March 30, 2014

BY MR. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM

Morinda Citrifolia
March 30, 2014 at 12:31pm Plant Chemicals The fruit of Indian mulberry contains a number of phytochemicals, including lignans, oligo- and polysaccharides, fla onoids, iridoids, fatty acids, scopoletin, catechin, betasitosterol, damnacanthal, and al!aloids" Uses & Benefits of Indian Mulberry
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Indian mulberry is used for treating a number of ailments, such as #oint pains, immune problems, pain relief, cellular regeneration, and more" Its fruit contains a number of en$ymes %proteins& and al!aloids that are belie ed to play a pi otal role in promoting good health" 'ome recent studies conducted on Indian mulberry ha e suggested that it is capable of inhibiting the formation and gro(th of cancer cells" It acti ates the immune system of the body and has sho(n promise in helping combat leu!emia, (hich is induced by retro irus infection" 'ome preliminary researches ha e suggested that the herb may possess an ability to ta!e bac! the cancerous cells to a non-cancerous state" The fruits from the plant are edible and consumed orally in some places" )o(e er, they don*t ha e a nice taste or smell" The fruits are eaten as famine foods, thought they are a staple food of choice, in ra( or coo!ed form, in places such as 'amoa and +i#i" The bar! of Indian mulberry plant produces a reddish-purple and bro(n colored dye, (hich is used in ma!ing bati!" The tree is e,tensi ely gro(n for the purpose of obtaining dye in -a a" In )a(aii, a yello(ish dye (as e,tracted from the roots of the plant, (hich (as used to dye cloth" .arious parts Indian mulberry are used for medicinal purposes, such as containing fe er, and also as a tonic" /ye problems, s!in (ounds, gum and throat problems, respiratory problems, constipation, stomach pains and post deli ery pains are treated using its lea es, flo(ers, fruit and bar!" )eated lea es of the plant are applied to the chest, in order to relie e coughs, nausea and colic" The #uice of the lea es from Indian mulberry is brought in use to treat asthma in 0hilippines" The fruit of Indian mulberry is consumed for remedying lumbago, asthma and dysentery in India and 1hina"

