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STUDENT GUIDE
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ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
3
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Course outline
Section 1. ASON GMPLS MRN
Module 1. ASON GMPLS MRN Introduction
Module 2. ASON GMPLS Protocols
Module 3. ASON GMPLS Protections
Module 4. MRN Overview
Welcome to
ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
Section 1. ASON GMPLS MRN
Module 1. ASON GMPLS MRN Introduction
Module 2. ASON GMPLS Protocols
Module 3. ASON GMPLS Protections
Module 4. MRN Overview
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ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
4
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Course objectives
Upon completion of this course, you should be able to:
Upon completion of the course; students should be able to describe MPLS evolution to GMPLS;
describe ASON network principles; advantages and value proposition of GMPLS automatic discovery;
control layer and link monitoring
Be familiar with the concepts of Shared Risk Group; restoration types and rules; understand
maintenance actions need in case of problems.
The student will also understand the architecture evolution towards a unique control layer
introduced by MRN for OTNWDM and OCS OTN switching cross connections
Welcome to
ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
Upon completion of this course, you should be able to:
Upon completion of the course; students should be able to describe MPLS evolution to
GMPLS; describe ASON network principles; advantages and value proposition of GMPLS
automatic discovery; control layer and link monitoring
Be familiar with the concepts of Shared Risk Group; restoration types and rules; understand
maintenance actions need in case of problems.
The student will also understand the architecture evolution towards a unique control layer
introduced by MRN for OTNWDM and OCS OTN switching cross connections
Your feedback is appreciated!
Please feel free to Email your comments to:
training.feedback@alcatel-lucent.com
Please include the following training reference in your email:
TOP63094_V1.0-SG Edition 1
Thank you!
· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · ASON GMPLS MRN Introduction
1 · 1 · 1
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Module 1
ASON GMPLS MRN Introduction
Section 1
ASON GMPLS MRN
ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
TOP63094_V1.0-SG Edition 1
TOP63094_V1.0-SG-Ed1 Module 1.1 Edition 1
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Document History
Edition Date Author Remarks
01 2013-07-15 Lecchi, Vincenzo First edition
· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
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1 · 1 · 3
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Module objectives
ASON GMPLS introduction
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
• Have an overview of the ASON GMPLS value propositions
• Understand what is a control plane
• Understand the Standards evolution from MPLS to GMPLS
ASON GMPLS machine model
ASON GMPLS Network Protection
Multi-Region Networks fundamentals
· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · ASON GMPLS MRN Introduction
1 · 1 · 4
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Module objectives [cont.]
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ASON GMPLS MRN · ASON GMPLS MRN Introduction
1 · 1 · 5
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Table of contents
Page
1 ASON Introduction 7
End of module 24
· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · ASON GMPLS MRN Introduction
1 · 1 · 6
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Table of contents [cont.]
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1 ASON introduction
Section 1 · Module 1 · Page 7
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THE NETWORK CONTROL VISION IN THE PAST
SDH/SONET Rings
Point-Point DWDM
IP/MPLS mesh
Early 2000’s point of view
Multi technology networks
without a real traffic integration
Complex SLA assurance and
resilience
No Automated network
No cross-layer operations
ATM Rings
Networks in the past, were considered as the sum of separated
standalone subnetworks, with independent life.
No traffic integration were present, no automation in the processes or
cross layer operations.
For this, SLA (Service level agreements) assurance is and was very
complex
Section 1 · Module 1 · Page 8
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CROSS-LAYER INTELLIGENT CONTROL PLANE VISION
Common control plane:
- GMPLS intelligence
- Multiregion network (MRN)
Converged optical layer:
electronic and photonic switching
Electronic and optical layer
integration
Service over circuit
Photonic switching layer
Electronic switching layer
Service over λ λλ λ
GMPLS GMPLS
ASON/GMPLS MRN VISION
A
S
O
N

G
M
P
L
S

Automated network
cross-layer operations

Enhanced SLA assurance and
resilience
Maximized network monetization

The new vision is a unique and automated network, with cross-layer
operations.
To do this a common control plane with GMPLS (Generalized MPLS) + MRN
(Multiregion Network) on a unique electronic + photonic layer is proposed.
This allows an enhanced SLA maximizing the network usage
Section 1 · Module 1 · Page 9
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CONTROL PLANE CONCEPT
Network
Element
Client, e.g.
Service router
Control Plane
Management Plane
Control Plane
Transport/Data
Plane
Network
Management
A Control Plane is a
method of distributed
connection control
O
P
T
I
C
A
L

P
L
A
N
E
S
NMS – Network Management System
In the traditional Networks, Services are provided connecting a chain of subnetwork
connections, with no end-to-end visibility of the service.
To introduce an enhancement in the network management the control plane concept
has been created: is a method to coordinate a distributed connection control.
A Network could be seen in separated layer : Transport, Control and management
Section 1 · Module 1 · Page 10
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Management Plane
centralized network management:
Management of ASON and non-ASON NEs
Full awareness of current network state (configuration, paths, alarms)
Stipulation of paths and routes
Separation of network domains
Control Plane
Represents a distributed set of protocols running between Network Elements to
manage the ASON;
Consists of Routing Plane and Signaling Plane;
Transport/Data Plane
Realizing transmission and switching of data
Consists of: Transport layer realizing classical legacy features and Service Layer
THE OPTICAL CONTROL PLANE CONCEPT
O
P
T
I
C
A
L

P
L
A
N
E
S
GMPLS protocols :
are at the heart of the Optical Control Plane a distributed connection
control that unlocks the potential of the intelligent optical network
GMPLS protocols :
are at the heart of the Optical Control Plane a distributed connection
control that unlocks the potential of the intelligent optical network
GMPLS protocols :
are at the heart of the Optical Control Plane a distributed connection control
that unlocks the potential of the intelligent optical network
A Managed Plane is used to centralize the network management for:
- Ason and Non Ason ntwks
- Full awareness of current network state (configuration, paths, alarms) to set
paths and routes
- ensure the separation of network domains (see the next slides)
Control Plane
- Represents a distributed set of protocols running between Network
Elements to manage the ASON: Routing Plane and Signaling Plane
Transport and Data plane
- Realize the transmission and switching layer (physical ntwk)
11
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WHAT IS ASON?
ASON automates the resource and connection management within the network
ASON could be extended to a multi providers control plane
Signaling is extended in a distributed Control Plane for Network
administration and Path management
Dynamic signaling-based policy-driven control over OTN (Optical Transport
Network)
ASON (Automatically Switched Optical Network)
is a network architecture that maximizes the advantages of the
Optical Control Plane
ASON (Automatically Switched Optical Network)
is a network architecture that maximizes the advantages of the
Optical Control Plane
A
S
O
N

G
M
P
L
S
ASON
What is ASON?
ASON (Automatically Switched Optical Network)
is a network architecture that maximizes the advantages of the
Optical Control Plane
The automation inside control plane allowed by the real time feedback of the
dynamic signaling, is the key element to ensure : elements discovery and
synchronization and efficient control.
ASON automates the resource and connection management within the
network
ASON could be extended to a multi providers control plane
Signaling is extended in a distributed Control Plane for Network
administration and Path management
12
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GMPLS
is a protocol, or better a set of protocols (protocol suite), introduced in
Transport Networks in order to allow automatic traffic routing and distributed
restoration.
The concepts applied in GMPLS are derived from MPLS protocol, which was
introduced in Y’s 80 in order to speed up packet routing in IP-Networks.
GMPLS Control Plane
consists of embedded SW in the NE’s of the Transport Network to implement
signaling and automatic routing.
The two main new services provided by GMPLS in a Transport Network are:
On-demand circuit provisioning
Distributed Restoration.
WHAT IS GMPLS?
G
M
P
L
S
What is GMPLS?
GMPLS is set of protocols , introduced in Transport Networks in order to
allow automatic traffic routing and distributed restoration.
MPLS is the original concept at the base of ASON, but it has been updated
and integrated with a set of protocols to produce the GMPLS (Generalized
MPLS) to ensure the distributed restoration (next module)
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ASON improvement on control plane
Management Plane
Control Plane
Transport/Data
Plane
ASON
Network
Management
ASON Network
Element
Client, e.g.
Service router
Control Plane
Non-ASON
Network Element
Distributed
control plane:
•AutoDiscovery
•End-to-End
connection
setup
•Restoration
ASON – Automatically Switched Optical Network
ASON (Automatically Switched Optical Network)
The Dynamic signaling-based policy-driven control is realized over OTN and
SONET/SDH networks, Signaling is realized via a distributed Control Plane
Key features
Network Administration
Auto discovery of resources and network topology
Multi-vendor inter-working (networking)
Multi-layer interworking
Path Management
Dynamic connection setup
Support for end-to-end service provisioning
Bandwidth on Demand Services
Rerouting
14
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IP
GMPLS
Extension to MPLS for multiple switching types:
Packets, Circuits, Lambdas, Ports
Routing at NE level
Standardized
Multi technology
MPLS
GMPLS
IP-packet
IP Router
Label
LSP
Control Plane
Node
IP
Connectionless service
Packets
IP address
MPLS
Connection oriented service
in packet switched network
Routing according to
input/output labels
Label switched path: LSP
Constraint based explicit
routing
THE EVOLUTION FROM MPLS TO GMPLS
We will see the evolution of IP -> MPLS -> GMPLS in the next ASON
Protocols module,
but before let see the Status of the standard
15
16
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In the control plane two different standard bodies play the main role :
ITU has defined ASON as a control plane architecture concept based on a set of
requirements laid out in ITU G.807 Recommendation
IETF has defined GMPLS as extension to MPLS protocol suites in order to support
not only packet but also TDM and OTH network.
In additional OIF (Optical Internetworking Forum) is fostering
interoperability between vendors and define a profile of GMPLS. ITU has taken
a very formal top-down approach by setting out requirements
STANDARD BODIES
Historically there are different visions in the communication world: ITU
European and IETF US
For ASON there is a separation and a coordination between the two worlds
were ITU has defined ASON, IETF the GMPLS and a new actor OIF that it
has been introduced to ensure the interworking between vendors
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GMPLS / ASON standardization
• UNI
• NNI
Architecture
and
requirements
• ASON Architecture
• ASTN Requirements
• Network control
• Adaptation of GMPLS protocols
GMPLS
protocols
• Routing
• Signaling
• Link management
Network
interoperability
specifications
OIF is working on IA Implementation
Agreements between vendors
ITU-T International Telecommunication Union – Telecommunication Standardization Sector (replaced CCITT in
1993)
has not been the only standardization body involved in the conceptualization of the optical control plane
ASON Architecture
ASTN Requirements G.807
Network control G.8080
Adaptation of GMPLS protocols
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
has developed the Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS). GMPLS extends the signalling and routing
protocols developed for packet networks and applies them to optical networks.
Routing: OSPF-TE, IS-IS
Signaling: RSVP-TE
Link management: LMP
OIF Optical Internetworking forum
has had the more immediate objective. OIF’s goal is to reach interoperable implementation agreements among
vendors. Among all of the standards options, OIF chooses ones that can be deployed quickly with the greatest
return within a carrier environment.
Alcatel-Lucent has strongly pushed to achieve an interoperable standard on intelligent optical networking, by:
actively participating in the standardization activities of the relevant bodies:
ITU-T for ASON architecture
IETF for protocols
OIF for interworking
propelling the activities of the three bodies in order to minimize the different “flavors”, and enable end-to-end
services like restoration and bandwidth on-demand in a seamless manner
Alcatel-Lucent has successfully implemented the GMPLS/ASON in several network elements, such as optical
Cross Connects and Wavelength Division Multiplexers
17
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Control Plane Specifications - Example
This is an example of the specifications distributed by the main architecture
topics
18
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GMPLS model and definition : Overlay Model
The Overlay Model, which is recommended by ITU-T and OIF, considers a
separation of the different technologies involved.
User-Network Interface
Internal Network-Network
Interface
External Network-Network Interface
A
S
O
N
G
M
P
L
S
IETF standards have historically pushed a vision of a PEER to PEER model between
elements, derived by the IP world.
The Overlay Model, which is recommended by ITU-T and OIF, considers a
separation of the different technologies involved.
Networks are partitioned into Domains
•Domains may be based on vendor, technology or administrative partitioning
•Domain edges provide inter-working between vendor-specific protocols.
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GMPLS VALUE PROPOSITION HIGH AVAILABILITY
S
L
A

