.52 1092558 (c) Initial Transformed Section The initial transformed section consists of the concrete girder with a value of Eci = 4456 ksi.40.40 40 6.Width. Steel is transformed using (ni-1) = 5. (A)*(yb of Modular 2 nent ) b ness Elasticity ratio.37 545894 547326 2 Strands 28500 5.50 3607 0.Component 1 Girder 2 Deck 3 Haunch Width.50 3607 0. Thick Icg+A(ybArea. in. (A)*(yb Thick of Modular 2 ) ness Elasticity ratio.40. 8 . 108. in. in in in in 4718 1 767 36.00 Table 2.Width. in in in in 1 Girder 4718 1 767 36.718 ksi. ksi in.31 0 29676 Sum 804 35.46 545894 547525 2 Strands 28500 5. section Table 4. See Table 3.14 579087 (d) Transformed Precast Section at Deck Placement The transformed precast section at deck placement time is the same as the initial transformed section except that the girder modulus is taken at the value at service Ec = 4.Initial Transformed Section Properties Modulus Compo. ksi in.92 274 28. in in in in 1 Girder 4456 1 767 36.6 28072 -17.76 32.Transformed Precast Section Properties Modulus Compo.500/4456 = 6. b in.6 28072 -1.Gross Composite Section Properties Modulus Icg+A(ybArea. ksi in.00 42. Thick Icg+A(ybArea.92 256 28.23 577003 (e) Transformed Precast Section at Deck Placement composite The transformed composite section consists of the transformed gross section combined with the transformed strand. n (n)(b) (in ) ) yb yb-yNA Icg yNA)2 (in4) 4 4 2 in.92 545894 792130 7. n (n)(b) (in ) yb yb-yNA yNA)2 (in4) Icg 4 4 2 in.73 2903 295380 0.57 619 76.11 16 72. Table 3.

1 2 3 4 Compo. ksi in.5+3.2a) ∆f pSR = ε bid E p K id where ε bid = 0.7ψ b (t f .49 )) ⎟ ⎠ = 0.68 Transformedinitial 807 35.11 16 72.78 K id = (767 )(29. Table 6.29 1174268 Table 6 gives a summary of the section properties need for calculation of the prestress loss components.00 0.04 37 6. in in in in 4718.00 0. Girder Deck 108.5. Deck Gross 1402 54. and K id = 1 E p A ps ⎛ Ag e 2 pg ⎜1 + 1+ ⎜ E ci Ag ⎝ Ig ⎞ ⎟ 1 + 0.60 545894 29.31 Composite Girder. ((72+.73 in.3 47219 22.92 256 -46. the eccentricity of the deck center relative to the center of the composite section.Section properties Precast Girder Section Properties Gross Area (in2) Bottom fiber eccentricity (in.73 Transformed 1439 53.4.52 1092558 47. is negative because it is above the centroid of the composite section.6 28072 -16.00 Haunch 42.344 ⎞⎛ + 1+ ⎜ 1 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 545894 ⎝ 4456 ⎠⎝ 767 ⎠⎜ ⎝ 9 .23 577003 28.29 1174268 46.22 Transformedfinal 804 35.7 )(1.9.60 21.2) (a) SHRINKAGE OF GIRDER CONCRETE.76 32.69 545894 759632 7.37 Note that ed.000269 . nent b in.t i ) ⎟ ⎠ 1 [ ] ⎞ ⎟(1 + (0.3 1160 18.5.) Moment of inertia (in4) Prestress eccentricity (in.Width.500 ksi .14 579087 28.68)2 ⎛ 28500 ⎞⎛ 7.75)-54.) 767 36. ∆fpSR (5.37 0 79609 Sum 1439 53.00 1 767 36.96 2903 329258 0.50 3607.96 0 5770 28500 5.4.50 3607. n (n)(b) (in ) ) yNA)2 (in4) yb yb-yNA Icg 4 4 2 in. (A)*(yb Thick of Modular 2 ness Elasticity ratio.00 Strands Table 5. LONG TERM LOSSES: (I) TIME OF TRANSFER TO TIME OF DECK PLACEMENT (LRFD 5.) Deck eccentricity (in.57 619 76.9.52) = 21.Tranformed Composite Section Properties Modulus Icg+A(ybArea. E p = 28.76 82.