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March 30, 2014

BY MR. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM

Great Morinda Morinda citrifolia Indian Mulberry, Mengkudu (Malay), Nonu/Nono (Pacific Islands), Noni (Hawaii) The plant gro(s (ell on sandy or roc!y shores" 2part from saline conditions, the plant also can (ithstand drought and gro(s in secondary soils" Thus the plant can be seen in clearings, olcanic terrain, la a-stre(n coasts and on limestone outcrops" Uses as food: The fruits are edible, but don3t ha e a nice taste or smell" In fact, some people consider the ripe fruits to smell li!e omit4 Mangrove and wetland wildlife at Sungei Buloh Nature Park Main features: Gro s !"# m tall$ %ea&es: %arge' sim(le' dark green' shiny' dee(ly &eined$ )lo ers: Small' hite' gro ing from a fleshy structure$ Blooms and fruits year round$ )ruits: *&al' medium +",cm' at first green' turning light yello or hite hen ri(e$ -as many seeds$ Status in Singa(ore:. /orld distribution: Nati&e to Southeast 0sia but s(read to India and the Pacific Islands$ Classification: )amily Combretaceae$ 5e ertheless, the fruits (ere eaten as a famine food, and in some 0acific islands, are e en a staple food of choice %6aratonga, 'amoa, +i#i&, (here they (ere eaten ra( or coo!ed" /lse(here, the fruit is eaten ra( (ith salt %Indochina, 2ustralian 2borigines&7 or coo!ed as a curry" The fruits may also be fed to pig li estoc!" The young lea es can also be eaten as a egetable and contain protein %4-89&" 'eeds may be roasted and eaten" *ther uses: The bar! of the :reat Morinda produces a reddish purple and bro(n dye used in ma!ing bati! and the tree (as (idely gro(n for this purpose in -a a" In )a(aii, a yello(ish dye (as also e,tracted from the roots and also used to dye cloth" The tree (as also purposely planted to pro ide support for pepper ines and shade tree for coffee bushes" 2lso as a (ind-brea! in 'urinam" 1raditional medicinal uses: 2arious (arts are used to contain fe er and as a tonic %1hinese, -apan, )a(aii&7 lea es, flo(ers, fruit, bar! to treat eye problems, s!in (ounds and abscesses, gum and throat problems, respiratory ailments, constipation, fe er %0acific Islands, )a(aii&7 to treat stomach pains and after deli ery %Marshall Islands&" )eated lea&es applied to the chest relie e coughs, nausea, colic %Malaysia&7 #uice of the lea es is ta!en for arthritis %0hilippines&" The fruit is ta!en for lumbago, asthma and dysentery %Indochina&7 pounded unripe fruit is mi,ed (ith salt and applied to cuts and bro!en bones7 ripe fruit is used to dra( out pus from an infected boil %)a(aii&7 #uices of o er-ripe fruits are ta!en to regulate menstrual flo(, ease urinary
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idi$es leucomethylene blue to methylene blue in the presence of hemoglobin" The resultant blue color (as >uantified at 880 nm spectrophotometrically" In the T5@ assay. assay.idant acti ity of T5. made from Morinda citrifolia fruit by Morinda Inc. and D09 in the !idney" In order to e. supero.tensi ely throughout the 'outh 0acific region as an important medicinal plant" 5oni is a genus of about A0 species.March 30.plore the mechanism of this pre enti e effect. and A09 in the !idney of female '? rats" / en more dramatic results (ere obtained in male 1BC @<-8 mice: 109 T5. is a member of the 6ubiaceae #uss family and gro(s e. nonu or kura.sho(ed a dose-dependent inhibition of both <0. and '26 in our system" The antio. <0.ther e. including anticancer acti ity. in drin!ing (ater for one (ee! (as able to pre ent ?M@2-?52 adduct formation" The le els of ?M@2-?52 adducts (ere reduced by 309 in the heart.ide %<0. the antio. grape seed po(der %:'0&.amined in itro by lipid hydropero. in both clinical practice and laboratory animal models" The mechanism for these effects remains un!no(n" The hypothesis that Morinda citrifolia possesses a cancer pre enti e effect at the initiation stage of carcinogenesis (as studied" .& and tetra$olium nitroblue %T5@& assays" In the <0. o. the :reat Morinda helps to stabilise the shore and pro ide shade under (hich other less hardy plants can establish themsel es" Their fruits appear to attract the =ea er 2nts %Oecophylla smaragdina&.idant acti ity of T5.000 years" It has been reported to ha e broad therapeutic effects. )a(aii& and to treat head lice %)a(aii&" . 419 in the lung.(as e. mostly of tropical origin" The traditional uses of noni plants ary from one country to the other in the 'outh 0acific region" The #uice e. great morinda or Indian mulberry. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM problems %Malay&7 fruits used to ma!e a shampoo %Malay.(as compared to the effects of itamin 1.ide anion radicals %'26& reduce T5@ into forma$an blue that (as also measured by absorption at 802 nm" T5.tracted from the fruit is regarded as ha ing a range of medicinal properties and most people in the 0acific Island countries drin! it" The #uice is high in itamin 1 and there is a high demand for it as an alternati e medicine for a host of illnesses in the 'outh 0acific region and (orld(ide" 3|Page .ur preliminary data indicated that 109 Tahitian 5oni <i>uid ?ietary 'upplement or Tahitian 5oni -uice %T5-&. 2014 BY MR. C09 in the li er. (hich also often ma!e their remar!able nests out of the li ing lea es of the plant" In residence.(as able to reduce ?M@2-?52 adduct formation by 809 in the heart. B09 in the lung.tensi ely used in fol! medicine by 0olynesians for o er 2.may contribute to the cancer pre enti e effect of Morinda citrifolia" Morinda ci rifolia also called noni. 429 in the li er. these ants may protect the plant from insect predators" Cancer (re&enti&e effect of Morinda citrifolia 4Noni5$ 0bstract Morinda citrifolia %5oni& has been e.otic diseases treated (ith the plant include diabetes %(idespread& and enereal diseases" 3ole in the habitat: <i!e other mangro e and shore plants. and pycnogenol %0E1& at the daily dose per ser ing le el recommended by F"'"6?2s or manufacturers" The results suggest that pre ention of carcinogen-?52 adduct formation and the antio.idant acti ity of T5.

