National Art Education Association

Connecting Art, Learning, and Creativity: A Case for Curriculum Integration Author(s): Julia Marshall Source: Studies in Art Education, Vol. 46, No. 3 (Spring, 2005), pp. 227-241 Published by: National Art Education Association Stable URL: . Accessed: 29/03/2014 03:50
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Integration is also emerging in art education literature that explores learning and cognition in light of postmodern and visual culture theory. E-mail: jmarsh@sfsu. 46(3). 1600 Holloway Avenue. 2002.62. and locates art in context with other disciplines. socially-constructed. However. crosses disciplinary boundaries to reveal conceptual connections. and emphasis is placed on content in relation to form (Efland. and culturally mediated process of making meaning.' which is a form of integration in which "social. context. experience. Freedman & Stuhr. Integration of art with other subjects is congruent with these tenets of postmodernism because it relates ideas to form (shifting the focus of art education away from formal concerns to meaning-making). integration represents a concrete and feasible approach to teaching art in a postmodern way. Most importantly for teachers. and high-order thinking (Freedman. culture. 1996).deepen.and Creativity: A Case for Curriculum Integration Julia Marshall SanFrancisco StateUniversity The author that'substantive' artintegration with contempoharmonizes argues for teaching andrepresents a strategy rary postmodern thoughtin arteducation fromcognitive scienceand artin a postmodern theories way. Postmodern theorists endorse an art education where art is contextualized. postmodern art education has not explored fully the integration of art with academic curriculum as a practice congruent with postmodern theory. 1997. Clark.andupdate in artmaking and processes practice in teaching. p. Even with its attention to content. Learning. context. the topic of integration is slowly entering contemporary discourse in art education. We see this in 'issues-based art Studies in Art Education 227 This content downloaded from 64. They emphasize the connections between the body. These theories describe learning as essentially a situated.Bringing together the author showshow connection andprojection). emotion.2005 by the Copyright ArtEducation Association National Studiesin Art Education A Journal of Issues andResearch 2005. San FranciscoState University.15 on Sat. promotes Images integration learning of substantive in postmodern and sciencearegivenas examples art integration thatreveal mentalprocesses andcreate andinsightthrough conceptual meaning These imageshelp teachers and studentsunderstand the conceptual 'collage. and boundary-crossing. Hutchens & Suggs. metaphor theory(specifically thatconnectart substantive andcreativity. political. boundaries between domains are blurred. Freedman (2003) and Efland (2002) examine how new findings and theories from cognitive science are shaping our understanding of learning and epistemology. and cultural issues become subjects to address in the teaching of art" (Gaudelius & Spiers.CA 94132. 3). 1996. 29 Mar 2014 03:50:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 2003) and view the mind as an integrated system that unites symbol-processing Correspondence regardingthis article may be sent to the author at the Art Department. 227-241 ConnectingArt.' basis for much postmodernart and give educatorsclues to cognition and creative thatcanguide.201. San Francisco.

It revealssomethingof the core principles. magicalprocessof self-expression and suggest that creativityexists in its culturalcontext.structures. but is seen in terms of an integratedsystem (Freedman2003.the cognitivescienceand postmodernism with mesh of science ultimately postmodernism in findings cognitive their challenge to the romantic modernist concept of creativity as a carriedout by an isolated individual. wayshaveto be found to integrate knowledgefrom to achieve a fuller than would be manysubjects understanding content treated in isolation. Knowledge is no longer thought of as divided into discrete domains.understanding in the postmodernartclassroom. creativity to show the connectedness is organized "Atrulyintegrated curriculum is organizedin ways that curriculum of things. appropriation. often entailing recycling. 29 Mar 2014 03:50:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . cognitivescientists persist in researchingit in order to understandand demystify it. 2002).15 on Sat. Efland. 103) providedby (p. it involves making conceptualconnections that underlie art and other disciplines. This articlefurtherexploresideas from cognitive science and cognitive linguistics (metaphor theory) to help us understand some and specific contributionsintegrationbrings to learning.The Efland(2002) also explorescreativity subject of creativityis where postmodernismand cognitive psychology may appearto be least compatible. Substantive issues throughart or placing art in its sociocultural than these applicais a pedagogythat goes deeperand broader integration tions.62. While some postmodern theorists challengethe very existenceof creativity(Barrett.'Substantive social tion resistssimply depictingsubjectmatteroutside art. aremost openlycelebrated interpretation (meaning-making) in relationship to cognition. and practices of fields by moving beyond the most concrete level to disciplines). Freedman(2003) finds justificationin these theoriesfor the embraceof visual cultureas a conceptualgroundingfor art learning and views thematic/conceptually-based curriculumas a methodologyfor in art context.learning-friendly gratedlearningbecauseart is the location where subjectiveand cultural and practiced. 35).1997.reframingor adapting existing ideas to new concepts.201. Howeverdisparate may appear. while an interdisciplinary reinforce the separateand discrete characterof academic disciplines" (Clark. hub for inteEfland(2002) finds art to be a propitious. Efland (2002) also finds justification for exploring as curriculum a of integration way advancing learning: If the aim of educationis to fully activatethe cognitivepotential of the learner.1997).to a more abstract (depictingsubjectsmattersparticular SubstantiveCurriculumIntegration 228 Studies in ArtEducation This content downloaded from 64.2002). Clark'sconcept of integrationis in alignmentwith what I will referto here as 'substantive integraintegration. p. addressing context.JuliaMarshall with sociocultural factors(Efland. Conventionalnotions of discipline-based epistemology are overthrown by these conceptions of learning.