000269 )(28500 )(0.589 10 .22 ) ⎟− = 3.79 ∆f pSD = (0.60) ⎛ 28500 ⎞⎛ 7.2 ksi for low-relaxation strands. ∆fpR1 (5.2b) ∆f pCR = Ep E ci f cgp ψ b (t d .344 ⎞⎛ 1+ ⎜ 1+ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎜ 1092558 ⎝ 4456 ⎠⎝ 1402 ⎠⎝ ⎞ ⎟(1 + (0.9.048)(1.980 ksi (b) CREEP OF GIRDER CONCRETE.4.000115. ∆fpR1.79) = 2.5))⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 1 (28. and K df = 1 E p A ps ⎛ Ac e 2 pc ⎜ 1+ 1+ ⎜ E ci Ac ⎝ Ic ⎞ ⎟ 1 + 0. ∆fpSD (5.048 ksi ⎟ 579087 ⎠ ⎛ 28500 ⎞ ∆f pCR = ⎜ ⎟(3.22)2 + ⎝ 807 579087 ⎞ (17258)(28.49 )) ⎟ ⎠ = 0.78) = 15.5.t i ) ⎟ ⎠ 1 [ ] 2 K df = (1402)(47.000115)(28500)(0.994 ksi (II) TIME OF DECK PLACEMENT TO FINAL TIME (a) SHRINKAGE OF GIRDER CONCRETE.7 )(1.153)(202.7ψ b (t f .980+15.78) = 5. t i )K id where f cgp is concrete stress due to initial prestress plus girder weight: f cgp ⎛ 1 e pti 2 = Pi ⎜ + ⎜ Ati I ti ⎝ ⎞ M g e pti ⎟− ⎟ I ti ⎠ f cgp = ((48)(0.5.814+1. (d) TOTAL LONG TERM LOSS BETWEEN INITIAL TIME AND DECK PLACEMENT (∆f pSR + ∆f pCR + ∆f pR1 ) = 5.4. ∆fpCR (5.3a) ∆f pSD = ε bdf E p K df where ε bdf = 0.04 )(0.5. E p = 28.200 = 22.500 ksi. may be assumed equal to 1.2c) The relaxation loss.814 ksi ⎝ 4456 ⎠ (c) RELAXATION OF PRESTRESSING STRANDS.9.∆f pSR = ε bid E p K id = (0.4.9.

3d) ∆f pSS = − Ep Ec ∆f cdf K df (1 + 0.776 ksi ⎝ 4456 ⎠ The second term represents gain due to creep caused by forces introduced beyond the initial loading. ⎛ 28500 ⎞ ∆f pCD1 = ⎜ ⎟(3. These forces are the some of the long term losses between initial and deck placement.48 −1.37 ) ⎟− − ⎟ 577003 1174268 ⎠ = − 1.5.6) (12) = 19915 kip-in.726 )(0.726 ksi ⎛ 28500 ⎞ ∆f pCD 2 = ⎜ ⎟(− 1.048)(1. plus the deck weight plus the superimposed loads.776 − 7. and e ptc 46.04 )(0.20 ksi (d) GAIN DUE TO SHRINKAGE OF DECK CONCRETE.68) ⎛ 7.37 in.166 = −0.3b) ∆f pCD = Ep E ci f cgp (ψ b (t f . t d )K df The first term represents loss due to creep caused by initial loads. t i ) − ψ b (t d .4.5.994 )⎜ ⎟ 1+ 545894 ⎝ 767 ⎠⎜ ⎝ ⎞ (19915)(28.31 in.31) (6480 )(46.79 ) = − 7. t i ))K df + Ep Ec ∆f cd ψ b (t f . ∆fpSS (5.7ψ b (t f .4.5. ∆fcd. ∆fpCD (5.166 ksi ⎝ 4718 ⎠ Net value = ∆f pCD = ∆f pCD1 + ∆f pCD 2 = 6.344 ⎞⎛ ⎜ = − (22. ∆fpR2 (5. and MSIDL = The prestress eccentricity relative to the centroid of transformed precast and transformed composite section are e ptf = 28.(b) CREEP OF GIRDER CONCRETE.79 ) = 6.9. can be calculated using: ∆f cd = − (∆f pSR + ∆f pCR 2 A ps ⎛ A g e pg ⎜1 + + ∆f pR1 ) Ag ⎜ Ig ⎝ ⎞ M d e ptf (M SIDL )e ptc ⎟− − ⎟ I I tc tf ⎠ 2160 + 4320 = 6480 kip-in. t d )) 11 . ∆f cd 2 ( 767 )(29.9..4. The corresponding concrete stress increment at steel centroid.3c) ∆f pR 2 = ∆f pR1 = 1.87 )(0. Mslab = (1659.390 ksi (i.9. net gain) (c) RELAXATION OF PRESTRESSING STRANDS.e.