tract (aste (as collected from the 11G factory %2pia. (hich change from green to (hite as it ripens" It is the most used part of the plant but e ery other part of it %seeds. the pulp and seeds and after #uice e. 0ar!& is an energy food rich in starch and sugar content." 5oni #uice e. flo(ers. salt and mineralH itamin premi.imate analysis of dry 5-/= from our laboratory sho(s that it has a crude protein content of 12"8 9. 'amoa& in the dry form" @anana peels (ere collected fresh from a banana chips processing factory %<e 2ngelotte. bar! and lea es& can be used medicinally" ?uring processing and e. urea %48 9 5&. banana peels.tract (aste.traction it retains a dar! color" It is the most important byproduct that results from the #uice e.traction process" @readfruit %!r ocarpus al ilis. 'amoa&" These (ere sun-dried until they turned bro(n and crispy to touch" =hole breadfruit (ere manually sliced into chips of about 1 cm thic!ness and o en-dried at C0I1 for 24 h" @re(ers3 grains (ere collected (et from a local bre(ery.tract (aste %5-/=& is offered on a cafeteria basis to li estoc! they often re#ect it %Gen 5e(ton.March 30. but a high content of fibre" The high fibre content therefore suggest that it (ould be a more beneficial feed resource for ruminant li estoc! because of their rumen physiological adaptation to the use of feeds that are high in fibre" To utili$e fibrous crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts in the rations of small ruminants. spread on an open concrete floor and turned regularly until they (ere dry and designated as dried bre(er3s grains %?@:&" 5oni #uice e. roots. bre(ers3 grains. 0ersonal communication 2002&" 5-/= is composed of the pericarp.ing (ith other feedstuffs and ingredients. a large amount of (aste is generated (hich continues to be discarded" It has been obser ed that in either the (et or dry state (hen noni #uice e. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM The fruit of noni is shaped as a potato (ith pineapple li!e spots. but has ery lo( protein content" The pulp is a aluable source of carbohydrate and fibre in human and li estoc! nutrition" =hole fruit %pulpHpeels&7 pulp and peels separately are used in li estoc! nutrition %Fdo 1DA17 2regheore and 'usumu 2003& as an energy source" The pro. banana peels and (hole breadfruit chips (ere ground separately in a stainless steel mill through 1-mm screen into flour" The ground products (ere designated as banana peels flour %@0+& and (hole breadfruit flour %=@++&" The products (ere processed in the abo e manner to facilitate mi.traction of #uice from ripe noni fruits.tract (aste. used in the formulation of the complete diets %Table 1&" 4|Page .perimental diets (ere noni #uice e. 2014 BY MR. (hole breadfruit. they ha e to be sub#ected to at least a minimum processing li!e choppingHgrinding" ?ry and milled 5-/= smells and tastes li!e coffee" Information on the chemical composition and feeding alue of 5-/= in the nutrition of li estoc! is non-a ailable" The ob#ecti e of this study therefore (as to e aluate the chemical composition of 5-/= and to establish its potential use in complete diets of gro(ing goats" Material and methods )eedstuffs' (rocessing and (re(aration of com(lete diets The feedstuffs used for the e. 2pia.

March 30. 2014 BY MR. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM 1able 6$ 1hemical composition of feedstuffs used in complete dietsJ Nutrients' 7 N89/ :BG BP) /B)) ?ry matter D0"4 AA"3 D2"8 D2"0 0nalysis on :M basis 1rude protein 12"8 23"B C"D 4"1 5|Page .

March 30.tract 1"1 B"8 2"3 B"0 2sh A"A 8"2 12"3 4"A 5eutral detergent fibre 80"D 41"4 4A"0 12"A 2cid detergent fibre 43"1 28"B 3C"D A"4 6|Page . 2014 BY MR. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM /ther e.

March 30. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM 2cid detergent lignin 1D"0 D"0 12"3 2"8 )emicellulose 1C"A 14"C 10"1 4"4 1ellulose 24"1 1C"B 2B"8 B"A 5on structural carbohydrates 18"C 23"3 2D"B 7|Page . 2014 BY MR.

)ried brewers.perimental diets C*N13*% 8|Page . salt and mineralH itamin premi. (ere formulated into three isonitrogenous complete diets by ad#usting the le el of urea added" The diets used (ere as follo(s: 1ontrol: @asal diet %no 5-/=& 2B5-/: @asal K2B9 5-/= 3B5-/: @asal K 3B9 5-/=" The diets (ere formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric %Table 2&" 1able . Noni &uice e' rac was e( )*+. 2014 BY MR. *anana peels flour( %*--. M-H!g 1B"4 1C"3 14"8 13"8 " mean of hree de ermina ions N#$%. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM C3"3 .rganic matter D1"2 D4"4 AC"C DB"2 :ross energy.March 30. %hole breadfrui flour The processed feedstuff (ith urea %48 9 5&.$ 0ercentage composition of e. grains. *P-.