a
s
s
u
r
a
n
c
e
< 50ms
No fault
tolerance
1 2 3 4
# of simultaneous failures
>50ms
R
e
s
t
o
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
i
m
e
Unprotected
Source Based Routing (SBR)
Protection and
Restoration Combined
(PRC)
High availability and SLA assurance GMPLS based restoration
Services/Operations
Attributes
Key Feature
High availability
Bandwidth monetization
GMPLS restoration
G
M
P
L
S
GMPLS INTELLIGENCE Optimal use of Network capacity:
Optimum Network Usage needs to recover a resource when it is available again.
GMPLS INTELLIGENCE Optimal use of Network capacity:
Optimum Network Usage needs to recover a resource when it is available again.
Why introduce GMPLS?
An important reason is the HIGH AVAILABILITY and network restoration
GMPLS intelligence produce an optimum Network capacity usage (for
example need to recover a resource when it is available again) and it ensures
the SLA feasibility in a very complex Ntwk.
We will see the RESTORATION concepts in the “ASON Protections” module
20
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GMPLS INTELLIGENCE MAINTENANCE
Key Feature
Maintenance
Maintenance activities and
network optimization
Services/Operations Attributes
Shut down, lock, free port
Network
Operation
Control
Plane
Automatic, semi-automatic or
manual maintenance and network optimization
G
M
P
L
S
GMPLS introduce automation in the maintenance actions with full flexibility.
It is possible in fact to set a full automatic, semi-automatic or manual control
21
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GMPLS INTELLIGENCE NETWORK PLANNING
Nominal routing
Optimal resourcing
Resource coloring for
Administrative segregation
Key Feature
Network Planning
Planning consistency
Avoid blocking point in the network
Control
Plane
Network
Planning
nominal
route
active route
reversion
Optimal resourcing,
traffic constrains,
administrative
segregation
Services/Operations Attributes
G
M
P
L
S
Another value proposition is the automatic network planning for services and
operations design to avoid blocking points.
NOMINAL route is the new reference idea inside the dynamic GMPLS control
plane
22
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MRN MULTI REGION NETWORKS and GMPLS
CAPEX reduction
Forwarding and protecting
traffic at the most economical
layer
OPEX reduction
Increases service availability via
disjointedness of main and
spare resources in multiple
layers
Harmonizes operations and
services
Avoids traffic hits by using a
coordinated reversion strategy
Recovers quickly by
coordinating responses to
failures
Highest network power
efficiency
MRN INTEGRATES PHOTONIC AND ELECTRONIC SWITCHING CONTROL
Path setup from A to B
Photonic switching (WDM)
Electronic switching (ODU)
A B
UNI UNI
GMPLS/multi-region network (MRN)
control plane
M
R
N
With traditional networks the separation between photonic and electronic
layers produce a non coordinated and non efficient separation.
MRN (Multiregion network) integrates the two layers for CAPEX and OPEX
reduction
23
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ASON GMPLS MRN Introduction
End of module
· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · ASON GMPLS Protocols
1 · 2 · 1
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Module 2
ASON GMPLS Protocols
Section 1
ASON GMPLS MRN
ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
TOP63094_V1.0-SG Edition 1
TOP63094_V1.0-SG-Ed1 Module 1.2 Edition 1
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Document History
Edition Date Author Remarks
01 2013-07-15 Lecchi, Vincenzo First edition
· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · ASON GMPLS Protocols
1 · 2 · 3
COPYRIGHT © ALCATEL-LUCENT @@YEAR. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Module objectives
ASON GMPLS introduction
ASON GMPLS machine model
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
• Have an overview of the ASON GMPLS Domains
• See the evolution from IP to GMPLS and the related Routing enhancements
• Understand the GMPLS building blocks and their implementations
ASON GMPLS Network Protection
Multi-Region Networks fundamentals
· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · ASON GMPLS Protocols
1 · 2 · 4
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Module objectives [cont.]
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Table of contents
Page
2 ASON GMPLS Machine model 7
2.1 From IP to GMPLS 13
2.2 GMPLS 22
2.3 OSPF ROUTING 27
2.4 RSVP Signaling 39
2.5 LMP Link Management 45
2.6 GMRE Main Blocks 52
End of module 57
APPENDIX Labels Format 58
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Table of contents [cont.]
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2 ASON GMPLS machine model
Why we need ASON (Automatically Switched Optical Network)
Section 1 · Module 2 · Page 7
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ASON views the network as composed of domains which interact with other
domains in a standardized way, but whose internal operation is protocol-
independent and not subject to standardization.
Internal Network-Network
Interface
External Network-Network Interface
A
S
O
N
G
M
P
L
S
ASON GMPLS CONTROL PLANE DOMAINS
User-Network Interface
The problem in an heterogeneous Ntw is the interaction between different areas.
ASON views the NTW divided into DOMAINS, that are interacting with the other in a
STANDARD way.
For this the operation inside domains could be protocol independent and not
subject/ critical of “standardization”.
The domains are connected using standardized interface : E-NNI between carriers
and UNI with the final client
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ASON Domain Model and Architecture Reference
Carrier
Domain C
UNI E-NNI UNI
Carrier
Domain A
Carrier
Domain B
E-NNI
UNI-N UNI-C
Client
Client
Domains may be based on vendor, technology or administrative partitioning
Domain edges provide interworking between vendor-specific I-NNI and UNI-
N/E-NNI protocols
UNI (User-Network Interface): standardized interface for clients to request services
from optical network (low trust, high functionality)
E-NNI (External Network-Network Interface): standardized interface providing
call/connection control between domains (low - medium trust)
I-NNI (Internal Network-Network Interface): non-standardized interface (in ITU!)
providing connection control within domains (high trust)
The overall architecture and interfaces of the OIF network are shown in this
graphic, it shows client devices being connected over a multi-carrier network.
The key interfaces – the UNI and the E-NNI – are control plane
interfaces that allow optical services to be provided to network
users. The UNI or User Network Interface, allows client devices (on the UNI-
C side) to signal (to the UNI-N side) for end-to-end optical connectivity
through carriers’ networks. The E-NNI or External Network-Network Interface,
provides signaling to set up network resources and provides routing to
maintain a current picture of network resources and topology. This network
model is consistent with the Automatically Switched Optical
Network – or ASON – architecture defined by the ITU-T. By distributing this
intelligence though the optical control plane, connection management
becomes more automated, resilient and adaptable to changing network
conditions.
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DOMAIN-BASED ARCHITECTURE
NE NE
Optical Control Plane must support
Heterogeneous topologies, technologies,
applications and trust relationships
Support control plane-based or management plane-based sub networks
Provide boundaries of policy and information sharing
Provide functional independence between control plane, data plane,
management plane.
Carrier
Domain C
UNI E-NNI UNI
Carrier
Domain A
Carrier
Domain B
E-NNI
NE NE NE NE
UNI-N UNI-C
Client
Client
NE NE
NE
NE
Carrier Domain C
E-NNI I-NNI
Vendor 1
Domain
Vendor 2
Domain
Each carrier network may consist of multiple domains containing equipment
from individual vendors. Each carrier and vendor domain is shown as an
abstract cloud in the figure. This means each domain does not need to
expose internal topology or addressing outside of the domain, thus
improving scalability and security. The domains – either within or
between carrier networks – are connected by an E-NNI. The individual
domains can be advertised either as multiple interconnected border nodes, or
as an abstract node depending on carrier administration or policy preference.
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Each domain can use either management or control plane internally
Control plane topology can differ from transport plane topology
Domain C
Domain A
Domain B
UNI
E-NNI UNI E-NNI
Client
Client
NM
ASON ARCHITECTURE Requirements
Transport technology and topology can differ in each domain
Control Plane
Transport/Data Plane
In ASON the transport plane could be realized by any technology and
topology.
The control plane could be managed by the NMS (Network Management
System) or by GMPLS control plane
11
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ASON and Multi-layer model
ASON is focusing on the inter-operability of different types of Networks
to simplify and standardize operations. They can be either multi-vendor, multi-
layer or multi–operator.
An Intelligent Optical Network should be managed either in an centralized
manner by traditional Network Management Systems or in a decentralized
way, using Control Planes on each node.
Different technology can be
seen as separate layers
When Networks are converging, these
layers have to inter-work dynamically
to keep control of the OPEX

