International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences

© 2013 Available online at www.irjabs.com
ISSN 2251-838X / Vol, 6 (10): 1380-1390
Science Explorer Publications




Direct Torque Control of Permanent-Magnet
Synchronous Motor and Comparison of its
Performance with Induction Motor

Reza Shabanian
1
, Soodabeh Soleimani
1
, Babak Mozafari
1

1. Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding Author email: rezashabanian@gmail.com, s.soleimani@srbiau.ac.ir,
mozafari_babak@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: Direct Torque Control (DTC) method for Permanent-Magnet Synchronous (PMS) motor
has attracted great deal of attentions thanks to its significant advantages including: eliminating the
current controllers, low dependence on motor parameters, further simplicity, and favorable torque
response compared to other control techniques such as vector control. Fundamental principles of
Direct Torque Control (DTC) for selection of stator voltage vectors directly depend on difference
between reference torque vector and reference stator flux linkage and their permanent values. Thus,
its objective is to directly control the motor flux and torque using inverter voltage vector. Fundamental
theory of this control method is presented in the current paper. The mathematical model for direct
torque control of permanent-magnet synchronous motor is extended here. The simulation model is
then developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK and the simulation results will be discussed. In the respective
simulation, the predetermined reference values of stator flux and torque are compared with the
values estimated from motor parameters and their difference are sent to hysteresis comparators.
Outputs of flux and torque hysteresis comparators are used for determining the appropriate voltage
vector and stator flux space vector. Finally, through comparison of DTC simulation on PMS and
induction motors, it is observed that actual flux and torque of PMS motor in this method has by far
lower ripples compared to the case of induction motor.
Key Words: Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM), Electrical drives, Voltage Space
Vector, Direct Torque Control

INTRODUCTION

Permanent-magnet synchronous motors are widely used in low and moderate power applications such
as computer accessories, robots, and electrical cars. They are extensively used due to having high efficiency
attributes, high torque to inertia ratio, high torque density, large air-gap flux density, high power coefficient, low
maintenance costs, simple and robust structure, and compact and well-set layout. And since there is no circuit
for producing heat in the rotor, therefore cooling is performed solely for stator which consists of copper and iron
losses. Also, no losses exist in rotor path, which are generated in the field coil of ordinary synchronous motor
with coiled field. For that reason, system efficiency is enhanced.
PMS motor is very similar to synchronous machine; the only difference is that PMS motor has no
damper coil and stimulation is done by means of permanent magnet instead of field coil. Air-gap is small in
such motors; armature performance is accordingly remarkable and excellent. This feature enables control of
the respective machine in the fixed torque regions as well as flux weakening. Omission of field coil reduces dc
and slip-ring supply, and motor complexity and losses. Proportionally, permanent-magnet motors have greater
torques (Morimoto et al.,1994; Bao-hua et al., 2006).
Many methods as variable frequency control have been predicted for controlling such motors; such
methods are carried out in scalar and vector modes. The simplest method of scalar control is voltage to
frequency stabilization technique (v/f: constant) which is in open loop. Despite of being simple, this method is
not suitable for applications with rapid response. Vector method includes Field-Oriented Control (FOC) and
Direct Torque Control (DTC). In terms of computation costs, DTC method is by far simpler and can be more
easily implemented than FOC technique because of not using Park’s transform and its inverse and also
absence of PI controllers in current loops (Casadei et al.,2002).
Direct torque control was proposed in 1980 for induction motors to control flux and torque, and then,
was offered for permanent-magnet synchronous motors in 1990. Due to enjoying the following advantages, the
Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 6 (10), 1380-1390, 2013
1381