March 30.tract (aste %5-/=& 2B"0 3B"0 @re(ers3 dried grains 4B"0 33"0 23"0 =hole breadfruit flour 43"2 30"0 30"0 @anana peel flour D"0 A"B A"2 9|Page . 2014 BY MR. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM .!N89/ <!N89/ 5oni #uice /.

) and $ wi h copra meal and molasses added 10 | P a g e . 2014 BY MR. 877 mg/kg <inc. New 2ealand) 3he mineral/0i amin block con ained sal (Na4l). 567 g/kg calcium.March 30.97 m/kg iron. .:9 mg/kg iodine. 87 g/kg phosphorus.J 1"B 1"B 1"B 'alt %5a1l& 0"B 0"B 0"B Total 100"0 100"0 100"0 *.ummi mul i/mineral sal /0i amin1 . 87 mg/kg manganese.itamin mi. 5:9 mg/kg colbal . 877 mg/kg manganese. 5:9 mg/kg selenium( =i : !. 597 mg/kg copper. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM Frea %48 9 5& 0"A 1"B 1"A Mineral. .ummi mul i/mineral sal (!uckland.

0arr Instrument 1o" Molin.an 'oest et al %1DD1&" The 5?+ (as assayed (ith sodium sulfite. forage (as not introduced because one of the ma#or ob#ecti es (as to e. the goats (ere used for metabolic studies using the total faecal collection method" The buc!s (ere fitted (ith harness bags" The female goats (ere housed in cages the floor of (hich (as co ered (ith a ery fine (ire netting that allo(ed only urine to pass through" 2 dustpan and brush (ere used to collect the faeces" Total faecal output for each goat (as (eighed and a 2B 9 sample (as remo ed for dry matter determination" +aeces collected o er the period (ere o en dried at C0I1 for 38 h" ?aily samples of faeces and feed refusals (ere bul!ed separately for each goat and milled %1hristy and 5orris7 0rocess /ngineers. F'2& (ith thermochemical ben$oic acid as standard" 2ll analysis (ere completed in triplicate Statistical analysis 11 | P a g e .21 %1DDB& procedure (as used for nutrient content of diets" ?ry matter %?M& (as determined by drying at constant (eight at C0I1 for 24 h in a forced-air o en. gro(ing 2nglo-5ubian .imate composition" 0nalytical Methods The 2. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM 0nimals' e=(erimental design' management and feeding 'i. (ithout alpha amylase and (as e. +i#i local goats %3 males and 3 females& bet(een C and D m of age. FG& to pass through 1"CC mm sie e and stored in air tight bottles until re>uired for chemical analyses" +eeds offered and refusals (ere analysed for pro. forage and faecal samples (ere determined using a bomb calorimeter %2diabatic bomb.periment. 2014 BY MR. 5e( Mealand& and litter material (as changed periodically" In this e. acid detergent lignin. (ith initial a erage body (eight of 11"AL0"8 !g (ere randomly di ided into three groups balanced for body (eight and age in a double 3 .pressed (ith residual ash" The gross energy %M-H!g& alue of feedstuffs. I<. each of 38 days. diets. protein by the micro-G#eldahl procedure %5 .March 30. 8"2B& %0rocedure I? 5umber DB4"02&" +ibre fractions. and 21 and B days for data and faecal collection" The goats (ere housed under a common roof in pens (ith concrete floors co ered (ith (ood sha ings for bedding" The goats (ere drenched (ith <e icare %2ncare. neutral detergent fibre %5?+&.amine the effects of using crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts for goats" It (as assumed that the fibre content of the diets (ould be ade>uate for rumen function" The complete diets (ere offered in such a (ay that daily refusals represented about 10 to 20 9 in e. consisting a 10-day adaptation period. 1helmsford.perimental period and the last day of the third period" @ody (eight change (as calculated by difference bet(een mean body (eights at the beginning and end of each period" :igestibility study 2t the end of the gro(th trial. 3 <atin s>uare design e.cess of the pre ious day3s inta!e" @efore any feed (as offered. acid detergent fibre %2?+&. cellulose and hemicellulose (ere determined by the procedures of . 2uc!land. ash by incineration at 800I1 for 2 h.periment (ith three periods. the residue (as collected and (eighed" The goats had free access to fresh clean (ater" @ody (eights (ere determined on the first three days of each e.

