A Guide for Writing Research Papers based on Styles Recommended by The American Psychological Association

The purpose of this document is to provide a common core of elements of APA style that all members of an academic department can adopt as minimal standards for any assignment that specifies APA style. This Web document is itself not a model of APA style. For an example of a complete article formatted according to APA style go to http!""###.vanguard.edu"uploadedfiles"faculty"ddegelman"prayer.pdf. For an example of an undergraduate research proposal go to http!""###.vanguard.edu"uploadedfiles"faculty"ddegelman"psychproposal.pdf. To do#nload a $icrosoft Word template of an APA%style paper go to http!""###.vanguard.edu"emplibrary"files"psychapa.doc.

I.

General &ocument Guidelines A. Margins: One inch on all sides (top, bottom, left, right) B. Font Size and Type: 12-pt. font (Times Roman or Courier are acceptable typefaces) C. Spacing: ouble-space throughout the paper, including the title page, abstract, body of the document, references, appendi!es, footnotes, tables, and figure captions. D. Alignment: "lush left (creating une#en right margin) E. Paragraph Indentation: $-% spaces F. Pagination: The page number appears one inch from the right edge of the paper on the first line of e#ery page (e!cept Figures), beginning &ith the title page. G. Manuscript Page Header: The first t&o or three &ords of the paper title appear fi#e spaces to the left of the page number on e#ery page (e!cept Figures), beginning &ith the title page. 'anuscript page headers are used to identify manuscript pages during the editorial process. (sing most &ord processors, the manuscript page header and page number can be inserted into a header, &hich then automatically appears on all pages. H. Active voice: )s a general rule, use the acti#e #oice rather than the passi#e #oice. "or e!ample, use *+e predicted that ...* rather than *,t &as predicted that ...* I. Order of Pages: Title Page, Abstract, 'ody, References, Appendixes, Footnotes, Tables, Figure (aptions, Figures Title Page A. Pagination: The Title -age is page 1. B. Key lements: -aper title, author(s), author affiliation(s), and running head. C. Paper Title: (ppercase and lo&ercase letters, centered on the page. D. Author(s): (ppercase and lo&ercase letters, centered on the line follo&ing the title. E. Institutional affiliation: (ppercase and lo&ercase letters, centered on the line follo&ing the author(s). F. !unning head: The running head is typed flush left (all uppercase) follo&ing the &ords *Running head.* on the line belo& the manuscript page header. ,t should not e!ceed $/ characters, including punctuation and spacing. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. G. "ample of APA#formatted Title Page: http!""###.vanguard.edu"psychology"titlepage.pdf Abstract! The abstract is a one-paragraph, self-contained summary of the most important elements of the paper. A. Pagination: The abstract begins on a ne& page (page 2). B. Heading: )bstract (centered on the first line belo& the manuscript page header) C. Format: The abstract (in bloc0 format) begins on the line follo&ing the )bstract heading. The abstract should not e!ceed 12/ &ords. )ll numbers in the abstract (e!cept those beginning a sentence) should be typed as digits rather than &ords. D. "ample of APA#formatted A$stract: http!""###.vanguard.edu"psychology"abstract.pdf 'ody

II.

III.

IV.

A.

Pagination: The body of the paper begins on a ne& page (page 1). 2ubsections of the body of the paper do not begin on ne& pages.

1

B. C. D.

Title: The title of the paper (in uppercase and lo&ercase letters) is centered on the first line belo& the manuscript page header. Introduction: The introduction (&hich is not labeled) begins on the line follo&ing the paper title. Headings: 3eadings are used to organi4e the document and reflect the relati#e importance of sections. "or e!ample, many empirical research articles utili4e 'ethod, Results, iscussion, and References headings. ,n turn, the 'ethod section often has subheadings of Participants, Apparatus, and Procedure. "or an e!ample of )-)formatted headings, go to http!""###.vanguard.edu"psychology"headings.pdf 1. 'ain headings (&hen the paper has either one or t&o le#els of headings) use centered uppercase and lo&ercase letters (e.g., 'ethod, Results, iscussion, and References). 2ubheadings (&hen the paper has t&o le#els of headings) are italici4ed and use flush left, uppercase and lo&ercase letters (e.g., Participants, Apparatus, and Procedure as subsections of the 'ethod section).

2.

V.

Text citations! 2ource material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing the author(s) and date(s) of the sources. The underlying principle is that ideas and &ords of others must be formally ac0no&ledged. The reader can obtain the full source citation from the list of references that follo&s the body of the paper. ). +hen the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, the year of publication appears in parentheses follo&ing the identification of the authors. Consider the follo&ing e!ample. +irth and 'itchell (1556) found that although there &as a reduction in insulin dosage o#er a period of t&o &ee0s in the treatment condition compared to the control condition, the difference &as not statistically significant. 7)ote! and is used &hen multiple authors are identified as part of the formal structure of the sentence. Compare this to the e!ample in the follo&ing section.8

B.

+hen the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the authors and years of publication appear in parentheses, separated by semicolons. Consider the follo&ing e!ample. Re#ie&s of research on religion and health ha#e concluded that at least some types of religious beha#iors are related to higher le#els of physical and mental health (9artner, :arson, ; )llen, 1551< =oenig, 155/< :e#in ; >anderpool, 1551< 'aton ; -argament, 15?%< -aloma ; -endleton, 1551< -ayne, @ergin, @ielema, ; Aen0ins, 1551). 7)ote! & is used &hen multiple authors are identified in parenthetical material. Bote also that &hen se#eral sources are cited parenthetically, they are ordered alphabetically by first authorsC surnames.8

C. .

+hen a source that has t&o authors is cited, both authors are included e#ery time the source is cited. +hen a source that has three, four, or fi#e authors is cited, all authors are included the first time the source is cited. +hen that source is cited again, the first authorCs surname and *et al.* are used. Consider the follo&ing e!ample. Re#ie&s of research on religion and health ha#e concluded that at least some types of religious beha#iors are related to higher le#els of physical and mental health (-ayne, @ergin, @ielema, ; Aen0ins, 1551). -ayne et al. (1551) sho&ed that ...

D. ".

+hen a source that has si! or more authors is cited, the first authorCs surname and *et al.* are used e#ery time the source is cited (including the first time). D#ery effort should be made to cite only sources that you ha#e actually read. +hen it is necessary to cite a source that you ha#e not read (*9rayson* in the follo&ing e!ample) that is cited in a source that you ha#e read (*'ur4yns0i ; egelman* in the follo&ing e!ample), use the follo&ing format for the te!t citation and list only the source you ha#e read in the References list. Grayson *as cited in $ur+yns,i - &egelman .//01 identified four components of body language that #ere related to 2udgments of vulnerability.

9.

To cite a personal communication (including letters, emails, and telephone inter#ie&s), include initials, surname, and as e!act a date as possible. @ecause a personal communication is not *reco#erable* information, it is not included in the References section. "or the te!t citation, use the follo&ing format.

2

'. F. S,inner *personal communication February .3 ./451 claimed ... 3. To cite a +eb document, use the author-date format. ,f no author is identified, use the first fe& &ords of the title in place of the author. ,f no date is pro#ided, use *n.d.* in place of the date. Consider the follo&ing e!amples. &egelman and 6arris *37771 provide guidelines for the use of APA #riting style. (hanges in Americans8 vie#s of gender status differences have been documented *%ender and Society n.d.1.

VI.

9uotations! +hen a direct Euotation is used, al&ays include the author, year, and page number as part of the citation. ). ) Euotation of fe&er than 6/ &ords should be enclosed in double Euotation mar0s and should be incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence. D!ample. -atients recei#ing prayer had *less congesti#e heart failure, reEuired less diuretic and antibiotic therapy, had fe&er episodes of pneumonia, had fe&er cardiac arrests, and &ere less freEuently intubated and #entilated* (@yrd, 15??, p. ?25). @. ) lengthier Euotation of 6/ or more &ords should appear (&ithout Euotation mar0s) apart from the surrounding te!t, in bloc0 format, &ith each line indented fi#e spaces from the left margin.

VII.

References! )ll sources included in the References section must be cited in the body of the paper (and all sources cited in the paper must be included in the References section). A. Pagination: The References section begins on a ne& page. B. Heading: References (centered on the first line belo& the manuscript page header) C. Format: The references (&ith hanging indent) begin on the line follo&ing the References heading. Dntries are organi4ed alphabetically by surnames of first authors. 'ost reference entries ha#e three components. 1. )uthors. )uthors are listed in the same order as specified in the source, using surnames and initials. Commas separate all authors. +hen there are se#en or more authors, list the first si! and then use *et al.* for remaining authors. ,f no author is identified, the title of the document begins the reference. Fear of -ublication. ,n parentheses follo&ing authors, &ith a period follo&ing the closing parenthesis. ,f no publication date is identified, use *n.d.* in parentheses follo&ing the authors. 2ource Reference. ,ncludes title, Gournal, #olume, pages (for Gournal article) or title, city of publication, publisher (for boo0). ,talici4e titles of boo0s, titles of periodicals, and periodical #olume numbers.

2. 1.

D. E. F.

"ample of APA#formatted !eferences: 9o to http!""###.vanguard.edu"psychology"references.pdf Official APA & lectronic !eference Formats& document: 9o to http!""###.apastyle.org"elecref.html "amples of sources

1.

:ournal article 'ur4yns0i, A., ; egelman, . (155H). @ody language of &omen and Gudgments of #ulnerability to se!ual assault. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1H1%-1H2H.

2.

'oo, -alout4ian, R. ". (155H). Invitation to the psychology of religion (2nd ed.). @oston. )llyn and @acon.

