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In this paper, we study the mean value properties of the Smarandache ceil function, and give a sharp asymptotic formula for it.

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Vol. 2 (2006), No. 1, 42-44

**On the mean value of the1Smarandache ceil function
**

Wang Xiaoying

Research Center for Basic Science, Xi’an Jiaotong University Xi’an, Shaanxi, P.R.China Abstract For any ﬁxed positive integer n, the Smarandache ceil function of order k is denoted by N ∗ → N and has the following deﬁnition: Sk (n) = min{x ∈ N : n | xk }, ∀n ∈ N ∗ .

In this paper, we study the mean value properties of the Smarandache ceil function, and give a sharp asymptotic formula for it. Keywords Smarandache ceil function; Mean value; Asymptotic formula.

§1. Introduction

For any ﬁxed positive integer n, the Smarandache ceil function of order k is denoted by N → N and has the following deﬁnition:

∗

Sk (n) = min{x ∈ N : n | xk },

∀n ∈ N ∗ .

For example, S2 (1) = 1, S2 (2) = 2, S2 (3) = 3, S2 (4) = 2, S2 (5) = 5, S2 (6) = 6, S2 (7) = 7, S2 (8) = 4, S2 (9) = 3, · · · . This was introduced by Smarandache who proposed many problems in [1]. There are many papers on the Smarandache ceil function. For example, Ibstedt [2] [3] studied this function both theoretically and computationally, and got the following conclusions: (a, b) = 1 ⇒ Sk (ab) = Sk (a)Sk (b), a, b ∈ N ∗ .

α1 αr αr 1 α2 Sk (pα 1 p2 · · · pr ) = Sk (p1 ) · · · Sk (pr ) .

In this paper, we study the mean value properties of the Smarandache ceil function, and give a sharp asymptotic formula for it. That is, we shall prove the following: Theorem. For any real number x ≥ 2, we have the asymptotic formula

1 1 3 ln2 x + A1 ln x + A2 + O(x− 4 + ), = 2 S2 (n) 2π

n≤x

**where A1 and A2 are two computable constants,
**

1 This

is any ﬁxed positive integer.

work is supported by the N.S.F(10271093) and P.N.S.F of P.R.China

Vol. 2

On the mean value of the Smarandache ceil function

43

**§2. Proof of the theorem
**

To complete the proof of the theorem, we need the following Lemma, which is called the Perron’s formula (See reference [4]):

∞

**Lemma. Suppose that the Dirichlet series f (s) =
**

n=1

a(n)n−s , s = σ + it, convergent

absolutely for σ > σa , and that there exist a positive increasing function H (u) and a function B (u) such that a(n) ≤ H (n), and

∞

n = 1 , 2, · · · ,

|a(n)| n−σ ≤ B (σ ),

n=1

σ > σa .

**Then for any s0 = σ0 + it0 , b0 > σa , b0 ≥ b > 0 , b0 ≥ σ0 + b > σa , T ≥ 1 and x ≥ 1, x not to be an integer, we have a(n)n−s0 =
**

n≤x

1 2πi

b+iT

f (s0 + s)

b−iT

xs ds + O s

xb B (b + σ0 ) T x T || x || ,

+ O x1−σ0 H (2x) min 1,

log x T

+ O x−σ0 H (N ) min 1,

where N is the nearest integer to x, || x ||= |N − x|. Now we complete the proof of the theorem. Let s = σ + it be a complex number and f (s) = 1 . S (n)ns n=1 2

∞

1 √ Note that | S21 , so it is clear that f (s) is a Dirichlet series absolutely convergent for ( n) | ≤ n 1 Re(s) > 2 , by Euler product formula [5] and the deﬁnition of S2 (n) we have

f (s)

=

p

1+ +

1 1 1 + + S2 (p)ps S2 (p2 )p2s S2 (p3 )p3s

=

p

1 1 1 + ··· + + + ··· S2 (p4 )p4s S2 (p2k )p2ks S2 (p2k+1 )p(2k+1)s 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + s+1 + 2s+1 + 3s+2 + 4s+2 + · · · + 2ks+k + (2k+1)s+k+1 p p p p p p 1 1 + (2(k+2)+1)s+k+2 + · · · p2(k+1)s+k+1 p 1 1 1 + s+1 1 p 1 − p2s +1

+ =

p

=

**ζ (2s + 1)ζ (s + 1) , ζ (2s + 2) denotes the product over all primes.
**

p

where ζ (s) is the Riemann zeta-function and

44 Taking H (x) = 1;

5

Wang Xiaoying

No. 1

B (σ ) =

2 , 2σ − 1

σ>

1 ; 2

**s0 = 0; b = 1; T = x 4 in the above Lemma we may get 1 1 = S2 (n) 2iπ
**

1+ix 4

5 1−ix 4 5

f (s)

n≤x

1 xs ds + O(x− 4 +ε ). s

To estimate the main term, we move the integral line in the above formula from s = 1 ± ix 4 5 xs 4 to s = − 1 4 ± ix . This time, the function f (s) s have a third order pole point at s = 0 with residue 3 ln2 x + A1 ln x + A2 , 2π 2 where A1 and A2 are two computable constants. Hence, we have 5 5 5 5 1 4 4 −4 +ix 4 −1 1−ix 4 s 4 −ix 1 1+ix ζ (2s + 1)ζ (s + 1)x ds + + + 5 5 5 5 2πi ζ (2s + 2)s 4 4 1−ix 4 1+ix 4 −1 −1 4 +ix 4 −ix = 3 ln2 x + A1 ln x + A2 . 2π 2

s

5

**We can easily get the estimate 1 2πi
**

4 −1 4 +ix 5 1+ix 4 5 1 5 −4 −i 4 5 −1 4 +i 4

+

+

ζ (2s + 1)ζ (s + 1)x ds 5 1 ζ (2s + 2)s − 4 −ix 4

1−ix 4

5

x− 4 + .

1

**From above we may immediately get the asymptotic formula:
**

1 3 1 = ln2 x + A1 ln x + A2 + O(x− 4 + ). S2 (n) 2π 2

n≤x

This completes the proof of the theorem.

References

[1] F. Smarandache, Only problems, not Solutions, Xiquan Publ. House, Chicago, 1993, pp. 42. [2] Ibstedt, Surﬁng on the ocean of numbers-a few Smarandache notions and similar topics, Erhus University press, New Mexico, 1997. [3] Ibstedt, Computational Aspects of Number Sequences, American Research Press, Lupton, 1999. [4] Pan Chengdong and Pan Chengbiao, Goldbach conjecture, Science Press, Beijing, 1992, pp. 145. [5] Tom M. Apostol, Introduction to Analytic Number Theory, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976.

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