5T6.< 2B5F/ 3B5F/ 1.< 2B5F/ . 3 <atin s>uare (here each of the three diets (as gi en to each of three goats in three periods.March 30. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM The design (as a replicated 3 . 2014 BY MR.5T6.< 12 | P a g e . Goat < Goat + Goat ! Goat > 6 3B5F/ 1. 1. in each of the t(o replicates. according to the follo(ing se>uence: 3e(licate 6 3e(licate .5T6. Period Goat 6 Goat .

< The response data (ere analy$ed using 25. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM 2B5F/ 3B5F/ 1. treatment means (ere compared (ith the @onferroni t-test" 3esults and discussion The 5?+.5T6. 2?< and cellulose increased and non-structural carbohydrate %5'1& fraction decreased (ith increase in the le el of 5-/= in the diet %Table 3&" The 5'1 fraction represents the carbohydrates that are soluble in neutral detergents and can be estimated as 100 minus Nprotein.< 2B5F/ 3B5F/ < 2B5F/ 3B5F/ 1.5T6.. lipids and ash in the feedO %'niffen et al 1DD2&" 1able <$ 1hemical composition of e. period. 5?+ corrected for protein.March 30.5T6.!N89 <!N89 13 | P a g e . treatment and residual error" =here significant differences (ere obser ed.perimental diets Control . 2?+. 2014 BY MR.2 procedures %'teel and Torrie 1DA0&" 'ources of ariation (ere: goats.< 2B5F/ 3B5F/ 1.

2014 BY MR. 9 AC"2 AC"B AD"A *n :M basis 475 1rude protein 13"0 13"0 13"0 /ther e.March 30.tract 2"1 1"D 1"C 2sh 8"0 8"1 8"D 5eutral detergent fibre 14 | P a g e . ANANT SATYAM NIGAM ?ry matter.

2014 BY MR. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM 34"3 48"0 4D"0 2cid detergent fibre 21"2 32"4 34"4 2cid detergent lignin 10"B 11"0 12"4 )emicellulose 13"1 13"8 14"8 1ellulose 14"C 21"4 22"0 15 | P a g e .March 30.

March 30. a erage daily gain daily protein. digestible energy and apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients of goatsJ Parameters :iets?? Control .!N89 <!N89 16 | P a g e . (ith increase in the le els of 5-/= %Table 4&" 1able +$ ?ry matter inta!e.rganic matter D4"0 D3"D D3"1 :ross energy %M-H!g. 2014 BY MR. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM 5on-structural carbohydrate 44"D 33"0 2D"4 . and in the apparent digestibility of all nutrients. ?M& 18"0 18"1 18"B There (as a progressi e decrease in ?M inta!e and li e (eight gain.

8"2B& inta!e. M-H !g ?MHday 11"4 10"D 17 | P a g e . ANANT SATYAM NIGAM S9M ?aily dry matter inta!e. 2014 BY MR. gH!g=0"CB A"B C"A C"1 0"8 ?igestible energy.March 30. gHday 8D BB 4A ?aily protein %5 . gHday 343a 2D2ab 1C1b 21 <i e (eight change.

2014 BY MR.March 30. ?/ . 0"A2& %G-H!g 0"CBHd C1D 8BD BAA 0((arent digestibility' 7: ?ry matter 88"2a 83"Bab 80"1b 2"B 1rude protein 84"Ca BC"Aab BB"8b 3"D 5eutral detergent fibre 8D"4 8B"8 18 | P a g e . ANANT SATYAM NIGAM 10"1 0"C Metaboli$ablee energy inta!e.

rganic matter 8D"1a 88"8ab 83"1b 2"B /nergy C1"0 8A"0 8B"1 2"4 " Mean of si' goa s ab Means in he same row wi hou common le er are differen a P The unusual taste of 5-/= may be one factor leading to decrease in ?MI. 19 | P a g e . 2014 BY MR. since it has been reported that (hen offered to li estoc! on a cafeteria basis it is al(ays re#ected %Gen 5e(ton.March 30. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM 83"D 2"3 2cid detergent fibre C0"3a 84"Ab 83"Bb 2"D .