3.

Web document on university program or department Web site egelman, ., ; 3arris, '. :. (2///). APA style essentials Retrie#ed 'ay 1?, 2///, from >anguard (ni#ersity, epartment of -sychology +eb site. http.II&&&.#anguard.eduIfacultyIddegelmanIinde!.cfmJdocKidL%5H

4.

Stand%alone Web document *no date1

3

2//1. from -roNuest database. Be& For0.ndent the first line $-% spaces. B. use )ppendi! ) (or @ or C. )uthor. Stand%alone Web document *no author no date1 #ender and society.d. (arly )hildhood *esearch & Practice.edu"psychology"appendix. 2//1. !ota"le people in psychology of religion Retrie#ed )ugust 1. etc.vanguard. VIII.f there is only one appendi!.eduIMm0earlIgender. (n.IIecrp.psy&&&. O!ford (ni#ersity -ress.ndent the first line of each footnote $-% spaces and number the foonotes (slightly abo#e the line) as they are identified in the te!t. etc.f there is more than one appendi!. . Journal of Interpersonal $iolence. .ental health (pp. 1H?-1%2. )ppendi! is centered on the first line belo& the manuscript page header. )bstract retrie#ed Auly 21. 2ee the Pu"lication .anual of .vanguard. B.).comIpsyreligIpsyrelpr. te!t re#ision). . Retrie#ed 'ay 2/.. Pagination: Dach )ppendi! begins on a separate page. or other illustrations (other than tables). X.ental disorders (6th ed.edu"psychology"table3.Bielsen.htm 5. %&. 16%-1%H) for detailed e!amples.pdf Footnotes! Content footnotes are occasionally used to support substanti#e information in the te!t. :ournal article . (2//2. .vanguard. (155/). 2'. 4 . ) closer loo0 at the drug abuse-maternal aggression lin0. '. (1552). ". .trinity.). Pagination: "ootnotes begin on a separate page.uiuc. =.B"O database. 3oneyman.anual (2//1. (2///).d. C. Heading: . -iagnostic and statistical . The role of pretend play in childrenCs cogniti#e de#elopment. from -syc. C.. $/1-$22. 2pring). C. 10. from http. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. C. (n.). T.. XI.. Abstract from secondary database 9arrity. .anual (2//1.eduI#6n1Ibergen. egelman. "ample of APA#formatted Appendi": http!""###.pdf Figure (aptions and Figures! ) common use of "igures is to present graphs. &iagnostic and Statistical $anual of $ental &isorders )merican -sychiatric )ssociation. Tables must be referred to in the te!t. 2//6. A. photographs. Heading: "ootnotes is centered on the first line belo& the manuscript page header. D. 2hea.html 6. 7. +ashington.n A.edu"psychology"footnote. *eligion and . 2//1. A. +(1).). pp.pdf Tables! ) common use of tables is to present Euantitati#e data or the results of statistical analyses (such as )BO>)). Pagination: Dach Table begins on a separate page.) is typed flush left on the first line belo& the manuscript page header. A.II&&&.II&&&. ouble-space and type the table title flush left (italici4ed in uppercase and lo&ercase letters). A. B. 2///. Dffect of ser#er introduction on restaurant tipping. Format: . from http. pp. Retrie#ed ecember 1. 2ee the Pu"lication . IX. :ournal article from database 3ien. (2///). D. Religion and se!ual adGustment.html 9. "ample of APA#formatted Footnotes: http!""###. "ample of APA#formatted Ta$les: http!""###. Format: . from http.nternet%only 2ournal @ergen. D. ouble-space and type the appendi! title (centered in uppercase and lo&ercase letters). Retrie#ed "ebruary 1. %/-?6). Article or chapter in an edited boo. 8. Heading: Table 1 (or 2 or 1. . . 2chuma0er (Dd. Appendixes! ) common use of appendi!es is to present unpublished tests or to describe comple! eEuipment or stimulus materials.

B. ouble-space and type /igure % (or 2 or 1.nc. !"sh#$%to$& DC' A(tho).1%H-2/1) for detailed e!amples./531. )hen prophecy fails. capitali4ing only the first letter of the first &ord and any proper nouns. )e# Dor. Citing items in an anthologyIchapter in edited boo0 Rubenstein :. When the pubisher is a university and the name of the state *or province1 is included in the university name do not repeat the name of the state"province in the publisher location. (iagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. (raig A.= . has more than six authors cite the first six follo#ed by =et al./@01. A.//>1./4. *. Fulton ?.1. When a #or.1 Television and juvenile psychological development (22. *. has up to *and including1 six authors cite all authors. (hicago! $id#estern. ./041. Heading for Figure 'aptions: "igure Caption(s) is centered on the first line belo& the manuscript page header. on a single page. The "igures that follo& the "igure Captions page do BOT ha#e page numbers or manuscript page headers.n '.P. *. Peterson R. 1123134 . Art and visual perception. Bo author identified "perimental psychology.! 6olt.#$$esot" /)ess./041. ?ochhead $. Books Typical boo0 entry -.= Festinger ?.Schachter S.single author Arnheim R. C"01)#d%e& . "igure Captions pro#ide. Managing personal funds. Pagination: The "igure Captions page is the final numbered page of the paper. Nerve cells and insect behavior. *. 6o#deshell :. Roeder A. captions for the figures that follo&. *. 'er.en 6.eley! <niversity of (alifornia Press.f t#o or more locations are given give the location listed first or the publisher8s home office. Riec.A' H")+")d *$#+e)s#t. 4e5 6o)k' 5 . o. *./C51. *. et.. $inneapolis! *$#+e)s#t. 'ultiple authors When a #or. The effect of television violence on small children. follo&ed by the caption for the figure (not italici4ed). etc. Aane *Bd. .) italici4ed and flush left. American Psychiatric Association. = or =. When the author and publisher are identical use the #ord =Author= as the name of the publisher. /)ess. Corporate authorship . Publishing information % Spell out the publishing names of associations and university presses but omit superfluous terms such as =Publishers = =(o.al.F. .nstitute of Financial Bducation.

1 The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vo8.& 22. *Bds. )e# Dor. Sociali+ation in the context of the family! Parent%child #$te)"7t#o$. arly language development. &o not use a period bet#een the title and the parenthetical informationG close the entire title including the volume information #ith a period. 'oston! Allyn and 'acon.. and Trans. 13101 . Strachey Trans. Hand$oo* of teratology *Fols. Ddited collections 6iggins :. . &o not use a period bet#een the title and the parenthetical information.B. 3366 ./451. Chapter in a #olume in a series $accoby B.ett E. (.1. *. published= in parentheses noting the original date. History of the theatre *@th ed. 4e5 6o)k' !#8e. P.. !. Psychology./541./5C1.1./051.! )orton.7G)"53H#88. (. Citing specific editions of a boo0 'roc. Citing multi#olume &or0s Wilson :. < E.H. )e# Dor. 4e5 6o)k' /8e$(0 /)ess.%>1. . Sociali"ation# personality# and social development (4th ed./551. The volumes should be identified in parentheses immediately follo#ing the boo./44%./0.1. 19& 22. & Handbook of child psychology: ol. *. *Bds. title. Ed.A0e)#7"$ /s. *.8s title note the edition information in parentheses *for example =@th ed. . the publication dates should be inclusive for all volumes. ed. or Grice 6.= or =rev. 4e5 6o)k' ... *.=1./471 An outline of psychoanalysis *:.Gregory R.)#%#$"8 5o)k 2(18#shed 1923 Follo#ing the entry enclose =Eriginal #or. The ego and the id.Fraser F. Translated &or0s Freud S. *. *Bd.1.1. Hethe)#$%to$ (Vo8.1.mmediately after the boo. Strachey *Bd.7ho8o%#7"8 9o7#et.n listing a multivolume #or. :o$do$' Ho%")th /)ess. . *.n :. . *. ?. .! 6 . .(sse$ (9e)#es Ed.$artin :. . G. Reprinted or republished chapter Freud S. I$ /.

)riting 0ab Newsletter& 22.//C Ectober ./001. 'erspectives on motivation (22.1. The +e. Predictive validities of the A(T SAT and high school grades -o) -#)st se0este) G/A "$d -)esh0"$ 7o()ses.Ryan R.= if the source is a page or less long. *. +ducational and 'sychological $easurement# . 2373288 . *. published= follo#ed by the date.f the periodical does not use volume numbers include =pp. 6emispheric diffences in avian song d#s7)#0"t#o$.ntegrataion in personality. I$ =./55 $ay1 =Aerobic #riting=! a #riting practice model. %&. D#e$st1#e) (Ed. )ote that there is a comma bet#een the issue number and the page numbers but no comma bet#een the itali+ed volume number and the issue number.//. $easurement and prediction clinical and statistical.4e1)"sk" /)ess. Williams 6. En films! class consciousness.= before the page numbers so the reader #ill understand that the numbers refer to pagination. -roceedings &eci B. *. Psychological . 'roceedings of the National (cademy of Sciences# )S(# &*& 13723 1375.?.4o)to$. <se =p. *. 'ecause pagination begins ane# #ith each issue of this 2ournal it is necessary to include the issue number in parentheses after the volume number. Citing articles in Gournals &ith non-continuous pagination Sa#yer :. !epu$lic p.)ottebohm F. (. A motivational approach to self! .-# 114331144.//31.)#%#$"8 5o)k 2(18#shed 1940 The original publication date is the last portion of the entry and should be in parentheses #ith the note =Eriginal #or. *. .51. :ournals Citing articles in Gournals &ith continuous pagination Passons W. o.$. . :#$7o8$' *$#+e)s#t. 7 . *. & Nebraska Symposium on $otivation: ol. Citing articles in monthly periodicals (handler%(risp S.C7. Citing articles in &ee0ly periodicals Aauffmann S./041. 9311.ulletin# // (3 & 1783200. . or (ynx :.

