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**Vol. 3 (2007), No. 2, 109-112
**

Mean value of F. Smarandache LCM function

Jian Ge

Xi’an University of Finance and Economics, Xi’an, Shaanxi, P.R.China

Received March 29, 2007

Abstract For any positive integer n, the famous Smarandache function S(n) deﬁned as the

smallest positive integer m such that n | m!. That is, S(n) = min{m : n | m!, n ∈ N}. The

Smarandache LCM function SL(n) the smallest positive integer k such that n | [1, 2, · · · , k],

where [1, 2, · · · , k] denotes the least common multiple of 1, 2, · · · , k. The main purpose of this

paper is using the elementary methods to study the mean value properties of (SL(n) −S(n))

2

,

and give a sharper asymptotic formula for it.

Keywords Smarandache function, Smarandache LCM function, mean value, asymptotic

formula.

§1. Introduction and result

For any positive integer n, the famous F.Smarandache function S(n) deﬁned as the smallest

positive integer m such that n | m!. That is, S(n) = min{m : n | m!, n ∈ N}. For example,

the ﬁrst few values of S(n) are S(1) = 1, S(2) = 2, S(3) = 3, S(4) = 4, S(5) = 5, S(6) = 3,

S(7) = 7, S(8) = 4, S(9) = 6, S(10) = 5, S(11) = 11, S(12) = 4, · · · · · · . The F.Smarandache

LCM function SL(n) deﬁned as the smallest positive integer k such that n | [1, 2, · · · , k],

where [1, 2, · · · , k] denotes the least common multiple of 1, 2, · · · , k. The ﬁrst few values of

SL(n) are SL(1) = 1, SL(2) = 2, SL(3) = 3, SL(4) = 4, SL(5) = 5, SL(6) = 3, SL(7) = 7,

SL(8) = 8, SL(9) = 9, SL(10) = 5, SL(11) = 11, SL(12) = 4, · · · · · · .

About the elementary properties of S(n) and SL(n), many authors had studied them, and

obtained some interesting results, see reference [2], [3], [4] and [5]. For example, Murthy [2]

proved that if n be a prime, then SL(n) = S(n). Simultaneously, Murthy [2] also proposed the

following problem:

SL(n) = S(n), S(n) = n ? (1)

Le Maohua [3] completely solved this problem, and proved the following conclusion:

Every positive integer n satisfying (1) can be expressed as

n = 12 or n = p

α

1

1

p

α

2

2

· · · p

α

r

r

p,

where p

1

, p

2

, · · · , p

r

, p are distinct primes, and α

1

, α

2

, · · · , α

r

are positive integers satisfying

p > p

α

i

i

, i = 1, 2, · · · , r.

Dr. Xu Zhefeng [4] studied the value distribution problem of S(n), and proved the following

conclusion:

110 Jian Ge No. 2

Let P(n) denotes the largest prime factor of n, then for any real number x > 1, we have

the asymptotic formula

n≤x

(S(n) −P(n))

2

=

2ζ

_

3

2

_

x

3

2

3 lnx

+ O

_

x

3

2

ln

2

x

_

,

where ζ(s) denotes the Riemann zeta-function.

Lv Zhongtian [5] proved that for any ﬁxed positive integer k any real number x > 1, we

have the asymptotic formula ﬁxed positive integer k

n≤x

SL(n) =

π

2

12

·

x

2

lnx

+

k

i=2

c

i

· x

2

ln

i

x

+ O

_

x

2

ln

k+1

x

_

,

where c

i

(i = 2, 3, · · · , k) are computable constants.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary methods to study the mean value

properties of [SL(n) −S(n)]

2

, and give an interesting mean value formula for it. That is, we

shall prove the following conclusion:

Theorem. Let k be a ﬁxed positive integer. Then for any real number x > 2, we have

the asymptotic formula

n≤x

[SL(n) −S(n)]

2

=

2

3

· ζ

_

3

2

_

· x

3

2

·

k

i=1

c

i

ln

i

x

+ O

_

x

3

2

ln

k+1

x

_

,

where ζ(s) be the Riemann zeta-function, c

i

(i = 1, 2, · · · , k) are computable constants.

§2. Proof of the theorem

In this section, we shall complete the proof of our theorem directly. In fact for any positive

integer n > 1, let n = p

α

1

1

p

α

2

2

· · · p

α

s

s

be the factorization of n into prime powers, then from [2]

we know that

S(n) = max{S(p

α

1

1

), S(p

α

2

2

), · · · , S(p

α

s

s

)} ≡ S(p

α

) (2)

and

SL(n) = max{p

α

1

1

, p

α

2

2

, · · · , p

α

s

s

}. (3)

Now we consider the summation

n≤x

[SL(n) −S(n)]

2

=

n∈A

[SL(n) −S(n)]

2

+

n∈B

[SL(n) −S(n)]

