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For any positive integer n, the Smarandache double factorial function Sdf (n) is deﬁned as the least positive integer m such that m! is divisible by n.

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**DOUBLE FACTORIAL FUNCTION
**

Zhu Minhui

1 Institute of Mathematics and Physics, XAUEST, Xi’an, Shaanxi, P.R.China

2 Department of Mathematics, Northwest University Xi’an, Shaanxi, P.R.China

Abstract For any positive integer n, the Smarandache double factorial function Sdf(n)

is deﬁned as the least positive integer m such that m!! is divisible by n. In this

paper, we study the mean value properties of Sdf(n), and give an interesting

mean value formula for it.

Keywords: F.Smarandache problem; Smarandache function; Mean Value.

§1. Introduction and results

For any positive integer n, the Smarandache double factorial function Sdf(n)

is deﬁned as the least positive integer m such that m!! is divisible by n, where

m!! =

_

2 · 4 · · · m, if 2|m;

1 · 3 · · · m, if 2†m.

About the arithmetical properties of Sdf(n), many people had studied it

before (see reference [2]). The main purpose of this paper is to study the mean

value properties of Sdf(n), and obtain an interesting mean value formula for

it. That is, we shall prove the following:

Theorem. For any real number x ≥ 2, we have the asymptotic formula

n≤x

Sdf(n) =

7π

2

24

x

2

lnx

+ O

_

x

2

ln

2

x

_

.

§2. Proof of the theorem

In this section, we shall complete the proof of the theorem. First we need

the following two simple Lemmas.

Lemma 1. if 2 † n and n = p

α

1

1

p

α

2

2

· · · p

α

k

k

is the factorization of n, where

p

1

, p

2

, · · · , p

k

are distinct odd primes and α

1

, α

2

, · · · , α

k

are positive integers,

then

Sdf(n) = max(Sdf(p

α

1

1

), Sdf(p

α

2

2

), · · · , Sdf(p

α

k

k

))

198 SCIENTIA MAGNA VOL.1, NO.1

Proof. Let m

i

= Sdf(p

α

i

i

) for i = 1, 2, · · · , k. Then we get 2†m

i

(i =

1, 2, · · · , k) and

p

α

i

i

|(m

i

)!!, i = 1, 2, · · · , k.

Let m = max(m

1

, m

2

, · · · , m

k

). Then we have

(m

i

)!!|m!!, i = 1, 2, · · · , k.

Thus we get

p

α

i

i

|m!!, i = 1, 2, · · · , k.

Notice that p

1

, p

2

, · · · , p

k

are distinct odd primes. We have

gcd(p

α

i

i

, p

α

j

j

) = 1, 1 ≤ i < j ≤ k.

Therefore, we obtain n|m!!. It implies that

Sdf(n) ≤ m.

On the other hand, by the deﬁnition of m, if Sdf(n) < m, then there exists a

prime power p

α

j

j

(1 ≤ j ≤ k) such that

p

α

j

j

|Sdf(n)!!.

We get n|Sdf(n)!!, a contradiction. Therefore, we obtain Sdf(n) = m.

This proves Lemma 1.

Lemma 2. For positive integer n( 2†n), let n = p

α

1

1

p

α

2

2

· · · p

α

k

k

is the prime

powers factorization of n and P(n) = max

1≤i≤k

{p

i

}. if there exists P(n) satisﬁed

with P(n) >

√

n, then we have the identity

Sdf(n) = P(n).

Proof. First we let Sdf(n) = m, then m is the smallest positive integer such

that n|m!!. Now we will prove that m = P(n). We assume P(n) = p

0

. From

the deﬁnition of P(n) and lemma 1, we know that Sdf(n) = max(p

0

, (2α

i

−

1)p

i

). Therefore we get

(I) If α

i

= 1, then Sdf(n) = p

0

≥ n

1

2

≥ (2α

i

−1)p

i

;

(II) If α

i

≥ 2, then Sdf(n) = p

0

> 2 lnnn

1

4

> (2α

i

−1)p

i

.

Combining (I)-(II), we can easily obtain

Sdf(n) = P(n)

This proves Lemma 2.