trapolated to diets (ith 1009 5-/=. the coefficients for ?M and crude protein in the 5-/= (ould be only B0 and 3D9 respecti ely" Thus the unusual taste and lo( degradability of essential nutrients may be the factors limiting the use of 5-/= in ruminant diets" In ie( of the large >uantities of 5-/= a ailable from 5oni #uice factories in the Island countries in the 'outh 0acific region. ho(e er. it has it appears to ha e no detrimental effect on the animal %)einic!e 2004&" The implications from the digestibility data are that all the nutrients in 5-/= are of lo( a ailability to rumen microorganisms" If the data for ?M and crude protein digestibility are e. times daily$ Morinda Citrifolia Noni chemistry Morinda citrifolia has been documented to contain a mi=ture of anthraCuinones' organic acids' =eronine' se&eral &itamins 4such as beta" carotene' niacin' ribofla&in' thiamine5' some minerals' iron and calcium$ 1he (otassium content of Morinda citrifolia is similar to that in tomato @uice and orange @uice$ Morinda Citrifolia su((lement uses " benefit of @uice or e=tract /hat is the benefit of Morinda citrifolia @uice or su((lement (roducts' any ay$ Claims ha&e been made that @uice or e=tract im(ro&es the immune system' ultimately healing doBens of conditions 20 | P a g e . 2014 BY MR.AAA years' and is re(orted to ha&e a broad range of thera(eutic effects' including antibacterial' anti&iral' antifungal' antitumor' antihelmin' analgesic' hy(otensi&e' anti"inflammatory' and immune enhancing effects$ But does modern scientific research su((ort these claims.March 30. *&er the last decade' a gro ing number of (eo(le ha&e become interested in the medicinal uses of noni @uice' made from the fruit of the Indian mulberry 4 Morinda citrifolia 5 of the South Pacific Islands of 1ahiti' and more recently from -a aii$ Morinda citrifolia has been used in folk remedies by Polynesians for o&er . and the potential for increasing its nutriti e alue by chemical or physical treatment" Morinda Citrifolia " Noni 8uice: Is it a cure all or @ust a healthy drink. more research is needed to identify the factors limiting its utili$ation by ruminants. Morinda Citrifolia " Noni " !AA mg Club Natural Morinda Citrifolia Noni gro s e=tensi&ely throughout the South Pacific' and as at one time the most idely used medicinal (lant in the region$ 1his e&ergreen shrub gro s es(ecially ell in the rich &olcanic ash of -a aii$ Some of the beneficial constituents of Noni include &arious ter(ene com(ounds' ca(roic and ca(rylic acids' &itamin C and alkaloids$ -o e&er' Noni is most famous for the (resence of an alkoloid (ro=eronine' hich is belie&ed to be a (recursor to =eronine$ Su((lement )acts Noni <AA mg 4Morinda citrifolia5 4fruit5 )reeBe :ried -a aiian Suggested Use: 0s an herbal dietary su((lement' take one morinda ca(sule 6 or . ANANT SATYAM NIGAM 0ersonal communication 2002&" Peronine is a ma#or substance present in noni.

March 30. Morinda Citrifolia and cholesterol 3eductions in total cholesterol and triglycerides ha&e been seen in smokers ho drank a (roduct containing @uice from the fruit of the Morinda citrifolia tree e&ery day for a month$ 1he study as funded by the manufacturer of the (roduct' sold as 1ahitian Noni 8uice$ 3esearcher Mian"Ding /ang' M:' says she first became interested in studying Morinda citrifolia @uice in 6### after becoming con&inced that it hel(ed reduce her (ain from a rist fracture$ Morinda Citrifolia and diabetes In 8a&a' Morinda citrifolia has been (art of the treatment for diabetes$ Most of the folk uses for diabetes in&ol&e che ing the lea&es or a combination of the (lant and lea&es$ Che ing mulberry lea&es releases and acti&ates large amounts of mucilage or insoluble dietary fiber$ 1he fiber may slo the absor(tion of sim(le sugars from the gut$ 1he effect in most (atients ould be a slight reduction in the (eak glucose le&el follo ing a meal$ Infections Infections are the most common a((lications of Morinda s(ecies$ 1he e=tract from the lea&es of Morinda citrifolia 4not the fruit that renders noni @uice5 dis(layed a moderate su((ression of 0scaris lumbricoides 4intestinal nematodes5 gro th in the test tube$ -o e&er' Morinda citrifolia @uice has not been sho n to im(ro&e infections once sym(toms ha&e manifested' although there are anecdotal re(orts of (atients feeling better from mild infections after using noni$ :ecoctions of the lea&es or roots of related mulberry s(ecies may ha&e some su((ressi&e effect on (arasitic infections$ Pain Pain' (ainful inflammation and s ellings are the second most common usage of Morinda s(ecies$ Studies in mice ha&e demonstrated that e=tracts from the root of Morinda citrifolia 4again' not rendered from the fruit5 ha&e some (ain relie&ing and sedati&e acti&ity$ Side 9ffects of Morinda Citrifolia In some regions of the orld Morinda citrifolia and other mulberry s(ecies are used as a la=ati&e$ Predictably' some (atients using higher concentrations of Morinda citrifolia @uice may e=(erience some diarrhea$ 0lthough the risk of long"term ad&erse reactions is not currently kno n' it should be &ery lo ' because of the long history of mulberry s(ecies as a food in ide geogra(hic regions$ Patients ith diabetes ould be ise to find out the amount of sugars used to s eeten the (articular (roduct they ish to use$ 1here ha&e been t o re(orted cases in the medical literature regarding li&er damage due to e=cessi&e morinda citrifolia @uice consum(tion$ 0s ith any herb' it is best to use lo amounts$ I (refer using small amounts of different herbs as o((osed to a large amount of a single herb$ Morinda Citrifolia dosage Suggested Morinda citrifolia dose is three ca(sules (er day' taken ith a fe ounces of ater' half an hour before a meal$ 0ll three ca(sules may be taken at once or in di&ided doses$ 1hree ca(sules are eCui&alent to about t o tables(oons 21 | P a g e . 2014 BY MR. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM ranging from addictions to &aricose &eins and yeast rash$ /hat does the scientific research say about the benefit of Morinda citrifolia @uice and e=tract su((lement.