Ethernet/MPLS
LAYER 2
TDM – OTN/ODUk
LAYER 1
DWDM – OTN/OCh/WSON
LAYER 0

Different technologies could be used in ASON but seen as separated layers
There is a Standard classification :
LAYER 0 = DWDM-OTN
LAYER 1 = TDM SDH OTN
LAYER 2 = Ethernet / MPLS
LAYER 3 = IP etc
The Management architecture could be centralized using NMS or
decentralized using control plane in each node, and multi-vendor and
multi-operators
12
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FROM IP TO GMPLS
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GMPLS
Extension to MPLS for multiple switching types:
Packets, Circuits, Lambdas, Ports
Routing at NE level
Standardized
Multi technology
MPLS
GMPLS
MPLS
Connection oriented service
in packet switched network
Routing according to
input/output labels
Label switched path: LSP
Constraint based explicit
routing
THE EVOLUTION FROM MPLS TO GMPLS
Let see now the IP evolution versus MPLS
The IP – Internet Protocol is :
Connectionless service
Information is transmitted in packets
Each packet contains source and destination address
Packets are routed according to the routing tables in each router of the
network
MPLS – Multi-Protocol Label Switching
Connection oriented service in packet switched network (Note: IP provides a
connectionless service only!)
Routing according to input/output labels
Label switched path: LSP
MPLS supports traffic engineering - via constraint-based
explicit routing (Note: not possible with IP!)
Let see in the next slide the reason of MPLS introduction
14
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MPLS principle in IP-Network
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
provides a mechanism for “engineering” Network Traffic patterns that is independent of
routing tables. MPLS assigns short labels to the packets that describe how to forward
them through the Network.
MPLS Network MPLS Network
Outgoing Router
I-LER Router
E-LER Router
LSP
(Label Switched Path)
LSR = Label
Switched Router
LSR
LSR Router
LSR Router
Ingress-Label
Edge Router
Egress-Label
Edge Router
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
provides a mechanism for “engineering” Network Traffic patterns that is independent of
routing tables. MPLS assigns short labels to the packets that describe how to forward
them through the Network.
MPLS use LSR (Label Switched routers) that consists on:
SW, for reading the messages inside the Labels and building up the Routing Tables
according;
Matrix for packet forwarding according to the Routing Tables.
At the ingress of an MPLS Network, incoming IP packets are examined and assigned a
label by a Label Edge Router (LER).
The labeled packets are forwarded through Label Switched Path (LSP), where each
LSR makes a switching decision based on the packet’s label field.
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Label switching example
Unlabeled
Packet arrives
IP
Egress router
removes label
I
P
IP
20
Label switching &
packet forwarding
Ingress router
adds label to
packet
I
P
1
0
IP 10
original IP packet with IP Header
MPLS packet with IP Header + Label
IP
The final result of Label-switching is a fast path set-up.
The path which is set-up by MPLS is called LSP (Label Switched Path)
All packets that follow the same path through the MPLS Network and receive the
same treatment at each node are known as a Forwarding Equivalence Class
(FEC) .
A circuit set up by using MPLS protocol is called LSP (Label Switched Path).
Ingress router introduce a label in each data packet incoming, LSR will distribute the
MPLS packet based on the destination label, Egress router removes the label in the
outgoing stream
MPLS was originally introduced for IP Networks, as a Protocol at Layer-3.
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Path-1
Path-2
Path-3 Path-4
S1
S4
S3
S2
D
In the above example, the 4 traffic paths have to be routed at “minimum cost” from
the source Routers to the destination Router, over the physical cables.
Example:
Traffic Demand: Four paths originated by sources S1-S4 to destination D
Example:
Traffic Demand: Four paths originated by sources S1-S4 to destination D
IP Network routing
Let see an example of traffic routing using IP protocols.
The routing rule used by routers is the choice the “minimum cost” path inside the
network.
The minimum cost is defined during the link (route) creation in the router configuration
phase
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IP Routing solution
IP Routing implementation:
Minimal cost routing: calculated by each router in an independent way
IP Routing implementation:
Minimal cost routing: calculated by each router in an independent way
In the traditional Level 3 IP-Networks, an independent forwarding decision is made at
each hop, the IP Header is analyzed, and the next hop is chosen based on this analysis
and on the information in the routing table distributed in each Routers, in an
independent way.
Path-1
Path-2
Path-3
Path-4
S1
S4
S3
S2
D
IP
Forwarding
Routing Solution in IP Network.
In the traditional Level 3 IP-Networks, as a packet travels from one router to the next, an
independent forwarding decision is made at each hop. The IP Header is analyzed, and the
next hop is chosen based on this analysis and on the information in the routing table. Each
Router executes, in an independent way, the IP packet forwarding, i.e. it decides the next
hop for each incoming packet, on the basis of the destination address.
Each Router has the Network topology information, in order to perform the minimum cost
Routing, e.g. by using Dikjstra Routing Algorithm.
Topology information is distributed to the Routers e.g. by means of IGP (Interior Gw
Protocol).
By using this information, a Router is able to automatically build-up the Routing Table.
The final result is a Traffic Routing, where each requested path is routed with the minimum
cost, e.g. with the minimum number of hops.
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IP Routing problems
IP Routing implementation:
Disadvantages: It is slow and it creates an unbalanced network
IP Routing implementation:
Disadvantages: It is slow and it creates an unbalanced network
1. It can be too slow, because IP forwarding performed packet by packet can be quite long
and in case of Network variation, automatic routing tables can require a long time
2. The minimum cost Routing can result into an unbalanced Network, with some links over-
loaded and some other links not used at all or under-loaded.
Path-1
Path-2
Path-3
Path-4
S1
S4 S3 S2
Not Used
MPLS
was originally
invented to overcome
the above two IP
routing problems
MPLS
was originally
invented to overcome
the above two IP
routing problems
Not Used
This process has two disadvantages:
1. It can be too slow, because:
- IP forwarding performed packet by packet can be quite long;
- In case of Network variation, automatic routing tables can require a long time,
mainly in a large Network;
2. The minimum cost Routing can result into an unbalanced Network, with some links
over-loaded and some other links not used at all or under-loaded.
MPLS was originally invented to overcome the above two problems.
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MPLS Routing solution
MPLS Routing implementation:
Minimal Cost routing using LSP: The Network load remains Unbalanced
MPLS Routing implementation:
Minimal Cost routing using LSP: The Network load remains Unbalanced
In an MPLS environment, analysis of IP-Headers is performed just once, when a packet
enters the MPLS cloud. The packet is then assigned to a stream (FEC Forwarding
Equivalence Class), which is identified by a label.
LSP-1
LSP-2
LSP-3
S1
S4
S3
S2
D
Label Switching
and Label Swap
Label/FEC
assignment
LSP-4
Routing solution in MPLS Network
IP forwarding is speed-up by using Label Switching technique.
IP packets are not forwarded on the basis of the destination address only, but on the basis
of their Label and the corresponding FEC.
In a MPLS Network, the ingress Router (I-LSR) inserts the MPLS Label, deciding the FEC
(Forwarding Equivalent Class) for the incoming client signals, by grouping packets with the
same characteristics (e.g. with the same priority or with the same destination).
The rest of the Network, i.e. the LSRs, should follow the FEC decided by the Ingress-LSR.
Ingress Router (I-LSR)
Classifies packet to an FEC, generates MPLS header and assigns initial label
Upstream toward all other LSRs in the LSP
Intermediate Routers (LSR)
Forwards MPLS packets using label-switching
Executes one or more routing protocols
Egress LSR (E-LSR)
Removes the MPLS label,
Downstream from all other LSRs in the LSP
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GMPLS Routing Solution
GMPLS Routing implementation:
LSP are routed considering the link bandwidth: The Network is Balanced
GMPLS Routing implementation:
LSP are routed considering the link bandwidth: The Network is Balanced
When traffic is distributed over the Network resources by MPLS-TE, the final routing result is
an uniform (balanced) load of the links. GMPLS-TE (MPLS-Traffic Engineering) is an
improvement of standard MPLS enabling Multitechnology.
LSP-1
LSP-2
LSP-3
S1
S4
S3
S2
D
Label Switching
and Constraint
Routing
Label/FEC
assignment
LSP-4
When traffic is distributed over the Network resources by MPLS-TE, the final routing result is
an uniform (balanced) load of the links.
MPLS-TE (MPLS-Traffic Engineering) is an improvement of standard MPLS, which adopts
constraint-based routing criteria. The ultimate goal of Traffic Engineering is to optimize the
utilization of Network resources and to minimize traffic congestion. It is a pragmatic way of
handling traffic problems. One of the design goals for MPLS was to create a tool to achieve
this. A description of Traffic Engineering can therefore be as follows:
“Traffic Engineering is all about discovering what paths and links are available in the
Network, what the current traffic usage is within the Network and then directing traffic to
routes other than the shortest so that optimal use is made of the resources within the
Network. This is achieved by a combination of extensions to the existing IGP routing protocols,
traffic monitoring tools and traffic routing techniques”
-
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(G)MPLS-TE Link Attributes
Unreserved
bandwidth
Maximum
Reserved
bandwidth
(Under-subscription)
Over-subscription
Resource
class/colour
Maximum
bandwidth
Traffic
Engineering
metric
TE-Link parameters
QoS
parameters
(G)MPLS-TE extension
to support (G)MPLS allowing distribution of additional TE link attributes:
Link capacity, Protection type, Shared risk group, Supports link bundling
Parameters that are taken into account in MPLS-TE routing:
1. Traffic Engineering Metric (TE metric): Link metric (e.g. delay, jitter)
2. Resource Class/Colour: Administrative group membership per TE link
3. Maximum Bandwidth: true TE link capacity
4. Maximum Reservable Bandwidth: User configurable (by default = maximum link
capacity but may be greater i.e. link over-subscription)
5. Unreserved Bandwidth (per priority): Bandwidth not yet reserved on the TE link
(initial values correspond to the Maximum Reservable Bandwidth)
In practical cases, it is difficult to take into account parameters like delay and jitter; so
the Link bandwidth, with its related attributes, is the main parameter used in constraint
routing applied in Traffic Engineering.
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GMPLS
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GMPLS
Extension to MPLS for multiple switching types:
Packets, Circuits, Lambdas, Ports
Routing at NE level
Standardized
Multi technology
MPLS
MPLS
Connection oriented service
in packet switched network
Routing according to
input/output labels
Label switched path: LSP
Constraint based explicit
routing
GMPLS
THE EVOLUTION FROM MPLS TO GMPLS
GMPLS – Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching
Evolution of MPLS towards circuit-oriented transport networks (SDH/SONET,
DWDM, OTN, ports)
Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) is a key functionality for
next-generation optical transport networks
Combines the benefits of well-proven carrier-class optical transport and IP
packet-based technologies
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MPLS extension to GMPLS
• Generalization of label space values (Generalized Label Format
example in appendix)
in packet the label is a tag used for forwarding; in TDM or WDM
Networks for example, labels identify real physical resources (lambda or
timeslots)
• Generalization of LSP
Optical connections/TDM circuits/etc. are the new LSPs (from Control
Plane)
• Generalization of TE Link concept and TE attributes to “non-packet”
resources
GMPLS (Generalizing MPLS)
Generalization of MPLS-TE concepts for the definition of distributed control
plane protocols also applicable to non-packet Networks
GMPLS (Generalizing MPLS)
Generalization of MPLS-TE concepts for the definition of distributed control
plane protocols also applicable to non-packet Networks
The main reason of the GMPLS introduction is the generalization of the MPLS-TE
concepts for the non-packet technologies and the introduction of the DISTRIBUTED
control plane
25
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GMRE GMPLS CONTROL PLANE IMPLEMENTATION
Transport
Plane
NE
Control
Plane
Signaling Routing
Link Management
S
D
H

/

S
O
N
E
T

/
O
T
H

/

E
t
h
e
r
n
e
t
G
M
P
L
S
Management
Plane
GMRE: is the GMPLS Routing Engine, it performs the three main
tasks: Routing, Signaling and Link Management
GMRE: is the GMPLS Routing Engine, it performs the three main
tasks: Routing, Signaling and Link Management
The Control Plane is realized with GMPLS (Generalized Multi Protocol Label Switching).
GMPLS is a family of different protocols to perform the required actions to establish an
ASON. These protocols are transmitted between the NEs. GMPLS is based on the MPLS
protocols for packet based transmission.
According to their function the protocols can be divided into:
Signaling
Routing
Link Management
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GMPLS CONTROL PLANE PROTOCOLS
1. OSPF Routing
Exchanges topology information between
nodes so routes for connections can be
computed
2. RSVP Signaling
Negotiates the allocation and release of
resources to establish connections
3. LMP Link Management
Maintains control channels, supports
neighbor and service discovery
C
D
E
B
A
5
5
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
5 5
5
Control Channels
Data Links
GMPLS is a family of different protocols to
perform the required actions to
establish the control plane
GMPLS is a family of different protocols to
perform the required actions to
establish the control plane
1. OSPF Routing
Exchanges topology information between nodes so routes for connections
can be computed
2. RSVP Signaling
Negotiates the allocation and release of resources to establish connections
3. LMP Link Management
Maintains control channels, supports neighbor and service discovery
Let see in the following chapters dedicated slides on this three topics
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OSPF ROUTING
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GMPLS CONTROL PLANE Routing
Transport
Plane
NE
Control
Plane
Signaling Routing
Link Management
S
D
H