conceptual turn.1995). Connection-Making and Cognition: Ideas from Cognitive Science The literature in cognitivesciencehas a recurring theme-connections are at the core of cognition and consciousness. of somethingelse. (b) highlightsand promoteslearning. expandingthose connectionsis the criticalfactorin The literature in learningtheoryindicatesthat authentic understanding.Lakoffand Johnson (1999) makethis crucialconnectionbetweenthe physicaland the conceptual: In shortwe formextraordinarily richconceptualstructures for our and in reason about them for that are crucial manyways categories our everyday All these of structures are. The neuralconnectionsin the brainare.15 on Sat. paralleldistributingprocessing.and (c) catalyzes creativity. learning requires understanding and understanding entails not only Studies in Art Education 229 This content downloaded from 64. analogously. in organizing into thinks it seessomethingin terms phenomena categories.They see conceptualizes the implicationsof categorization and arguethat the mind. in our brains. 29 Mar 2014 03:50:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Lakoffand Johnson (1999) put a slightly different twist on schema theory and suggest that the mind the world by placing phenomenain categories. the disciplineswith which it is integrated. scientists call this Cognitive physicalprocess PDP.directlyconnectedto the of the mind. firstproposedby Hopfield in 1982. 20) course.or 'connectionism'(Solso.Neural-network theory.but alsomakesfor way not only reveals sound pedagogy because it: (a) is congruent with the way the mind works-how we think and learn.neuralstructures Accordingto Piaget (1963).62. We find a strong theoretical rationale for these claims in constructivist theoriesof learningand some of the new thinkingin cognitive sciencethat addresses learningand creativity. betweenentitiesis a key to learningin Just as establishing relationships its most basicform.integrative the foundationsof eachdiscipline. learningoccurswhen new informationis attachedto prior knowledgeand placed in existingconceptualcompartments or 'schemata.Cognitivelinguists. in general). indicatesthat cognitionoccurswhen neuralnodes in the brainareactivated in net-likeconfigusimultaneously rations (Martindale. It makesconnections.(p. which mimic the neuralarchitecture conceptualstructures from which they emerge. Connecting art to other areasof inquiry in a substantive.'Cognitive psychologists today continue to build of these basic upon Piaget'sconceptthat the mind is a systemconstructed units and that cognition is a function of organizinginformation into moduleswithin a largermentalstructure.A Casefor Curriculum Integration to level (tappinginto the conceptsthat underliethe disciplinesaddressed) the most profound and conceptual level (revealing concepts that are and the mind common to art. especially learning for understanding and transfer.201. 1994).

