Types of Devices Digital versus Analog  A digital device uses discrete data.  Discrete data is distinct or separate.

 Ex: Numbers or digits.  Most computers today are digital. Their circuits have only two possible states, such as “Off” and “On” or “0” and “1”.  Digital versus Analog  An analog device operates on continuously varying data.  Continuously varying data has an infinite number of possible states. Digital versus Analog  A digital thermometer will give a specific numerical reading when used to measure someone’s body temperature.  An old fashioned mercury thermometer’s reading of someone’s body temperature could be interpreted differently by different users. Computer Hardware  Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor, or a microprocessor  Memory (RAM)  Storage Devices  Input Devices  Output Devices  Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor  Memory (RAM)  Storage Devices  Input Devices  Output Devices  Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor  Memory (RAM)  Storage Devices

 Intel Pentium II.also called “The Chip”.  Always check new software’s requirements for CPU type and speed before purchasing Microcomputer Platforms  All microcomputers are based on a small number of designs (interior architecture) or computer platforms.  Compatibility across platforms is limited! You must know which platform your computer runs on before purchasing software.  CPU types. IV  Intel Celeron  AMD Athlon  CPU speed is measured by the number of completed instruction cycles per second Currently. a processor or a microprocessor  Memory (RAM)  Storage Devices  Input Devices  Output Devices CPU Types  CPU or microprocessor is often described as the brain of a computer.  Apple computers or Macs are based on proprietary architecture manufactured exclusively by Apple Computer.  All software is designed for a specific platform. Inc. III.  CPU is an integrated circuit or “chip” which processes instructions and data. PCs use Microsoft Windows as their operating system. a CPU.  PC architecture is based on the first IBM microcomputers. . CPU speeds range from 600 megahertz (MHz or million cycles per second) to 4 gigahertz (GHz or billion cycles per second). Input Devices  Output Devices  Central Processing Unit .  Compatibility refers to computers that operate in essentially the same way. Generally.

depending on the device. They have an unlimited life-span.  Many applications list both a minimum and a recommended amount of RAM necessary to run the software.  Capacity and speed are important considerations when selecting a new storage device for a PC.  Be cautious about buying software for a system based on minimum requirement.  Today’s microcomputers or PCs include several types of storage devices. Check your computer manual for RAM type (DIMM.  All software applications will have RAM specifications listed on their packaging. Mac or Unix versions Memory (RAM) RAM or Random Access Memory  “Waiting room” for computer’s CPU. retrieve.  Storage Devices Hard Disk Drives . They have a limited life-span of 1 to 5 years. Storage Technology  Electronic devices that store.  Magnetic storage devices store data by magnetizing particles on a disk or tape.  Holds instructions for processing data. and raw data.Windows.  Optical storage devices store data as light and dark spots on the disk surface. SDRAM) and speed (100.  Ram is measured by:  Capacity (in Megabytes or Gigabytes)  Speed (in Nanoseconds)  Amount of RAM installed will determine. and save instructions and data. processed data.  Which software applications will run (efficiently)? simultaneously (multitasking  How many software applications can be open ability)?  RAM upgrades are cost-effective and easy to install. 90ns).

 Tape Drives – Generally used for system backups.  Most mass-produced commercial software is packaged on a CD. Input Devices  Input is all information put into a computer.  DVD drives – Can also read CDs. Input can be supplied from a variety of sources:  A person  A storage device on computer  Another computer . Capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB or billions of bytes).  Typically permanently installed. CD-ROM Drives  Typically installed on all new computer systems.  Data is read from CD by a laser.  Capacity is 600 to 750 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes).44 to 2.  Storage device with the smallest capacity  Most portable storage media  Magnetic storage device. now more common as a standard device on new computer systems. application software.  Magnetic storage device. becoming less common. Floppy Disk Drives  Capacity is 1. utilities and data.0 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes).  Used to store operating system. CD-ROM Drives  Used more often now for backup storage as CD-RW (read/write) technology has become less expensive. (Were add-on device until the mid 1990’s).  Optical storage device. Other Types of Drives  Zip Drives – Several different capacities are available.

images.  Some require specialized software to import images into the computer.Most common input device.  Joystick useful in education as an adaptive or assistive input device. the higher the resolution of the monitor. .  Digital Cameras are peripheral input devices that allow users to create pictures and/or movies in a digital format. Output Devices  Monitors are the most commonly used output device.  Some record digital images directly to a disk that can be read by the computer.  Most monitors use a bitmap display.  The more “dots” a screen can display. such as a musical instrument or thermometer  Input devices gather and translate data into a form the computer understands. manipulate text. used to type in commands and data.  Divides the screen into a matrix of tiny square “dots” called pixels.  Monitors are connected to a computer system via a port integrated on the video adapter or graphics card. A peripheral device  Another piece of equipment.  Mouse or trackball enhances user’s ability to input commands.  Primary input device:  Keyboard .  Allows user to resize the display.  Scanners are peripheral input devices which allow users to import:  Text  Graphics  Images  Specialized software aids in translating information into a format the computer can understand and manipulate.  Graphics cards convert digital data output from software to analog data for display on monitors.

