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Vol. 3 (2007), No. 4, 41-44

On the mean value of the Smarandache LCM

function

Lin Cheng

Department of Mathematics, Northwest University

Xi’an, Shaanxi, P.R.China

Abstract For any positive integer n, the F.Smarandache LCM function SL(n) is deﬁned as

the smallest positive integer k such that n | [1, 2, · · · , k], where [1, 2, · · · , k] denotes the least

common multiple of 1, 2, · · · , k, and let n = p

α

1

1

p

α

2

2

· · · p

α

s

s

be the factorization of n into prime

powers, then Ω(n) = α

1

p

1

+ α

2

p

2

+ · · · + α

s

p

s

. The main purpose of this paper is using the

elementary methods to study the mean value properties of Ω(n)SL(n), and give a sharper

asymptotic formula for it.

Keywords F.Smarandache LCM function, Ω(n) function, mean value, asymptotic formula.

§1. Introduction and Results

For any positive integer n, the famous F.Smarandache LCM function SL(n) deﬁned as

the smallest positive integer k such that n | [1, 2, · · · , k], where [1, 2, · · · , k] denotes

the least common multiple of 1, 2, · · · , k. For example, the ﬁrst few values of SL(n) are

SL(1) = 1, SL(2) = 2, SL(3) = 3, SL(4) = 4, SL(5) = 5, SL(6) = 3, SL(7) = 7, SL(8) = 4,

SL(9) = 6, SL(10) = 5, SL(11) = 11, SL(12) = 4, SL(13) = 13, SL(14) = 7, SL(15) = 5, · · · .

About the elementary properties of SL(n), some authors had studied it, and obtained some

interesting results, see reference [2] and [3]. For example, Lv Zhongtian [4] studied the mean

value properties of SL(n), and proved that for any ﬁxed positive integer k and any real number

x > 1, we have the asymptotic formula

n≤x

SL(n) =

π

2

12

·

x

2

lnx

+

k

i=2

b

i

· x

2

ln

i

x

+O

_

x

2

ln

k+1

x

_

,

where b

i

(i = 2, 3, · · · , k) are computable constants.

On the other hand, Chen Jianbin [5] studied the value distribution properties of SL(n),

and proved that for any real number x > 1, we have the asymptotic formula

n≤x

(SL(n) −P(n))

2

=

2

5

· ζ

_

5

2

_

·

x

5

2

lnx

+O

_

x

5

2

ln

2

x

_

,

where ζ(s) is the Riemann zeta-function, and P(n) denotes the largest prime divisor of n.

Now we deﬁne a new arithmetical function Ω(n) as follows: Ω(1) = 0; for n > 1, let n =

p

α

1

1

p

α

2

2

· · · p

α

s

s

be the factorization of n into prime powers, then Ω(n) = α

1

p

1

+α

2

p

2

+· · · +α

s

p

s

.

42 Lin Cheng No. 4

Obviously, for any positive integers m and n, we have Ω(mn) = Ω(m) + Ω(n). That is, Ω(n)

is the additive function. The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary methods to

study the mean value properties of Ω(n)SL(n), and give a sharper asymptotic formula for it.

That is, we shall prove the following conclusion:

Theorem. For any real number x > 1, we have the asymptotic formula

n≤x

Ω(n)SL(n) =

k

i=1

d

i

x

3

ln

i

x

+O

_

x

3

ln

k+1

x

_

,

where d

i

(i = 1, 2, · · · , k) are computable constants.

§2. Proof of the theorem

In this section, we shall use the elementary methods to complete the proof of the theorem.

In fact, for any positive integer n > 1, let n = p

α

1

1

p

α

2

2

· · · p

α

s

s

be the factorization of n into

prime powers, then from [2] we know that

SL(n) = max{p

α

1

1

, p

α

2

2

, · · · , p

α

s

s

}, (1)

and we easily to know that

Ω(n) = α

1

p

1

+α

2

p

2

+· · · +α

s

p

s

. (2)

Now we consider the summation

n≤x

Ω(n)SL(n). (3)

We separate all integer n in the interval [1, x] into four subsets A, B, C and D as follows:

A: p ≥

√

n and n = m· p;

B: n

1

3

< p

1

< p

2

≤

√

n and n = m· p

1

· p

2

, where p

i

(i = 1, 2) are primes;

C: n

1

3

< p ≤

√

n and n = m· p

2

;

D: otherwise.

It is clear that if n ∈ A, then from (1) we know that SL(n) = p, and from (2) we know

that Ω(n) = Ω(m) + p. Therefore, by the Abel’s summation formula (See Theorem 4.2 of [6])

and the Prime Theorem (See Theorem 3.2 of [7]):

π(x) =

k

i=1

a

i

· x

ln

i

x

+O

_

x

ln

k+1

x

_

,

where a

i

(i = 1, 2, . . . , k) are computable constants and a

1

= 1.