//C September . B1. *. (lose #ith a period.ntervie# #ith 6elen 'urns author of Sense and PerceptionJ.Be&spaper articles $onson $. <nconscious transference and mista. (*. I$ 9.& 1990 .) 'o#er &. *. *.en identity! When a #itness 0#s#de$t#-#es " -"0#8#") 1(t #$$o7e$t 2e)so$ -)o0 " 8#$e(2 (Do7to)"8 d#sse)t"to$& Co)$e88 *$#+e)s#t.I' 4"t#o$"8 Ce$te) -o) =ese")7h o$ >e"7he) :e")$#$%. *. *. *. *.F. Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring with them (=e2o)t 4o.//31.//C September .)e-e))#$% "$d $o$)e-e))#$% s(2e)+#so)s.//71. Bmployee assistant programs supervisory referrals! (haracteristics o. Bo author identified (linton puts 8human face8 on health%care plan. Follo#ing the entry enclose =Reprinted from= in parentheses noting the original publication information. A1&A8.nternational ( ). E"st :"$s#$%& . 8 . . (=e2)#$ted -)o0 Studies in (rt +ducation# 6* (1986 & 34339. 7issertation (bstracts 8nternational# 9! (01 & 534B. Give the university and year of the dissertation as #ell as the volume and page numbers from the &issertation Abstract .C ocuments *Report a#ailable from the Dducational Resources . The 1hampaign2)rbana News23a"ette& 22./551. 7issertation (bstracts 8nternational# 96# 417. Ross &. 4C=>:3==39234 . -oo*ing at old photographs. DR. G.//C1. I.Himmerman B.I 4o. (E=IC Do7(0e$t =e2)od(7t#o$ 9e)+#7e 4o. 9315947 issertation obtained from the uni#ersity.nternational. F. Do11s (Ed. =esto$& VA' 4AEA. Ether $edia Citing inter#ie&s Archer ).//C1.01. Professional roles and activities as models for art ed(7"t#o$. The New 4ork Times& 2. ED346082 &issertations issertation obtained from issertation )bstracts . Reprinted or republished articles (lar.?. & 5esearch readings for discipline2based art education. <rbana firm obstacle to office pro2ect.01.nformation Center1 $ead :.

-evels of consciousness ?.s1 after the year and then give a further description in brac.n this example the intervie# lac. *Producer1 . 6olly#ood CA' E.nformation The type of medium can be but is not limited to the follo#ing! aggregated databases online 2ournals Web sites or Web pages ne#sgoups Web% or e%mail based discussion groups or Web or e% mail based ne#sletters.//71. Bosto$& . :o7"t#o$' :"1e8.//C1 Citing films or #ideotapes I$otion pictureJ replaces Film and Fideotape as a brac.)e7o)d#$%' CD& )e7o)d& 7"ssette& et7.:ournal of Sensory Studies# . . *). Pagination in electronic references is unavailable in many cases thus left out of the citation. *&irector1. 305%35. *. .F.I3*9A. *&ate of copyright1. Medicine music I(assette RecordingJ..s a title so a description of the intervie# is given in brac.'.ot#o$ 2#7t()e@.eted descriptor. Archer personal intervie# Ectober . . .6arrison '. The APA $anual has a short section demonstrating the format for electronic references on pp.ets if necessary.A' F#805". The distributor8s name and location comprises the last part of the entry. After the title the medium is identified *here a motion picture1.6& 2113216. *.= 6ere the entry consists of the first initial and last name of the intervie#ee the type of communication and the date of the intervie#.org"elecref. Citing recordings Writer A.ets. <npublished intervie#s do not need a reference page entry because they are #hat the Publication $anual of the APA calls =personal communications= and so =do not provide recoverable data.. Weir P.ed#(0 o.$ Title of album ?. (=e7o)d#$% d"te #. Blectronic .s.d#--e)e$t th"$ 7o2.html 9 . For other examples visit http!""###. 6ere the main people responsible for the videotape are given #ith their roles identified in parentheses after their names.)#%ht $cFerrin 'obby *Focalist1.apastyle.@.f the intervie# has a title include the title *#ithout Kuotation mar. Title of song IRecorded by artist if different from #riterJ.//31.

no page numbers.e sense of the )et.//0 )ovember1.E$%#$ee)s =ese")7h :"1o)"to).f an individual*s1 has proprietary rights to the soft#are their name*s1 are listed at the head of the entry last names first follo#ed by a period. =et)e#+ed 4o+e01e) 10& 2001& -)o0 htt2'CC555. no date Greater 6attiesburg (ivic A#areness Group Tas.$etCs(1s7)#1eC$e5s8ett)F51. Ether#ise treat such references as unauthored.S.o)%CDoeC#$deE. *.//@1. *. San Antonio .//41. Fund2raising efforts. ?ibrarians can ma. (hoices *Fersion >.te8ehe")8th.A. Retreived De7e01e) 16& 2000& -)o0 htt2'CC555.1.ht08G1 . )o period follo#s an . Telehealth +e. boo0.CH7322510 .e."ste)-#8e d"t"1"se. . Add any other necessary information for identifying the program *in this example the report number1 in parentheses at the entry8s conclusion. (hampaign . Specify in brac.nternet Web address.Citing computer soft&are Arend &ominic ). (CE=: =e2o)t 4o.?! <. (omputer%administered surveys in extension. &o not itali+e the title. "ull-Te!t atabase (i. =et)#e+ed B($e 2& 1999& -)o0 htt2'CCDoe.71 I(omputer soft#areJ. Force on Sheltered Programs. Schneiderman R.nternet technical or research reports <niversity of (alifornia San Francisco .ht08 )rticle in an . ?.d. )rticle in an .eted information.)5D-. ?ist the location and the organi+ation8s name that produced the program. To reference a manual follo# the same as above but add =manual= as the source in the brac. *n.tension# %%# 2523255.Raven $.nstitute for 6ealth and Aging. Army Co)2s o. *. =et)#e+ed 9e2te01e) 9& 2000& -)o0 the =o1e)t !ood Fo($d"t#o$ !e1 s#te' htt2'CC555.o)% 10 ./// April1. =et)#e+ed B"$(").o)%C8#1)"). &ealing #ith anthrax. *.i :.usiness :ournal# 66# 58A.nternet-only Gournal Aa#asa.R.C7h)7")e ocument created by pri#ate organi4ation. maga4ine. :ournal of +.. &o not add a period at the end of a citation if it ends in a #eb address. 27& 1999& -)o0 EB9C. *. A.s/ 0*31.6st century challenge.. ne&spaper article or report) The second date #hich follo#s is the date the user retrieved the material.h"tt#es1()%7"%. .//C1. 1hronic care in (merica: ( .nternet-only ne&sletter Waufton A.ets that the source is computer soft#are program or language.

7o00"s. -)o0 *$#+e)s#t. &ate #ebsite #as accessed should be used and efforts should be made to identify the sponsoring author"organi+ation of the #ebsite.Sometimes authors are not identified and there is no date sho#ing for the document. ne&sgroups.o( k$o5 the "(tho)Js $"0e & 1e%#$ 5#th th"t "(tho)Js $"0e.ed(CHed"C D-'ail.o)%C0"#83")7h#+eC)e-38#$kC0s%00088.:A te7h$#K(e .C 377.f none is found do not list an author. o. discussion groups and electronic mailing lists Personal communications #hich are not archived should not included in reference lists and cited #ithin the text only! Smith Fred *=personal communication = :anuary 3. Reference: Newspaper Articles. *)otice the double%spacing #ithin the headings.2#$% 9e7o$d :e+e8& F8(sh3:e-t& *$de)8#$ed He"d#$%s >h#)d 8e+e8& #$de$ted& ($de)8#$ed& 8o5e)7"se 2")"%)"2h he"d#$% e$d#$% 5#th " 2e)#od. Genres etc. Editorials Letters to the Editor.1 >he F#)st :e+e8& Ce$te)ed 5#th *22e)7"se "$d :o5e)7"se >. F1& F6." $e5s2"2e) (($8#ke the . The Hartford 1ourant# 22. 6eadings Probably three levels of headings #ill suffice for most college and high%school papers.the ")t#78e #s Is#%$edI (th"t #s& . (2004& .f archi#ed 6ammond Tl *3777 )ovember 371.1. (4ot#7e ho5 d#s7o$t#$(o(s 2"%es ")e $oted "$d se2")"ted 1. online forums. DA6(! 6andle Parameters &E. 11 . . etc. I. ocument from uni#ersity program or department $c)eese $. *377. 1sing technology in educational settings2 Retrieved Ectober . . "ample of APA#formatted Figure 'aption and Figure.///1 . $essage posted to =e-3:#$ks e8e7t)o$#7 0"#8#$% 8#st& ")7h#+ed "t htt2'CC555.")7h 17 . HIV 2)e+e$t#o$ 2#88 %oes 1e.ht08 C.do#.).J are neither reKuired nor appropriate. Do $ot o0#t the I>heI -)o0 the t#t8e o.o$d J0o)$#$% "-te)J.9o(the)$ .#ss#ss#22#& Ed(7"t#o$"8 :e"de)sh#2 "$d =ese")7h !e1 s#te' htt2'CC5553de2t. 'old and other font variants Icolor fancy fonts etc. /o#)ot& C.(s0.