2

, (4)

where A and B denote two subsets of all positive integer in the interval [1, x]. A denotes the

set involving all integers n ∈ [1, x] such that SL(n) = p

2

for some prime p; B denotes the set

involving all integers n ∈ [1, x] such that SL(n) = p

α

for some prime p with α = 1 or α ≥ 3. If

Vol. 3 Mean value of F. Smarandache LCM function 111

n ∈ A and n = p

α

1

1

p

α

2

2

· · · p

α

s

s

, then n = p

2

m with p † m, and all p

α

i

i

≤ p

2

, i = 1, 2, · · · s. Note

that S(p

α

i

i

) ≤ α

i

p

i

and α

i

≤ lnn, from the deﬁnition of SL(n) and S(n) we have

n∈A

[SL(n) −S(n)]

2

=

mp

2

≤x

SL(m)<p

2

_

p

2

−S(mp

2

)

¸

2

=

mp

2

≤x

SL(m)<p

2

_

p

4

−2p

2

S(mp

2

) + S

2

(mp

2

)

_

=

mp

2

≤x

SL(m)<p

2

p

4

+ O

_

_

mp

2

≤x

p

2

· p · lnx

_

_

+ O

_

_

mp

2

≤x

p

2

· ln

2

x

_

_

=

m≤

√

x

m<p

2

≤

x

m

p

4

+ O

_

_

_

p

2

≤

√

x

p

2

<m≤

x

p

2

p

4

_

_

_+ O

_

x

2

_

=

m≤

√

x

p≤

√

x

m

p

4

+ O

_

_

m≤

√

x

p

2

≤m

p

4

_

_

+ O

_

x

2

_

=

m≤

√

x

p≤

√

x

m

p

4

+ O

_

x

2

_

. (5)

By the Abel’s summation formula (See Theorem 4.2 of [6]) and the Prime Theorem (See The-

orem 3.2 of [7]):

π(x) =

k

i=1

a

i

· x

ln

i

x

+ O

_

x

ln

k+1

x

_

,

where a

i

(i = 1, 2, · · · , k) are computable constants and a

1

= 1.

We have

p≤

√

x

m

p

4

=

x

2

m

2

· π

__

x

m

_

−

_

√

x

m

3

2

4y

3

· π(y)dy

=

x

2

m

2

· π

__

x

m

_

−

_

√

x

m

3

2

4y

3

_

k

i=1

a

i

· y

ln

i

y

+ O

_

y

ln

k+1

y

_

_

dy

=

1

5

·

x

5

2

m

5

2

·

k

i=1

b

i

ln

i

_

x

m

+ O

_

x

5

2

m

5

2

· ln

k+1

x

_

, (6)

where we have used the estimate m ≤

√

x, and all b

i

are computable constants with b

1

= 1.

Note that

∞

m=1

1

m

5

2

= ζ

_

5

2

_

, and

∞

m=1

ln

i

m

m

5

2

is convergent for all i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , k. So

112 Jian Ge No. 2

from (5) and (6) we have

n∈A

[SL(n) −S(n)]

2

=

m≤

√

x

_

1

5

·

x

5

2

m

3

2

·

k

i=1

b

i

ln

i

_

x

m

+ O

_

x

5

2

m

5

2

· ln

k+1

x

__

+ O

_

x

2

_

=

2

5

· ζ

_

5

2

_

· x

5

2

·

k

i=1

c

i

ln

i

x

+ O

_

x

5

2

ln

k+1

x

_

, (7)

where c

i

(i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , k) are computable constants and c

1

= 1.

Now we estimate the summation in set B. For any positive integer n ∈ B. If n ∈ B and

SL(n) = p, then we also have S(n) = p. So [SL(n) −S(n)]

2

= [p −p]

2

= 0. If SL(n) = p

α

with α ≥ 3, then [SL(n) −S(n)]

2

= [p

α

−S(n)]

2

≤ p

2α

+ α

2

p

2

and α ≤ lnn. So we have

n∈B

[SL(n) −S(n)]

2

np

α

≤x

α≥3

_

p

2α

+ p

2

ln

2

n

_

x

2

. (8)

Combining (4), (7) and (8) we may immediately deduce the asymptotic formula

n≤x

[SL(n) −S(n)]

2

=

2

5

· ζ

_

5

2

_

· x

5

2

·

k

i=1

c

i

ln

i

x

+ O

_

x

5

2

ln

k+1

x

_

,

where c

i

(i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , k) are computable constants and c

1

= 1.

This completes the proof of Theorem.

References

[1] F. Smarandache, Only Problems, Not Solutions, Chicago, Xiquan Publishing House,

1993.

[2] A. Murthy, Some notions on least common multiples, Smarandache Notions Journal,

12(2001), 307-309.

[3] Le Maohua, An equation concerning the Smarandache LCM function, Smarandache

Notions Journal, 14(2004), 186-188.

[4] Xu Zhefeng, The value distribution property of the Smarandache function, Acta Math-

ematica Sinica (Chinese Series), 49(2006), No.5, 1009-1012.

[5] Lv Zhongtian, On the F.Smarandache LCM function and its mean value. Scientia

Magna, 3(2007), No.1, 22-25.

[6] Tom M. Apostol, Introduction to Analytic Number Theory. New York, Springer-Verlag,

1976

[7] Pan Cengdong and Pan Chengbiao, The elementary proof of the prime theorem, Shang-

hai Science and Technology Press, Shanghai, 1988.

[8] G.H.Hardy and E.M.Wright, An introduction to the theory of numbers, Oxford Uni-

versity Press, 1981.

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