UNMANNED AIR VEHICLE

MICRO AIR VEHICLES
Abhishek K V
3rdSEM, Department of Mechanical Engineering, REVA ITM, Bangalore
abhishek.spacescience65@gmail.com

Ajay T S
3 SEM, Department of Mechanical Engineering, REVA ITM, Bangalore
ajayts54@gmail.com
rd

Abstract— Micro Air Vehicles (MAV’s) are class of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) that has a size restriction and is a semiautonomous air vehicle. The improvements in the propulsion system, battery powered electronic motors, development of miniature radio receivers and control components, advancement in aerodynamics brought change over in the design and development of these vehicles. Modern MAV’s are based on the body design of birds and insects which give them better stability, control, up thrust and lower landing speed and finally require low power. The main advantage of MAV is that it hover for 2-3 hours at an altitude of 600 meters or above, ranging from 20-30 mph in speed which cannot be detected by most of the Radars. Major applications of MAV’s include military surveillance, biochemical sensing, Traffic monitoring, defense applications, Wildlife study and Photography and tracking criminals and illegal activities. Keywords— Micro Air Vehicle, Aerodynamics, Fixed-wing, Rotary wing, Flapping-Wing, Reynolds Number, Biologically inspired air vehicles

configurations of MAVs are different from that of normal aircrafts. The speed of MAV is very low and the size is less than 38.10 cm length, width or height [1]. MAVs are not the small versions of ordinary aircrafts but are affordable fully functional, military capable, small flight vehicles in a class of their own. The mechanism for lift generation in these smaller vehicles is of different types like using rotary wings and using flapping wings. The current goal is to develop aircraft with a 15cm maximum dimension that have a mass less than 90g and an endurance of 20 to 30 min at speeds between 30 to 65 km/h [2]. In addition to being a compact system transportable by a single operator, MAVs have other advantages including rapid deployment, real time data acquisition capability, low radar cross section and low noise. II.

DESIGN

I.

INTRODUCTION

A micro air vehicle (MAV), or micro aerial vehicle, is a class of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) that has a size restriction and is a semi-autonomous air vehicle. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is working on the development of a new class of flight vehicles called micro air vehicles (MAVs). The high level of current interest in developing small flight vehicles is the result of the nearly simultaneous emergence of their technological feasibility and an array of compelling new military needs, especially in urban environments. A more flexible definition includes aircraft whose flight is characterized by low Reynolds number. Micro Air Vehicle is a small flight vehicle that uses lift-generating mechanism different from the mechanism used for larger aircraft. These machines are used to perform a variety of mission including reconnaissance, surveillance, targeting, tagging etc. in hazardous locations and for bio-chemical sensing in defense sector. The design features and the

In order for practical MAVs to be created for either indoor or outdoor applications, they must first be able to fly, be controllable, and have a useful endurance. Key to the ability to fly is an efficient aerodynamic structure with a sufficiently high lift-to-drag ratio that it can support the weight of its structure in flight. Weight and strength of materials are essential elements to the creation of any flying vehicle. It is logical and expected that the first MAVs would be designed as scaled-down manned aircraft, since that is the most familiar design space. Fixed-wing MAVs and rotary-wing MAVs are naturally modeled after conventional airplanes and helicopters. Closer investigation reveals that one cannot simply scale down large designs to the 15 cm scale and below, because the interaction of objects moving through air changes as the size of the objects diminish. Classical aerodynamics used to design airfoils in manned airplanes and helicopters no longer applies as the scale of the airfoil approaches that of small birds and insects because of the reduction in Reynolds number which describes the behavior of

1.2 shows the details of the Rotarywing MAVs. MAVs fall into three basic categories: fixed-wing. Weight is also an issue when small redundant propellers are used with multiple motors.Fig-3.the air as seemingly much more viscous. Still.1. lightweight. function. [3]A better engineering approach is to use ―biological inspiration‖ rather than bio mimicry. Fig-3. Because the strength of materials does not scale proportionately as things get smaller. Fig-3. but works with similar principles and is able to be implemented. Combinations of these are of course also possible. Implement ability is essential to a valid MAV design philosophy. rotary wing.)). and then figures out how to leverage the physical principles involved. indoor flight or operations in confined spaces pose the risk of rotor strikes. energy storage. hydraulic diameter when dealing with river systems) (m) µ is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (Pa·s or N·s/m² or kg/ (m·s)) is the kinematic viscosity ( = ) (m²/s) ρ is the density of the fluid (kg/m³). As such. to viscous forces in a fluid (air). Rotary-Wing MAVs Many of the problems associated with the fast flight of fixed wing MAVs can be overcome through the use of rotary-wing implementations because of their ability to fly slowly and even hover. 180 000 and at altitudes from 30 to100m (98 to 328 ft. and propulsion are contained within the plan form of the wing.1. MAV structures must be strong.2 Rotary-wing MAV 2. Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless number that relates inertial forces of an object such as an airfoil. (travelled length of the fluid. Using biological inspiration.1. and flapping-wing configurations. MORPHOLOGY Fig-3. but moreover. The Reynolds number is defined as: (1) Where: v is the mean velocity of the object relative to the fluid (SI units: m/s) L is a characteristic linear dimension. Fixed-Wing MAV’s Propeller-driven MAVs are essentially flying wings where all of the avionics. these usually end up being ―fast flyers ―reaching 65 km hr−1 (40 mph) at chord Reynolds numbers from about 45 000 to . The selection of a particular configuration is usually driven by mission requirements.1 Fixed-Wing MAV III.Thinner airfoils are a typical result of designs optimized for lower Reynolds numbers.1 shows the various parts of Fixed-wing MAVs. 3. Flapping-Wing MAVs Unparalleled in the ability to fly slowly and robustly indoors and in confined spaces is the flapping-wing MAV. we find that materials that would be otherwise unsuitable for aircraft use at a larger scale can become quite useful at the 15 cm MAV scale and below [4].1. to create a mechanical analog that is not an exact copy.