ANANT SATYAM NIGAM of liCuid Morinda citrifolia @uice$ 0 concentrated form of the @uice is also a&ailable$ Morinda citrifolia is often mi=ed ith other fruit @uices because of its un(leasant taste$ Conclusion 0t this (oint' there is no firm scientific data to su((ort the use of Morinda citrifolia @uice as a substitute for any standard medical treatment$ Patients ho are looking for additional hel( in treating mild infections' cancer or chronic (ain could try Morinda citrifolia' realiBing that the benefits are not (redictable$ Perha(s future research ill gi&e us additional clues to the (otential thera(eutic benefits of using Morinda citrifolia @uice or e=tracts$ In the meantime' due to its content of &arious nutrients' Morinda citrifolia @uice is a healthy drink to consume as (art of an o&erall balanced diet' as long as you drink no more than one ounce e&ery other day$ Morinda Citrifolia 3esearch U(date 0ntitumour (otential of a (olysaccharide"rich substance from the fruit @uice of Morinda citrifolia 4Noni5 on sarcoma 6EA ascites tumour in mice$ 0hytother 6es" 2003 ?ec71C%10&:11BA-84" 0n immunomodulatory (olysaccharide" rich substance 4Noni"((t5 from the fruit @uice of Morinda citrifolia has been found to (ossess both (ro(hylactic and thera(eutic (otentials against the immunomodulator sensiti&e Sarcoma 6EA tumour system$ 1he antitumour acti&ity of Morinda citrifolia (roduced a cure rate of . cytokines' interleukin"+ or interleukin"6A' thereby suggesting that Morinda citrifolia induces a 1h6 dominant immune status in &i&o$ 1he combination of Morinda citrifolia ith ime=on' a synthetic immunomodulator' also demonstrated beneficial effects' but not hen combined ith the M29".March 30.$ Inhibition of angiogenic initiation and disru(tion of ne ly established human &ascular net orks by @uice from Morinda citrifolia$ 2ngiogenesis" 200378%2&:143-D" 1he @uice of the fruit from the Morinda citrifolia (lant has been used for centuries as a medicinal agent$ /e tested the effects of Morinda citrifolia @uice in a three"dimensional fibrin clot matri= model using human (lacental &ein and human breast tumor e=(lants as sources for angiogenic &essel de&elo(ment$ Morinda citrifolia in concentrations of !7 4&olG&ol5 or greater as highly effecti&e in inhibiting the initiation of ne &essel s(routs from (lacental &ein e=(lants' com(ared ith initiation in control e=(lants in media su((lemented ith an eCui&alent amount of saline$ 1hese concentrations of Morinda citrifolia ere also effecti&e in reducing the gro th rate and (roliferation of ne ly de&elo(ing ca(illary s(routs$ /hen used at a concentration of 6A7 in gro th media' Morinda citrifolia as able to induce 22 | P a g e . co(olymer' a high molecular eight immunomodulator$ Morinda citrifolia as also not effecti&e hen combined ith interleukin". 2014 BY MR." chloroadenosine5' 1 cells 4cyclos(orine5 or natural killer 4NF5 cells 4anti"asialo GM6 antibody5$ Morinda citrifolia sho ed synergistic or additi&e beneficial effects hen combined ith a broad s(ectrum of chemothera(eutic drugs' including cis(latin' adriamycin' mitomycin"C' bleomycin' eto(oside' !" fl uorouracil' &incristine or cam(tothecin$ It as not beneficial hen combined ith (aclita=el' cytosine arabinoside' or immunosu((ressi&e anticancer drugs such as cyclo(hos(hamide' methotre=ate or >" thioguanine$ Morinda citrifolia also demonstrated beneficial effects hen combined ith the 1h6 cytokine' interferon gamma' but its acti&ity as abolished hen combined ith 1h.!7"+!7 in allogeneic mice and its acti&ity as com(letely abolished by the concomitant administration of s(ecific inhibitors of macro(hages 4. or interleukin" 6.