/

S
O
N
E
T

/
O
T
H

/

E
t
h
e
r
n
e
t
G
M
P
L
S
Management
Plane
Routing: in GMPLS routing is performed by OSPF Routing: in GMPLS routing is performed by OSPF
Routing
O
S
P
F
30
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OSPF ROUTING Concepts
OSPF is a link state protocol
Every node builds a map of the connectivity of the network, in the form of a
graph showing which nodes are connected to which other nodes.
A OSPF instance resident on a node has a complete picture of the
internal-network.
Every OSPF router collects information from all peer routers.
The ultimate objective is that every router has identical information about the
inter-network, and each router will independently calculate its own best
paths to destinations.
OSPF is built around a well-known algorithm from graph theory, E. W. Dijkstra‘s
shortest path algorithm.
O
S
P
F
Routing
OSPF is a LINK STATE protocol used to build a map of connectivity in the
network.
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Link State: Adjacencies and Topological DB
Link State Packet (LSP)
is a packet of information generated by a
network element in a link state routing
Link State Packet (LSP)
is a packet of information generated by a
network element in a link state routing
O
S
P
F
Each router establishes a relationship
“called adjacency” with each of its
neighbors:
Adjacencies are set-up, kept alive and
operated via dedicated protocols
Topological database
Once the adjacency is setup, a router
sends information to its neighbors
exchanging LSAs (Link-state
advertisements )
Each neighbor receiving an LSA in turn
forwards (Floods) the LSA to its own
neighbors
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Link State Concepts
Database
O
S
P
F
Routing tables
Routing tables
Topological database Topological database
Link-state advertisements
(LSA)
Link-state advertisements
(LSA)
LSA LSA
•Link-state advertisements (LSAs)
small packet of routing information that is sent between routers
•Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm
performed on the database resulting in the SPF tree
•Routing tables
list of the known paths and interfaces
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Link State Concepts: Flooding algorithm
O
S
P
F
Flooding of link-state information
OSPF uses the Hello Protocol to acquire neighbors and establish an
adjacency
Each router on the network announces its own piece of link-state
information to all other routers on the network.
The flooding algorithm is reliable, ensuring that all routers in an area have
exactly the same link-state database
Link-state advertisements (LSAs)
small packet of routing information
that is sent between routers
LSA LSA
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Link State Concepts: Building a Topological DB
O
S
P
F
Building a Topological Database
Each router collects all of this link-state information from other routers
and updates a topological database.
The same information can be received from different sources at slightly
different time frames.
Using this information, the routers can recreate a topology graph of the
network and traverse it using the Dijkstra Algorithm. (SPF)
Topological
Database
Topological database
collection of information
gathered from LSAs
Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm
performed on the database resulting in
the SPF tree
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C
D
E
B
A
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Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Internet standard (RFC 2328 for IPv4) for routing
Calculates shortest path based on metric costs
Link state routing protocol
Own HELLO mechanism to find own neighbors
Adjacency database and link state database keep
network topology
Constrained Shortest Path First (CSPF)
Removes all links from the network graph (pruning),
which do not satisfy the constraints (e.g. remove all
unprotected links)
Determines the shortest path as in OSPF
OSPF-CSPF ROUTING DEFINITION
O
S
P
F
Constrained Shortest Path First (CSPF)
is an extension of shortest path algorithms. The path computed using CSPF is a shortest
path fulfilling a set of constraints. It simply means that it runs shortest path algorithm
after pruning those links that violate a given set of constraints
Constrained Shortest Path First (CSPF)
is an extension of shortest path algorithms. The path computed using CSPF is a shortest
path fulfilling a set of constraints. It simply means that it runs shortest path algorithm
after pruning those links that violate a given set of constraints
Which is the difference between OSPF and CSPF and why it is need?
Let see in the next example
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OSPF Routing and LSA example
C
D
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Sample Network
Routing Database
equivalent in all node’s databases
Node A LSA: links: A->B, A->C
Node B LSA: links: B->A, B->D
Node C LSA: links: C->A, C->D, C->E
Node D LSA: links: D->B, D->C, D->E
Node E LSA: links: E->C, E->D
OSPF
OSPF Example: E as head node
E E
C C D D
A A B B
5
10
5
10
16
x
10
x
Shortest path
from node E
to other
nodes
The shortest path based on link costs only (not number of Hops or nodes)
If there are more than one possible path with the same link cost, then the
fragmentation costs is used to decide
If there are more than one possible path with the same link cost and
fragmentation cost, then one is randomly picked.
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CSPF Routing and LSA example
C
D
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Sample Network
Routing Database
equivalent in all node’s databases
Node A LSA: links: A->B, A->C
Node B LSA: links: B->A, B->D
Node C LSA: links: C->A, C->D, C->E
Node D LSA: links: D->B, D->C, D->E
Node E LSA: links: E->C, E->D
CSPF
E E
C C D D
A A B B
5
10
5
15
16
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Failure
between node
E and D
link is not
used for path
computation
CSPF Example: E as head node
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CSPF and OSPF
Routing Database
Routing Database after CSPF
CSPF
O
S
P
F
ROUTE
ROUTE
When there is a route calculation request, first CSPF is used to filter the database and
then the shortest path is calculated (OSPF) from the resulting filtered database.
The OSPF route calculation algorithm on the resulting filtered database finds :
The shortest path based on link costs only (not number of Hops or nodes)
If there are more than one possible path with the same link cost, then the
fragmentation is used to decide (link with the minimum fragmentation is chosen)
OSPF transfer protocol is used with Traffic Engineering Extensions (OSPF-TE) to exchange
all the necessary information about Te-Links for GMPLS
The routing information is stored locally in a database (in memory).
When there is a route calculation request, first CSPF is used to filter the database and then
the shortest path is calculated (OSPF) from the resulting filtered database.
The OSPF route calculation algorithm on the resulting filtered database finds
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LSP RSVP Signalling
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GMPLS CONTROL PLANE Routing
Transport
Plane
NE
Control
Plane
Signaling Routing
Link Management
S
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/

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/

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G
M
P
L
S
Management
Plane
Signaling: in the GMPLS the signaling is performed by RSVP
(Resource Reservation Protocol)
Signaling: in the GMPLS the signaling is performed by RSVP
(Resource Reservation Protocol)
Signaling
R
S
V
P
-
T
E
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OSPF-TE and RSVP-TE relationship
R
S
V
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-
T
E
OSPF-TE
presents the computed path
as an Explicit Route
OSPF-TE passes Explicit
Route to RSVP-TE engine
for signaling
Routing tables
Routing tables
Signaling
RSVP-TE RSVP-TE
RSVP-TE is used in GMPLS Control Plane, to provide:
• Label distribution
• Explicit path configuration
• Resource reservation and Admission control
Sequence of operations for Constraint Routing
a) OSPF-TE stores information from IGP (internal gateway protocol) flooding into
the Routing Table named Link State DB (LSDB)
b) OSPF-TE stores traffic engineering information in the TE Link State DB (TEDB)
c) OSPF-TE examines user defined constraints for the incoming LSP request:
d) OSPF-TE/SPF performs path computation for the LSP through the TE link
topology
e) OSPF-TE presents the computed path as an Explicit Route
f) OSPF-TE passes Explicit Route to RSVP-TE engine for signaling
All the above operations are performed by the Ingress-LER where the path setup
request arrived.
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Label Distribution with RSVP-TE
In GMPLS signaling, the Ingress node may suggest a label, and thus have some
control over the selection of a label at Egress nodes, but Egress node has the
right to reject the Suggested Label and select its own from the available label
space. As a result the Ingress node will have to reconfigure itself to the new label.
In GMPLS, the Ingress node may restrict the labels that may be used by an LSP
(Label Switched Path) along the whole LSP path. This feature is driven from the
Optical Domain where wavelengths used by the path must be restricted either to
a small subset of possible wavelengths, or even to one specific wavelength.
R
S
V
P
-
T
E
LSP
direction
(Transit
LSR)
(Transit
LSR)
In GMPLS signaling, the Ingress node may suggest a label, and thus have some
control over the selection of a label at Egress nodes, but Egress node has the right to
reject the Suggested Label and select its own from the available label space. As a
result the Ingress node will have to reconfigure itself to the new label.
In GMPLS, the Ingress node may restrict the labels that may be used by an LSP
along the whole LSP path. This feature is driven from the Optical Domain where
wavelengths used by the path must be restricted either to a small subset of possible
wavelengths, or even to one specific wavelength. This requirement occurs because
some equipment may only be able to generate a small set of the wavelengths that
intermediate equipment may be able to switch, or because intermediate equipment
may not be able to switch a wavelength at all, being only able to redirect it to a
different fiber.
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LSP Setup
Setup: Path (R2, R6, R7, R4, R9 ) sent downstream (pre-allocates bandwidth)
Reply: Resv (sent upstream) communicates labels and reserves bandwidth on each
link
R8
R2
R6
R3
R4
R7
R1
R5
R9
Path (R2, R6, R7, R4, R9)
Path (R6, R7, R4, R9)
Path (R7, R4, R9)
Path (R4, R9)
Path (R9)
LSP Setup Path and Resv messages are sent HOP by HOP, Paths
are refreshed periodically re-sending path message
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EXAMPLE OF OTN LSP SETUP and TUNNEL CREATION
Electronic layer
L1
Photonic layer L0
OCH LSP
OCH TUNNEL
ODU LSP
ODU
TUNNEL
LOGIC PATH
PHYSICAL
PATH
LSP Tunnel
Determines a logical association between the source and the destination of a
uni/bi-directional traffic flow for which resource reservation will be required-
May comprise a set of one or more LSP tunnels which physically carry traffic
In this example it is shown a more elaborated Path setup with LSP for optical channel
allocation, ODU logical tunnel to establish a logical path between ingress and egress
nodes.
Tunnel
Determines a logical association between the source and the destination of a uni/bi-
directional traffic flow (traffic trunk) for which resource reservation will be required
May comprise a set of one or more (at least one) LSP tunnels which physically carry
traffic
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LMP Link Management
Section 1 · Module 1 · Page 46
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GMPLS CONTROL PLANE Routing
Transport
Plane
NE
Control
Plane
Signaling Routing
Link Management
S
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/