respective method is also analyzed and simulated on PMS motor in the present paper (Chapuis et al.,1995;
Chun et al.,2003).
The only parameter needed in this method is stator resistance. Switching command of inverter is
deduced from Table 1, simplifying the control system. Instead of current control loops used in vector control,
simple flux and torque hysteresis controllers are used. Vector transform is not possible because stator
parameters are sufficient for calculation of stator flux linkage and torque as feedback variables in comparison
with reference values (Chun et al.,2003; Zhong et al.,1997; Jurgen et al.,1988).
Principles of direct torque control for selection of voltage vectors directly depend on the difference
between actual and reference values of torque and flux linkage; subsequently, flux and torque errors are
compared in hysteresis comparers, based on which a proper voltage vector is chosen from switching table. No
pulse-width modulation is required in DTC, and instead, 6 Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) voltage vectors are
used during the sample period. All computations are performed in stationary reference system regardless of
rotor position (Pabu,2006; Thomas et al.,1991; Pacas et al.,2005).

Direct Torque Control (DTC)
Fundamental principles of DTC of AC drive directly refers to control of torque and flux linkage and
independently through six or eight spatial voltage vectors acquired from switching table.
The eight voltage space vectors used in DTC are illustrated in Fig. 1. A DTC is composed of two
hysteresis controllers, one for correction of torque error and the other one for correction of flux linkage error.
Hysteresis flux controller causes rotation of stator flux circularly along the reference curve. The function of
hysteresis torque controller is to maintain motor torque in the predetermined hysteresis band. 3 signals are
applied in DTC system control operation: torque error, flux linkage error, and resultant flux linkage vector angle.
A complete period is divided into six sectors. In each sector, DTC is selected among 4 voltage vectors: two
vectors for reduction and two vectors for increase of torque. Another vector pairs are for flux reduction and
increase (Foo et al.,2009; Habetler et al.,1992).


Figure1. eight voltage space vectors acquired from voltage source inverter

For each of flux and torque hysteresis comparison states, there is only one of 4 voltage vectors, which
at the same time, compensate the desirable torque and flux.

Torque Control Procedure in DTC for PMS Motor
The torque equation used for DTC of PMS motor drives can be obtained from ordinary phasor diagram
of permanent-magnet synchronous motor (Figure 2). When the motor is loaded via shaft, it undergoes actual
motor power. As a result, the rotor rests behind the rotating field of stator.


Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 6 (10), 1380-1390, 2013
1382


Figure2. Phasor diagram of salient-pole synchronous machine in motor mode

The extended torque amplitude of salient-pole synchronous motor can be expressed as below:
3( ) sin
2
s s r
em
s
p
T
L
ì ì ì
o
+ A
A = A (1)
Here; o is torque angle.
According to Equation (1): torque will increase if load angle (o) increases. To increase the load angle
(o), stator flux vector must rotate faster than flux vector. Rotor flux rotation depends on mechanical velocity of
rotor. Therefore, stator flux must rotate more slowly than rotor flux to reduce the load angle (o). Consequently,
according to Equation (1), electromagnetic torque can be effectively controlled through controlling amplitude
and rotation velocity of stator flux vector (ì
S
). To reach the aforementioned goal, appropriate voltage vectors
are used in the motor terminals. For counterclockwise performance, if the actual torque is less than the
reference value, then voltage vectors will be chosen in the same direction for maintaining rotation of stator flux
vector (ì
S
).
When load angle (δ) increases between ì
S
and ì
r
, the actual torque increases proportionally as well.
And if the actual torque exceeds its reference value, voltage vectors are selected for maintaining rotation of
stator flux vector (ì
S
) in the opposite direction. Block diagram of direct torque control method for permanent-
magnet synchronous motor is shown in Figure3.
Therefore, in DTC technique for PMS motor, the commands are directly sent to SVM inverter for
adjusting instantaneous values of flux and torque using hysteresis controller and based on flux and torque
errors (Pabu,2006; Cui et al.,2001).

Flux Control Procedure in DTC for PMS Motors
Neglecting stator resistance in estimation of stator flux, variations of stator flux linkage is only
dependent on the voltage vector applied according to Fig. 4. For a short interval, for instance sampling time
T
0
=Δt, position and amplitude of stator flux linkage ì
s
will affect the torque.


