Ethics

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Ethics
• At its simplest, ethics is a system of moral principles. • They affect how people make decisions and lead their lives. • Ethics is concerned with what is good for individuals and society and is also described as moral philosophy. • The term is derived from the Greek word ethos which can mean custom, habit or character.

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Ethics
• • • • • Ethics covers the following dilemmas: ow to live a good life !ur rights and responsibilities The language of right and wrong "oral decisions # what is good and bad$

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Ethics
• • • • • Ethics can provide a moral map# euthanasia Ethics can pinpoint a disagreement Ethics doesn%t give right answers Ethics can give several answers Ethics as source of group strength

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Four Ethical 'isms' – Realism – Subjectivism – Emotivism – Prescriptivism

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Realism

• "oral realism is based on the idea that there are real ob&ective moral facts or truths in the universe. "oral statements provide factual information about those truths.

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Realism
• 'hen a person says (murder is bad( what are they doing$ • ) might be making a statement about an ethical fact – ()t is wrong to murder( – This is moral realism

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Subjectivism
• *ub&ectivism teaches that moral &udgments are nothing more than statements of a person%s feelings or attitudes, and that ethical statements do not contain factual truths about goodness or badness. • )n more detail: sub&ectivists say that moral statements are statements about the feelings, attitudes and emotions that that particular person or group has about a particular issue.

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Subjectivism
• ) might be making a statement about feelings – () disapprove of murder( – This is sub&ectivism my own

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Emotivism
• Emotivism is the view that moral claims are no more than e+pressions of approval or disapproval. • This sounds like sub&ectivism, but in Emotivism a moral statement doesn%t provide information about the speaker's feelings about the topic but expresses those feelings.

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Emotivism
• ) might be e+pressing my feelings – (,own with murder( – This is emotivism

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Prescriptivism • -rescriptivists think that ethical statements are instructions or recommendations. • *o if ) say something is good, )%m recommending you to do it, and if ) say something is bad, )%m telling you not to do it.

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Prescriptivism
• ) might be giving an instruction or a prohibition – (,on%t murder people( – This is prescriptivism

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Where does Ethics come from?
• -hilosophers have several answers to this .uestion: • God and religion • uman conscience and intuition • A rational moral cost#benefit analysis of actions and their effects • The e+ample of good human beings • A desire for the best for people in each uni.ue situation • -olitical power

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God-based Ethics - Supernaturalism • *upernaturalism makes ethics inseparable from religion. )t teaches that the only source of moral rules is God. • *o, something is good because God says it is, and the way to lead a good life is to do what God wants.

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Intuitionism
• )ntuitionists think that good and bad are real ob&ective properties that can%t be broken down into component parts. • *omething is good because it%s good/ its goodness doesn%t need &ustifying or proving.

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onse!uentialism
• This is the ethical theory that most non#religious people think they use every day. )t bases morality on the conse.uences of human actions and not on the actions themselves. • 0onse.uentialism teaches that people should do whatever produces the greatest amount of good conse.uences.

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"on - onse!uentialism or #eontolo$ical Ethics
• 1on # 0onse.uentialism is concerned with the actions themselves and not with the conse.uences. )t%s the theory that people are using when they refer to (the principle of the thing(. • )t teaches that some acts are right or wrong in themselves, whatever the conse.uences, and people should act accordingly

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%irtue Ethics
• 2irtue Ethics looks at virtue or moral character, rather than at ethical duties and rules, or the conse.uences of actions • To put it very simply, virtue ethics teaches that an action is right if and only if it is an action that a virtuous person would do in the same circumstances, and that a virtuous person is someone who has a particularly good character.

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Situation Ethics
• *ituation ethics re&ects prescriptive rules, and argues that individual ethical decisions should be made according to the uni.ue situation.

