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For any positive integer n, let S ( n ) denotes the Smarandache function, then
S (n) is deﬁned the smallest m...
In this paper, we study themean value properties of the additive analogue …Full description

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**Yi Yuan and Zhang Wenpeng
**

Research Center for Basic Science, Xi’an Jiaotong University Xi’an, Shaanxi, P.R.China

yuanyi@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

Abstract

For any positive integer n, let S (n) denotes the Smarandache function, then S (n) is deﬁned the smallest m ∈ N + , where n|m!. In this paper, we study the mean value properties of the additive analogue of S (n), and give an interesting mean value formula for it. Smarandache function; Additive Analogue; Mean Value formula.

Keywords:

**§1. Introduction and results
**

For any positive integer n, let S (n) denotes the Smarandache function, then S (n) is deﬁned the smallest m ∈ N + , where n|m!. In paper [2], Jozsef Sandor deﬁned the following analogue of Smarandache function: S1 (x) = min{m ∈ N : x ≤ m!}, x ∈ (1, ∞), (1) which is deﬁned on a subset of real numbers. Clearly S (x) = m if x ∈ ((m − 1)!, m!] for m ≥ 2 (for m = 1 it is not deﬁned, as 0! = 1! = 1!), therefore this function is deﬁned for x > 1. About the arithmetical properties of S (n), many people had studied it before (see reference [3]). But for the mean value problem of S1 (n), it seems that no one have studied it before. The main purpose of this paper is to study the mean value properties of S1 (n), and obtain an interesting mean value formula for it. That is, we shall prove the following: Theorem. For any real number x ≥ 2, we have the mean value formula S1 (n) =

n≤x

x ln x + O(x). ln ln x

**§2. Proof of the theorem
**

In this section, we shall complete the proof of the theorem. First we need following one simple Lemma. That is,

∗ This

work is supported by the Zaizhi Doctorate Foundation of Xi’an Jiaotong University.

146

SCIENTIA MAGNA VOL.1, NO.1

Lemma. For any ﬁxed positive integers m and n, if (m − 1)! < n ≤ m!, then we have ln n + O(1). m= ln ln n Proof. From (m − 1)! < n ≤ m! and taking the logistic computation in the two sides of the inequality, we get

m−1 m

ln i < ln n ≤

i=1 i=1

ln i.

(2)

**Using the Euler’s summation formula, then
**

m

ln i =

i=1

m 1

ln tdt +

m 1

(t − [t])(ln t) dt = m ln m − m + O(ln m)

(3)

and

m−1

ln i =

i=1

m−1 1

ln tdt +

m−1 1

(t − [t])(ln t) dt = m ln m − m + O(ln m). (4)

Combining (2), (3) and (4), we can easily deduce that ln n = m ln m − m + O(ln m). So ln n + O(1). (6) ln m − 1 Similarly, we continue taking the logistic computation in two sides of (5), then we also have m= ln m = ln ln n + O(ln ln m), and ln ln m = O(ln ln ln n). Hence, m= (8) (7) (5)

ln n + O(1). ln ln n This completes the proof of Lemma. Now we use Lemma to complete the proof of Theorem. For any real number x ≥ 2, by the deﬁnition of s1 (n) and Lemma we have S1 (n) =

n≤x

n≤x (m−1)!<n≤m!

m ln n + O(1) ln ln n

(9)

=

n≤x

=

ln n + O(x). ln ln n n≤x

Mean value of the additive analogue of Smarandache function 1

147

**By the Euler’s summation formula, we deduce that ln n ln ln n n≤x = =
**

x ln t ln t dt + (t − [t]) ln ln t ln ln t 2 2 x x ln x +O . ln ln x ln ln x x

dt +

ln x (x − [x]) (10) ln ln x

**So, from (9) and (10) we have S1 (n) =
**

n≤x

x ln x + O(x). ln ln x

This completes the proof of Theorem.

References

[1] F.Smarandache, Only Problems, Not Solutions, Xiquan Publ.House, Chicago, 1993. [2] Jozsef Sandor, On an additive analogue of the function S , Smaramche Notions Journal, 13 (2002), 266-270. [3] Jozsef Sandor, On an generalization of the Smarandache function, Notes Numb. Th. Discr. Math. 5 (1999), 41-51. [4] Tom M Apostol, Introduction to Analytic Number Theory, New York, Springer-Verlag, 1976.

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