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Management
Plane
Link Management: LMP is used to manage the links Link Management: LMP is used to manage the links
Link Management
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Link Management
LINK MANAGEMENT Concepts
LMP (Link Management Protocol)
a protocol introduced as an extension of RSVP-TE in order to enable the
network nodes to share link information between two adjacent NEs, to
synchronize NE link information between NEs, to share alarm
LMP consists of 4 primary procedures, of which the first two are mandatory and
the last two are optional
Control Channel management
Manage multiple control channels between nodes
Link Property Correlation
Discover and agree data link properties
Link verification
Map interface IDs and verify data connectivity
Fault Management
Detect and isolate faults
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GMPLS
LINK Maintenance Out of Band and In-band Signalling
GMPLS
I/f_Id 1
I/f_Id 6
I/f_Id 4
Link_Id 4
GMPLS GMPLS
IPCC_ID IPCC_ID IPCC_ID IPCC_ID
I/f_Id 4
I/f_Id 8
In GMPLS devices must be able to send and receive protocol messages over
IP control channels (IPCC) a point to point channel
Control channels can be implemented (signaling transport mechanism)
in-Fiber/in-Band (IF/IB): Data Communication Channel (DCC)
in-Fiber/out-of-Band (IF/OB): Separate optical channel
out-of-Fiber/out-of-Band (OF/OB): IP over Ethernet
IPCC with
IB CC
IPCC with
OB CC
IB:In Band
OB:Out of Band
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IPCC Maintenance and Protocol “Hellos”
I/f_Id 1
I/f_Id 6
I/f_Id 4
Link_Id 4
IP_1
I/f_Id 4 I/f_Id 8
IP_2 IP_1 IP_2
R R S S L L R R S S L L R R S S L L R R S S L L
Adjacency maintenance: Hello message exchanges between neighbors
for independent detection of LMP, routing and signaling software failures
GMPLS provides:
LMP instance (L): LMP Hello message are exchanged
OSPF instance (R): OSPF Hello message are exchanged
RSVP-TE instance (S): RSVP-TE Hello message are exchanged
LMP (L) maintains control plane adjacencies by exchanging LMP Hello
messages enabling, in turn, control channel failure detection
LMP Hello: lightweight keep-alive that allows LMP reacting rapidly to control
channel failure(s) activating (if possible) a parallel control channel (if
available) reduces probability of unnecessary removal of associated
routing adjacencies due to loss of OSPF Hellos
LMP Hellos do not eliminate the need to exchange RSVP-TE and OSPF
Hellos
Control channels used by OSPF and RSVP TE for message exchange may be the
same as the LMP control channels
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Manual
Configuration
DISCOVERY
Bootstrap
message
AUTO-
DISCOVERY
Data Link(s) Correlated
IP Control
Channel Setup
LMP adjacency up
Data Links
Correlation
(Link Summary)
Link Verification
In-Band Test
message
TE Link(s) Identified
TE Link processing through IGP-TE (Interior Gw Protocol)
START = No CC (LMP
Adjacency down)
Data Links
Correlation
(Link Summary)
LMP = Link Management Protocol
Data Link and TE Link Discovery (LMP) Example
Hello timers
negotiated and hello
messages exchanged
LMP Control Channel management performs control channel set-up
Neighbor control channel address discovery via “config
message”
Nodes negotiate acceptable control channel parameters (hello
timer and hello dead timer) via config message
Hello protocol monitors health of control channels
Nodes exchange channel status messages to supervise
control channel status. In case of fault LMP activates another
control channel via a config message
Neighbor address discovery
Config message sent to a multi-cast address (224.0.0.1) in
case of in-band control channel
Config message sent to the neighbor LMP controller address
in case of out-of band control channel. The neighbor LMP
address has to be configured by operator in this case.
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GMRE Main Blocks
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Data Link
Controller
Path Computation Module
Path Computation (CSPF)
and Selection
TE Link
Database
TE Link
Admission Control
& Policy
Routing Controller
Routing Adjacencies (Hello)
Routing Table
TE - Data Link
control and
maintenance
IPCC Controller
Link State
Database
GMPLS Controller
Database Exchange/Flooding
CC Maintenance
(Hellos) and
Configuration
P/R State Blocks
Signalling Controller
Hello (Adjacencies)
GMRE GMPLS Engine main blocks
CSPF
Path
Computation
CSPF
Path
Computation
Signaling
controller
Signaling
controller
Routing
controller
Routing
controller
TE-Link admission
control and policy
TE-Link admission
control and policy
LMP: link
management
protocol
LMP: link
management
protocol
Let resume the GMRE engine with the main blocks and functions
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Data Link
Controlle
r
Path Computation
Module
TE Link
Routing Controller
Routing Table
IPCC
Controller
GMPLS Controller
Signalling
Controller
GMRE GMPLS Engine main blocks
CSPF
• Builds and maintain topology of the transport
network
• Calculate constrained LSPs to be signaled via
RSVP-TE
Signaling controller
Implements all RSVP-TE related functionalities
Neighbor adjacency monitoring
RSVP-TE message set signaling and refresh
LSP state management
Routing controller
Disseminate TE-Link information via link
state advertisements
• Builds and maintain the topology of the control
plane network
• Builds the TE-link and LSA database
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Data Link
Controlle
r
Path Computation
Module
TE Link
Routing Controller
Routing Table
IPCC
Controller
GMPLS Controller
Signalling
Controller
GMRE GMPLS Engine main blocks
LMP: link management protocol
Setup and maintenance of IP
communication channels
Build associations between data links and
TE-links
Correlation and verification of TE-Links with
adjacent nodes
Verification of data links
TE-Link admission control and
policy
Deals with admission control of bandwidth
requests (including priority management),
implements policies related to link resource
usage (e.g. how to allocate bandwidth on a
TE-link) etc..
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Data Link
Controller
Path Computation Module
Path Computation (CSPF)
and Selection
TE Link
Database
TE Link
Admission
Control & Policy
Routing Controller
Routing Adjacencies (Hello)
Routing Table
2b
TE - Data Link
control and
maintenance
3a
IPCC
Controller
2a
Link State
Database
GMPLS Controller
Database xchange/Flooding
3c
2c
Maintenance
(Hellos) and
Configuration
3b
P/R State Blocks
1a
1b
Signalling Controller
Hello (Adjacencies)
GMPLS RSVP-TE Flows
“Hello” Signalling Messages (Trigger/Refresh)
OSPF TE Flows
[2a] [2b] “Hello” Database
Description/LS Request
[2c] LS Update/Ack
LMP IP Control Channel
Maintenance and
Configuration
[3a] “Hello and Config”
LMP Data Link Control
[3b] Verification,
Property Correlation and
Fault Management
LMP Data Link
Verification
[3c] (in-band) Test
messages
LMP – Link Management Flows
In this example there are the main protocols and the relative senders.
RSVP-TE from signaling controller
OSPF-TE flows from Routing controller
LMP using IP CC from data link controller
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ASON GMPLS Protocols
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APPENDIX Labels Format
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MPLS Label
Label Fields:
Label (20bits) Indicates a class (FEC=Forwarding Equivalent Class
EXP (3 bits) (experimental) 3 bits used for priority
S (1 bit) (stacking bit) indicates the inner label, in a label stack (creates LSP tunnel
within LSP)
TTL (8 bits) (time to live) indicates the max delay, in terms of max number of hops the
packet can yet perform in the Network, before reaching destination; it is
decremented in each traversed node where it is processed and causes packet
discarding when expires.
TCP header
IP header
DATA
MPLS Label
TCP/IP Packet
Shim
header
TCP/IP
packet with
MPLS
TTL Label (20-bits) EXP S
32 bits
MPLS Label
The slide shows a TCP/IP packet modify by inserting a MPLS Label in front of the IP-Packet.
The term “label switching” relies on associating a small, fixed-format label with each data
packet, at each hop across the Network. Each packet is forwarded based on the value of
incoming label and transmitted onward with a new label value.
The label is “swapped” and the data is “switched”, at based on the label value.
In an MPLS Network, packets are labelled by the insertion of an additional piece of information
called the shim header or the MPLS Label
In the above example, the label is placed between the Transport (TCP) header and the Network
(IP) header.
A label is a short, fixed length, locally significant identifier which is used to identify a FEC
(Forwarding Equivalent Class). The packet assignment to a FEC, and so the Label values, are
decided by the border Routers in the Network.
Each Network node (called LSR= Label Switching Router) maintains a look-up table (LFIB=
Label Forwarding Information Base) to allow it to determine the next hop for the data, on the
basis of the Label values.
The LFIB contains a mapping of:
[incoming interface, incoming label] → [outgoing interface, outgoing label]
The label is used as entry in the LFIB.
Signalling protocol are used to exchange label mapping information between the LSRs.
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In MPLS technology the label is the numerical 20 bit identifier that is inserted in
the MPLS label defined by RFC 3032.
In TDM technologies the label identifies a “Timeslot” (e.g. VC4,ODU-1 etc..)
In “light” technologies the label identifies a OCH
32 bits
RSVP-TE Label concept
MPLS Label value (20-bits)
A "labeled packet" is a packet into which a label has been encoded. In some
cases, the label resides in an encapsulation header which exists specifically
for this purpose. In other cases, the label may reside in an existing data link
or network layer header, as long as there is a field which is available for that
purpose. The particular encoding technique to be used must be agreed to by
both the entity which encodes the label and the entity which decodes the
label.
R
S
V
P
-
T
E
A short, fixed length identifier (32 bits)
Sent with each packet
Local between two routers
Can have different labels if entering from different routers
One label for one FEC
Decided by the downstream router
LSR binds a label to an FEC
It then informs the upstream LSR of the binding
EXP field
Also known as Class of Service (CoS) bits
Used for experimentation to indicate packet’s treatment
Queuing as well as scheduling
Different packets can receive different treatment depending on the CoS value
S bit
Supports hierarchical label stack
1 – if the label is the bottom most label in the label stack
0 – for all other labels
TTL value decremented by 1 when it passes through an LSR
If TTL value = 0 before the destination, discard the packet
Avoids loops may exist because of some misconfigurations
Multicast scoping – limit the scope of a packet
Supporting the traceroute command
Shim header
Has an explicit TTL field
Initially loaded from the IP header TTL field
At the egress LER, value of TTL is copied into the TTL field of the IP header
Data link layer header (e.g VPI/VCI)
No explicit TTL field
Ingress LER estimates the LSP length
Decrements the TTL count by the LSP length
If initial count of TTL less than the LSP length, discard the packet
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RSVP-TE packet format
Bits:
............4.............8.......................16....................................................
Variable
Length
objects
RSVP
Header
MAC Header * IP Header RSVP Header Data: RSVP Object
The information content consists on short messages named “Objects”
Different Objects correspond to different RSVP-TE messages types, i.e.:
• Path message used to establish path-state
• Resv message used to establish reservation-state
• Error messages (PathErr, ResvErr, etc.)
• Teardown messages (PathTear and ResvTear)
* RSVP-TE messages are
transmitted as IP packets
identified by the Protocol
Number=46
* RSVP-TE messages are
transmitted as IP packets
identified by the Protocol
Number=46
RSVP Object
RSVP Object
Version Flag
Send TTL
Message
Type
Reserved
RSVP checksum
RSVP length
R
S
V
P
-
T
E
RSVP-TE messages are transmitted as IP packets identified by the Protocol Number=46.
The information content consists on short messages named “Objects”
Different Objects correspond to different RSVP-TE messages types, i.e.:
Path message used to establish path-state (e.g. Generalized_Label_Request_Object)
Resv message used to establish reservation-state (e.g. Generalized_Label_Object)
Error messages (PathErr, ResvErr, etc.)
Teardown messages (PathTear and ResvTear)
A GSM
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Generalized Label format
Generalized_ Label object: a variable length value space for each supported switching
technology:
• SDH/Sonet space and G.709 Digital space for TDM -LSP
• “Wavelengths” space for Lambda-LSP and G.709 OCh-LSP
The format of a Generalized Label object, inside a RSVP-TE_Message, is:
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Length |Class-Num(16) | C-Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Label |
| ......... |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Label: Variable Length Field.
It carries label information, which depends
on the type of the link over which the label
is used.
GMPLS Labels are transmitted by means of RSVP-TE messages, which are special messages
transported inside special IP packets.
The RSVP-TE messages are transported over the IP layer and they are organized as a set of “Objects”.
Each Object is a variable length short message, starting with a 2x32 bits RSVP Object Header (not shown
in the above picture) followed by a fixed length 32 bits field divided into three fields:
1. Length (16 bits): the length, in number of bytes, of the Object Message;
2. Class-number (8 bits): the type of Object Message (=16 for the
Generalized_Label_Object);
3. C-Type (8 bits): the type of used technology (=4 for SDH, =5 for OTH).
The GMPLS Labels are variable length messages trasported inside RSVP messages by means of special
objects, called Generalized_Label_Objects, in a frame structure as shown the following picture:
Generalized Label properties:
A Generalized Label does not identify the "class" (FEC) to which the Label belongs. This is implicit in
the multiplexing capabilities of the link on which the label is used.
A Generalized Label only carries a single level of Label, i.e., it is non-hierarchical. When multiple
levels of label (LSPs within LSPs) are required, each of the two LSPs (Inner and outer) must be
established separately.
In GMPLS-WDM Network: a lambda switch (LSC) uses wavelength Labels 32 bits long indicating the
lambda to be used, from the perspective of the sender of the Label_Object message.
IP Protocol number =46
MAC Header IP Header RSVP Header RSVP Objects
Section 1 · Module 2 · Page 62
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1 · 2 · 62
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Generalized Label Request-
GENERALIZED_LABEL_Request object: it supports communication of characteristics
required to support the LSP being requested:
LET (8 bits)= LSP Encoding Type (LET=8 for WDM)
ST (8 bits)= Switching Type
G-PID (16 bits): Generic Payload Identifier
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Length | Class-Num | C-Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| LET | ST | G-PID |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Generalized Label Request supports
communication of characteristics
required to support the LSP being
requested. These characteristics
include: LSP Encoding Type, Switching
Type and LSP Payload Type.
Generalized Label format
Generalized Label Request_object is an example of RSVP-TE Message containing a Label value. This object is
sent, during the path set-up, by the Ingress Node toward the Egress Node, in order to negotiate the Label value.
Label allocation is finally decided by the Egress Node on any link. The Ingress Node only sends a Suggested Label,
by means of the Label_Requets message, to the Egress Node.
The Generalized_Label_Request_Object is a 32 bit message, consisting of the following fields:
LET (8 bits)= LSP Encoding Type: encoding type, e.g., SONET/SDH/GE etc., that will be used on the link on
which resource reservation is to be performed –It has 11possible values; LET= 8 for WDM.
ST (8 bits) = Switching Type: the type of switching that should be performed on a particular link; it identifies the
technology class of the LSP (PSC,TDM etc..) – It has 6 possible values; ST= 150 for Lambda Swith Capability
(LSC).
G-PID (16 bits )= Generic Payload Identifier: An identifier of the payload carried by an LSP, i.e., an identifier of
the client layer of that LSP to be used at end-nodes (usually examined at the egress only). E.g.: G-PID= 34 for
SDH over WDM; G-PID=46 for Ethernet IEEE802.3; G-PID=13 for Async mapping of E1 into SDH.
VALUE TYPE
1 Packet
2 Ethernet
3 ANSI/ETSI PDH
4 Reserved
5 SDH ITU-T G.707 /SONET ANSI T1.105
6 Reserved
7 Digital Wrapper
8 Lambda (photonic)
9 Fiber
10 Reserved
11 FiberChannel
LET List
VALUE Value Type
1 Packet-Switch Capable-1 (PSC-1)
2 Packet-Switch Capable-2 (PSC-2)
3 Packet-Switch Capable-3 (PSC-3)
4 Packet-Switch Capable-4 (PSC-4)
51 Layer-2 Switching Capable (L2SC)
100 Time-Division-Multiplex Capable (TDM)
150 Lambda-Switch Capable (LSC)
200 Fiber-Switch Capable (FSC)
ST List
63
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1 · 2 · 63
COPYRIGHT © ALCATEL-LUCENT @@YEAR. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
AUTO DISCOVERY IPCC Transport Mechanisms
Categories of IPCC Transport mechanisms
IP IP
PPP PPP
HDLC Framing HDLC Framing
Communication
Channel
Communication
Channel
IP IP
Ethernet MAC Ethernet MAC
Ethernet PHY Ethernet PHY
Encapsulation: RFC 1661
Framing: RFC 1662
Applicability: IF:IB for TDM
(SDH DCC, OTH GCC) and
LSC
IP IP
PPP PPP
TDM I/f TDM I/f
1662 1662
Encapsulation: RFC 1661
Framing: RFC 2615
Applicability:
- IF:IB: PSC
- IF:OB: TDM
HDLC Framing HDLC Framing
2615 2615
Encapsulation: RFC 894
Applicability:
- IF:IB: for PSC, L2SC
- OF:OB: for TDM, LSC
894 894
· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · ASON GMPLS Protocols
1 · 2 · 64
COPYRIGHT © ALCATEL-LUCENT @@YEAR. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
IPCC Transport Mechanism
ACH ACH
GAL (label 13) GAL (label 13)
Communication
Channel
Communication
Channel
Encapsulation: RFC 5586 (defines GAL and generic ACH)
RFC5718 (defines ACH for DCN)
Applicability: IF:IB MPLS-TP
5586 5586
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|0 0 0 1|Version| Reserved | Channel Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| PID | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |
| MCC/SCC Message |
~ ~
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
5718 5718
Channel Type: MCC/SCC
PID: payload identifier using PPP protocol IDs (RFC 1661,RFC3818)
IP IP
64
65
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1 · 2 · 65
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LMP – Link Property Correlation
3
6
11
14
37
38
51
60
80
19
41
31
22
27
17
28
Node B
Control Channels
Data Links
Node A
Link Property Correlation confirms that adjacent nodes have consistent interface ID
mappings and link properties after combining the results of link verification and the
configuration of each node
• Multiple links between nodes can be advertised as a Traffic Engineering (TE) link in
routing protocols, to improve routing scalability
• Link property correlation is made exchanging “LinkSummary” messages containing:
• Local and remote link-ids and for each data link in the same TE-Link:
• Local and remote interface ids
• Data link parameters (switching type, bandwidth, allocation…)
5
2
15
9
10
7
Local
TE link
Remote
TE link
Local/remote
ports
5 9 3/80, 6/19,
11/41
2 10 14/31, 37/22
15 7 38/27, 51/17,
60/28
Local
TE link
Remote
TE link
Local/remote
ports
9 5 80/3, 19/6,
41/11
10 2 31/14, 22/37
7 15 27/38, 17/51,
28/60
TE Links
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Module 3
ASON GMPLS Protections
Section 1
ASON GMPLS MRN
ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
TOP63094_V1.0-SG Edition 1
TOP63094_V1.0-SG-Ed1 Module 1.3 Edition 1
Learning experience powered by
Alcatel-Lucent University
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Blank page
This page is left blank intentionally
Document History
Edition Date Author Remarks
01 2013-07-15 Lecchi, Vincenzo First edition
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Module objectives
ASON GMPLS introduction
ASON GMPLS machine model
ASON GMPLS Network Protection
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
• Understand GMPLS Protections and restorations
• Know the mains Traffic Engineering rules
• Have a look on ASON Maintenance
Multi-Region Networks fundamentals
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Module objectives [cont.]
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Table of contents
Page
3 ASON GMPLS Protections 7
3.1 Traffic engineering 22
End of module 33
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Table of contents [cont.]
Page
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3 ASON GMPLS Protections
Section 1 · Module 3 · Page 7
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ASON GMPLS VALUE PROPOSITION
Resilience strategies
Maintenance
Cross layer automation
Multi-Region Network (MRN)
Scalable, coordinated resource usage and control
Nominal routing, resource coloring
S
e
r
v
i
c
e