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//C. General .1 the directory and the file name. Enline :ournal of (urrent (linical Trials IEn%line serialJ. [Do not end your entry with a period when ending with an URL. . .] The date should be the year of publication or the most recent update. (entral vein occlusion study of photocoagulation! $anual of operations I04@ paragraphsJ." if not date is posted). *For instance some universities might enable a professor to archive articles etc. Ectober 31. *. Name of Database or Internet address of the specific document.e phone conversations or memos1 because it is not recoverable by others.nternet. Specify URLexactly.no# that all your potential readers have access to that material. Title of work. Also do not refer your reader to a course Website that is pass#ord protected unless you . /3 16 .d.Reference! Blectronic and Enline Resources"h3L A. (date —or "n. date retrieved.nformation Blectronic correspondences such as e%mail or discussions on bulletin boards or discussion groups is regarded by the APA as personal communication *li.f the date of the source cannot be determined provide the exact date you retrieved the information on the . I. For example specify the method used to find the material! the protocol *6TTP Telnet FTP etc. on a server accessible only through File Transfer Protocol *FTP1. your instructor or consult the AP Publication $anual.t is not a good idea to cite resources that are available only #ith a pass#ord unless that pass#ord can be established freely and easily *some online ne#spapers have pass#ord%protected archives li.f you need to cite such sources as.ith a period after a file name or )e$ address2 :ust about everything of serious interest on the . 6o#ever if the information is in fact retrievable the follo#ing elements are necessary for the reference page! Author(s).e that1. '. (Online).nternet is no# available through the hypertext transfer protocol *the familiar 6TTP1. (o not end the path statement . Personal communications are cited only #ithin the text and not on the reference page. Sample References Enline article (entral Fein Ecclusion Study Group. Some items ho#ever may still be discovered through FTP GEP6BR TB?)BT etc. Available! &oc )o. . The path information should be sufficient for someone else to retrieve the material.

e personal intervie#s and phone conversations material presented in a classroom lecture is regarded as non%retrievable data.En%line abstract Dou can cite an entire Web site #ithin your text but do not include it in your list of References. 2004).nformation Service *PA.W.W. The model belo# could also be used for more formal lecture settings. April). .e. Images at Work in the Poetry of William Carlos Williams. it is not possible for someone else to see or hear it1 it should not be listed in the list of References.t can ho#ever be cited parenthetically #ithin the text.commnet.( Psych. Reference! Personal . 1977) 17 . In an Introduction to Literature lecture at Capital Community College on April 14. and carefully avoid the insertion of a hyphen #here none is appropriate. Reference! (lassroom ?ecture ?i. April 14. (interview): Wilbur finds himself sometimes surprised by the claims of religiosity made by contemporaries. Blectronic &atabase (ollege and public libraries subscribe to electronic databases such a sB'S(E ?exis)exis E(?( WilsonWeb S. Darling.f a line%brea. 2004. A lecture therefore should be cited #ithin the text but not be included in your References.e the brea. . (2004. March 28. (personal letter. 'ecause this material is not recoverable *i. immeidately after a slash mar.)FE and Public Affairs . Professor Charles Darling described William Carlos Williams' poem as a barnyard snapshot (C.edu"apa"1. ENG 102 lecture.ntervie# Phone (onversation ?etter )on%archived B%$ail etc. . Outline presented in a classroom lecture at Capital Community College.RS etc. is necessary #hen you cite an <R? ma. C. . These databases contain full%text articles and article abstracts.S1. For instance you could say something incredibly profound you learned from this Web page and cite the <R? at the end of the paragraph *http!""###. CT. Hartford. There are also online databases such as BR.f the lecturer distributed material at the lecture you could cite that resource in your References! Darling.t is extremely important that #hat is cited in this #ay be legitimate and have scholarly integrity.ccc.

li. J. #ould be useful to your reader that you might not have used in the #riting of this particular paper or article. There are three ma2or differences ho#ever. (2002). The names of editors are listed first%initials%first *not reversed1. DC: U. do#n the references into useful categories and arrange those categories in #ays that you thin. Middletown. R.s that you thin.1 Stanton. The female autograph: Theory and practice of autobiography. Government Printing Office. . E.e this! Pepin. & E. Uses of time in the political novels of Joseph Conrad. Jr. #ould be helpful to your reader. The inclusive page numbers are preceded by the abbreviations for =pages=! pp.. )otice that there are no Kuote mar. Darling.s around the title of the article and that only the first #ord of a title is capitali+ed. C.f you are refering to an article or signed chapter in an edited volume your reference #ould loo. W. Television and behavior: Ten years of scientific progress (DHHS Publication No.).. (ommentaries should be concise economical summaries #ritten in sentence fragmentsG if related fragments should be connected #ith semicolons. July 22. C.S. 99-135). Third you can add commentary to the references telling your reader the particular virtues *or if necessary the shortcomings1 of that resource. Second you can brea. Chronological looping in political novels (pp. the sources for her novel Sugar Cane were largely autobiographical (personal phone conversation. First you can include in your bibliography #or. CT: Ibis Bookstore Press. & Farbman.(phone conversation): According to Connie May Fowler. Washington. Annotated 'ibliography An annotated bibliography #ill have the same basic layout as a Reference page. 2003). 18 . (Eds. Reference! An Bdited Folume *Anthology or Reference 'oo. A 82-1195). E. The commentary should begin on a ne# line indented slightly from the preceding line. Shields. D. Farbman (Eds. (1982).). (2003). In C. Bxample! National Institute of Mental Health. Hartford: Capital Press.

).. (2003). Giver of due regard: the poetry of Richard Wilbur. )otice that all authors are listed last%name%first *unli. R.Documents connections between children's lack of attention in school and hours of television watching. Hartford. 4465. W. Dissertation Abstracts International. Darling. Carpenter. Reference! 'oo.M is used before the last name. (1983). Hartford. New York: Oxford University Press. #ith T#o or $ore Authors Natarajan. Brown. & Chaturvedi. C. K. MA: G. Geology of the Indian Ocean Floor. CT: Capital Press. Without Author or Bditor ?isted Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary.f you are using a microfilm source include in parentheses at the end of your entry the university microfilm number. CT: Merganser University Press. & C. Reference! 'oo. 44. W. )otice the hanging indent style *about half an inch after the initial line1. & Milsop.. Springfield. Ligon. provides scientific evidence of changed viewing habits over ten years. (1961).(2002). Merriam. R. *for =and others=1 is not used on the Reference page regardless of the number of authors although it can be used in the parenthetical citation of material #ith three to five authors *after the inital citation #hen all are listed1 and in all parenthetical citations of material #ith six or more authors. Computers in the world of business communications. A. The abbreviation et al. Reference! &ictionary Shorter Oxford English dictionary (5th ed. M.e $?A style1 and that an ampersand M . (1976). Reference! &issertation or &issertation Abstract When you have used an abstract of the dissertion found on microfilm in (issertation A$stracts International 3(AI42 ... (AAD44-8794) When you have used the actual dissertation *usually from the shelves of the <niversity #here it #as #ritten sometimes obtained through interlibrary loan1! 19 . To alphabeti+e such an entry on your Reference page use the first significant #ord of the title *ignoring the articles =a = =an = and =the=1.

. 20 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Washington &(! <. G. M. Ten years of scientific progress *&66S Publication )o.Darling. Newsweek. & Darling. University of Connecticut./4@"377>1. Thomas.S BR./@1.(1 other than <. & Hosenball. 143. L. M. (1994–2003). S. Giver of due regard: the poetry of Richard Wilbur. Center for Social Organization of Schools.).S. CSOS-R-292). CT./531. May 31).= or =pp. Washington. MD: Johns Hopkins University. P880-14322). 80-3562). Radiology and the technology of the absurd. P. Nadeau. NY: Mohican Valley-River Press. . 4–6). 22–32. E. Utica.n the text citation give both dates! *(reech . Boston: HoughtonMifflin. W. Reports from a &ocument and &eposit Service *)T. (Original work published 1975) After the author8s name list the most recent date of publication you can find. (2004). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. Gottfredson. government Bxamples! Tandy. (2004. Government Printing Effice. (Eds. ED 182 465) Reference! $aga+ines"Periodicals Wheatcroft. How valid are occupational reinforcer pattern scores? (Report No. (2004.= Reference! $ulti%Folume Wor. M. The Atlantic. &o not use the abbreviations =p. *. C. Bush's Mr. June).nstitute of $ental 6ealth. (NTIS No. Studies in the history of cutlery (Vols. Wrong: The Rise and Fall of Chalabi. A 53% . DC: Council on Young Children. <se inclusive page numbers. Storrs. (1976). S. (1980). Reference! Government &ocuments Report from the Government Printing Effice corporate author. J.1 Creech. B. Baltimore. Reference! Bdition Ether Than First *Republished 'oo. 293 56–72. Development of behavioral techniques to control hyperaggressiveness in young children (CYC Report No. (1980). Television and $ehavior.S. The Tragedy of Tony Blair. J. Bxample! )ational .