Figure3. General block diagram of direct torque control method for permanent-magnet synchronous motor
Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 6 (10), 1380-1390, 2013
1383


Figure4. Step-like representation of stator flux linkage space vector

Stator flux linkage of PMS motor plotted in stationary reference system is written as follows [6&12]:
( )
s s s s
v r i dt ì = ÷
}
(2)
The equation above can be also written as:
/ 0
-
s s s s s t
v t r i dt ì ì
=
= +
}
(3)
During the sampling interval or switching time, one of the six voltage vectors is used. The objective of
flux control in DCT is to maintain its amplitude in predetermined hysteresis band amplitude. By applying the
needed voltage vector, amplitude of stator flux linkage can be controlled. Voltage plane is divided into six
sectors, as observed in Figure. 4, in order to choose voltage vectors for controlling the amplitude of stator flux
linkage.
In stator coordinate (o | ÷ axis) the stator flux linkage and current can be expressed as:
s
j
o |
ì ì ì = +
(4)
s
i i ji
o |
= +
(5)
In digital implementation the integration of the stator flux whit respect to Figure. 5 is as follows:
( ) [ ( ) - ( )]
( -1)
s s
k v k r i k T
k
o o o
o
ì
ì
= +
(6)

( ) [ ( ) - ( )]
( -1)
s s
k v k r i k T
k
| | |
|
ì
ì
= +
(7)
where T
s
is the sampling period and k represents the actual discrete time. The o | ÷ components of the
command stator flux can be written as:
* *
( ) ( ) cos( ( )
( ) ( ))
s s
s s
k k k
k T k
o
ì ì u
e o
= +
+ A
(8)
* *
( ) ( )sin( ( )
( ) ( ))
s s
s s
k k k
k T k
|
ì ì u
e o
= +
+ A
(9)
where ( )
s
k e is the present speed of stator flux and ( ) k o A is the change of torque angle; ( )
s
k u is the
position of the present stator flux linkage vector as shown in Figure. 6, which can be estimated by the present
o | ÷ component of stator flux vector:
1
( )
( ) tan
( )
s
k
k
k
|
o
ì
u
ì
÷
| |
=
|
\ .
(10)



Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 6 (10), 1380-1390, 2013
1384



Figure5. The steady state operation of stator flux control

The flux error between the command stator flux vector and actual stator flux vector can be obtained by:
*
( ) ( ) ( ) k k k
o o o
ì ì ì A = ÷

*
( ) ( ) ( ) k k k
| | |
ì ì ì A = ÷
(11)
( ) ( ) ( )
s
k k j k
o |
ì ì ì A = A + A

In stator flux control, we strive to achieve zero error for the stator flux vector in one sampling time. This
condition gives us the requirements for the on-time and choice of the switching state vectors of a voltage
source inverter as shown in Figure. 6.
( )
s a a b b
k v t v t ì A = + (12)
where v
a
and v
b
are the voltage vectors produced by adjacent active switching states of a three phase
voltage source inverter and t
a
and t
b
are the switching on time of two adjacent active voltage vectors.
In each region two adjacent voltage vectors, which give the minimum switching frequency, are selected
to increase or decrease the amplitude of stator flux linkage, respectively.
For example, according to Table (1), if V
2
voltage vector is applied in sector 1, amplitude of stator flux
linkage will increase when flux vector rotates counterclockwise. Amplitude of stator flux linkage will reduce if v
3

is selected (Xavier et al.,2005; Foo et al.,2009).

Selection of Voltage Vector in DTC of PMSM Drive
As discussed earlier, stator flux is controlled by proper selection of voltage vectors, and as a result,
torque is controlled by rotation of stator flux. According to Figure. 6, when stator flux vector is in sector “i”, the
voltage vectors, V
i+2
and V
i-2
have negative direct components and reduce the amplitude of stator flux. Also, V
i+1

and V
i+2
have positive indirect components and increase the torque response whereas V
i-1
and V
i-2
have
negative indirect components and reduce the torque response. In other words, applying V
i+1
enhances both
torque and flux whereas applying V
i+2
increases torque but reduces flux amplitude. Switching table is included
in Table (1) for controlling amplitude and rotation direction of stator flux linkage.