60)(21. an exception is that the stress gain due to concrete shrinkage corresponds to a tensile concrete stress increment which is calculated separately. The gross composite section should be used for the second time period.7ψ b (t f .20 = 3.7 )(0.24 ) 1092558 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣1402 ∆f pSS = − Ep ⎛ 28500 ⎞ ∆f cdf K df (1 + 0.158 ksi ∆f cdf = ⎢ − ⎥ ⎢ 1 + (0.5) = 831 in2 ed = 21. and due to deck weight and superimposed dead load ∆f cb 2 = (∆f pSR + ∆f pCR + ∆f pR1 ) A ps ⎛ A g e pg y b ⎜1 + Ag ⎜ Ig ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 12 .40 ksi Long term loss should be applied as a “negative prestress” to the corresponding concrete section to obtain the loss of compressive concrete stress.14) ⎞ − (17258)(35. ⎡ (0. An exact solution would be to use the net section properties.39 + 1.5) + (42) (0.73)⎤ = − 0. However. t d )) ⎜ A Ic ⎝ c ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Ad = (108) (7.22)(35.where ∆f cdf = ⎛ 1 e pc e d ε ddf A d E cd ⎜ − (1 + 0.73 in. (III) CONCRETE BOTTOM FIBER STRESSES Note that no elastic losses are required to be explicitly calculated in order to correctly calculate the concrete stresses. t d )) = − ⎜ ⎟(− 0.7ψ d (t f .59 − 0.342 ksi 1 + ⎟ 579087 579087 ⎝ 807 ⎠ Concrete stress due to loss between initial time and deck placement.158)(0.88)) = 1.7 )(2.000579 )(831)(3607 ) ⎤ ⎡ 1 (47.153)(202.219 ksi Ec ⎝ 4718 ⎠ (e) TOTAL LONG TERM LOSS BETWEEN DECK PLACEMENT AND FINAL TIME (excluding deck shrinkage effects = (∆f pSR + ∆f pCR + ∆f pR2 ) = 2. An acceptable approximation is to use the gross section properties.14) = 3.79 )(1 + (0.5))⎛ ⎜ (28. The precast section should be used with the loss between initial and deck placement. (a) Concrete stresses while section is still precast only: Concrete stress due to initial prestress plus self weight e pti y b ⎛ 1 f cb1 = Pi ⎜ ⎜A + I ti ⎝ ti ⎞ Mg yb ⎟− = ⎟ I ti ⎠ f cb1 = ((48)(0. as long as the proper section properties are used.

for example in the shear design.092.000579)(831)(3. t d ) ⎝ A c Ic Concrete stress due to superimposed dead load (M )y ∆f cb 5 = − SIDL btc = −0.294 − 1.607) ⎛ 1 (54.556 − 1.556 ksi 545894 ⎝ 767 ⎠⎝ ⎠ Concrete stress due to deck placement (M d ) y btf ∆f cb 3 = − = −1.52)(21.70)(2.994 )⎜ ⎟⎜1 + ⎟ = −0.402 )(47.195 − 0.344 ⎞⎛ (767 )(29.402 ⎠⎝ ⎠ Due to deck shrinkage ∆f cbSS = ∆f cbSS ⎞ ⎟ ⎟K df ⎠ (0.457 ksi I tc 1173788 Net concrete stress at bottom fibers at final time f cb = ∑ ∆f cbi = 3. If elastic losses (or gains) are needed to calculated effective steel stress.294 ksi I tc Concrete stress due to live load M y (32082)(53.7 ψ d ( t f .216 − 0.402 ⎛ 1 ε ddf A d E cd y e ⎜ − bc d ⎜ 1 + 0 .077 .73) ⎞ = − ⎜ ⎟(0.558 ⎝ 1.60 ) ⎞ ∆f cb 2 = − (22.456 = −0.0.40 )⎜ ⎟⎜1 + ⎟ = − 0.342 − 0.452 ksi (IV) ELASTIC LOSSES AND GAINS TO CALCULATE STEEL STRESS IF NEEDED Elastic losses (or gains) should not be used in concrete stress analysis as they are already included if transformed section properties are used.195 ksi 1 + (0.29) ∆f cb 6 = − LL btc = − = −1.216 ksi I tf (b) Concrete stresses after section becomes composite: Concrete stress due to loss between deck placement and final ∆f cb4 = − (∆f pSD + ∆f pCD + ∆f pR2 ) A ps ⎛ A c e pc y bc ⎜1 + Ic Ac ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ 7.24) 1.52) ⎞ ∆f cb4 = − (3.092.344 ⎞⎛ (1.558 ⎠ ⎝ 1.79) = -0. 13 .077 ksi 1.60 )(54.68)(36. they are calculated as shown below.⎛ 7.