Now we use the above Lemmas to complete the proof of Theorem. First we

separate the summation in the Theorem into two parts.

n≤x

Sdf(n) =

u≤

x−1

2

Sdf(2u + 1) +

u≤

x

2

Sdf(2u), (1)

On the mean value of the Smarandache double factorial function 199

For the ﬁrst part. we let the sets A and B as following:

A = {2u + 1|2u + 1 ≤ x, P(2u + 1) ≤

√

2u + 1}

and

B = {2u + 1|2u + 1 ≤ x, P(2u + 1) >

√

2u + 1}.

Using the Euler summation formula, we get

2u+1∈A

Sdf(2u + 1)

2u+1≤x

√

2u + 1 ln(2u + 1) x

3

2

lnx. (2)

Similarly, from the Abel’s identity we also get

2u+1∈B

Sdf(2u + 1)

=

2u+1≤x

P(2u+1)>

√

2u+1

P(2u + 1)

=

1≤2l+1≤

√

x

2l+1≤p≤

x

2l+1

p + O

_

_

_

2l+1≤

√

x

√

2l+1≤p≤

x

2l+1

√

x

_

_

_

=

1≤2l+1≤

√

x

_

x

2l + 1

π(

x

2l + 1

) −(2l + 1)π(2l + 1) −

_ x

2l+1

√

x

π(s)ds

_

+O

_

x

3

2

lnx

_

, (3)

where π(x) denotes all the numbers of prime which is not exceeding x.

For π(x), we have

π(x) =

x

lnx

+ O

_

x

ln

2

x

_

and

1≤2l+1≤

√

x

_

x

2l + 1

π(

x

2l + 1

) −(2l + 1)π(2l + 1) −

_ x

2l+1

√

x

π(s)ds

_

=

1≤2l+1≤

√

x

_

1

2

x

2

(2l + 1)

2

ln

x

(2l+1)

−

1

2

(2l + 1)

2

ln(2l + 1)

+O

_

_

x

2

(2l + 1)

2

ln

2 x

(2l+1)

_

_

+ O

_

(2l + 1)

2

ln

2

(2l + 1)

_

+O

_

_

x

2

(2l + 1)

2

ln

2 x

(2l+1)

−

(2l + 1)

2

ln

2

(2l + 1)

_

_

_

_

.

(4)

200 SCIENTIA MAGNA VOL.1, NO.1

Hence

1≤2l+1≤

√

x

x

2

(2l + 1)

2

ln

x

2l+1

=

0≤l≤

√

x−1

2

x

2

(2l + 1)

2

ln

x

2l+1

=

0≤l≤

ln x−1

2

x

2

(2l + 1)

2

lnx

+ O

_

_

_

ln x−1

2

≤l≤

√

x−1

2

x

2

ln(2l + 1)

(2l + 1)

2

ln

2

x

_

_

_

=

π

2

8

x

2

lnx

+ O

_

x

2

ln

2

x

_

. (5)

Combining (2), (3),( 4) and (5) we obtain

u≤

x−1

2

Sdf(2u + 1) =

π

2

8

x

2

lnx

+ O

_

x

2

ln

2

x

_

. (6)

For the second part, we notice that 2u = 2

α

n

1

where α, n

1

are positive integers

with 2†n

1

, let S(2u) = min{m | 2u|m!}, from the deﬁnition of Sdf(2u), we

have

2u≤x

Sdf(2u) =

2

α

n

1

≤x

2

α

>n

1

Sdf(2

α

n

1

)

α≤

ln x

ln 2

√

x

√

xlnx, (7)

and

2u≤x

Sdf(2u) = 2

2u≤x

S(2u) + O(

√

xlnx) =

π

2

6

x

2

lnx

+ O

_

x

2

ln

2

x

_

. (8)

Combining (7) and (8) we obtain

u≤

x

2

Sdf(2u) =

π

2

6

x

2

lnx

+ O

_

x

2

ln

2

x

_

. (9)

From (1), (6) and (9) we obtain the asymptotic formula

n≤x

Sdf(n) =

7π

2

24

x

2

lnx

+

_

x

2

ln

2

x

_

.

This completes the proof of Theorem.

On the mean value of the Smarandache double factorial function 201

References

[1] F.Smarandache, Only Problems, Not Solutions, Chicago, Xiquan Pub-

lishing House, 1993.

[2] Jozsef Sandor, On an generalization of the Smarandache function, Notes

Numb.Th.Discr.Math, 5 (1999), 41-51.

[3] Tom M.Apostol, Introduction to Analytic Number Theory, New York,

Springer-Verlag, 1976.

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