a
s
s
u
r
a
n
c
e
< 50ms
No fault
tolerance
1 2 3 4
# of simultaneous failures
>50ms
Unprotected
Dynamic Restoration (SBR, GR)
Protection (SNCP)
Protection and Restoration
Combined
Photonic switching
Electronic switching
A B
UNI UNI
Maintenance activities and network optimization Planning consistency, avoid blocking, ensure segregation
Multiple priorities and pre-emption mechanisms GMPLS
standardized
protocol set
Shut down, lock, free port
Control
Plane
Network
Planning
nominal
route
active route
reversion
Optimal resourcing,
traffic constrains,
administrative
segregation
Network
Operation
Automatic, semi-
automatic or manual
maintenance and
network optimization
Control
Plane
In the module ASON overview we have seen the four main value propositions
of the GMPLS introduction.
In this module we will start describing the HIGH availability feature .
8
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Protection & Restoration Overview
Unprotected Sub Network Connection
Is not protected against failures
Protection
Sub Network Connection Protection (SNCP)
Restoration mechanism:
Source Based Restoration (SBR)
Guaranteed Restoration (GR)
Protection & Restoration
Protection Restoration Combined (PRC)
Guaranteed Restoration (GR)
Dynamic Restoration Source
Based Routing (SBR)
Unprotected
Protection and Restoration
Combined (PRC)
Protection (SNCP)
ASON GMPLS protection and restoration:
In the following slides we will see the implementation in the networks
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Terminology: Nominal and Backup route
Nominal (Route)
The configured route provided manually by the Operator or, calculated by the NMS. GMRE will
always try to revert to this nominal route after a failure recovery.
Backup (Route)
The route calculated by the GMRE to be used as a backup for the nominal path when it fails.
Until no failure exists a backup path is inactive. After switching the nominal to the backup path
the backup is called active. Further more it can also have an inactive backup
UNI
Nominal
Backup
Client
Client
UNI
Nominal
Backup
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In case of fault:
• Ingress is informed by RSVP signaling
•Ingress node will trigger the restoration actions
connection setup
ASON Domain
Ingress
(head)
I-NNI RSVP
Egress
(tail)
In case of a failure the ingress
node is informed
1
Ingress
node
triggers
restoration
actions
2
Terminology: Restoration actions
11
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Terminology : SNCP (Sub Network Connection Protection)
Main (SNC)
SNCP is set up for highest priority paths (ultra fast recovery time <50ms)
With SNCP, this is the Main SNCP leg.
Can be Main-Nominal or Main-Backup (if restored using PRC)
Spare (SNC)
With SNCP, this is the Spare SNCP leg.
Can be Spare-Nominal or Spare-Backup (if restored using PRC)
UNI
Main Nominal
Spare Nominal
Client
Client
UNI
Main Nominal
Spare Nominal
12
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Terminology: SBR (Source Based Restoration)
Functionality:
Upon a failure in the network with Source Based Restoration the routing algorithms
calculate a new route Contention is solved by priority mechanism. The new LSP (or
SNC Sub Network Connection in NMS) will use old route resources as much as
possible.
Benefit:
SBR guarantees route recovery for any failure in the network if there are resources
available , flexible and efficient use of spare network resources, multiple failure
recovery without manual intervention
UNI
Nominal
Backup
Client
Client
UNI
Nominal
Backup
Fault
Ingress node triggers
restoration actions
13
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Source Based Restoration (SBR)
Z-End
A-End
1
st
Failure 2
2
nd
Failure 4
Triggers
restoration
3
5
LSP setup 1
Operator setup an SBR free-routed service, the GMPLS-CP in the
source node computes the route, sends reservation order along
the path, triggers tuning along the path and performs BER
monitoring.
In case of failure, restoration is
triggered for this service. If there
are enough available resource free
on the network, the service is
restored via another route.
If a second failure occurs, the same
mechanism is launched again.
14
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Terminology: GR (Guaranteed Restoration)
Functionality:
Each working SNC path has a pre-calculated backup which can be shared with other
backups of disjoint routes. Restoration mechanism activates the backup after failure
The backup will be restored after failure and provides fully protected status of the
restored SNC. If a the backup fails, a minor error will occur
Benefit:
Guaranteed Restoration enables SNC recovery for failure in the network
flexible and efficient use of spare network resources (n+1), multiple failure recovery
without manual intervention
UNI
Nominal
Backup
Client
Client
UNI
Nominal
Backup
(predefined)
15
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Guaranteed Restoration (GR)
Main nominal route
Main inactive backup route
Fault at main
nominal
route
1
Main inactive backup
becomes active
backup
2
active
New main
inactive
backup is
calculated
3
Main inactive backup route
Main nominal route
•Represents the current route which is used to
transmit the traffic
Main inactive backup route
•Pre-calculated route which is set up after the Main nominal route
has failed
•No resources are allocated for the inactive backup
16
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Failure 3
Triggers
activation
of backup
LSP setup
1
4
New pre-
registered backup
5
Pre-registered
backup
2
Guaranteed Restoration (GR)
Pre-calculated
The backup path must be SRG diverse to the active route, this can be the nominal or
the backup route, therefore, pre-registered backup can only be calculated after
current route is successfully setup (after any number of crank backs or retries).
Free resources can be shared by many registered backups as long as they are
protecting SRG diverse current paths. If no SRG diverse backup path can be found,
SBR will be used to restore path when failure occurs, reversion is not hitless so
reversion is set to Manual by default
17
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Terminology : SNCP PRC (Protection Restoration Combined)
UNI
Main Nominal
Spare Nominal
Client
Client
UNI
Main Nominal
Spare Nominal
Functionality:
SNCP is set up for highest priority paths (ultra fast recovery time)
Restoration mechanism creates a new SNCP path after failure recovery, i.e. provides
fully protected status of the restored path using SBR
Benefit:
SNCP guarantees path recovery time of less than 50 ms
Flexible and efficient use of spare network resources
Ultra-fast multiple failure recovery without manual intervention
Main Backup
18
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Protection and Restoration Combined (PRC)
Failure 2
Triggers
restoration
of Main
LSP setup:
Main & Spare
1
4
SNCP
switch
3
Time flow during protection
Fully Protected
Protected
Fault
Time
SNCP Protection (<50 ms)
Restoration (seconds)
1 2 3 4
Main backup
Main
Spare
Protection Restoration Combined
Combination of SNCP and SBR
19
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Terminology: Reversion
Functionality:
Reversion shall not preempt active traffic unless operator decides to do so
GMRE shall indicate if a reversion would preempt active traffic
Reversion can be performed automatically or manually under full operator control
to avoid traffic hits.
Benefit:
Automated procedure to revert traffic to the original route, Usage of SNCP prevents
hits during route change, Avoids network fragmentation
UNI
Nominal
Backup
Client
Client
UNI
Nominal
Backup
Fault
20
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LSP Creation LSP Creation
Restoration
Restoration
Reversion
Reversion
Deletion
Deletion
LSP Creation
LSP (SNC or trail) is created by the NMS (Network Management
System) using the explicit routing principle: The NMS calculates a
route and stores it as the nominal route for the lifetime of the LSP
Restoration
Depending on the selected restoration service and the state of the
nominal or current route, restoration activity is performed
Reversion
Reversion shall not preempt active traffic unless operator decides
to do so GMRE shall indicate if a reversion would preempt active
traffic. Reversion can be performed automatically or manually
under full operator control to avoid traffic hits
Deletion
Nominal route is deleted from the NMS
Reversion: LSP Lifecycle
21
22
1·1
Do not delete this graphic elements in here:
All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2012
TRAFFIC ENGINEERING
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Shared Risk Group Management definitions
Fibers
Physical connections
Cables
Conduit
A physical connection is the logical representation of a pair of fibers connecting two
different nodes.
• The fibers are part of a fiber cable
• Fiber cables are part of a fiber conduit
Fiber conduits can cross the same or different Right of Ways (land where the network
operator has the right to install conduit or cable).
A physical connection is the logical representation of a pair of fibers connecting two
ports of two different nodes.
The fibers are part of a fiber cable.
Fiber cables are part of a fiber conduit.
Fiber conduits can cross the same or different Right of Ways (land where the network
operator has the right to install conduit or cable).
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Logical description
A
C
D
F
B E
Physical description
B E
A
C
D
F
Network
Management view
Restoration view
SRG
Shared Risk Group Management definitions
Problem !!!
For protection, some fibers are part of the same cable or
conduit and can be considered as not fully redundant !!
SRG – Shared Risk Group
Logical Network Description
Network Management uses a logical description of the network in order to manage
paths/routes
Physical Network Description
Restoration uses in addition a physical description of the network for risk-
disjoint routing, and to localize failures
Need to define SRG (Shared Risk Group)
SRG (Shared Risk Group)
All links within the group have a certain type of resources in common
A link can belong to several SRG
A fault reported for a SRG results in a fault on all links contained within the
SRLG
Section 1 · Module 3 · Page 25
SRG: Shared Risk Group
A SRG is a set of physical connections that share a common risk (common cable,
common WDM server layer, etc.) whose failure can cause the failure of all the
elements in the group.
SRG purpose:
To provide a redundant route through the network for an existing route avoiding
that the same problem (e.g. link failure) disturbs both.
A physical connection is the logical representation of a pair of fibers connecting two
traffic ports of two different nodes.
The fibers are part of a fiber cable.
Fiber cables are part of a fiber conduit.
Fiber conduits can cross the same or different Right of Ways (land where the
network operator has the right to install conduit or cable).
A single physical connection may belong to several SRGs in different sections.
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Shared Risk Group (SRG) Concept
SRG 1
SRG 3
SRG 2
Fiber
Fiber cables
Fiber conduit
SRG 4 SRG 5
SRG 6
A SRG (Shared Risk Group) is a set of physical connections and objects that
share a common risk (common cable, common WDM server layer, etc.) whose failure
can cause the failure of all the elements in the group.
The reason is to provide a redundant route through the network for an existing
route avoiding that the same problem (e.g. link failure) disturbs both. A single physical
connection may belong to several SRGs in different sections.
Section 1 · Module 3 · Page 26
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SRG (Shared Risk Group) Example
E 7
E 6
B + C 5
A + B 4
A + C 3
D 2
D 1
SRG Phys. Conn.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
B
C
D
E
Main route A to C
SRG diverse spare route
A
Physical Conn.
Fiber cables
Shared Risk Groups
permit protection of traffic on a spare route which
is SRG-diverse to main route
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ASON GMPLS VALUE PROPOSITION
Resilience strategies
Maintenance
Cross layer automation
Multi-Region Network (MRN)
Scalable, coordinated resource usage and control
Nominal routing, resource coloring
S
e
r
v
i
c
e