there is not complete accordbetween the two comparedentities.the mind adjustsits concepts In metaphor..It.however. transfer is a criticallearningobjectivein education. p. 55). 230 in Art Education Studies This content downloaded from 64.15 on Sat.often dissonant.learnsthroughmetaphorical processesand when the dissonance of metaphorshocks us into new analogies. Anothervital link betweenlearningand creativity lies in the conceptof In Lakoff their of and Johnson theory categorization.As noted earlier. but comprehending how those facts remembering fit together(Bransford et al. is founded on makingand expandingconnections.An analogythen servesas a basisfor projection. they synthesize analogous thinking with bisociation in their theoryof metaphor.according active process in which the mind constructslinkagesbetween tangible is also the primaryprinciple of consciousness and cognition. Due to the pictorialnatureof the mind. The discord the origbetweenthe two entitieschallenges the mind to re-conceptualize inal entity and see it differently.'which is the core of to fit the new configuration. betweencreativity and learningis not new. 1980). Recognitionof this correlation Koestler(1990) believedthat creativeideasaregenerated through'bisociation' or the juxtaposition (or connection) of previously unassociated entities.metaphoris wherecreativity and learningintersect. Lakoffand Johnson'snotion that abstractions emergeout of relaof Ricoeur's is a cornerstone concrete between tionships things tangible is an to of rooted in finding or making connections. that abstractconcepts are generatedor revealedwhen connections are learning. 2000).201.JuliaMarshall the facts of a domain.In metaphor.Defined as "the ability to extendwhat has been learnedin one contextto new contexts"(Bransford et al. whereone thing is seen in termsof another. too. a cornerstone becomes closely learning.connectionsthat generateinferenceor projection. but they takeit a step further.This implies puts them in the samecategory)is an abstraction.'seeingas. Understandingis a key factor in transfer. The mind.' (1999) suggest that the quality that links one entity with another (that a concept. according to Lakoff and Johnson.Metaphors beginwith analogousthinkingwhen one thing is comparedto another.Lakoffand Johnson (1980) also see analogousthinkingat the cruxof creativity.A leap of the imaginationoccurswhen the mind projectsideas and constructs new relationships.62. imaginative Hummel and Holyoak (2002) suggestthat creativethought is rooted in analogousthinking. The Connection Between Learning and Creativity Creativity. These bisociativepairingsare unexpected. 29 Mar 2014 03:50:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Imagination.' of creativity (Lakoff& Johnson.To LakoffandJohnson.and their dissonancecompels the mind to build a bridge between them in ways.. (1981) theory imagination. 2000. 'imagination.Lakoffand Johnsonview analogous thinking as a key element in learning. alignedwith 'seeingdifferently.

and Thornton's explanationsof learning and creativityemphasizethe mental processesof 'weaving'(connection-making) to generateabstract ideasand 'spinning'(takingideasfurther).Non-relationallearningis learningabout objects as they are in themselves. When continued unchecked.ever-constructing is Learning defined by Thornton as an "incrementaldiscovery of successfullevels of description-a kind of constructiverepresentationbuildingoperation" (p. Implications for Curriculum Integration Substantive curriculum educatorsto underintegration. requires standhow the mind perceives.This means that the output data from one iterationof the learningprocessbecomesthe input data for the next iteration. 242). 29 Mar 2014 03:50:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .In both concepts.relalearningaboutobjectsin relationship tional learning is the most significant form of ideas. alignment objective relationallearning extends beyond mere alignment and can become a generative process that creates new relationships and therefore new knowledge. reality conceptionintersect. Thornton calls this and saysthat it lies on the creative end of the learning'runaway learning' creativity is a closely linked to learningand understanding. This processusuallyculminateswith alignwhere and that culminatesin ment.Accordingto Thornton.' Thornton's notion of 'recoding'is similarto Lakoffand Johnson'sideas concerning metaphor.knowledgeand insightsaregenerated-by first establishing connections or relationships and then by Lakoffand Johnson's projectingthe new concepts.Relationallearningis to otherobjects.By elucidating the of learningand creativity.learningcan be dividedinto two categories: non-relationaland relational. It reachesbeyond objective alignment to the realm of the the learnerbecomesactivelyengagedin takingan idea further subjective. configuration.To Thornton. This kind of learning involves interpretationand imagination.but it is recursive. It is not only based on connection-making.201.or drawinginferences.'Weaving'connotesa web-like while 'spinning'suggestsa threador trail. A relational recursivelearning process is and evolving. connectionistand constructivist theoprocesses ries offer insight into the mind and providea theoreticalrationalebased Studies in Art Education 231 This content downloaded from 64. Thornton (2002) brings a differenttwist to the connection between is an extensionof the and learningby suggestingthat creativity creativity learningcontinuum.Learning is and literal. The ultimate effect of 'runawaylearning' is 'recoding. learnsand conceptualizes throughanalogical thinking. however.15 on Sat.then. ongoing.62. and looking to the possibilities suggested by the facts. metaphor and schema-construction. Becauseimagination operatesthroughconstructing between entities and develops perceived (connection-making) bridges furtherthrough projection.A Casefor Curriculum Integration imaginativelinks or leaps are often manifestedin mental images-thus the word imagination.