 A stand-alone computer is called a workstation on a network.  Bubble or ink jet  Laser  Projection systems or classroom TVs can display information from a computer system on a larger screen for whole-class instruction.  Many campuses use LANs.  LANs are found in most businesses. 4MB to 64MB.  A circuit board that sends data between the workstation and the network. TENET is a classic example.Typically have additional memory chips on card.  With proper licensing.  Wide Area Network (WAN) – a network that covers a large geographical area.  Connects a workstation to the network. hardware. such as storage space or a printer.  A network interface card (NIC) – a key hardware component.  A workstation provides access to:  Your computer’s local resources  Network resources  A server is a computer connected to a network that distributes and stores resources for other network users. and software.  Still frequently used in business. Networks  A collection of computers and other devices that communicate to share data. many network users can use the same applications and data files simultaneously and share other resources.  Local Area Network (LAN) – a network located in a limited area. . Printers  Dot matrix  Seldom used in a classroom.

Options and Tradeoffs Speed versus Cost  How fast are you able to access and save data on the hard drive?  How fast will application software open?  How quickly will software respond to commands?  How quickly will your printer produce a document? Capacity versus Cost  How many applications can you store on a hard disk drive?  How much data can you store on a secondary storage device?  How many applications can be opened simultaneously? Quality versus Cost  Pentium versus Celeron  Laser printer versus Ink Jet printer  Limited functionality editions versus full versions of software  15 inch monitor versus 21 inch monitor  Speed versus Cost  Capacity versus Cost  Quality versus Cost  Cost-Cost-Cost Software .  Communication standards called protocols allow for global exchange of information.largest of all networks.  The Internet .  Special hardware (modem) and software (browser) are required. All types of networks require special networking hardware and networking software to allow different computers to communicate with each other.  Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)  Internet Protocol (IP)  Intranets are LANs or WANs that use these communication standards or TCP/IP.

Linux  An operating system interacts with:  All hardware installed in or connected to a computer system.  Network operating system (NOS)  Manages network resources.  Handles communication between workstations and servers.  Popular network operating systems Windows NT. UNIX Utilities  Utilities augment functionality of operating systems. Instructions and associated data. that direct the computer to accomplish a task.  MacOS  For Macintosh computers. MacOS.  Does not have same functionality and support for software and peripheral devices.  Tracks user accounts.  System software helps the computer carry out its basic operating tasks.  Operating systems  Utilities System Software  An Operating System (OS) is the master controller within a computer. DOS.  All software installed or running from a storage device on a computer system.  Proprietary system. stored in electronic format. .  Microsoft Windows  Most popular operating system.  Supports a vast array of application software and peripheral devices. Utilities includes device drivers and Troubleshooting capabilities. Novell Netware. EX: Windows. UNIX.  Maintains security.

 Productivity Software  Spreadsheets  Databases  Presentation Software  Document Preparation  Word Processing  Desktop Publishing  Project Management Software  Graphics Creation and Manipulation  Animation and 3D Graphics  Video Editing  Internet Connectivity  Website Creation and Management  Groupware  Financial Management  Educational Games and Tutorials Programming Languages .  Symantec and McAfee Virus checkers add protection for all system and data files. Application Software  Accomplishes specific tasks for users. moving or renaming a file.  Norton Utilities includes an undelete function that can recover deleted files.  Enables a computer to become a multi-purpose machine.  Create flow charts and graphic organizers. Utilities provide file management capabilities such as copying.  Produce worksheets and reports.  Communicate worldwide.  Automate record keeping like attendance and grades.

 BASIC  Pascal  Fortran  C++  Java Instructional Support  What problems do you need solved and which application software will help solve the problems?  Integrated Learning Systems  Computer Assisted Instruction Drill.  Programming languages allow a programmer to write instructions that a computer can understand.  Programming languages have some resemblance to the English language. Simulation  Textbook Resources  Research and Information Access What technology-based resources are available?  Technology Plan (District-wide)  Technology Plan (Building)  Curricula Plan What technology-based resources are available?  Stand-alone computer(s) in the classroom  Networked computers in the classroom  Computer laboratory  Computer for every kid . Basic building blocks of any software. Tutorial.