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Vol. 4 (2008), No. 1, 86-89

On the mean value of the

Pseudo-Smarandache-Squarefree function

Xuhui Fan

†‡

and Chengliang Tian

†

† Department of Mathematics, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 710069

‡ Foundation Department, Engineering College of Armed Police Force, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 710086

Abstract For any positive integer n, the Pseudo Smarandache Squarefree function Z

w

(n)

is deﬁned as Z

w

(n) = min{m : n|m

n

, m ∈ N}, and the function Z(n) is deﬁned as Z(n) =

min

m : n ≤

m(m+ 1)

2

, m ∈ N

**. The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary
**

methods to study the mean value properties of the function Z

w

(Z(n)), and give a sharper

mean value formula for it.

Keywords Pseudo-Smarandache-Squarefree function Z

w

(n), function Z(n), mean value, a-

symptotic formula.

§1. Introduction and result

For any positive integer n, the Pseudo-Smarandache-Squarefree function Z

w

(n) is deﬁned

as the smallest positive integer m such that n | m

n

. That is,

Z

w

(n) = min{m : n|m

n

, m ∈ N}.

For example Z

w

(1) = 1, Z

w

(2) = 2, Z

w

(3) = 3, Z

w

(4) = 2, Z

w

(5) = 5, Z

w

(6) = 6,

Z

w

(7) = 7, Z

w

(8) = 2, Z

w

(9) = 3, Z

w

(10) = 10, · · · . About the elementary properties of

Z

w

(n), some authors had studied it, and obtained some interesting results. For example, Felice

Russo [1] obtained some elementary properties of Z

w

(n) as follows:

Property 1. The function Z

w

(n) is multiplicative. That is, if GCD(m, n) = 1, then

Z

w

(m· n) = Z

w

(m) · Z

w

(n).

Property 2. Z

w

(n) = n if and only if n is a squarefree number.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the mean value

properties of Z

w

(Z(n)), and give a sharper asymptotic formula for it, where Z(n) is deﬁned as

Z(n) = min

_

m : n ≤

m(m+ 1)

2

, m ∈ N

_

. That is, we shall prove the following conclusion:

Theorem. For any real number x ≥ 2, we have the asymptotic formula

n≤x

Z

w

(Z(n)) =

_

1 +

p

_

1 +

1

p(p

2

−1)

_

_

·

4

√

2

π

2

· x

3

2

+O

_

x

5

4

_

,

where

p

denotes the product over all primes.

Vol. 4 On the mean value of the Pseudo-Smarandache-Squarefree function 87

§2. Some lemmas

To complete the proof of the theorem, we need the following several lemmas.

Lemma 1. For any real number x ≥ 2, we have the asymptotic formula

m≤x

µ

2

(m) =

6

π

2

x +O(

√

x). (1)

Proof. See reference [2].

Lemma 2. For any real number x ≥ 2, we have the asymptotic formula

m≤x

m∈A

m

2

=

2

π

2

x

3

+O

_

x

5

2

_

,

where A denotes the set of all square-free integers.

Proof. By the Abel’s summation formula (See Theorem 4.2 of [3]) and Lemma 1, we have

m≤x

m∈A

m

2

=

m≤x

m

2

µ

2

(m) = x

2

·

_

6

π

2

x +O(

√

x)

_

−2

_

x

1

t

_

6

π

2

t +O(

√

t)

_

dt

=

6

π

2

x

3

+O

_

x

5

2

_

−

4

π

2

x

3

=

2

π

2

x

3

+O

_

x

5

2

_

.

This proves Lemma 2.

Lemma 3. For any real number x ≥ 2 and s > 1 , we have the inequality

m≤x

m∈B

Z

w

(m)

m

s

<

p

_

1 +

1

p

s−1

(p

s

−1)

_

.

Specially, if s >

3

2

, then we have the asymptotic formula

m≤x

m∈B

Z

w

(m)

m

s

=

p

_

1 +

1

p

s−1

(p

s

−1)

_

+O

_

x

3

2

−s

_

,

where B denotes the set of all square-full integers.

Proof. First we deﬁne the arithmetical function a(m) as follows:

a(m) =

_

_

_

1 if m ∈ B ;

0 otherwise.

From Property 1 and the deﬁnition of a(m) we know that the function Z

w

(m) and a(m)

are multiplicative. If s > 1, then by the Euler product formula (See Theorem 11.7 of [3]) we

have

m≤x

m∈B

Z

w

(m)

m

s

<

∞

m=1

m∈B

Z

w

(m)

m

s

=

∞

m=1

Z

w

(m)

m

s

a(m)

=

p

_

1 +

p

p

2s

+

p

p

3s

+· · ·

_

=

p

_

1 +

1

p

s−1

(p

s

−1)

_

.