Whatever happened to the humanities? In I. 13. The savage god: A study of suicide. 21–29.). Christie. A comma separates the title of the 2ournal from the volume number but the volume number *as #ell as the comma that follo#s1 is also italici+ed. Reference! Secondary Resources O'Connor. 2o#$ts o(t& I/e)h"2s the 7o$-8#7t see0s so st)o$% 1e7"(se the st"kes ")e so 8o5I ("s 7#ted #$ . Studies in Byzantine Intrigue (pp.JCo$$o) < De:o"t7h& 2003 . Latin American Literary Review. 13(3). . 21 . Thus volume one might end on page C>@ and the first page of volume t#o #ould be number C>@. (1993) Fathers and virgins: Garcia Marquez's Faulknerian Chronicle of a Death Foretold. &o not use p. Hartford. John S. L. )otice that proper nouns are capitali+ed in an APA%style title but other #ords are not. Latin American Literary Review. & DeLoatch. appeared over a number of years1. Reference! Single%Author 'oo. To use material that is Kuoted or paraphrased else#here #hen you do not use the original resource your reference #ill include the source of your language *or idea1. to indicate page numbers. (1970). C. Rubenzahl (Ed.To refer to a single volume include only the relevant date and volume number. K.1 the issue number is given in parentheses but not in italics after the volume number. Reference! Scholarly :ournal $any scholarly 2ournals number their pages consecutively throughout a given volume.Part of a 'oo. John S. New York: Random House. Alverez. When you are referring to more than one volume include all the relevant volume numbers *as in the above example1. 235–278). The date after the author or editor8s name should include the range of years of publication *say if the #or.n your text you #ould Kuote or paraphrase the idea that E8(onnor and others have Kuoted or used as follo#s! As V#88" t)e$7h"$t8. . A. Christie. 21–29. . O. CT: Merganser University Press. (2003). (1993) Fathers and virgins: Garcia Marquez's Faulknerian Chronicle of a Death Foretold.f that article #ere found in a 2ournal in #hich each issue has pages numbered separately *each issue begins #ith a page . or pp.

The Hartford Courant. .E. March 17). Garner's Modern American Usage.= and =. The Atlantic. F6. .e =<niversity= and =Press= are not abbreviated *unli. pp. 22 . The source is identified in brac. A. The New York Times. R. *)otice ho# discontinuous pages are noted and separated by commas.H. p. Follo# the date *#hich might be different from the actual publication date1 #ith the name of the element the title of the boo. Colchester. B. and in parentheses the page number or page range on #hich the element appears *#ith p. Introduction. HIV prevention pill goes beyond 'morning after'.f the text being cited is from an editorial or letter to the editor indicate the nature of the source in brac. (2003). R. iv– xxii). Genetic Engineering [Letter to the editor].f the material cited is from a fore#ord preface introduction or after#ord list the name of the author of the boo. Poirot. Hollywood: Paramount. Reference! )e#spaper Articles Bditorials ?etters to the Bditor etc.= are omitted.Garner. C. Silverman. New York: Oxford University Press.1 &o not omit the =The= from the title of a ne#spaper *unli.ets after the title Redford. (2004.f the author8s name is not available begin the reference #ith the headline or title in the author position. (1980).e the $?A techniKue1. )otice that #ords li. Ordinary people [Film]. CT: Colophon Books. March 15). . F1. June). to indicate page or pages1 Pepin.f the article is =signed= *that is you .no# the author8s name1 begin #ith that author8s name.e the $?A style in #hich such #ords are abbreviated #ithout a period1 but abbreviations such as =(o. (2003). (1989. (2004. 293 14.ets after the title and date. New exam for doctor of future. (Director). P. Reference! )onprint Resources *Film Recording Fideo television or radio program etc.nc. element you are citing. B-10. )otice too that the period after the title is part of the italici+ed portion of the citation. Selected Poetry of Charles Darling: 1977–2002 (pp. . or pp.

however. (Producer). …) (? …) (! …). (Director). (2004). If you have a quotation within a short quote (one incorporated within the text). & Ehlers. *. )e# Dor. River at High Summer: The St. 61 Woodland Street. F. especially when quoting poetry. Inc. *Television program1! Safer. 6andling 9uoted $aterial • Short quotations (fewer than 40 words) are incorporated into the text and enclosed by double quotations marks ("). To indicate an omission between sentences type a punctuation mark for the sentence followed by three spaced periods (. Bias and organizational decision making [Cassette]. CT 06105) *(assette1! Lake.. If the quotation is more than one paragraph. • • If you have a quotation within a block quotation. Hartford: WFSB. • Ellipsis points are used to indicate omitted material. Hartford. *$usical recording1! 'arber S. (Author and speaker).//@1. Long quotations of 40 or more words are displayed in a double-spaced block of typewritten lines with no quotation marks. E. M. Lawrence [Film]. Gainesville: Edwards. Type three periods with a space before and after each period to indicate omission within a sentence (…).*film #ith limited circulation1! Holdt. En 5ar$er I(&J. enclose it within single quotation marks ('). (ello Sonata. enclose it in double (") quotation marks. approximately an inch from the left margin. which loses some of its formal characteristics when double-spaced. Records ?td. Your date 23 . (Available from Merganser Films. The APA suggests that you do not single space. Torture at Abu Ghraib [Television broadcast]. (1989). L. D. some instructors will require that indented quotations be single-spaced. (Narrator). Indent five spaces from the left margin and type the entire quotation on the indented margin without the usual opening paragraph indentation.! B$. indent the first line of the second and additional paragraphs five spaces from the already indented margin. (2002). Check with your instructor before single-spacing quotations.

. . Ene%inch margins at the top bottom right and left sides are no# reKuired by APA. &o not use single or one%and%a%half spacing. . *Ra+or%edge is preferable.1 &ouble spacing is reKuired throughout the paper. *Formerly . /(t "$. Text (start on a new page numbered 3).2et and laser printers #ill generally produce good Kuality acceptable Kuality papers. The Running 6ead is usually not necessary for high school and college papers unless specifically reKuired by individual instructors.f you must prepare your paper on erasable bond prepare a good copy of your paper on a copying machine and submit the copy instead of the original. The short title is a single t#o or three%#ord derivation of the title of the paper.PT PRBPARAT.f you #ish to use single%spacing for Kuotations of verse and drama because it more nearly approximates #hat the poet and dramatist #ould #ant consult #ith your instructor before doing so. Abstract (separate page numbered 2). Bxamples of proper page formats are sho#n belo#. at the end of a line. 37%pound bond1."3%inch margins #ere reKuired. .ntrigue1.ntriKue your Short Title could be 'y+antine . othe) 2($7t("t#o$ 0")k o(ts#de the K(ot"t#o$ 0")ks ($8ess th"t 0")k #s 2")t o.in are not acceptable. 24 . 6o#ever it may #ell be reKuired on documents being prepared for actual publication.PAPBR FER$AT Print the manuscript on one side of standard%si+ed heavy #hite bond paper *5%. Arrange the pages of the manuscript as follo#s! • • • • Title page numbered 1. Bach page is numbered consecutively including title page and reference page. &ouble%space after every line of the title headings Kuotations references etc. The Short Title should not be confused #ith the Running 6ead #hich is typed flush left at the top of the title page *but belo# the manuscript page header1 and in all uppercase letters.processing software probably provides especially typed characters that will create ellipses that will not be broken. $A)<S(R. Type the numbers in the upper right%hand corner using Arabic numerals.E) . The Short Title is typed one inch belo# the top of the page flush #ith the right%hand margin *of one inch1G the numeral one also appears on the title page. • !he$ " 2e)#od o) 7o00" o77()s 5#th 78os#$% K(ot"t#o$ 0")ks& 28"7e the 2e)#od o) 7o00" 5#th#$ the 78os#$% K(ot"t#o$ 0")k.1 Brasable bond and onion s. A short title is used throughout the paper including the title page.n.the K(oted 0"te)#"8."3 N . For example if the title of your paper #ere <nderstanding Patterns of 'y+antine . Eld fashioned tractor%fed computer paper is acceptable but the pin hole borders must be removed. . Pages with figures are not numbered. inappropriately.

format *i.n other #ords leave the right margin uneven or =ragged right. Type the abstract as a single paragraph in bloc.@7 #ords1 comprehensive summary of the research paper. The title page should have the title of the paper centered on the page. a #ord at the end of a line.f the title reKuires more than one line double%space bet#een all the lines. *hyphenate1 #ords at the ends of lines. Type a line short or 2ust beyond the right%hand margin rather than brea. Page three is the beginning of the body of the paper.The title itself is typed in uppercase and lo#ercase letters centered on the page. Kuotations titles and headings entries in the reference list table titles and notes *if any1 and figure captions #hich reKuire no indents. . Within the text paragraphs are indented five to seven spaces *#hich translates into about a half%inch indent on #ord%processors1.1 Page t#o is the Abstract for the paper. The title of the paper appears *centered1 one double%space belo# the Short Title. 25 . .t is a brief *. The Short Title and page number appear at the top right of the title page. The Short Title and the number 3 are typed in the upper right%hand corner of the page.77%. The first line of the body of the paper appears one double%space belo# the title.f there is no institutional affiliation the city and state or city and country of the author should be identified instead. #ithout paragraph indentation1. The student8s name appears one double%space belo# the title. The #ord Abstract is centered as the first line of type on this page. The only exceptions to this reKuirement are the abstract bloc.e.= &o not brea. *. The institutional affiliation *name of the college or high%school for #hich the paper has been #ritten1 appears one double%space belo# student name. All typing is done flush%left not right 2ustified nor full 2ustified. .

Use the last name only in both first and subsequent citations. Type the #ord References *Reference in the case of only one1 centered at the top of the page.The reference list begins on a ne# page. The initial line of each entry is indented about half an inch *hanging indent style1. not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor. Parenthetical (itation The APA system of citing sources indicates the author8s last name and the date in parentheses #ithin the text of your paper. 1990). In that case. use the last name and the first initial. 26 . Example: Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites. consists of the author8s name and the year of publication. A typical citation of an entire #or. A. &ouble% space all reference entries. except when there is more than one author with the same last name.