Table 1 . Switching table
θ
T ¢
θ(6) θ(5) θ(4) θ(3) θ(2) θ(1)
(100)V1 (101)V6 (001)V5 (011)V4 (010)V3 (110)V2 T=1
¢=1
(001)V5 (011)V4 (010)V3 (110)V2 (001)V1 (101)V6 T=0
(110)V2 (100)V1 (101)V6 (001)V5 (011)V4 (010)V3 T=1
¢=0
(011)V4 (010)V3 (110)V2 (100)V1 (101)V6 (001)V5 T=0

Outputs of torque hysteresis comparator, flux hysteresis comparator, and flux linkage sector are
respectively represented by t, ¢, and u. The torque hysteresis comparer is a two-value comparer; t = 0 means
the actual torque value is larger than the reference value and lies outside of the hysteresis amplitude, and, t =
1 signifies that the actual torque value is smaller than the reference value and lies outside of the hysteresis
amplitude. Flux hysteresis comparator is a two-value comparator as well. Similarly, ¢=1 signifies the actual
value of flux linkage is below the square value and lies outside of the hysteresis amplitude whereas ¢=0
indicates that the actual value of flux linkage is greater than the reference value and lies outside of the
hysteresis boundary.
In Table (1), if ¢=1, then the actual flux linkage value will be smaller than the reference value. On the
other hand, if ¢=0, then the actual flux linkage value will be greater than the reference value; and this is true for
the torque as well (Chun et al.,2003; Rahman et al.,1999).


Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 6 (10), 1380-1390, 2013
1385


Figure6. selection of voltage vector when stator flux vector is in sector “i”

Modeling and Simulation
The following assumptions are applied in the model of PMS motor which was developed in rotor
reference system:
Saturation is ignored
EMF is sinusoidal stimulation.
Eddy currents and hysteresis losses are neglected
Field current dynamics are absent
Voltage equations are:

(13)
d
d s d r q
q
q s q r d
d
v r i
dt
d
v r i
dt
ì
e ì
ì
e ì
= ÷ +
= + +


And, flux linkage can be written as:
(14)
Substituting Equation (14) into (13), there will be:
(15)
( )
( ) ( )
d s d r q q d d f
q s q r d d f q q
d
v r i L i L i
dt
d
v r i L i L i
dt
e ì
e ì
= ÷ + +
= + + +
Developed motor torque will be derived as:
(16)
3
( )( )
2 2
e d q q d
p
T i i ì ì = ÷
And mechanical torque:
(17)
m
e l m
d
T T B J
dt
e
e = + +
If mechanical speed of rotor is obtained through Equation (7), then:
(18)
)
(
2
( )
e l m
m
m r
T T B
dt
J
p
e
e
e e
÷ ÷
=
=
}
In the former equation, ω
r
is electrical speed of the right rotor and ω
m
is the mechanical speed of the
rotor (Zhong et al.,1997).
PMS motor parameters are presented in Table (2):





d d d f
q q q
L i
L i
ì ì
ì
= +
=
Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 6 (10), 1380-1390, 2013
1386

Table 2. PMS motor parameters used in simulation
0.57 O
Resistance R (ohm)
0.0085H Inductance [Ld] H
0.0085H Inductance [Lq] H
0.175 Flux inductance by
magnets [wb]
0.089 Inertia[jkgm^2]
0.005 Friction factor
2 Pairs of pole

According to Figure. (7), the whole model can be divided as follows:
Model of PMS motor, two-level inverter, voltage vector selection table, torque estimator, and flux estimator.
The estimated flux and torque values are compared with the reference values. Then, errors are compared in
hysteresis comparators and comparator outputs together with flux sector (u) are used in switching table for
determining appropriate voltage vector. In the next step, the vector selected from switching table is applied to
voltage source inverter.