a
s
s
u
r
a
n
c
e
< 50ms
No fault
tolerance
1 2 3 4
# of simultaneous failures
>50ms
Unprotected
Dynamic Restoration (SBR, GR)
Protection (SNCP)
Protection and Restoration
Combined
Photonic switching
Electronic switching
A B
UNI UNI
Maintenance activities and network optimization Planning consistency, avoid blocking, ensure segregation
Multiple priorities and pre-emption mechanisms GMPLS
standardized
protocol set
Shut down, lock, free port
Control
Plane
Network
Planning
nominal
route
active route
reversion
Optimal resourcing,
traffic constrains,
administrative
segregation
Network
Operation
Automatic, semi-
automatic or manual
maintenance and
network optimization
Control
Plane
Let see now the GMPLS segregation and recoloring concepts
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Region 1 Region 3
Region 2
Backbone
A
D
E
C
B
a21
a22
a11
a12
a31
G
Network
overview
Partitioning Administrative Segregation
Problem !!!
Network is operated by different operator entities which
have control only of a subset of the resources
28
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Region 1 Region 3
Region 2
Backbone
A
D
E
C
B
a21
a22
a11
a12
a31
G
Physical
link
Region as
maintenance
entity
Network
overview
Recovery partitioning Administrative Segregation
Solution
Regional operators shall be able to freely provision traffic in
their subnetwork and a ‘super’–operator is able to provision
across subnetworks
GMPLS Can be used to ensure strict Administrative segregation
“coloring” subnetworks with full E2E protection
29
Section 1 · Module 3 · Page 30
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Region 1
Region 2
Region 3
Backbone 4
A
Z
LSP setup A to Z
1: include colors: 1, 4, 3
exclude colors: 2
2:TE-link within region 1
and 3 is “double
colored”
Include color: 4
Recovery partitioning Administrative Segregation
Up to 28 colors can be assigned to a TE-Link, they are used as a sort of
constraints for the setup of a Label Switched Path (LSP)
Resource coloring can be used to separate a GMRE domain logically into different areas
and to define constraints for routing decisions.
•Up to 28 colors [from 1-28] can be assigned to a TE-Link
•Colors are used as a sort of constraints for the setup of a Label Switched Path (LSP)
•Resource coloring is supported for I-NNI ports only
•Color constraints are not considered for the setup of nominal routes
•There are two modes to define colors for a path:
• Include color
only TE-links with any of the colors assigned to the path are used
• Exclude color
only TE-links without any of the colors assigned to the path are used
•Changing the color of a link or the color of a path has no direct effect on existing paths
•Special color configurations:
• Include constraint without color: No constraints
• Include color = “0” and Exclude color = “0”: No constraints
• Color is defined as include and exclude color: It will not be used
• Include colors are identical to exclude color and not “0”: No path can be set up
GMRE node
TE-link color 1
TE-link color 2
TE-link color 3
TE-link color 4
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ASON GMPLS VALUE PROPOSITION
Resilience strategies
Maintenance
Cross layer automation
Multi-Region Network (MRN)
Scalable, coordinated resource usage and control
Nominal routing, resource coloring
S
e
r
v
i
c
e