1987. p. In that case. by three to five authors cite all the authors the first time the reference appears. whether sexual or social" (Taylor. *meaning =and others=1. 27 . . . (. &. the personalities of Charlotte. . .f both the name of the author and the date are used in the text parenthetical reference is not necessary.n a subseKuent reference use the first author8s last name follo#ed by et al. Gould explains Darwin's most successful. .f the author is named in the text only the year is cited. 1983) … Alcock and Thornhill (1983) also demonstrate … F. p. Example: Retired officers retain access to all of the university's educational and recreational facilities (Columbia University. 1988.'. 11). G. Example: According to Irene Taylor (1990). use only the first author's name followed et al. Specific citations of pages or chapters follo# the year. Example: In a 1989 article. B. . in the first and all subsequent reference. Example of a subsequent reference: Patterns of byzantine intrigue have long plagued the internal politics of community college administration in Texas (Douglas et al. by a corporate author use the name of the organi+ation as the author. When the reference is to a #or. The only exceptions to this rule are when some confusion might result because of similar names or the same author being cited. . Example: Sexual-selection theory often has been used to explore patters of various insect mating (Alcock & Thornhill. Example: Emily Bronte "expressed increasing hostility for the world of human relationships. 54). When the reference is to a #or. by t#o authors cite both names each time the reference appears. When the reference is to a #or. cite enough authors so that the distinction is clear. 1997) When the reference is to a work by six or more authors..

1989. 1987b) 6. 1987a.s. No space after the colon in ratios (6:1) Tables and Figures The use of tables and figures is too complicated to treat #ithin this documentG students should consult the APA Pu$lication Manual.. Generally ho#ever it is useful to label each and every table and figure #ith the #ord Table or Figure and an arabic numeral identifying it. Some schools and colleges ho#ever reKuire these elements to appear #ithin the body of the paper. Differentiate works by the same author and with the same publication date by adding an identifying letter to each date: (Bloom. List two or more works by the same author in order of the date of publication: (Gould. i. 1989) 5.S. Examples: 4. List works by different authors in alphabetical order by last name. The APA suggests that all tables and figures appear at the end of the paper each on a separate page. Smith. 1987. Bxceptions! • • No space after internal periods in abbreviations (a. 1983. defeats that capability. U. The text accompanying tables and figures must be double% spaced. Titles should be underlined.. To double%space after a punctuation mar. This is undoubtedly in response to the capabilities of modern #ord%processing devices to determe the correct aesthetic distance bet#een punctuation mar. April 17. … . Parenthetical references may mention more than one #or.m.f you are using a mono%space font *such as (ourier1 you may consider using t#o spaces after end% periods and colons but consult your instructor first.6. Example: Jesse Moore (telephone conversation. A great deal may 28 . 1989). particularly #hen ideas have been summari+ed after dra#ing from several sources. . Tutwiler. and use semicolons to separate the references: (Gould.e. $ultiple citations should be arranged as follo#s..).s and subseKuent letters. Personal letters telephone calls and other material that cannot be retrieved are not listed in References but are cited in the text. 1989) confirmed that the ideas. Spacing and Punctuation The APA Pu$lication Manual no# calls for one space to appear after all punctuation mar.

" Do not type vertically in the margin.depend on the capabilities of the #ord%processing machine you are using. fluid. "4a. (onsult #ith your instructor before deciding #here to place tables and figures. or tape to cover and type over an error. Do not number inserted pages with. Dour paper should be M essentially M perfect.ing (orrections on the $anuscript )o#adays #ith the use of modern #ord processing eKuipment ma. Insert a typed correction directly above the word or line to be corrected (not in the margin). • • • • • • • A Sample Running head: 1 A SAMPLE PAPER ACCORDING TO THE PUBLICATION MANUAL A 9"028e /"2e) A77o)d#$% to the Pu$lication Manual of the American Psychological Association Dour )ame Dour Affiliation A Sample A 9"028e /"2e) A77o)d#$% to the Pu$lication Manual of the American Psychological Association Fifth Bdition 377. $a. for example. Renumber the pages if a page must be inserted or removed after the numbering is completed. Retype the page if it has many corrections. 29 . Do not strike over a letter. &o not sacrifice entire forests to avoid inserting a comma ho#everO • • Do not use correction paper. Do not type inserts on slips and attach them to pages. Do not write on the manuscript.ing corrections after something is printed is usually unnecessary.

>he 2"%e he"de) #s 2os#t#o$ed #$ the (22e) )#%ht 7o)$e) "1o+e& o) -#+e s2"7es to the 8e-t o.eep in mind the follo#ing reKuirements starting from the top of the paper and #or. >he #$st#t(t#o$"8 "--#8#"t#o$ o) 78"ss #s "8so t.the 2"2e)& #$ the s2"7e 1et5ee$ the to2 ed%e o.2ed #$ (22e) "$d 8o5e) 7"se 8ette)s& "$d #s 7e$te)ed 1et5ee$ the 8e-t "$d )#%ht 0")%#$s "$d 2os#t#o$ed #$ the (22e) h"8.o. . >he )($$#$% he"d& o) "11)e+#"ted t#t8e& "22e")s o$8. 30 .8#$e "$d #$st#t(t#o$"8 "--#8#"t#o$ 7o0e $eEt.o() 2"2e) #s 8e$%th.t is very important to remember that each source on the Reference list must be cited in the body of the paper and conversely each source cited in the body of the paper must be on the Reference list. >he "(tho)Js $"0e (. It #s #$ (22e) 7"se "$d 0(st $ot eE7eed 50 7h")"7te)s& #$78(d#$% 2($7t("t#o$ "$d s2"7es..> of the APA manual provide a general overvie# of citing references in the text.the 2"2e) "$d the -#)st 8#$e oteEt.s etc. A Sample ! 2.t is meant to be used primarily by the Falencia students enrolled in Professions of (aring 6S(.the 2"2e) 5#th the -#)st t5o3to3th)ee 5o)ds -)o0 the t#t8e. Dour paper #ill include a Reference list at the end #hich #ill list the articles boo. you cite in your paper. >he te)0 )($$#$% he"d #s #$78(ded& "s #88(st)"ted o$ 2"%e 306 o. Pages 374 to 3. I. 6. 1. The te!t of the paper is left%2ustified and double-spaced< this sample paper is single spaced to sa#e space.2e the )($$#$% he"d -8(sh "t the 8e-t 0")%#$& "22)oE#0"te8.the 50 7h")"7te)s "$d #s $ot (22e) 7"se. The margins should be one inch on all sides.& e$d the )($$#$% he"d "t the e$d o. >he 2"%e $(01e) 0(st 1e o$ "88 2"%es o. >he t#t8e o. The sources cited in the Reference list do not exist but do reflect the types of sources #hich might be used in a paper. -o() 8#$es& o) t5o do(18e3s2"7es 1e8o5 the 2"%e he"de).." 5o)dL do $ot s28#t the 5o)d.the 2"2e)& #$78(d#$% the t#t8e 2"%e. 3. >he 1.o() $"0e #s t.7. and should serve as an introduction to APA style.the t#t8e. The Reference list must provide the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source used. .This sample paper #ill attempt to simplify the usage of the Pu$lication Manual of the American Psychological Association Fifth Bdition 377.the 2"%e. (se the tab 0ey to indent paragraphs.the t#t8e o. 5. Be& pages are indicated in this sample paper by a hori4ontal line.the 0"$("8& 1(t #s $ot 7o($ted "s 2")t o.the t#t8e o. As you prepare the title page .o() 2"2e) #s o$8. 4.. >he 2"%e he"de) #de$t#-#es e"7h 2"%e o.. The title of the sample paper follo#s the format given on page C70 of the manual. o$e o) t5o 5o)ds& the 2"%e he"de)& )($$#$% he"d "$d 2"2e) t#t8e 5#88 1e #$de$t#7"8.2ed #$ (22e) "$d 8o5e) 7"se 8ette)s "$d #s 7e$te)ed o$ the 8#$e& o$e do(18e3 s2"7e 1e8o5 the 8"st 8#$e o. >.the 2"%e $(01e). This document does not indent paragraphs because of html coding< ne& paragraphs are indicated by a double space. Ithe t#t8e #s t5o o) 0o)e 8#$es #$ 8e$%th& do(18e s2"7e 1et5ee$ the 8#$es. I.ing do#n.the 2"2e) #s t. o$ the t#t8e 2"%e. A Sample " Papers #ritten in the APA style must document sources in the body of the paper. *se A)"1#7 $(0e)"8s "$d 2os#t#o$ the 2"%e $(01e) o$e #$7h -)o0 the )#%ht h"$d ed%e o.2ed #$ (22e) "$d 8o5e) 7"se& #s 7e$te)ed o$ the 8#$e& "$d #s o$e do(18e3s2"7e 1e8o5 the "(tho)Js $"0e.