Figure7. Simulation of direct torque control in permanent-magnet synchronous motor

Results of the abovementioned control method for PMS motor are obtained as below:

Figure8. Actual and reference stator flux of PMS motor

Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 6 (10), 1380-1390, 2013
1387


Figure 9. Rotor speed of PMS motor


Figure 10. Reference and actual electromagnetic torque of PMS motor


Figure 11. Variations of stator flux linkage angle in DTC of PMS motor

As observed in the former Figureures, electromagnetic torque and stator flux change with variation in
the reference and closely follow the reference value with a small error, and in this state, exhibits slight ripple.
Furthermore, it is inferred from the above simulation that DTC is applied for an effective control of flux and
torque without any variation in motor and load parameters. Flux and torque can be also directly controlled by
voltage vector of inverter in DTC. Two independent flux and torque hysteresis controllers are used for
compensating the flux and torque restrictions.

Comparison of DTC Method in PMS Motor and Induction Motor
Simulation of direct torque control in induction motor and PMS motor are similar to each other. The 3
horsepower was selected as electrical power for both motors and, reference torque in both motors equal 17.8
to -17.8 (N.m); their difference is in motor parameters. Also, zero voltage vectors are used in induction motor
unlike the PMS motor because, when voltage vectors are set equal to zero, the stator’s flux linkage vector
Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 6 (10), 1380-1390, 2013
1388

remains constant, and then, electromagnetic torque rapidly declines. Induction motor parameters are chosen
according to Table (3).

Table 3. Induction motor parameters used in simulation
0.435 O

Stator Resistance R
(ohm)
0.816 O
Rotor Resistance R
(ohm)
0.002H Inductance [Ls] H
0.002H Inductance [Lr] H
0.06931H Inductance [Lm] H
0.089 Inertia[jkgm^2]
0.005 Friction factor
2 Pairs of pole

Figure. 12 (A & B) illustrates ripples of stator flux in PMS and Induction motors:

Figure 12 (A). Ripples of stator flux in PMS motor


Figure12 (B). Ripples of stator flux in induction motor

As observed in the Figure. above, ripples of stator flux is equal to around 0.025 (weber) and 0.04
(weber) in PMS and induction motors, respectively. Therefore, ripples of induction motor flux are larger than
PMS motor using DTC technique. In addition, torque ripples of these two motors are illustrated in the following
figures:

Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 6 (10), 1380-1390, 2013
1389


Figure13 (A). Torque Ripples of PMS Motor


Figure13 (B). Torque Ripples of Induction Motor

The Figure. above demonstrates that value of electromagnetic torque ripples is approximately 2 N.m in
PMS motor and 6 N.m in the induction motor. Thus, electromagnetic torque of PMS motor in DTC method has
small error ripples compared to the induction motor.
Based on the previous comparisons, it can be concluded that PMS motor has lower flux and torque
ripples than induction motor in direct torque control technique. Consequently, performance of PMS motor is
superior to induction motor in DTC method. And, DTC is a suitable controller for PMS motor.

