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The solving of the Diophantine equation was put as an open Problem 78 by F. Smaranclache in [1].

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,

NOTE ON THE DIOPHANTINE EQUATION 2X2 - 3y2 = P

Mladen V. Vassilev - l\lissaha and Kra.ssimir T. Atanassov

The solving of the Diophantine equation

»2 '32 -

_x -. y =.J

2X2 - 3y2 - .j = 0

(1)

was put as an open Problem 78 by F. Smaranclache in [1]. Below this problem is solved

completely. Also, we consider here the Diophantive eqlla.t.ion

I.e.,

and the Pellian equation

I.e.,

u

1

- 61'·2 - I = O.

Here we use variables x ane! y only for equation (1) and I, m for equation (2).

We will need the following denotations and definitions:

A r - {I .) >3 } .

.I" - ,_,. , ••. ,

if

F(t,w)=O

is an Diophantive equation, then:

(2)

(3)

(ad we use the denotation < t, W > if and only if (or briefly: iff) t and ware integers which

satisfy this equation.

(a2) we use the denotation < t, w >E ;V1 iff t and ware positive integers;

f{(t, w) denotes the set of all < t, w >;

f{O(t,w) denotes the set of all < t,w >E .IV'2;

f{'(t, w) = f{°(t, w) - {< 2,1 >}.

LEMMA 1: If < t, w >E N2 and < :1:, y >#< 2,1 >, then there exists < I, m >, such that

< I, m >E N2 and the equa.lities

x = [ + :3m and !J = [ + "2m (4)

hold.

64

LEMMA 2: Let < I,m >E Jo.r2. If x and yare given by (1), then x and y satisfy (4)

and < x,y >E Af2.

We shall note that lemmas 1 and 2 show that the map 'P: f{°(l,m) - /{'(x,y) given by

(4) is a bijection.

Proof of Lemma 1: Let < x, y >E )\!2 be chosen a.rbitrarily, but < x, y >#< 2,1 >.

Then y 2: 2 and x > y. Therefore,

x=y+m (5)

and m is a positive integer. Subtracting (5) into (1), Wf' obtain

y2 _ 4my +.5 - 2m

2

= O.

(6)

Hence

!J = Y1.2 = 2m ± J6m

2

- ."i. (7)

For m = 1 (7) yields only

.1J = Yt = :3.

indeed

1=Y=Y2<2

contradicts to y 2: 2.

Let m> 1. Then

2m - J6m2 - :) < O.

Therefore y = Y2 is impossible again. Thus we always ha.ve

Y = VI = 2m + J6m

2

- ·5. (8)

Hence

y - 2m = J6m2 - 5. (9)

The left-hand side of (9) is a positive integer. Therefore, there exists a positive integer 1

such that

6m

2

-.5 = 12.

Hence 1 and m satisfy (2) and < 1, m >E N2.

The equalities (4) hold because of (5) and (8). 0

Proof of Lemma 2: Let < I,m >E N2. Then we check the equality

2(l + 3m)2 - 3(/ + 2m)2 = 5,

under the assumption of validity of (2) and the lemma is proved. 0

Theorem 108 a, Theorem 109 and Theorem 110 from [2] imply the following

THEOREM 1: There exist sets J\;(l, m) s11ch that

f{; ( /, m) C 1\ ( I, m. ) (i = 1,:2),

65

f{l (/, m) n f{"l(/, m) = 0,

and f{(l, m) admits the representation

J{(l, m) = 1\d/, m) U 1(/' m).

The fundamental solution of 1\d I, m) is < -1, 1 > and the fundamental solution of

]{2(1, m) is < 1,1 >.

Moreover, if < u, v> runs 1\(lL, v), then:

(bd < I, m > runs ]{l (1, m) iff the equality

/ + m/6 = (-1 + )6)(11 + uv6)

holds;

(b

2

) < 1, m > runs 1(/' m) iff the equality

1 + m/6 = (1 + v6)(u + 1'v6)

holds.

( 10)

(11)

We must note that the fundamental solution of (:3) is < .5,:2 >. Let Un and Vn be given

by

(12)

Then Un and u" satisfy (11) and < U,,' lin >E /vl.. i\Ioreover, if n runs N, then < U,,' Vn >

runs J(O( u, v).

Let the sets J(t(l,m) (i = 1,2) are introduced by

As a corollary from the above remark and Theorem 1 we obtain

THEOREM 2: The set ]{0(l, m) may be represented as

where

= 0.

Moreover:

(C1) If n runs N and the integers In and mn are defined by

then 1" and m" satisfy (2) and < In,m

n

> runs f{f(l,m);

(C2) If n runs N U {O} and the integers In and m" are defined by

then In and mn satisfy (2) and < In, Tn

n

> fIlIlS 77l).

66

(13)

(14)

(15)

( 16)

(17)

Let cp be the above mentioned bijection. The sets K;O(x,y) (i = 1,2) are introduced by

(18)

From Theorem 2, and especially from (14), (15), and (IS) we obtain

THEOREM 3: The set K'O(x,y) may have the representation

( 19)

where

n = 0. (20)

Moreover:

(dr) If n runs N and the integers :r nand ]In are defined hy

(21)

where in and mn are introduced by (16), thf:n Xn and !In satisfy (1) and < Xn,Yn > runs

J(f(x,y);

(d

2

) If n runs Nu {OJ and the integers Xn and]J" are defined again by (21), but in and mn

now are introduced by (17), then Xn and]Jn satisfy (1) and < Xn,Yn > runs Iq(x,y).

Theorem 3 completely solves F. Smarandache's Problem 7S from [1], because in and mn

could be expressed in explicit form using (16) or (17) as well.

*

* *

Below we shall introduce a generalization of Smarandache's problem 87 from [IJ.

If we have to consider the Diophantine equation

.) 2 3 2

_x -. y = p, (22)

where p # 2 is a prime number, then using [2, eh. VII, exercize 2] and the same method as

in the case of (1), we obtain the following result.

THEOREM 4: (1) The necessary and sufficient condition for the solvability of (22) is:

p == .j( mod24) or p == 2:3( mod24) (23);

(2) If (23) is valid, then there exists exactly one solution < x, Y >E N2

of (22) such that the inequalities x < jfp; y < jfp hold. Every

other solution < x,]J >E .. V2 of (22) the form:

x = i + :3m

y = 1 + 2m,

where < I, m >E N1. is a solution of the Diophantine equation

67

The question how to solve the Diophantine eqnation, a. special case of which is the above

one, is considered in Theorem 110 from [2].

REFERENCES:

[1] F. Smarandache, Proposed Problems of ?-.[atltt.'lTIatirs. Vol. 2, U.S.M., 199i.

[2] T. Nagell, Introduction to Number Theory. John Wil<>}" ..'\:. Sons, Inc., New York, 1950.

V. Vassilev - Missana

5, Victor Hugo Str., Sofia-1124, Bulgaria

l\lRL, P.O.Box 12, Sofia-II 13, Bulgaria

Krassimir T. Atanassov

MRL, P.O.Box 12, Sofia-II 1:3, Bulgaria

CLBi",lE - BAS, Acad. C. Bonchev Str., BI. 10;"), Sofiet-II l:3

e-mail: krat@bgcict.acad.bg

68

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