"< days5 in those e=(osed to media su((lemented ith 6A7 Morinda citrifolia$ 0nti"tumor (otential of a (olysaccharide"rich substance from the fruit @uice of Morinda citrifolia 4Noni5 on sarcoma 6EA ascites tumour in mice$ 0hytother 6es" 2003 ?ec71C%10&:11BA-84" 0n immunomodulatory (olysaccharide"rich substance 4Noni"((t5 from the fruit @uice of Morinda citrifolia has been found to (ossess both (ro(hylactic and thera(eutic (otentials against the immunomodulator sensiti&e Sarcoma 6EA tumour system$ 1he antitumour acti&ity of Noni"((t (roduced a cure rate of . FI1 1ollege of Medicine."chloroadenosine5' 1 cells 4cyclos(orine5 or natural killer 4NF5 cells 4anti"asialo GM6 antibody5$ Noni"((t sho ed synergistic or additi&e beneficial effects hen combined ith a broad s(ectrum of chemothera(eutic drugs' including cis(latin' adriamycin' mitomycin"C' bleomycin' eto(oside' !" fl uorouracil' &incristine or cam(tothecin$ It as not beneficial hen combined ith (aclita=el' cytosine arabinoside' or immunosu((ressi&e anticancer drugs such as cyclo(hos(hamide' methotre=ate or >" thioguanine$ Noni"((t also demonstrated beneficial effects hen combined ith the 1h6 cytokine' interferon gamma' but its acti&ity as abolished hen combined ith 1h. Illinois 8110C. cytokines' interleukin"+ or interleukin"6A' thereby suggesting that Noni"((t induces a 1h6 dominant immune status in &i&o$ Cancer (re&enti&e effect of Morinda citrifolia 4Noni5$ =ang ME. 'u 1" ?epartment of 0athology. 6oc!ford.March 30. 2014 BY MR.!7"+!7 in allogeneic mice and its acti&ity as com(letely abolished by the concomitant administration of s(ecific inhibitors of macro(hages 4. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM &essel degeneration and a(o(tosis in ells ith established ca(illary net orks ithin a fe days of its a((lication$ /e also found that 6A7 Morinda citrifolia @uice in media as an effecti&e inhibitor of ca(illary initiation in e=(lants from human breast tumors$ In tumor e=(lants hich did sho ca(illary s(routing' the &essels ra(idly degenerated 4. F'2" Morinda citrifolia Noni has been e=tensi&ely used in folk medicine by Polynesians for o&er .'AAA years$ It has been re(orted to ha&e broad thera(eutic effects' including anticancer acti&ity' in both clinical (ractice and laboratory animal models$ 1he hy(othesis that Morinda citrifolia (ossesses a cancer (re&enti&e effect at the initiation stage of carcinogenesis as studied$ *ur (reliminary data indicated that 6A7 1ahitian Noni %iCuid :ietary Su((lement or 1ahitian Noni 8uice' made from Morinda citrifolia fruit by Morinda Inc' in drinking ater for one eek as able to (re&ent :MB0":N0 adduct formation$ 1he antio=idant acti&ity of Morinda citrifolia as com(ared to the effects of &itamin C' gra(e seed (o der' and (ycnogenol at the daily dose (er ser&ing le&el recommended by U$S$ 3:0s or manufacturers$ 1he results suggest that (re&ention of carcinogen":N0 adduct formation and the antio=idant acti&ity of Morinda citrifoliamay contribute to the cancer (re&enti&e effect of Morinda citrifolia$ 23 | P a g e .

2014 24 | P a g e . March 30. 2014 BY MR. ANANT SATYAM NIGAM Moren$i 'unday.March 30.