CONCLUSION

Permanent-magnet synchronous motor are currently used in most applications due to enjoying
attributes such as high durability, efficiency, and power coefficient, simple and inexpensive control, and easy
repair and maintenance. Mathematical equations of PMS motor indicate that variation in electromagnetic torque
can be controlled by stabilizing the amplitude of stator flux linkage and increasing or reducing the rotation
speed of stator flux linkage. Amplitude and rotation speed of stator flux linkage can be controlled by selecting
appropriate voltage vectors. DTC is applied for effective control of torque and flux without imposing any change
to motor and load parameters. In DTC, reference values of stator flux and torque are compared with the values
estimated in the drive system, and, their resulting error is sent to the hysteresis comparators, and, proper
voltage vector is chosen with respect to their output status and spatial position of stator flux vector. Accordingly,
proper switching command is sent to inverter for generation of this voltage vector.
In the present paper, DTC process of PMS motor was depicted, its simulation was carried out by
means of MATLAB/SIMULINK software package, and the results were analyzed. Differences of DTC method
for PMS and induction motors were discussed in the subsequent sections. Reference values of stator flux and
torque were kept at a constant level in this simulation.
As seen in DTC simulation results for PMS motor and induction motor, the DTC performed for PMS
motor exhibits lower level of flux and torque ripples, and at the same moment, effectively maintains the torque
response.



Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 6 (10), 1380-1390, 2013
1390


REFERENCES

Bao-hua L, Wei-guo L, Xi-wei Z, Rong L. 2006. “Research on Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on
Optimized State Selector”, IEEE ISIE Volume 3, 9-13 July
Casadei D, Francesco P, Giovanni S, Angelo T. 2002. “FOC and DTC: two viable schemes for Induction Motor Torque control”, IEEE
transactions on Power Electronics.
Casadei D, Profumo F, Serra G, Tani A. 2002. “FOC and DTC: two viable schemes for induction motors torque control,” IEEE Trans.
PowerElectron., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 779–787, Sep.
Chapuis YA, Roye D, Davoine J.1995.“Principles and implementation of direct torque control by stator flux orientation of an induction
motor”, Applied Power Electronics conference proceedings, vol.1 Page(s):185 – 191.
Chun TW, Choi MK, Bose BK.2003. “A novel startup scheme of statorflux- oriented vector-controlled induction motor drive without torque
jerk,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.,vol.39,no.3, pp. 776–782, May
Cui B, Zhou J, Ren Z. 2001. “Modeling and Simulation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive” Fifth IEEE International
Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, Volume 2, Aug.
Depenbrock M.1988.“Direct Self – Control (DSC) of Inverter Fed Induction Machine”, IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, Vol. 3, No 4, October
Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Reduced Torque Ripple and Commutation Frequency Yongchang
Zhang, Member, IEEE, Jianguo Zhu, Senior Member, IEEE
Foo G, Rahman MF. 2009. “Sensorless direct torque and flux-controlled IPM synchronous motor drive at very low speed without signal
injection,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 395–403,
Habetler T, Profumo F, Pastorelli M, Tolbert L. 1992. “Direct torque control of induction machines using space vector modulation,” IEEE
Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1045 –1053, sep/oct
Jurgen K. 1988.Steinke “Control strategy for three phase AC traction Drive with Three-level GTO-PWM inverter”, PESC.
Morimoto S, Tong Y, Takeda Y, Hirasa T. 1994."Loss minimization control of permanent magnet synchronous motor drives," Industrial
Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 41, pp. 511-517,
Pacas M, Weber J. 2005. “Predictive direct torque control for the PM synchronous machine,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 52, no. 5,
pp.1350 –1356, oct.
Rahman MF, Zhong L. 1999. “Voltage switching tables for DTC controlled interior permanent magnet motor”, IECON’99, 25th annual
Conference June, p. 1445–51.
S. pabu ,"Simulation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive system”, Ph.D thesis, University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez campus,
2006.
Thomas GH, Deepakraj M. 1991.Divan “Control strategies for Direct Torque Control using Discrete Pulse Modulation”, IEEE transactions
on Industrial applications, VOL.27 page(s). 893-901.
Xavier del TG, Antoni A, Marcel GJ, Phil AW, Vicenç MS, Jose Luis R.2005. “New DTC Control Scheme for Induction Motors fed with a
Three-level Inverter”, AUTOMATIKA, Pages 73–81
Zhong L, Rahman MF, Hu WY, Lim KW. 1997. “Analysis of Direct Torque Control in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive”, IEEE
Trans. On Power Electronics, Vol. 12, No.3, May,