495 .31) = 5.(a) ELASTIC SHORTENING LOSS AT PRESTRESS TRANSFER.37 ) = 1.7. ∆fpES (5.edu .653 ksi =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4718 ⎠ 1174268 Effective steel stress = fpi -(∆fpLT + ∆fpES1 + ∆fPES2 + ∆fPES3 + ∆fpES4) = 202.3a) ∆f pES1 = ⎛ 28500 ⎞ f cgp = ⎜ ⎟(3.048) = 19.653) = 172.902 .932 ksi The following pages show the results of the Excel Spreadsheet “Prestress_Loss PCI BDM 9.1.495 ksi E ci ⎝ 4456 ⎠ Ep (b) ELASTIC GAIN DUE TO DECK WEIGHT ∆f pES2 = E p M d e ptf Ec I tf ⎛ 28500 ⎞ (19915)(28. Folder “Excel Spreadsheet” 14 . which may be downloaded from the website www.546 .4 070319.(25.5.174 + 19.546 ksi =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4718 ⎠ 1174268 (d) ELASTIC GAIN DUE TO LIVE LOAD: ∆f pES 4 = E p M LL e ptc Ec I tc ⎛ 28500 ⎞ (32082 )(46.2.37 ) = 7.5.5.902 ksi =⎜ ⎟ 577003 ⎝ 4718 ⎠ (c) ELASTIC GAIN DUE TO SUPERIMPOSED DEAD LOAD ∆f pES 3 = E p M SIDL e ptc Ec I tc ⎛ 28500 ⎞ (6480 )(46.structuresprograms.9.unomaha.

800 6.50 Materials 767.92 in Service load moments Girder 17258 kip-in Deck.5 3.5 ksi 2 H fci f'c f'cd ti (release) t (deck pour) tf (final) 70 % 5. diaphragms 19915 kip-in SI dead ld.Prestress Loss and Stresses at Midspan of Pretensioned Concrete Composite Girder Ref: See NCHRP Report 496.0 0. 6480 kip-in 80% of HL93 plus impact* 32082 kip-in *The LL moment to be input here is the same used to check bottom fiber stress at final conditions (AASHTO LRFD Service III) in in in in 15 .5 42." 2003 Project Name: Designer: PCI BDM 9.000 1 ksi ksi ksi days 90 days 27375 days 28500 ksi 6.500 4. haunch.6 in 72 in 3 in 2 7. components. Beam A I yb h V/S Aps fpi Es ypb span Deck Width Thickness Haunch width Haunch thickness V/Sd 108 7.4 Maher Tadros Date: 19-Mar-07 Yellow cells--and only yellow cells are input data! Other cells contain notation.344 in 202. and results. "Prestress Losses in Pretensioned High-Strength Concrete Bridge Girders.00 in 4 545894 in 36.

6358 4. haunch = 831 16 .247 Gross section 0.000381 0.140+f'c/1000 ε=0.78966 Deck initial to final initial to deck placement Deck placem.9.05 72.78620 0.00 36.4. to final Deck Deck placem.014H ktd=t/(61-4fci+t) ψ=1.3815 -0.0-0.4) Shrinkage (5.-initial 806.66 36.) ed (in.89 539362 29.3) E=33000*w^1.4.5.37 3.0681 1394.30 53.5263 -0.3305 -0.00048(5/(1+fci))kskhsktd ks=(1.02 35.4.62 35.3.9685 4.2648 2.0291 -0.3901 -0.2377 2.97 2.6 545894 29.-final 1402.25 0.4 Maher Tadros Date: 3/19/2007 Material Properties Modulus of Elasticity in KSI (5.3-2) Beam Creep (5.0633 767.9077 4.52 1092539 47. deck placem.479 1.118 khc=(1.60 21. to final 6.4) ep (in.78194 0.3978 -0.14 579083 28.000579 1.0411 K=1/(1+ni*αnet*Aps/Anet*(1+0.7645 (5.29 1174254 46.4820 Transformed Deck Tr.77 1075814 47. 5.000268 0.) I (in. Deck Gross Net Tr.13V/S) khs=2.25 2903 Haunch 16.33 Composite Bm.27 54.5.77822 0.7*ψbif)) 0.039 0.56-0.2) Steel modular ratio ni=Es/Eci " (at deck placement) n=Es/Ec nd=Ed/Ec " (deck) Section Properties Section Properties Gross A (in.0691 1439.000113 0.4.90kskhc(5/(1+fci))ktd*ti-0.0000 1.22 2.4506 Deck 619.1094 2. K 6.5 w=0.63 3.1170 2.2-2.870 2. to final Eci Ec Ecd εbif εbid εbdf εddf ψbif ψbid ψbdf ψddf Kid Kdf 4456 4718 3607 0.5569 -0.0000 Area of deck incl.68 2.38 3.5*K1(f'c)^0.008*H) ktd =t/(61-4fci+t) Deck Beam Beam initial at deck placement initial to final initial to deck placam.2.31 2.9.45-0.Project Name: Designer: PCI BDM 9.23 577005 28.85 21.4.4489 Transformed-final 804.2.2.3. ) yb (in.3953 Transfromed section factors.4762 1.22 76.) α =1+(A*ep2)/I αb =1+A*e*yb/I ατ =1+A*e*(yb-h)/I 2 Precast Beam Net (-APS) 759.93 54.