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Ethics Ethics are dependent on others for definition) *he( tend to be consistent +ithin a certain conte't, but can var( bet+een conte'ts) 0 person strictl( follo+in$ Ethical Principles ma( not have an( &orals at all) 1i2e+ise, one could violate Ethical Principles +ithin a $iven s(stem of rules in order to maintain &oral inte$rit()
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&oral -suall( consistent, althou$h can chan$e if an individual.s beliefs chan$e)

Fle'ibilit(

*he /Gra(/

0 &oral Person althou$h perhaps bound b( a hi$her covenant, ma( choose to follo+ a code of ethics as it +ould appl( to a s(stem) /&a2e it fit/

Ethics

&oral

3ri$in

Gree2 +ord/ethos/ 1atin +ord/mos/ meanin$/character/ meanin$ /custom4

0cceptabilit(

Ethics are $overned &oralit( transcends b( professional and cultural norms le$al $uidelines +ithin a particular time and place

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Ethics

Moral Principles or habits +ith respect to ri$ht or +ron$ conduct)It defines ho+ thin$s should +or2 accordin$ to an individuals' ideals and principles)

What are the(?

*he rules of conduct reco$ni5ed in respect to a particular class of human actions or a particular $roup, culture, etc) It defines ho+ thin$ are accordin$ to the rules)

Where do come from?

the( Social s(stem E'ternal
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- Individual Internal

-

Ethics is a branch of philosophy

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*he Gree2 +ord Philosophia means
the love 3philia4 of wisdom 3sophia4

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Philosophers see2 +isdom
by trying to answer certain kinds of .uestions.

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Wisdom • The .uality of having e+perience, knowledge, and good &udgement/ the .uality of being wise. • The ability to discern or &udge what is true, right, or lasting. • )nsight • 0ommon sense

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*he three most basic philosophical !uestions are

'hat5s what$ 'hat5s good$ 'hat do we know 3or what5s true4$
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*he 6ranches of Philosoph(

"etaphysics # 'hat5s what$ 6 7eality A+iology # 'hat5s good$ 6 2alue Epistemology # 'hat do we know$ # Knowledge 3!r what5s true$4 38 Truth4
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M

Some official 78 brief9 definitions:

A

E

"etaphysics is the philosophical investigation of the nature of reality, being, or e+istence. A+iology is the philosophical investigation of the nature of value3s4 8 of the foundations of value &udgments. Epistemology is the philosophical investigation of the nature of knowledge 8 truth 8 of the differences between knowledge 8 opinion 8 between truth 8 falsity.
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The 9ranches of the 9ranches

of -hilosophy

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&etaph(sics 7*heor( of 6ein$9

!ntology # being 3ontos4 in general -hilosophical 0osmology # the cosmos -hilosophical Theology # God 8 the gods 3Theos 8 theoi4 -hilosophical Anthropology # human nature and human e+istence 3anthropos4
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A+iology 3Theory of 2alue4

Aesthetics 3philosophy of art4 Ethics 3moral philosophy4 *ocial 8 -olitical -hilosophy

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Epistemology 3Theory of Knowledge4

Any branches of this branch$ (No)
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So philosoph( as an intellectual discipline has the follo+in$ structure 7or subject matter9:
"etaphysics – !ntology 3being in general4 – -hilosophical 0osmology 3the cosmos or universe4 – -hilosophical Theology 3God 8 the gods4 – -hilosophical Anthropology 3human nature 8 e+istence4 A+iology – Aesthetics 3art 8 aesthetic e+perience4 – Ethics 3morality4 – *ocial 8 -olitical -hilosophy 3society 8 politics4 Epistemology K Kotecha

K Kotecha

Ethics is a branch of a'iolo$(, 8 it has its o+n Sub-branches:
1ormative Ethics – General # the attempt to define the basic principles, standards, 8 rules of morality – Applied # the application of moral principles, standards, 8 rules to specific moral problems
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1on#1ormative Ethics – ,escriptive Ethics # the scientific study of moral beliefs 8 practices 3part of the social sciences4 – "etaethics # critical thinking about normative ethics 3e.g., :)s moral knowledge possible$;4.

*here are !uestions about moralit(:
General normative ethics – 'hat are the basic standards of morality$ – 'hat are the differences between :right; 8 :wrong;$ – 'hat is the nature of moral virtue$ Applied normative ethics – )s the death penalty morally &ustifiable$ – Abortion$ – 7acial, gender, or age discrimination$ – 7ecreational drug use$ – The :war on drugs;$

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