an inflexible structure can limit innovativethinking. Curriculum integration of within a discipline. re-conceptualized. Curriculum integration highlightsinteriorstructures When the organization of a fieldof inquiryis tions within disciplines. same disciplines as it involvescross-context 3. by locatingresemblances practice. (1995) thinking. 252). thatconfiguration research.201.Accordingto Ward (1995). he citesthe ground-breaking illustrate insightsof Hopfield.Studentscould come to understand for development of all knowledge thesestructures arenecessary includingknowledgein the fieldof art.and abstract inferences conceptsthat connectareas In constructivist disciplines parlance.specifically to theory. his ideaof neural who the fatherof neural-network theory developed the areaof spin glass nets by applyingconceptsfromphysics. thinkingis appliedacrossdisciplinary of aredrawn. Transfer. cognition.judged. the linkagesbetween They help us to betterunderstand learning and creating at their most fundamentallevel.connectionsaremade.The prevalence that tend to limit understanding has its downside. to This understanding could go further structure givesit coherence.15 on Sat. 29 Mar 2014 03:50:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . give us criticalinformation that is substantive. usuallyassociated applications knowledge transferred or When ideas are for has learning. ideasfromone disciplineand applyingthem to another" (p.When analogous beliefsand assumptions lines. gration Curriculum integration has many functions that are supported by They are: cognitivetheoryand constructivism. involvetaking often "Creative ideas Martindale states. shapes practice. fromdifferent learners' by bringinginformation expands understanding into the schemata. integration. are occurs and matters from one area to another. correlating thoughtarediscovered. of categorization alsobreaks down the barriers 4. Curriculum integration foregrounds betweenknowledge. is created. and how the waysin which the mind structures revealed.62. betweenand among the similarities 2. implications creativity. To this point. and that see thatknowledgein a disciplineis connectedand ordered.Lakoff structure and narrowdisciplinary and new andJohnson(1980) believethat new insightsaregenerated are conventional the boundaries of when occurs categorization learning 232 Studies in ArtEducation This content downloaded from 64. In exploring of a students the structural maycome to aspects discipline. inteto use in developing curriculum therefore.recoding applied fosterscreative Curriculum therefore. shedlight on how new knowledge connected.JuliaMarshall in cognitiveprocessesfor curriculum integration. Cross-disciplinary studypromotestransfer with of and ideas. knowledge. are and attitudes discovered. disciplines in multipleareas of inquiry. These theories. of and connec1.and that built uponwithin a discipline.These theoriesvalidate art integration becauseintegration is essentially about makingconnections and projections.

and especially for art educators. All of this implies that artmaking is essentially a learning process that spans the entire continuum between learning and creativity. weaving is 'integration' and spinning is 'extension. for artists. but areas outside art.201. Artmaking promotes imaginative play with concepts and whimsical projections of abstractions onto new contexts.the tenetsof a disciplineareseen differis disrupted. 60). and spinning takes them further.62. Making art also lends itself to runaway learning or spinning. Integration et al. As mentioned before. it usually lies outside the common discourse in art education classes and beyond the normal purview of our students.15 on Sat. Spinning is extended and expanded when art is integrated and the focus of the spinning includes not only art. Bransford 5. Fortunately. 6. and learn through imaginative inference and projection. learn. Bransford. Integration of art with the academic curriculum is especially good for highlighting the learning modalities of 'weaving' and 'spinning' because of the special nature of art images and the recursivecharacterof the art-making process. weaving constructs abstract concepts through linkages. (2000) maintain that contrasting entities is an especially effective strategy for teaching and learning about the specifics of those entities.A Casefor Curriculum Integration broken. visual representation of it (Ricoeur. Weaving also occurs in art when images are juxtaposed on a picture plane.conventional categorization to new created accommodate necessarily insights. alsohighlights the differences betweendisciplines. But understanding the way people think. Art Images: Visual Representation of the Mind Mental processing seems so abstract and intangible that addressing it with students is a daunting task. Spinning in art-making is particularly significant because the creative process of making art lends itself to evolving. interpreting the world through visual images is a combinatory act of connecting the conceptual to a tangible. and new schemata are ently. apply them to fantasies. Students can literally run away with ideas in their art.When this happens. the images of art can give us clues to mental Studies in Art Education 233 This content downloaded from 64. 29 Mar 2014 03:50:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . recursive learning. 1991). (2000) agree. "Appropriatelyarranged contrasts can help people notice new features that previously escaped their attention and learn which features are relevant or irrelevant to a particular concept" (p. This is especially true in interdisciplinary studies because different disciplines have their own distinct elements and seeing these particularities in relationship to those of other disciplines puts them in high relief. et al. in a three-dimensional object or in a time-based series of images to create meaning. and create is important for learners. In education parlance.' As for weaving and art. They refer to consciousness of one's mental processing as 'metacognition' and state that the literature in learning science stresses the significance of metacognition in understanding and transfer.

