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In this short paper, A. Rugina compares the Smarandache's Non-Euclidean
Geometries with his Orientation Table For Any Science.

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**Professor Emeritus Anghel N. Rugina
**

Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02130, USA

Abstract.

In this short paper I compare the Smarandache's Non-Euclidean

Geometries [2] with my Orientation Table For Any Science (1].

Introduction:

Here it is An Orientation Table For Any Science (Natural or social)

u i ~ d i n g blockS:

S = stable (equilibrium) elements, forces, values, behavior

U = unstable (disequilibrium) elements, forces, values,behavior

Models: S

u

Ml = 100% s o

M2 = 95% S + 5% U

M3 = 65% S + 35% 0

M4 : 50% S + 50% U

M5 = 35% S + 65% U

M6 = 5% S + 95% U

Description

A system of general stable equilibrium

at its limit of perfection

The methodological habitat for truths

in the abstract or the pure classical

model in science, in the senae Of

Newton (physics) or Walras (economics)

A system of stable equilibrium but

with minor deviations • This is the

aethodological habitat for truths in

the concrete. It is the case for

special relativity. (Einstein and

Newton)

A mixed system of siaple anomalies or

relativity of the first order. The

equilibrium elements still prevail.

Habitat for truths in the concrete.

A mixed system of unstable equilibrium.

In economics it represents the Keynes-

ian model of "equilibriua with un-

employ.ent but adding the prefix of

·unstable". It is the usual model in

modern science guided by unstable

equilibrium or Rstable disequilibrium

R

•

A mixed model of compound anomalies

or relativity of the second order

where disequilibrium elements prevail.

A weak major disequilibrium.

A borderline mixed system where dis-

equilibrium elements dominate to a

105

M7 = 100% U

My non-understandings are:

very large degree. A strong major

disequilibrium.

A system of total disequilibrium

dominated completely by pure contra-

dictions, real chaos.

1. "Mixed Non-Euclidean Geometries" cannot mean the same thing

with "Anti-Geometry". Tis would involve that all Non-

Euclidean Geometries deny each other.

2. The"Euclidean Geometry" is just one model, specifically Model MI

on my Orietation Table. Indeed, a similar Orientation Table can be

constructed for Geometry. See: enclosure:p.5

3. Independent of Kodel KI (Euclidean), there is an unlimited number

of possible mixed, Noneuclidean, concentrated just for study

purposes in 6 other models. Only Model M7 which represents the

Geometry of total disequilibrium or chaos negates model KI and

therefore may be called the Anti-Euclidean or Anti-Classical system

of Geometry. Actually this is the only case when we can talk about

K7 Anti-Geometry with specification.

4. The Non-Euclidean M2,M3,M4, M5 and M6 which represent a minor dis-

equilibrium, a neutral disequilibrium (M4) or unstable equilibrium

-and major disequilibria (MS,M6) systems of Geometry do not "run

counter to the classical ones" (Ml with truth in the abstract and

K2 with truth in the concrete) but they are just different in various

degrees. There is no contradiction here or,if there is one then

partial or imperfect but not complete.

5. To "transrorm the apparently unscientific ideas into scientific

ones" is a treacherous operation. To me something "unscientific"

means being "untrue" and I do not see how you can transform logi-

cally something which is not true into something which is true!

Unless, one is willing to use a "Hocus-Pocus" logic (just a joke)

or incomplete logic" which closer to "Fuzzy Logic" (a more recent

term). I do not know how Bertrand Russell would react to the

"Fuzzy-Logic" name!

6. The term "Anti-Geometry" is not quite correct, at least not complete

Anti-Classical or-Euclidean Geometry is O.k. but with the under-

standing that it rerers to Model M7.

References:

[1] Anghe1 N. Rugina, Prolegomena to any Future Study in

Economics, Finance and Other Social Sciences: The Road to a Third

Revolution in Economics, Financial, Social, Ethical, Logical and

Political Thinking, International Journal of Social Economics,

MCB University Press, West Yorkshire, England, Vol. 25, No.5, 1-

388, 1998.

[2) Florentin Smarandache, Mixed Non-Euclidean Geometries

(Anti-Geometry), Proceedings of the First (editor

Serban C. Andronescu), Romanian Academy of SClentlsts, The

American Branch, American Institute for Writing Research, New

York, 109-127, 1998.

106

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