DBMS What is DBMS?

A collection of programs that enables you to store, modify, and extract information from a database. There are many different types of DBMSs, ranging from small systems that run on personal computers to huge systems that run on mainframes. The following are examples of database applications: • computerized library systems • automated teller machines • flight reservation systems • computerized parts inventory systems From a technical standpoint, DBMSs can differ widely. The terms relational, network, flat, and hierarchical all refer to the way a DBMS organizes information internally. The internal organization can affect how quickly and flexibly you can extract information. Database Management Systems Versus File Management Systems (FMS) A Database Management System (DMS) is a combination of computer software, hardware, and information designed to electronically manipulate data via computer processing. Two types of database management systems are DBMS’s and FMS’s. In simple terms, a File Management System (FMS) is a Database Management System that allows access to single files or tables at a time. FMS’s accommodate flat files that have no relation to other files. The FMS was the predecessor for the Database Management System (DBMS), which allows access to multiple files or tables at a time (see Figure 1 below).

File Management Systems(FMS)

Advantages Simpler to use Less expensive· Fits the needs of many small businesses and home users

Disadvantages Typically does not support multi-user access Limited to smaller databases Limited functionality (i.e. no support for complicated transactions, recovery, etc.)

Popular FMS’s are packaged along with the operating systems of personal computers (i.e. Microsoft Cardfile and Microsoft Decentralization of data Works) Good for database solutions for hand held devices such as Palm Pilot Redundancy and Integrity issues

Typically, File Management Systems provide the following advantages and disadvantages: The goals of a File Management System can be summarized as follows: Data Management. An FMS should provide data management services to the application.

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Generality with respect to storage devices. The FMS data abstractions and access methods should remain unchanged irrespective of the devices involved in data storage. Validity. An FMS should guarantee that at any given moment the stored data reflect the operations performed on them. Protection. Illegal or potentially dangerous operations on the data should be controlled by the FMS.

durability) Supports simultaneous access Enforces design criteria in relation to data format and structure Provides backup and recovery controls Advanced security Difficult to learn Disadvantages Packaged separately from the operating system (i. concurrent access to the data should be allowed with minimal differences. disk mirroring. Performance. Oracle. command processor. scheduler. Lotus/IBM Approach. etc). query optimizer. Borland Paradox. Facilities for maintaining data redundancies against technical failure (back-ups. In multiprogramming systems. Facilities to structure data within files (predefined record formats. Microsoft Access. importing. retrieval. Ownership of files and access control on the basis of ownership permissions. record deletion.e.e. Claris FileMaker Pro) Slower processing speeds Requires skilled administrators Expensive The goals of a Database Management System can be summarized as follows: • • • • • • • • • Data storage. Logical identification and structuring of the data. From the point of view of an end user (or application) an FMS typically provides the following functionalities (Calleri. modification and deletion. monitoring. Compromise data access speed and data transfer rate with functionality.) The components to facilitate the goals of a DBMS may include the following: • • • • • • Query processor Data Manipulation Language preprocessor Database manager (software components to include authorization control. and update (while hiding the internal physical implementation details) A user-accessible catalog Transaction support Concurrency control services (multi-user update functionality) Recovery services (damaged database must be returned to a consistent state) Authorization services (security) Support for data communication Integrity services (i. performance.• • Concurrency. constraints) Services to promote data independence Utility services (i.). etc. Database Management Systems Database Management Systems provide the following advantages and disadvantages: Advantages Greater flexibility Good for larger databases Greater processing power Fits the needs of many medium to large-sized organizations Storage for all relevant data Provides user views relevant to tasks performed Ensures data integrity by managing transactions (ACID test = atomicity. etc.e. integrity checker. consistency. isolation. via file names and hierarchical directory structures. recovery manager. and buffer manager) Data Definition Language compiler File manager Catalog manager . transaction manager. 2001): • • • • • File creation.

2.What are the different types of Data Models? Definition: collection of logical constructs used to represent data structure and relationships within the database Conceptual models: logical nature of data representation. 5. it is used for database design as blueprint Implementation models: emphasis on how the data are represented in the database – Conceptual models include • Entity-relationship database model (ERDBM) • Object-oriented database model (OODBM) Implementation models include • Hierarchical database model (HDBM) • Network database model (NDBM) • Relational database model (RDBM) • Object-oriented database model (OODBM) – Exercise: 1. 4. 6. 3. if emphasizes on what entity is presented. What What What What What What is DBMS? are the disadvantages of File System? are the advantages of File System? are the advantages of DBMS with respective to File System? are different conceptual models? are the different implementation models? .