29 Mar 2014 03:50:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Staffordfinds noncoalescent imagesparticularly revealing.make an elusivepersonalawareness realin an external substantially especially high orderformsof envisioning. Solsowritesof the connectionbetweenartand mind and sees the value of artin illuminatingthis connection. ship 1994. arguesthat consciousness The visualarts.Braqueand Gris) are taken from early in art.201. p. for capturing p.JuliaMarshall processing. Stafford's use of the art term collage to describehow the mind works.These earlyworks 20th-centuryEuropewhen collagefirstappeared are clearexamplesof collaging. the myriadmodesby which They help us understand to them. 138) (Stafford.1999). viable subjectsfor our classroomsand help our students to achieveand practice metacognition.Stafford finds its truestexpression in art. 49) Barbara MariaStafford(1999) examinesthe connectionbetweenmind and image from a visual culture perspective. Thomas Grunfeldand MarkDion.62.Their imagesare especiallyuseful for educatorsbecause they are noncoalescent images(Stafford..For this reason. (Solso. learning. emphasizesthe connection between art imageryand mental processes.and resonates sympathetically of the brain-we can discoverthe salientfactsnecessary structures to formulate generallawsof the mind and the often elusiverelationof the mind with the external(electromagnetic) world. Art is a reflectionof the innerstructures and the perceptions of the mind of the artistand the artviewer. they heraldlaterartworks that may not be actual physicalcollages but are createdby conceptual collaging.15 on Sat.They can make cognition. ArtistsMark Tansey. 234 Studies in Art Education This content downloaded from 64.experiences processof transforming by cuttingand pastingthem to momenephemera continuesto be a particularly effective tarilystableconfigurations. For in art-especially art that appealsto universal of perceptionand cognitiveorgaprinciples with the innerneurological nization.have producedmany imagesthat embody they are literallyconstructedof found imagesjuxtaposedon a pictureplane. Staffordagreeswith connectionistmodels in cognitivesciencethat the mind works in combinatorial ways. "Collageas a 'collaging'or juxtaposingof images. postmodernart we find clearexamplesof collaging as a common and effectivestrategyfor amplifyingideas. peopleendlesslymodifyand reuseelementsavailable p.She agreeswith Ricoeur is essentially (1981) that consciousness pictorial. for example. Many of her examples(Picasso. In contemporary. 146). technique the chimeraof consciousness in action"(Stafford. framingreality and revealingthe workingsof the mind.As such.and creativityaccessible. She proposesthat abstractideas and consciousness itself are generated in the mind through a process of and ideas.

201. and Dion are also significant from cognibecauseit is in them that theoriesof learningand creativity and postmodernism tive science. p. experimentationand imagination.Juxtaposingthese two areascan shed light on the internalworkingsof the mind and its ways of constructing reality. His Misfit (St. We see here that level. beyond interdisciplinarity(depicting subject matter in science).metaphortheory. them into a largercoherentpattern. Second. it has a disturbingrealityto it-perhaps becauseit is constructedof real animalparts.AlthoughMisfit(St.This creatureis one in a seriesof hybridanimalsbegun in 1989 in which Grunfeldcombinesdisparate animalsto partsof preserved createnew fantasycreatures.makesinsight into the creativeprocess accessible.In doing so. These animalsrecallthe Europeantradition Studies in ArtEducation 235 This content downloaded from 64.Their imagesoverlap to revealconceptualconnectionsand the juxtaposition compelsviewersto see one image in termsof another.Since the connectionsbetweenart and scienceare located at such a deep and trulyintegrative.15 on Sat.A Casefor Curriculum Integration do not blend theirelementsare Types of imagesthat conspicuously the rulesgoverningthe brain's effectivein demonstrating especially how it is ableto activatemanydiscreteareaspossessing connectivity. these works providevisual representations about learning and creativityput forth in cognitive science discussed above.curriculum integration come together. questioning. for that reason. Bernard) synthetic. they do it in very conscious ways. using collage to go deeper to reveal underlying concepts. 29 Mar 2014 03:50:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the worksof theseartistsgo to curriculum Third. in regard integration. Bernard). these artistsuse metaphorin theirwork. of many of the ideas First. the artistscreateinsight and meaning.becauseit connectsat the conceptual The specificimagesdiscussedin this articleintegrate or collageart and science. specificfunctionsand juxtapose (Stafford.They are fields in which epistemologycoincideswith aesthetics(knowledgeand meaningresidein form and configuration)and the world is constructedthroughobservation. (1994) is an animal with the head of a sheep and the body of a St. Their work. Grunfeld. This is a particularly productiveareaof integrationbecauseart and science representprimaryfields of inquirywith a common corecuriosityand a will to know and understand. exploringtheir connections can takecurriculum to its deepestlevel. 144) The artworks of Tansey.62. collage. integration Thomas Grunfeld Thomas Grunfeld aligns art with science in ways that capture our attentionby disruptingour expectations. Bernard is noticeably recliningin a vitrine. The artworksof these three artistsrepresenta propensitytoward in much contemporary that predominates self-awareness (metacognition) art. They not only embody these ideas.