Separate the name and the date #ith a comma if both are listed. pa+ag+aph51 I) (he+e a+e addi(i'nal pa+ag+aph$ .+i((en line$0 and 'mi( (he &u'(a(i'n ma+/$1 S(a+( $u. line0 and inden( (he -l'. . .s.i(hin (he &u'(a(i'n0 inden( (he )i+$( line ') ea. . A Sample # Emitting credit is plagiarism or the presentation of another8s #ords or ideas as if they #ere your o#n. Plagiarism is academic theft and is treated as an ethical crime in the academic communityG not only #ill you fail the assignment but in most cases the course as #ell. .s are not necessary. . 9uotations are treated differently by the APA depending on the length of the Kuoted source. . 9uotations of less than >7 #ords should be incorporated in the text and be enclosed by Kuotation mar.= then only the date need be cited.ed1 3 **10 p1 11751 A Sample 8 When Kuoting al#ays provide the page number in addition to the author and year of publication.h a quotation 'n a ne. . 31 . The APA treats paraphrases and Kuotations differently. This can be accomplished in one of t#o #ays. authors are not reKuired to provide a location reference. .s.'+d$ in a )+ee$(anding -l'. =When paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another #or.As indicated on page 374 of the manual the basic format used by the APA to cite sources in the body of the paper is the author and date method of citationG that is the surname of the author*s1 and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point.m0 '+ )i4e $pa.f a passage is summari+ed rearranged or other#ise changed in some manner it is paraphrasing and Kuotation mar. . p. (redit must be given to the original author*s1 though.f the author8s name is mentioned in the text of the paper as in =Smith stated that ./ a-'u( 12 in1 311! block .f the author8s name is not mentioned in the text of the paper then both the name and the date must be cited. )evertheless authors are encouraged to do so especially #hen it #ould help an interested reader locate the relevant passage.h addi(i'nal 12 in1 The en(i+e &u'(a(i'n $h'uld -e d'u-le6 $pa.3.1 Bven though this sample paper consists of fictitious references it #ill include the page numbers in examples #hen possible. Parentheses are used to enclose the author and date or date alone. )ote that the preceeding Kuote is C/ #ords longG thus it is included in the text of the paper and is enclosed by Kuotation mar.n some cases as you #ill see later in this paper page numbers either must or may be included. Di$pla% &u'(a(i'n$ ') "* '+ m'+e . .e5 )+'m (he le)( ma+gin 3in (he $ame p'$i(i'n a$ a ne. .= *Pu$lication Manual 377./ ') (%pe. Give credit to your sources #henever you either Kuote an author directly or paraphrase an author. ?ong Kuotations are treated differently as illustrated by the follo#ing from the Pu$lication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

1.& 5h#8e -o) 2)o-ess#o$"8 Do()$"8s& 7#te o$8. Fo88o5#$% the "(tho) #$-o)0"t#o$& %#+e the d"te o. C#te the0 #$ the o)de) the.7ho8o%#7"8 Asso7#"t#o$ h"s 2(18#shed " 5e1 h"$do(t 5#th #$st)(7t#o$s -o) do7(0e$t#$% e8e7t)o$#7 )eso()7es' APAStyle. 3. 4. . >he A0e)#7"$ /s.When citing from a full%text electronic source you may not have page numbers to include in your parenthetical reference. EE"028e' 0ancet# . "$d the 8#ke. EE"028e' 'ublic Health# . Do $ot (se -#)st $"0es& 0ed#7"8 de%)ees& B). 19& 2001& -)o0 A7"de0#7 9e")7h /)e0#e) d"t"1"se. #ss(e& #e& e"7h #ss(e h"s " 2"%e $(01e) 1& the$ the #ss(e $(01e) 0(st -o88o5 the +o8(0e $(01e). Dour reader #ill be able to access the specific text by using the =Bdit= and =Find= feature of the bro#ser to locate the specific passage cited. The Reference list must be double% spaced.the 7#t"t#o$ #s the 2"%#$"t#o$. the)e ")e.the -#)st 5o)d o.&*# I. >he 2"%e des#%$"t#o$ 2 #s $ot (sed eE7e2t 5he$ 7#t#$% $e5s2"2e) ")t#78es.the Do()$"8 #s #t"8#7#Ped& "s 5e88 "s the +o8(0e $(01e). <se the Tab Aey to indent. or 2ournal article. . >he t#t8e o. I. (5 A Sample 9 6.2(18#7"t#o$ #$ 2")e$theses.ho5 0"$.f you retrieve an article from a database #hich uses =real page= technology such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader list the page numbers as they #ill accurately correspond to the original print source.the Do()$"8 #s -)o0 "$ e8e7t)o$#7 d"t"1"se& )et)#e+"8 #$-o)0"t#o$ 0(st 1e #$78(ded 5h#7h st"tes the d"te o. "$d d"#8. the -#)st 8ette) o. 2. ")e 8#sted 5#th the so()7e.org 32 . >he #ss(e $(01e) #s #$ 2")e$theses 1(t #s $ot #t"8#7#Ped. This sample paper #ill consider each source cited in the References list and explain both the actual citation and sho# ho# the source #ould be cited in the text of the paper. The Reference list uses a hanging indent the first line of each reference is flush #ith the left marginG subseKuent lines of the same reference are indented.e")& 0o$th "$d d". Fo) eE"028e' =et)#e+ed B(8.the t#t8e o) s(1t#t8e #s 7"2#t"8#Ped "s 5e88 "s "$.n that case use the author*s1 and year of publication only. " 2e)#od to e$d the 7#t"t#o$. . >he 8"st 2")t o.eep in mind #hen citing periodical articles on the Reference list. Fo) 5eek8. 5. C#te "88 "(tho)s #$ the =e-e)e$7es 8#st )e%")d8ess o.the ")t#78e -o88o5s. 2e)#od#7"8C0"%"P#$es s(7h "s $e5s2"2e)s "$d 2o2(8") 0"%"P#$es& 7#te the .=. *se the "(tho)Js s()$"0e "$d #$#t#"8(s o$8.the d"t"1"se. References are alphabeti+ed by the surname of the first author or in the case of no author by the title of the boo.e"). the .. >he t#t8e o. the +o8(0e $(01e)& "$d #"22)o2)#"te& the #ss(e $(01e).e") o) +o8(0e& $o )e-e)e$7e to "$ #ss(e $(01e) #s $eeded.)et)#e+"8 "$d the 2)o2e) $"0e o. I. 2)o2e) $"0es "22e")#$% #$ the t#t8e.$8.the Do()$"8 7o0es $eEt& -o88o5ed 1. 8. >h#s #s -o88o5ed 1.the Do()$"8 #s )e32"%ed #ss(e 1.the Do()$"8 (ses 7o$t#$(o(s 2"%#$"t#o$& #e& #t )($s 2"%e $(01e)s th)o(%ho(t " . A Sample 7 The follo#ing are some general rules to . I$ th"t 7"se& the t#t8e o. 7.

e Cen(e+ da(a-a$e1 >he F#)st =e-e)e$7e The first source on the Reference list is a scholarly 2ournal from an electronic database 6ealth and Wellness Resource (enter #hich uses continuous pagination. 3. ")e 8#sted.the 1ook #s $eEt "$d #t #s #t"8#7#Ped. >he t#t8e o. Bxample! The APA is used by many physicians to save lives *Adams Hu.-te$& $o o$e eE"028e -)o0 the 0"$("8 5#88 -#t .2(18#7"t#o$. "$d the 8#ke. " 2e)#od.the 7#t"t#o$& "$d o$7e "-te) the 2e)#ods o.'u+(1 33 .L #$ th"t 7"se& -o88o5 the 78osest eE"028e 2oss#18e o) 7o01#$e "22)o2)#"te e8e0e$ts -)o0 t5o eE"028es. >h#s 5#88 1e #$ 2")e$theses.the #$#t#"8s #$ 2e)so$"8 $"0es.the 1ook #s 8#sted 8"st -o88o5ed 1. >he 2(18#she) o.2(18#7"t#o$ -o88o5s.o() )e-e)e$7e eE"7t8.n the body of the paper if the source is paraphrased it can be cited in one of the follo#ing #ays. A Sample : 6.ofs. 4. Fo88o5 the "(tho)Js $"0e 5#th the . 'ecause this is an electronic source #hich does not use =real page= technology page numbers are omitted from the parenthetical reference.L #$ th"t 7"se -o88o5 the 78osest eE"028e 2oss#18e o) 7o01#$e "22)o2)#"te e8e0e$ts -)o0 t5o eE"028es. the -#)st 5o)d #$ the t#t8e #s 7"2#t"8#Ped "s 5e88 "s "$. Add the appropriate online information. >he 7#t./@ of the manual to set up the reference correctly.y *.ofs.n any subseKuent references to this source both authors #ould again be cited.i(h (he APA1 American Journal of Public Health.$8. 7.1 <se a combination of examples . #s )e8"t#+e8. of the page number.9. Do $ot (se -#)st $"0es& 0ed#7"8 de%)ees& B).1A10 < =u/')$/%0 S1P1 31:::51 I $a4ed m% pa(ien( .y . .-te$& $o o$e eE"028e -)o0 the 0"$("8 o) -)o0 th#s 2"2e) 5#88 -#t .72.///1 recently stated that the APA is used by many physicians to save lives. 2. A Sample 1* >he 9e7o$d =e-e)e$7e Bu+ge$$0 ?1 31::951 Mastering the APA in 600 easy lessons 3Re41 ed151 O+land': Ha+. Bxample! Adams and Hu. o. . . 92"7e o$7e "-te) 2e)#ods th"t se2")"te the 2")ts o. 10. C#te "88 "(tho)s 8#sted -o) the 1ook #$ the o)de) the. The follo#ing are some general rules to . 92"7e o$7e "-te) 2e)#ods th"t se2")"te the 2")ts o. 2)o2e) $"0es.the 7#t"t#o$ "$d o$7e "-te) the 2e)#ods o.///1. *Dou can tell the pagination is continuous because of the high number 57. 5. o1s7()e& #$78(de the t5o 8ette) 7ode -o) the st"te. . 9*169"!1 Re(+ie4ed Augu$( 1!0 **10 )+'m Heal(h and >ellne$$ Re$'u+.the #$#t#"8s #$ 2e)so$"8 $"0es. 1. Adam$0 . *se the "(tho)Js s()$"0e "$d #$#t#"8(s o$8.eep in mind #hen citing boo.s on the References list.the 7#t. . I.o() 7#t"t#o$ eE"7t8.e") o. and 3 on page . 8..