Vol. 3 On the mean value of the Smarandache LCM function 43

We have

n∈A

Ω(n)SL(n) =

mp≤x

m<p

_

Ω(m) +p

_

p =

mp≤x

m<p

p

2

+

mp≤x

m<p

_

Ω(m)p

_

=

m≤

√

x

m<p≤

x

m

p

2

+O(x

2

)

=

m≤

√

x

_

π

_

x

m

_

x

2

m

2

−π(m)m

2

−2

_ x

m

m

π(t)tdt

_

+O(x

2

)

=

1

3

ζ(3)

x

3

lnx

+

k

i=2

b

i

x

3

ln

i

x

+O

_

x

3

ln

k+1

x

_

, (4)

where ζ(s) is the Riemann zeta-function, and b

i

(i = 2, 3, · · · , k) are computable constants.

Similarly, if n ∈ B, then we have SL(n) = p

2

and Ω(n) = Ω(m) +p

1

+p

2

. So

n∈B

Ω(n)SL(n) =

mp

1

p

2

≤x

m<p

1

<p

2

_

Ω(m) +p

1

+p

2

_

p

2

=

mp

1

p

2

≤x

m<p

1

<p

2

p

2

2

+O

_

_

_

_

mp

1

p

2

≤x

m<p

1

<p

2

p

1

p

2

_

_

_

_

=

m≤x

1

3

m<p

1

≤

√

x

m

p

1

<p

2

≤

x

p

1

m

p

2

2

+O(x

2

)

=

m≤x

1

3

m<p

1

≤

√

x

m

_

π

_

x

p

1

m

_

x

2

p

2

1

m

2

−π(p

1

)p

2

1

−2

_ x

p

1

m

p

1

π(t)tdt

_

+O(x

2

)

=

k

i=1

c

i

x

3

ln

i

x

+O

_

x

3

ln

k+1

x

_

, (5)

where c

i

(i = 1, 2, · · · , k) are computable constants.

Now we estimate the error terms in set C. Using the same method of proving (4), we have

SL(n) = p

2

and Ω(n) = Ω(m) + 2p, so

n∈C

Ω(n)SL(n) =

mp

2

≤x

m<p

_

Ω(m) + 2p

_

p

2

= 2

mp

2

≤x

m<p

p

3

+

mp

2

≤x

m<p

_

Ω(m)p

2

_

= 2

m≤x

1

3

m<p≤

√

x

m

p

3

+O(x

3

2

)

= O(x

2

). (6)

Finally, we estimate the error terms in set D. For any integer n ∈ D, if SL(n) = p then

44 Lin Cheng No. 4

p ≤

√

n; if SL(n) = p

2

, then p ≤ n

1

3

; or SL(n) = p

α

, α ≥ 3. So we have

n∈D

Ω(n)SL(n)

mp≤x

p≤m

(Ω(m) +p)p +

mp

2

≤x

p≤m

(Ω(m) + 2p)p

+

mp

α

≤x

p≤x

1

3 ,α≥3

(Ω(m)αp)p

α

x

2

lnx

. (7)

Combining (4), (5), (6) and (7) we may immediately obtain the asymptotic formula

n≤x

Ω(n)SL(n) =

n∈A

Ω(n)SL(n) +

n∈B

Ω(n)SL(n)

+

n∈C

Ω(n)SL(n) +

n∈D

Ω(n)SL(n)

=

k

i=1

d

i

x

3

ln

i

x

+O

_

x

3

ln

k+1

x

_

,

where d

i

(i = 1, 2, · · · , k) are computable constants.

This completes the proof of Theorem.

References

[1] F. Smarandache, Only Problems, not solutions, Chicago, Xiquan Publ. House, 1993.

[2] A. Murthy, Some notions on least common multiples, Smarandache Notions Journal,

12(2001), 307-309.

[3] Le Maohua, An equation concerning the Smarandache LCM function, Smarandache

Notions Journal, 14(2004), 186-188.

[4] Lv Zhongtian, On the F.Smarandache LCM function and its mean value, Scientia

Magna, 3(2007), No.1, 22-25.

[5] Jianbin Chen, Value distribution of the F.Smarandache LCM function, Scientia Magna,

3(2007), No.2, 15-18.

[6] Tom M. Apostol, Introduction to Analytic Number Theory, New York, Springer-Verlag,

1976.

[7] Pan Chengdong and Pan Chengbiao, The elementary proof of the prime theorem, Shang-

hai Science and Technology Press, Shanghai, 1988.

[8] Xu Zhefeng, On the value distribution of Smarandache function, ACTA MATHEMAT-

ICA, Chinese Series, Sept., 49(2006), No. 5, 961-1200.

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