17 .

.900 2. composite) Loss (gross. Otherwise the results are identical to those of NCHRP 18-07 Project NamPCI BDM 9.5.165 7.952 1.414 1.187 2.578 2. section. release) Mg (transf.484 -0.567 fps Net 202.216 -0.343 -0.1 165.828 -0.564 0.9.456 3.4.549 0.052 1.001 0..0 165.5 183..391 -1. 24 ' f ci − 0 .3b-1) (Loss) (10) Creep of beam due to deck and SIDL (Eq 5.480 -0. 60 f ' c 0 .103 0.904 1.0 160.5.9 167.5.4 167.200 1.564 0.200 23. composite) Top Fibers Initial Final I Final II Final III -0.098 1.493 5.001 0.9.294 -0. release) Loss (net section.557 -1.161 1.449 2..5.047 -0.2a-1) See list of equations below (Loss) (4) Creep between release and deck place (Eq 5.3b-1) (Gain) (11) Relaxation between deck place and final (Loss) (12) Shrinkage of deck (Eq 5. composite) Deck shrinkage (gross composite) LL (transf.098 1.828 -0.2) (Gain) Total long-term (deck placemnt to final)df (13) Elastic gain due to LL n*(MLLecomp_tr/Icomp_tr) Total loss and effective prestress including gain due to LL.3 172.9 158. 60 f ' ci Cause Pi (transf.0 177.634 0.639 0.195 -1.925 3.843 1.9.4 Designer: Maher Tadros Date: 19-Mar-07 Loading Prestress Loss Components (ksi) Change 19.3a-1) (Loss) (9) Creep of beam between deck place and final.313 2.105 0.969 15.2 160.271 2. initial loads (Eq 5. section.0 161. release) Mg (transf. precast) deck weight (transf.4 164.4.4.5.764 7. f cgp = 3.639 0.047 -1.795 − 0 . when transformed section properties are used Extreme Fiber Stresses (using transformed/net section properties) Bottom Fibers Cause Pi (transf.052 0.9.000 0.103 0.600 18 . composite) Loss (net.3 165. 40 f ' c 3.Prestress Loss Using 2007 LRFD Detailed Method Formulas in this method use gross section properties to approximate net section properties. precast) deck weight (transf. composite) Net Code Limit Initial Final 4.269 1.098 0. service) SIDL (transf.4.1 165.391 4. composite) Deck shrinkage (gross composite) LL (transf.4.828 -0..654 29.546 7..3 164.9.9 (1) Initial prestress just before release (2) Elastic shortening due to initial prestress plus self weight (Loss) Prestress transfer.105 0.048 ksi (3) Shrinkage between release and deck place (Eq 5.9.3d-1. service) SIDL (transf.4.076 -0. 45 f ' c 0 .548 6.451 0 . Only the two highlighted loss values are needed in concrete stress analysis.2b-1) (Loss) (5) Relaxation between release and deck place (Loss) Total long-term (initial to deck placemnt)id (6) Elastic gain due to deck weight (Mdecketr-fin/Ibm-tr-fin)*n (7) Elastic gain due to superimposed DL (on composite section) (MADLecomp-fin/Icomp-fin)*n Deck + SIDL: ∆ f cd and ∆ f pED (8) Shrinkage of beam between deck place and final (Eq 5.012 5.282 0. release) Loss (gross section.269 0. 19 f ' c 0 .5.

19 .