and wood vitrine. Each new creatureresonateswith many associations. to earlier engineering Grunfeldalso gives us clues to creativeprocessin both art and science.organizing in the naturalsciences.they embody the question 'What if?' and each of them suggestsa creationmyth and a life of its own.Grunfeld'shybridsalso have a runawayquality. Therefore. Courtesyof the Arnot and MichaelJanssenGallery.62.stuffing.For this reason. of collecting.his work makesclearconnections betweenart and scienceand providesgood examplesof deeperinterdisciplinarycross-pollination. 1990). especiallysynthesis or combining existing entities to create new inventions. MarkDion Mark Dion merges art and science in his artwork by mimicking research principles. Taxidermy.1994. they connect the latest technology and researchin genetic effortsin scienceto controlnature. 29 Mar 2014 03:50:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .15 on Sat. Bernard). animalsin naturalhistorymuseums.plexiglas. Grunfeld's synthesis is essentially collaging as understood by Stafford (1999) and bisociation (Koestler.and displaying In this way. and conventionsof displayused practices.201.Misfit (St.JuliaMarshall Thomas Grunfeld. 236 in Art Education Studies This content downloaded from 64. Grunfeld's collage clearin these animalsbecauseit is embodiedin two processis particularly and discrete noncoalescentparts that join togetherto generate disparate each new entity.

Mauries. " Many of his installations involve collections of to categoriesand therefore hint at how the mind organizes what it encounters. particularly spirituality.we can see that these objectsare conceptuallyrelatedand intuit how many human concepts. These cabinets are I especiallysignificant in that they representan intersectionbetween art and scienceat a pivotaltime when curiosityand observation commingled with obsessive accumulation and aesthetic display (Stafford. . they revealedhow the mind juxtaposes and conceptsthrough phenomenaand createsnarratives Cabinetsof curiositiesare also metaphorical relationships. 1999. (2001). there is f a direct link between the work of Dion and Stafford's l y notion of collage.*a _ . representations of schema-mixing. patterns and relationships. and preserved animals that one would find in the traditional Studies in Art Education 237 This content downloaded from 64.201. accordingto Stafford. beliefs. These collectionswere._ by Lakoff and Johnson. and reason. Also. Cabinet of Curiosities MarkDion. 29 Mar 2014 03:50:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .A Casefor Curriculum Integration Dion's work also alludes to the ways we think.physicalmaniEnlightenment-era festationsof the collagingprocessesof the mind.2001. The mind is represented as a largecabinetwith shelves and files for differentcategoriesof objects.62. the culturalobjects representideas about human life. CabinetofCuriosities. Dion's Cabinetof Curiosities (2001) is a particularly postmoderncloset. Dion updates the tradition of the With RobertWilliams. We see this especially in his work. This connects Dion's work to the theories of categoobjects displayed according -: r rizationprofessed . both natural and humanmade.15 on Sat. are displayed together as objects of wonder. Analysis of these artifactsindividuallyrevealsthem as objectsthat embody ideas. Courtesyof the artist. which artifacts of all sorts. It is filledwith an arrangement of naturalspecimenssuch as bones. 2002). shells. In this piece.In juxtaposingnaturalwith cultural objects.a .ethics.and 18th-century 'cabinets of curiosities' or wunderkammer. 17th.Often the placementin these cabinetsis informalor quite casualand the objectsescapetheir categories to createnew relationships and new concepts.The naturalobjectsexemplifynaturalpatterns and laws. and aesthetics were derived from observation of natural forms.