A Sample 11 @in/'0 P10 M.n a recent comparison of style manuals *'urgess .ademi. Bxample! .s the year of publication and the page number 34 .'n1 !he Journal of the American Me"ical Association. the year of publication and the page number.= Bxample! =The American Psychological Association spent many years developing the fifth edition of the style manual= *Ain. >he F#-th =e-e)e$7e Le$$'n plan$ 'n in(+a4en'u$ inBe. A Sample 1 .1 3 **151 >e )'ugh( (he APA and (he APA .The second source on the Reference list is to a boo. p. )ote that et reKuires no punctuation as it is the ?atin #ord for =andG= al is an abbreviation for the #ord others and does reKuire punctuation. Pagination is included as this article #as available in Adobe Acrobat or =real page= technology.(i'n$ .n the body of the paper cite the first t#o to three #ords in the article title enclosed in Kuotation mar.C'nnell0 C10 S('ne0 S10 A'+ehand0 S10 Bl'ndeau0 @10 < Le%-'ld0 . 1 7:61 9#1 >he Fo()th =e-e)e$7e The fourth source on the Reference list is a professional 2ournal article #ith six authors. CC1 the APA #as 2udged to be easier to use than the $?A style manual. 377. (ite the source in the body of the paper li.ul%2Augu$(51 Bed6$ide manne+ .h P+emie+ da(a-a$e1 The third source on the Reference list is a maga+ine article obtained from the Academic Search Premier database. . Bxample! 'urgess *.i(h (he APA1 31::#0 . 276. Sea+.//5 p. T#o #ays to cite an exact Kuotation from this source are as follo#s.e the previous 'urgess citationG a source #ith one author.anua+% !he #e$ %ork !imes0 p1 C"71 751 The fifth source on the Reference list is a ne#spaper article #ith no stated author. .3571 stated =the American Psychological Association spent many years developing the fifth edition of the style manual. by a single author. .//5 p.o et al. . T#o #ays to cite this reference in the body of the paper follo#.o et al. *377.3571. >he >h#)d =e-e)e$7e B%+d0 P1 31:::0 . CC1 concluded that the APA #as the easiest style manual to use.n the body of the paper use only the last name of the first author follo#ed by et al. p. Bxample! Ain.i(h (he APA1 Hospital tiquette0 16!1 Re(+ie4ed Augu$( 1:0 **10 )+'m A.f you have a reference #ith more than six authors provide the surname and initials of the first six and shorten any remaining authors to el al.

35 . Bxample! Additional research proves the APA style manual is very easy to use *)e#by et al.$c(onnell ./// p. The page #ould not be necessary in a paraphrase as the article is 2ust one page in length. Since this is a one page article it #ould not be necessary to include the page number. *.. A Sample 1! The first time this source is referenced in the body of the paper all five authors must be listed as #ell as the year of publication and the page number if appropriate.'+ding (' (he APA1 #e$s$eek0 1 1 Re(+ie4ed Augu$( 1!0 **10 )+'m Heal(h and >ellne$$ Re$'u+. (' +e)e+en. Bxample! The definitive study on the APA style manual *)e#by Proctor Stone :ones ./// p.f the subseKuent reference is in a different paragraph the year must be listed as #ell as the page number if appropriate.ly maga+ine available on the 6ealth and Wellness Resource (enter database.if necessay.in1 &onsulting Psychology Journal' Practice an" (esearch./// p. Bxample! The APA can be used in in2ections *=?esson plans = . . )* 3 50 1*6!81 The seventh source on the Reference list is a 2ournal article #ith five authors.f the subseKuent reference is in the same paragraph as the first citation the year and page number need not be listed.e a -ed pan a. C@1 #as published recently. . . Bxample! )e#by et al. C@1 discovered that there #as a great deal of interest in the latest edition of the APA style manual. :ournal articles #ith three four or five authors are all treated the same in terms of parenthetical references. This 2ournal pages each issue separately.-%0 S10 P+'.n subseKuent references to the same article cite only the last name of the first author follo#ed by et al.1.//@1.('+0 P10 S('ne0 S10 . .C'nnel0 C1 31:::51 The APA 4$1 (he MLA: Ma% (he -e$( $(%le manual . >he 9e+e$th =e-e)e$7e Ne.e Cen(e+ da(a-a$e1 The sixth source on the Reference list is an article from a #ee. *Again this applies to articles #ith three four or five authors. >he 9#Eth =e-e)e$7e Mille+0 ?1P1 31::90 O.n the body of the paper this source #ould be cited in the same #ay as the 'urgess and 'yrd examples a source #ith one author and the year.. C@1 found in their research that the APA #as an excellent manual.1 Bxample! )e#by Proctor Stone :ones and $c(onnell *.'ne$0 B1 < M.('-e+ 951 H'.

n the body of the paper this #ould be referenced by the author8s last name and the year of publication.nternet. h"22.Again . 1 7:61 9#1 Le$$'n plan$ 'n in(+a4en'u$ inBe.$7e .-%0 S10 P+'. 4.1A1 < =u/')$/%0 S1P1 31:::51 I $a4ed m% pa(ien( . Good :(7kO A Sample 1# =e-e)e$7es Adam$0 .72.o() #$3teEt )e-e)e$7es "$d =e-e)e$7e 8#st& 1(t 5#88 $ot )e"d the 2"2e) -o) %)"00")& st)(7t()e& "$d the 8#ke. and articles #ith one or t#o authors list all authors each time the article is referenced.i(h (he APA1 31::70 . )* 3 50 1*6!81 Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 36 . Some final suggestions #hich may help you #rite and document an excellent paper for this class follo#. .C'nnell0 C10 S('ne0 S10 A'+ehand0 S10 Bl'ndeau0 @10 Le%-'ld0 .e Cen(e+ da(a-a$e1 Bu+ge$$0 ?1 31::951 Mastering the APA in 600 easy lessons 3Re41 ed151 O+land': Ha+."ke "$ "22o#$t0e$t "t the !)#t#$% Ce$te).('-e+ 951 H'.'n1 !he Journal of the American Me"ical Association./$2p$%. Sea+.h P+emie+ da(a-a$e1 @in/'0 P10 M.1 3 **151 >e )'ugh( (he APA and (he APA .o() A/A K(est#o$s o+e) the 2ho$e (407358231432 o) +#" )s0-a:ibrarian..o( h"+e "$.anua+% 751 !he #e$ %ork !imes0 p1 C"71 Mille+0 ?1P1 31::90 O. I.the 8#1)")#"$s 5#88 1e h"22. K(est#o$s& A9ROO 2.eep in mind that this rule applies to 2ournal articles #ith three four or five authors. >he#) $(01e) #s 407358231356 "$d the. 3. 276.1li-1n.'l'&u%6indeC1h(ml The last source on the Reference list is to a non%proprietary electronic 2ournal available over the . to "$s5e) . 5.'+ding (' (he APA1 #e$s$eek0 1 1 Re(+ie4ed Augu$( 1!0 **10 )+'m Heal(h and >ellne$$ Re$'u+.C'nnell0 C1 31:::51 The APA 4$1 (he MLA: Ma% (he -e$( $(%le manual . Co88e%e st(de$t 5e 5#88 1e +e).i(h (he APA1 American Journal of Public Health. ")e 8o7"ted #$ 73240.o( 5#88 do -#$e.$u1edu2 $(a.(i'n$ . othe 2"2e)& o$e o..8e 0"..the 2"2e).'u+(1 B%+d0 P1 31:::0 .& the A/A st.'ne$0 B10 < M..o( h"+e " 2)o7essed 7o2. see0 7o$-(s#$%& 1(t #.e Cen(e+ da(a-a$e1 Ne.in1 &onsulting Psychology Journal' Practice an" (esearch.o( ")e " V"8e$7#" Co00($#t.e a -ed pan a. /8"$ to do "t 8e"st " -e5 d)"-ts o. to 8ook o+e) .. 9*169"!1 Re(+ie4ed Augu$( 1!0 **10 )+'m Heal(h and >ellne$$ Re$'u+. I$#t#"88.ul%2Augu$(51 Bed6$ide manne+ . 1. 6. . (' +e)e+en. Articles #ith six or more authors list only the first surname follo#ed by et al. A Sample 1" The eighth source on the Reference list is for the APA style manual #hich #as cited earlier in this paper. I. >he 4#$th =e-e)e$7e Sal('n0 D1C1 31::90 Ma+. .i(h (he APA1 Hospital tiquette0 #!1 Re(+ie4ed Augu$( 1:0 **10 )+'m A.h51 SeC0 lie$ and (he APA1 Psycoloquy1 Re(+ie4ed Augu$( 1!0 **10 )+'m h((p:22..('+0 P10 S('ne0 S10 .o( -o88o5 d#)e7t#o$s .ademi.

)#%ht 199732004 V"8e$7#" Co00($#t.an P$%..h'l'gi.$2p$%.1li-1n. Co88e%e !est C"02(s :=C >h#s s"028e 2"2e) 5"s 2)e2")ed 1. B(d# De:#s8e :"st )e+#sed 9 De7e01e) 2004 37 .h51 SeC0 lie$ and (he APA1 Psycoloquy1 Re(+ie4ed Augu$( 1!0 1:::0 )+'m h((p:22.'l'&u%6indeC1h(ml Co2.ia(i'n1 Sal('n0 D1C1 31::90 Ma+..al A$$'.3#(h ed151 3 **151 >a$hing('n0 DC: Ame+i.$u1edu2 $(a/.