a
s
s
u
r
a
n
c
e
< 50ms
No fault
tolerance
1 2 3 4
# of simultaneous failures
>50ms
Unprotected
Dynamic Restoration (SBR, GR)
Protection (SNCP)
Protection and Restoration
Combined
Photonic switching
Electronic switching
A B
UNI UNI
Maintenance activities and network optimization Planning consistency, avoid blocking, ensure segregation
Multiple priorities and pre-emption mechanisms GMPLS
standardized
protocol set
Shut down, lock, free port
Control
Plane
Network
Planning
nominal
route
active route
reversion
Optimal resourcing,
traffic constrains,
administrative
segregation
Network
Operation
Automatic, semi-
automatic or manual
maintenance and
network optimization
Control
Plane
Let see a short consideration on GMPLS Maintenance
© Alcatel-Lucent
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General Maintenance Requirements
Maintenance actions shall have minimal impact on the active
traffic in the network
• bridge & roll actions shall be used whenever possible for moving traffic
from its current path to a new path
Maintenance actions are typically planned actions
• maintenance actions have to be well prepared before they are
executed
Maintenance actions are typically supervised by the operator
• the operator shall always have the capability to control and to stop the
execution of (semi-)automatic maintenance actions (e.g.
in case he observes critical conditions) – it shall also be possible to
continue with a previously stopped maintenance action
• Maintenance actions shall be executable manually, semi-automatically
or fully automatically
Maintenance in a GMPLS network must be handled considering the running
“automatic” control plane:
Maintenance must have minimal impact on the active traffic
Maintenance action must be “planned”
Semi-automatic maintenance must be supervised by the operator
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ASON GMPLS Protections
End of module
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COPYRIGHT © ALCATEL-LUCENT @@YEAR. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Module 4
MRN Overview
Section 1
ASON GMPLS MRN
ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
TOP63094_V1.0-SG Edition 1
TOP63094_V1.0-SG-Ed1 Module 1.4 Edition 1
Learning experience powered by
Alcatel-Lucent University
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Document History
Edition Date Author Remarks
01 2013-07-15 Lecchi, Vincenzo First edition
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Module objectives
ASON GMPLS introduction
ASON GMPLS machine model
ASON GMPLS Network Protection
Multi-Region Networks fundamentals
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
• Understand the cross layers automation
• Have a view of MRN Multiregion network
• Understand some examples of Network migration scenarios
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Module objectives [cont.]
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Table of contents
Page
4 MRN Multiregion Network 7
4.1 Network Migration example 18
End of module 24
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Table of contents [cont.]
Page
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4 MRN MULTIREGION NETWORK
Section 1 · Module 4 · Page 7
COPYRIGHT © ALCATEL-LUCENT 2013. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · MRN Overview
1 · 4 · 8 8
ASON GMPLS VALUE PROPOSITION
Resilience strategies
Maintenance
Cross layer automation
Multi-Region Network (MRN)
Scalable, coordinated resource usage and control
Nominal routing, resource coloring
S
e
r
v
i
c
e

a
s
s
u
r
a
n
c
e
< 50ms
No fault
tolerance
1 2 3 4
# of simultaneous failures
>50ms
Unprotected
Dynamic Restoration (SBR, GR)
Protection (SNCP)
Protection and Restoration
Combined
Photonic switching
Electronic switching
A B
UNI UNI
Maintenance activities and network optimization Planning consistency, avoid blocking, ensure segregation
Multiple priorities and pre-emption mechanisms GMPLS
standardized
protocol set
Shut down, lock, free port
Control
Plane
Network
Planning
nominal
route
active route
reversion
Optimal resourcing,
traffic constrains,
administrative
segregation
Network
Operation
Automatic, semi-
automatic or manual
maintenance and
network optimization
Control
Plane
Last module related to the important evolution iton the full network
automation and integration : the MRN Multiregion networks
COPYRIGHT © ALCATEL-LUCENT 2013. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · MRN Overview
1 · 4 · 9
What is an OTN Photonic Switch ?
Switching:
OCh
GMPLS for photonic switches is working only at LO Layer
Photonic switching (OCh)
Photonic Switch
The Photonic Switching use only the “Optical” layer (L0) to
switch the optical channels (OCh)
Client signal (IP, SDH, OTN) are inserted “transparently” in a
OTN structure on lambda level
The advanced architectures are including “Directionless and
Colorless” capabilities
Scalability is limited by OChs switching
Directionless is a feature that allows photonic “routing” of any lambda (optical
channel) from - to any directions in the drop-insert module.
Colorless is the ability to change /program the OCh optical channels in each
port of the optical switch
9
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· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · MRN Overview
1 · 4 · 10
What is an OTN Electronic Switch ?
The Electronic Switch use the “electrical” signal layer
(L1) to cross connect the traffic
Native OTN switching in universal matrix
Universal switching approach provides full flexibility &
scalability: Non blocking, No bandwidth limitation
Scalable and protectable OTH gateway function
Switching:
ODU
Electronic layer Switch
GMPLS for electronic switches is working only at L1 Layer
Electronic switching (OTN)
A
B
OTH Optical Transport hierachy
10
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· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · MRN Overview
1 · 4 · 11
What is a Photonic + Electronic Switching ?
Photonic Switch
Electronic Switch
ODU3 STM-64 1GE
OCh switching
ODU switching
CIF CIF CIF CIF
SP SP
1+1 MSP
L
I
F
L
I
F
L
I
F
L
I
F
SP SP
Electronic + Photonic Switch = converged NE use both
layers to improve scalability
L0 + L1 layers maximize the traffic efficiency
Service grooming on sub-lambda granularity
GMPLS for converged NE is working at L0 or L1 layers
Photonic switching (WDM)
Electronic switching (ODU)
A
B
11
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· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · MRN Overview
1 · 4 · 12
Converged DWDM/OCS Combining best of both worlds
Photonic
Photonic and
ODU
Aggregated and protected
by aggregation cards
Aggregated and networked
by a single OCS
Limited low-rate
traffic
Optimum solution for mix of
low- and high-rate traffic
Networking
Lower-rate
services
Application
Networking at the
lowest layer
Multilayer design optimization
(optimum mix of grooming
and offload)
Network design
benefits
OCh Switching
DWDM + OCS
COPYRIGHT © ALCATEL-LUCENT 2013. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · MRN Overview
1 · 4 · 13
MRN MULTI REGION NETWORKS and GMPLS
Multiregion network
is a network that comprises at least 2
different technologies managed by
a unique interworking control plane
instance.
It is a control plane concept aimed to
understand where regions boundaries
are located and which NEs are resident
in which regions.
Path set-up can use different
technology supported by each
region
GMPLS/Multi-Region Network (MRN)
control plane
M
R
N
MRN Multiregion Network
Integrates Photonic and Electronic switching CONTROL PLANE
Photonic switching (WDM)
Electronic switching (ODU)
A
B
MRN introduces a unique control plane working on different technology layers
COPYRIGHT © ALCATEL-LUCENT 2013. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · MRN Overview
1 · 4 · 14
Why MRN ?
Today layered networks are mostly operated on a per layer basis:
Per layer management and control paradigms often requiring multiple
competencies to maintain
Separate routing instances between technology domains
No reachability information
No a priori routing adjacencies
Only a partial view of topology
Per layer Traffic Engineering
Signalling operation is per layer
Operator intervention needed to
“put path fragments together”
M
R
N
Photonic switching (WDM)
Electronic switching (ODU)
A
B
MRN Multiregion Network
is the key to overcome these limitations
14
15
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· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · MRN Overview
1 · 4 · 15
Scalability: Routing Considerations
NON MRN: 2 IGP instances
(each with its own routing
adjacencies), one per layer
MRN: Single IGP instance
NON MRN: 2 IGP instances
(each with its own routing
adjacencies), one per layer
MRN: Single IGP instance
• NON MRN networks need
separate control planes
per-layer
• MRN Networks support one
control plane common to
ALL layer/regions.
Layer 0
Layer 1
A B
C
IGP instances (Interior Gateway Protocol)
MRN Multiregion Network
Minimize the number of IGP instances requiring less CPU power/memory to
perform the same task as in NON MRN networks
16
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· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · MRN Overview
1 · 4 · 16
MRN Corner Stone – Unified Signalling
MRN unified signalling
Offers identical operational modes at each layer for service-set up
and maintenance
Allows single end-to-end signalling operation independently of number
of layers
Signalling is yet per layer but it is coordinated
Minimize human intervention and thus OPEX by means of automation
Supports policies for customer specific operational requirements
Allows operator to choose level of
automation, from traditional per layer
management up to fully automated
multi-layer management
M
R
N
Photonic switching (WDM)
Electronic switching (ODU)
A
B
17
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· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · MRN Overview
1 · 4 · 17
MRN Corner Stone – Integrated Routing
MRN Integrated Routing
Based on a single routing instance common to all layers/regions
Reduction of addressing complexity and increased scalability
Offering complete view on network topology and resources state
Path selection process with full awareness of server layers
True disjoint primary & back-up paths selection
Explicit resource selection providing end-to-end control on network
behavior
Explicit inclusion/exclusion of layers in end-to-end path, explicit selection of cross-
layer (up & down) points along the path
Supports path computation filtering policies and enables network wide
consistent Traffic Engineering rules
M
R
N
18
1·1
Do not delete this graphic elements in here:
All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2012
NETWORK MIGRATION SCENARIOS
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MRN GREENFIELD SCENARIO
Electronic layer
Photonic layer
NMS
P
h
y
s
ic
a
l lin
k
Physical link
Physical link
T
u
n
n
e
l
L
o
g
ic
a
l lin
k
T
u
n
n
e
l
Lo
g
ica
l lin
k
ODU Tunnel
Logical link
This is an example of GRENNFIELD scenario for MRN introduction.
In this case the two technology layers are:
- the L0 photonic layer for DWDM transport
- the L1 OTN electronic layer for the access cross connect flexibility
In this case we are considering a unique CP running in a unified network element
19
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Electronic layer
Photonic layer
NMS
P
h
y
sic
a
l lin
k
Tunnel
Logical link
ELECTRONIC SWITCH COMPOUND UPGRADED TO MRN
If we have only an OTN electronic layer and we want to introduce a photonic
layer, the example shows the steps to upgrade the network
20
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PHOTONIC COMPOUND UPGRADED TO MRN
Electronic layer L1
Photonic layer L0
NMS
A similar scenario with photonic layer present upgraded with the electronic layer
21
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DESIGN OF MULTILAYER OPTICAL NETWORKS
Network design: New, overlay or upgrading
A Multiregion Network Planning Tool allows the operator to automatically
plan, dimension, and engineer a new optical network composed of a photonic
(WDM) and electrical ODU switching layer
Starting from the traffic matrix and an accurate description of the fiber network
infrastructure (topology, fiber span lengths, attenuations, types, PMD
coefficients…), the MRN Network Planning Tool automatically finds the
optimized solution for:
the routing of the electrical and photonic services
the engineering of the WDM layer (including amplifier types and output powers,
dispersion mapping, channel power setting, wavelength allocation)
the dimensioning of the protection/restoration resources needed to guarantee the
required network resilience
MRN Multiregion Network Planning Tool
To Design a complex Multiregion network it is important to use an
advanced network planning tool able to leverage on MRN potentialities
To design
22
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Multiregion Network Planning Tool
A multi-Layer Engineering, Routing and Validation tool
NPT
-Auto-commissioning
-Service provisioning
- Retrieval of
network
configuration
- Monitoring
- Auto-diagnosis
- SLA assurance
-Network dimensioning
-Optimization & validation
-Equipment configuration
Manage
Manage
Deploy
Deploy
Plan
Plan
NMS
Life Cycle Management
23
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· ASON GMPLS MRN Overview
ASON GMPLS MRN · MRN Overview
1 · 4 · 24
MRN Overview
End of module
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Last but one page
Congratulations
You have finished the training
Your feedback is appreciated!
Please feel free to Email your comments to:
training.feedback@alcatel-lucent.com
Please include the training reference in your email (see cover page)
Thank you!
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contents not permitted without written authorization from Alcatel-Lucent