88 Xuhui Fan and Chengliang Tian No. 1

Note that if m ∈ B, then Z

w

(m) ≤

√

m. Hence, if s >

3

2

, then we have

m≤x

m∈B

Z

w

(m)

m

s

=

∞

m=1

m∈B

Z

w

(m)

m

s

−

m>x

m∈B

Z

w

(m)

m

s

=

∞

m=1

m∈B

Z

w

(m)

m

s

+O

_

m>x

1

m

s−

1

2

_

=

p

_

1 +

1

p

s−1

(p

s

−1)

_

+O

_

x

3

2

−s

_

.

This proves Lemma 3.

§3. Proof of the theorem

In this section, we shall use the elementary method to complete the proof of the theorem.

Note that if

(m−1)m

2

+ 1 ≤ n ≤

m(m+ 1)

2

, then Z(n) = m. That is, the equation

Z(n) = m has m solutions as follows:

n =

(m−1)m

2

+ 1,

(m−1)m

2

+ 2, · · · ,

m(m+ 1)

2

Since n ≤ x, from the deﬁnition of Z(n) we know that if Z(n) = m, then 1 ≤ m ≤

√

8x + 1 −1

2

.

Note that Z

w

(n) ≤ n, we have

n≤x

Z

w

(Z(n)) =

n≤x

Z(n)=m

Z

w

(m) =

m≤

√

8x+1−1

2

m· Z

w

(m) +O(x)

=

m≤

√

2x

m· Z

w

(m) +O(x). (2)

We separate all integer m in the interval [1,

√

2x] into three subsets A, B, and C as follows:

A: the set of all square-free integers; B: the set of all square-full integers; C: the set of all

positive integer m such that m ∈ [1,

√

2x]/A

B.

Note that (2), we have

n≤x

Z

w

(Z(n)) =

m≤

√

2x

m∈A

m· Z

w

(m) +

m≤

√

2x

m∈B

m· Z

w

(m) +

m≤

√

2x

m∈C

m· Z

w

(m) +O(x). (3)

From Property 2 and Lemma 2 we know that if m ∈ A, then we have

m≤

√

2x

m∈A

m· Z

w

(m) =

m≤

√

2x

m∈A

m

2

=

4

√

2

π

2

x

3

2

+O

_

x

5

4

_

. (4)

It is clear that if m ∈ B, then Z

w

(m) ≤

√

m. Hence

m≤

√

2x

m∈B

m· Z

w

(m)

m≤

√

2x

m∈B

m

3

2

x

5

4

. (5)

Vol. 4 On the mean value of the Pseudo-Smarandache-Squarefree function 89

If m ∈ C, then we write m as m = q · n, where q is a square-free integer and n is a

square-full integer. From Property 1, Property 2, Lemma 2 and Lemma 3 we have

m≤

√

2x

m∈C

m· Z

w

(m) =

n≤

√

2x

nZ

w

(n)a(n)

q≤

√

2x

n

q

2

µ

2

(q)

=

n≤

√

2x

nZ

w

(n)a(n)

_

4

√

2

π

2

·

x

3

2

n

3

+O

_

x

5

4

n

5

2

__

=

4

√

2

π

2

x

3

2

n≤

√

2x

Z

w

(n)a(n)

n

2

+O

_

x

5

4

n≤

√

2x

Z

w

(n)a(n)

n

3

2

_

=

4

√

2

π

2

p

_

1 +

1

p(p

2

−1)

_

x

3

2

+O

_

x

5

4

_

. (6)

Combining (3), (4), (5) and (6), we may immediately deduce the asymptotic formula

n≤x

Z

w

(Z(n)) =

_

1 +

p

(1 +

1

p(p

2

−1)

_

·

4

√

2

π

2

· x

3

2

+O

_

x

5

4

_

.

This completes the proof of Theorem.

References

[1] Felice Russo, A set of new Smarandache functions, sequences and conjectures in number

theory, Lupton USA, American Research Press, 2000.

[2] D.S.Mitrinovic, Handbook of Number Theory, Boston London, Kluwer Academic Pub-

lishers, 1996.

[3] Tom M Apostol, Introduction to Analytic Number Theory, New York, Spinger-Verlag,

1976.

[4] Pan Chengdong and Pan Chengbiao, The elementary proof of the prime theorem, Shang-

hai Science and Technology Press, Shanghai, 1988.

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