are generated by the combinatoryprocess of collaging.Tansey recreates collaging experience. Dion's ironic commentarylies in the parallelsand contrastshe draws between the historical icons of western Europe and the massproducedimagesof contemporary popularculture. but Tansey also touches upon science.which took place on a moving train and led to the the trainscenarioas an archetypal Theory of Relativity. He does not collage in the conventional art sense-physically cutting and arrangingimages or organizingobjects and parts to create juxtapositions-but he collagesin a conceptualway.On a deeperlevel. Tansey's subjectsare often the history of art. with Einstein'swork in physics. which led to conceptualand perforDuchamp'sgroundbreaking mance art. and often profound sense when placed in proximitywith each other. His imagesalso Tansey'swork particularly echo runawaylearningbecausethey evolve througha processof pushing the combinationsbeyond the initial synthesisthroughto their logical or illogicalconclusions. the fatherof conceptualart.201.In using these 'relics. objectsthat surround MarkTansey The work of MarkTansey is especiallynoteworthyas combinational imagerycreatedthroughjuxtaposingdistinct images.15 on Sat. he often uses a wooden table he constructed of three rotatingconcentriccircles. literature. his feminine alter ego. Dion puts a modern twist on the wunderkammer traditionby replacing the relicsof Enlightenment Europe. passing on a train going in the opposite direction.With the inclusion of these pop-culture icons. he creates an analogy between ideas. On the top shelf. In so doing. 29 Mar 2014 03:50:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . sitting on a train observinghimself as Rrose Selavy. This process of arbitraryjuxtaposition makes deliberate and metacognitive.These works bring together disparate images that make peculiar. especiallywhen the artist or 238 in ArtEducation Studies This content downloaded from 64.' he revealsthe contemporary mind as a descendentof the Enlightenment mind with its tendencyto collageor blur the boundaries betweennature and culture and its practice of deriving ideas and meaning from the it. and globes with the artifactsof today.eachwith a multitudeof tiny lines of text radiating from the center.JuliaMarshall wunderkammer.Tansey'scollageprocessis particularly juxtaposing self-conscious.In spinningthese circlesand noting how the texts line up when the circlesstop rotating.62. is a collection of massitems from produced contemporary popularculture. tools. Tansey reminds us that this worksin both art and science-and it is the engine that collagingstrategy new generates understandingsand ideas. such as portraitsof Greek gods. however. surprising. even the truly momentousones. The Enunciation(1992) depicts MarcelDuchamp.and philosophy.Tansey generatesendlessrandom combinations of ideas. Tansey is also suggestingthat ideas. This image referencesEinstein's legendaryepiphany. selectingimagesand them in his paintings. Tansey is a painter.

62. Implications for Art Educators To teach authentically about art and postmodern concepts.A Casefor Curriculum Integration s9m.15 on Sat. understanding. weaves or connects it to other ideas. I believe that substantive art integration is such a pedagogy because it offers a conceptuallybased approach to exploring contemporary ideas while promoting learning.Photograph Robert McKeever. and creativity. Enunciatin1992.201.. Studies in Art Education 239 This content downloaded from 64. we must employ an approach to teaching and learning in tune with postmodern principles that works in a pedagogically sound way. h t_ _s oi ' mar appr . and postmodern art provide information and ideas that can facilitate this endeavor. teaching is a practice of making connections or helping students to make connections.> . ____ing undersanding _ S MarkTansey. metaphor theory. and to design integrative curriculum that catalyzes and nurtures these processes. 29 Mar 2014 03:50:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . sees its implications. -w ' rs E-Dij_ _i s awayw . Cognitive science and metaphor theory give us clear descriptions of learning and creative thinking that help teachers to recognize these processes when they occur in student work. Oil on canvas. Developing and implementing substantive integration is a challenge for art educators. A central tenet of learning and creativity theory is that learning and creativity are essentially connection-making.. i ~ive= . and 'spins' a new trail._-G _ 5 \ C: fX0 1 liby el and eatii. Cognitive science. a84 x 64 inches. l CourtesyGagosian Gallery. scientist runs away with the idea generated through collage.I-i"ea gn ataThe !cienti mi' Iae 6 t . Consequently.

information. integration encourages art educators to include conceptualstrategiesin their art lessons-to integrateideas and conceptualprocesseswith techniques.and spinning behind them. Postmodernart also presentsclearimagesfrom which to teach about idea-generation and creative process. Hutchens.Ratherthan understanding integrationas simply using art to exploreand communicate ideas from other disciplines.we can better see the conceptualprocessesof collaging. When these images are viewed throughthe lens of cognitivetheoryand metaphortheory. (1997). postmodernart imagesprovidecatalysts for developmentof substantive curriculum.Therefore. but as connection-makerswho 'weave' nets between areasof knowledge. follow ideas.201. Analysisof these artworks can help studentsbecome awareof their in own conceptual and to utilizethatknowledge. Suggs. Art education:Contentandpracticein a postmodern (pp. References Barrett. Postmodern art helps us in developing integrative curriculum by providinginsight into the natureof substantive integration.and conceptualcollage.The primacyof ideasis one of the significantlessonsthat integrative studyand postmodernism bringto arteducation.).and visual form and to makethe vital connectionbetweenvisualimagesand ideas. naryelementsthat reveals Ideasbecome the focus when elements (subjects. processes image-making. them to related and contexts.T. (Eds. objectsand images) teachersmust see themselvesas 'spinners' who pose questionsthat challengestudents to take things further.materials.62.weaving.and connectingthem to the mental processesthey embody are ways to generateideas for art that engagestudentsin thinking.and image-making in exercises substantiveand integrativeways. projection. Modernism and postmodernism:An overviewwith art examples. linking images. 240 Studies in Art Education This content downloaded from 64. & M. 17-30).and mine their implications. ideas. In era J. these works for the Mining conceptsthey harbor. Reston.learning. Above all.Learning and creativity also involveprojecdisparate tion and inference.15 on Sat.JuliaMarshall Connectionismand constructivism challengeteachersto re-conceptualize their practice and role-not as mere distributors of information or trainersof skills. In highlighting ideas.stories. This approachnecessitatesapplying similarimaginative processesto curriculum developmentand teachingas those postmodernartistsuse in their work-connection. VA: National Art Education Association. The conceptsof'spinning' and 'weaving'are at the core of art and they are amplifiedand expandedin curriculum integration. 29 Mar 2014 03:50:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .these works suggestthat integrationis actuallya form of cross-disciplinary collage-a juxtapositionof disciplior generates connectiveideas.

