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Given a triangle in Euclidean geometry it is well known that
there exist an infinity of triangles each of which is similar to
the given one.

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K. R. S. Sastry

Jeevan Sandhya, Doddakalsandra Post, Raghuvana Halli

Bangalore 560 062, INDIA

ABSTRACT

Given a triangle in Euclidean geometry it is well known that

there exist an infinity of triangles each of which is similar to

the given one. In Section I we make certain observations on

Smarandache numbers. This enables us to impose a constraint on the

lenghts of the corresponding sides of similar triangles. In

Section II we do this to see that infinite class of similar

triangles reduces to a finite one. In section III we disregard the

similarity requirement. Finally, in section IV we pose a set of

open problems.

I SMARANDACHE NUMBERS: SOME OBSERVATIONS

Suppose a natural number n is given. The Smarandache number

of n is the least number denoted by S (n) whith the following

property: n divides Sen)! but not (S(n)-1)!. Below is a short

table containing nand Sen) for 1 n 12.

n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

S (n) 1 2 3 4 5 3 7 4 6 5 11

A look at the above table shows that S(3) = S(6) = 3,

S ( 4) = S (8) = S ( 12 ) = 4, ..• .

12

4

Let a natural number k be given. Then the equation Sex) = k

cannot have an inf ini ty of solutions x. This is because the

largest solution is x=k!. This observation enables us to impose a

restriction on the lengths of the corresponding sides of similar

triangles. In the next section we shall see how to do this.

Throughout this paper the triangles are assumed to have natural

number side lengths. Also, the triangles are non degenerate.

II SMARANDACHE SIMILAR TRIANGLES

Let us denote by T{a,b,c) the triangle ABC with side lengths

a, b, c. Then the two similar triangles T(a,b,c) and T' (a',b',c')

are said to be Smarandache Similar if Sea) = Sea'), S(b) = S(b'),

S{c) = S(c'). Trivially, a given triangle is Smarandache similar

to itself. Non trivially the two pytagorean triangles (right

triangles with natural number side lengths) T(3,4,5) and T'(6,8,10)

107

are Smarandache similar because

S(3) = S(6) = 3, S(4) = S(8) = 4, S(5) = S(10) = 5.

However, the Similar triangles (3,4,5) and (9,12,15) are not

Smarandache Similar because S(3) = 3 * S(9) which is 6. In fact

the class of Smarandache Similar triangles generated by T(3,4,5)

contains just two: T(3,4,5) and T'(6,8,10) in view of the fact that

the solution set of the equation Sex) = 3 consists of just two

members x = 3, 6.

For another illustration let us determine the class of

Smarandache Similar Triangles generated by the 60° triangle

T(a,b,c) = (5,7,8). The algorithm to do this is as follows: First

we calculate S(5) = 5, S(7) = 7, S(8) = 4. Next we solve the

equations Sea') = 5, S(b') = 7, S(c') = 4. Let us solve the last

equation first.

S(c') = 4 - c' = 4, 8, 12, 24.

Here the largest value c' = 24 = 3c. Hence we need not to solve

the other two equations beyond the solutions a' = 3a, b' = 3b.

This observation therefore gives us

Sea') = 5 - a' = 5, 10, 15 and

S(b') = 7 - b' = 7, 14, 21.

It is now clear that the class of Smarandache similar triangles

contains just two members: (5,7,8) and (15,21,24).

III SMARANDACHE RELATED TRIANGLES

In this section we do not insist on the similarirty

requirement that we had in section II. Hence the definition: Given

a triangle T(a,b,c) we say that a triangle T' (a' ,b' ,c') is

Smarandache related to T if Sea') = Sea), S(b') = S(b), S(c') =

S(c). Note that the triangles T and T' mayor may not be similar.

As an illustration let us determine all the triangles that are

Smarandache related to T(3,4,5). To do this we follow the same

algorithm that we mentioned in section II but we have to find all

the solutions of the equations Sea') = 3, S(b') = 4, S(c') = 5.

Therefore

S (a' )

S (b')

S (c')

This gives

(3,12,10);

(6,24,20) .

= 3 - a' = 3, 6;

= 4 - b' = 4, 8, 12, 24;

= 5 - c' = 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, 120.

us the complete solution (a',b',c') = (3,4,5); (3,8,10);

(6,4,5); (6,8,5); (6,8,10); (6,12,10); (6,12,15);

IV CONCLUSION

In the present discussion I have used small natural numbers k

so that the solution of the equations S (x) = k can be easily

determined. I do not know if this interesting converse problem of

determining all natural numbers x for given k of the Smarandache

equation S(x)=k has been disscused by someone already. In case if

this has not been already considered, I invite the reader to devise

efficient methods to solve the preceding equation. We conclude

this section by posing the following open problems to the reader.

(A) Are there two distinct dissimilar Phytagorean triangles

108

that are Smarandache related? i.e. both T(a,b,c) and T' (a',b',c')

are Pythagorean such that Sea') = Sea), S(b') = S(b), S(c') = S(c)

but T and T' are not similar.

(B) Are there two distinct and dissimilar 60° triangles (120°

triangles) that are Smarandache related?

(c) Given a triangle T{a,b,c). Is it possible to give either

an exact formula or an uper bound for the total number of triangles

(without actually determining all of them) that are Smarandache

related to T?

(D) Consider other ways of relating two triangles in the

Smarandache number sense. For example, are there two triplets of

natural numbers and such that 0 + + V = 0' +

+ V' = 180 and S{o) = S(o'), = S(v) = S{v').

If such distinct triplets exist the two triangles would be

Smarandache related via their angles. Of course in this

relationship the side lengths of the triangles may not be natural

numbers.

109

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