R. Hutchens & M. Westport.) (2000). Education Association. Creativity. (Eds. Art education:Contentandpractice in a postmodernera (pp. Freedman. (Ed.Washington. & Holyoak.Cambridge. Reston. DC: Commission on Behavioraland Social Sciences and Education. Creativityand runawaylearning.J. Art and cognition. Cambridge. Cook. (2002). Stafford.15 on Sat. (2002) Contemporary Prentice-Hall. Ricoeur. New Freedman. Y. (1995). P. Ward.New York: Penguin Books.cognitionand knowledge (pp. Cambridge. VA: National Art Education Association Koestler. & Johnson. Trans. Designingand implementing Brandon. (2003) Teachingvisualculture:Curriculum. 138-179). In T. (1995).integratingthe visualarts in the curriculum. Ward. VT: Holistic Education Press. & Johnson. The act of creation. VA: National Art Clark. Suggs. An approachto art education: Efland.aesthetics. P. Visualanalogy:Consciousness as the art of connecting (pp. experience and school. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Piaget. MA: MIT Press. E. T. (1994).. New York: Efland. P. (2002). (1980). Metaphorswe live by. B. & R. P. Finke. The originsofintelligencein children(M. & Cocking. 157-178). 7-15). and knowledge (pp. In S. (2002). IL: The University of Chicago Press.. (Original work published 1952) Ricoeur. (1996).).). Reflection Solso. Westport. & R. The metaphoricalprocess as cognition. J. Cognitionand the visualarts. In B. approach. 228-247). 29 Mar 2014 03:50:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. Chicago.cognition. York:Teachers College Press.201. Mauries. in theflesh. 239-249). The creative cognitionapproach(pp. Martindale. (1990).). The creativecognitionapproach(pp. Lakoff.62. Dartnell. In T.). Reston.. & Suggs. CT: Praeger.181-210). J. R.. What's old about new ideas?In S. Teachers College Press. In J. How people learn:Brain. G. A. (1997) Student complaints and faculty moaning: Some antecedents to the essaysthat follow. Art education:Issuesin postmodern pedagogy. A Ricoeur reader: and imagination(pp. Finke. The function of fiction in shaping reality.Upper-Saddle River. MA: MIT Press.. and feeling. Hummel. 117-136). Smith. imagination. (1991). Philosophicalperspectives (pp. Studies in Art Education 241 This content downloaded from 64. M. CT: Praeger. Ward. M.. Cabinetsofcuriosities. G. T. National Academy Press. Hutchens.K. Philosophy Lakoff. VA: National Art Education Association. Thornton. New York:Norton. K. NJ: Gaudelius.. Toronto: University of Toronto. T. MA: MIT Press. (1963). 249-268). on metaphor Johnson (Ed. Recombinancy:Binding the computational "new mind" to the combinatorial 'old mind'. MA: MIT Press. & Stuhr. K. Analogy and creativity:Schema induction in a structuresensitive connectionist model. (1999). (1997). Stafford. New York: Basic Books. Creativityand connectionism. (Ed. issuesin art education. R. and the sociallife of art. Valdes. (1981). Reston. C. an integrated curriculum: A student-centered Clark.. Dartnall. mind. P. Cambridge. C. In M. (1999). A.). Creativity. M. Smith. (Eds.A Case for Curriculum Integration Bransford. A. J.). (1996) Postmodern curriculum.New York:Thames and Hudson.A. & Spiers. In M. National ResearchCouncil. Brown. (2002). (Ed.