and may serve as communication relays. They may also enable observations through windows. and they are difficult to .becomes extremely difficulties. The reason that a flapping wing is more survivable than a rotor is that its energy is distributed over a wider chord and oscillates from a minimum of zero thrust and lift at either end of the flapping stroke. which allow slow controlled flight. Biochemical sensing. The physical integration challenge is believed to be the most difficult problem. which harbors the largest numbers of unknowns for the MAV designer.1.1.fly into the vicinity of a target and 'paint' (point a laser) at the target.Just like a moth or small bird can fly about in a building. The concept of MAV's has had significant interest. with roles such as:  Target finding . Flight control is the single technological area. sometimes even grazing the walls with its wings. From these examples it is easy to see the potential of micro air vehicles for use as a high precision tactical weapon. the idea of a back packable spying device which could be used by soldiers to scout enemy positions. The capability to navigate complex shaped passageways. acting in small. Having a flying scout for exploration that accompanies the rover will be very beneficial because the exploration will no longer be restricted by natural barriers. the degree of which increases dramatically with decreasing vehicle size or increasing functional complexity. angle of attack. Their application to building interiors is the most demanding envisioned. to its maximum at mid stroke. Using MAV’s with flapping wings ('Entomopters') to explore Mars is a project already underway. At and below the 15 cm scale size. MAVs will be able to map the size and shape of hazardous clouds and provide real time tracking of their location [7].One source described multiple MAV's destroying bridges by flying to weak spots and detonating. signal boosters and a radar module if the devices could be miniaturised enough the possibilities are great. a flappingwing MAV[5]would provide the greatest survivability and performance indoors (see Fig 3.our conventional approach to hardware integration . Fig-3. which can vary in flapping speed. From some sources it also seems like the MAV's may be made into weapons of war. avoid obstacles and relay information will require yet another level of technology. provide real-time tactical combat information and take aerial photographs of the immediate area. cooperative groups. While all classes of MAV can function outdoors and are susceptible to the same environmental affects that keep insects and birds from flying effectively during periods of high winds or during thunder storms. and sensor placement on vertical and elevated surfaces. With gradient sensors and flight control feedback. the ability of flapping wing MAVs to safely negotiate tight quarters is based on high lift mechanisms evolved over the surface of the wing. The laminar-flow-dominated flight environment can produce relatively large forces and moments.the MAV’s could fly into engines of aircraft and cause heavy damage.3 Flapping-Wing MAV IV. and furthermore exploration of the atmosphere can be achieved. will enable reconnaissance and surveillance of inner city areas.  Controllable debris . with no risk to the soldiers life is very appealing. or even fly to the V. the concept of "stuffing" an airframe with subsystems . Manoeuvrability derives from the flapping-wing’s differential kinematics. FUNCTIONS OF MAV target and transmit positional information using the GPS system for cruise missile. LIMITATIONS: The development and fielding of militarily useful MAVs will require overcoming a host of significant technology and operational obstacles.3 ). The MAV's could also be upgraded with useful technologies like Optical and infrared cameras. In urban operations MAVs. In Civil operations the idea of using a MAV for reconnaissance could also be replicated by Police forces when they want to see inside a building discretely for example during a hostage situation.  Flying explosives . especially where the military is concerned. is another potential mission for MAVs. span. or cycle excursion [6].

. Other capabilities under development include: 1. Defense Sciences Office. ―Fixed and Flapping Wing Aerodynamics for Micro Air Vehicle Applications‖ (I-IV) [2] Garcia-Polanco. Advanced flight control 7. some researchers have focused on fully autonomous [8]. J. Longer range 6. "Aerodynamic Design of a Micro Air Vehicle: Study of Propeller-Engine Performance. where wing loading is very light. Col. MAVs design presents new REFERENCES T. Compounding the aerodynamic design issues are those of miniaturization. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The Authors would like to express a deep sense of gratitude and thank profusely our guide Mr. manned aircraft ―sense and avoid‖ issues. Galiński and R. More capabilities – live video and [10] chemical\biological monitoring 3.‖(Page 2) [8] C. but truly micro air vehicles cannot carry onboard transmitters powerful enough to allow for tele-operation. and non-scaling items.-C. The overall aim will be to minimize the size and weight. it would not have been possible to complete the Technical Paper in this manner. An onboard camera allowing the ground pilot to stabilize and navigate the craft was first demonstrated in the Aerovironment Black Widow.1. to increase the speed. highly autonomous control systems.55. Michael S. including the structure of the device. [10] Garcia-Polanco. VI. FUTURE WORK The future work involves the design for forward moving. Beyond the difficulties in developing MAVs. Without his wise counsel and able guidance. The MAVs' small size makes tele operation impractical because a ground station pilot cannot see it beyond 100 meters. Longer flight times 5. ―Paper on Computing Assessment 1 on Micro Air Vehicles. 2007. that is.Raju B S and Mr. J. few designs adequately address control issues. DARPA. J. Santhosh B D for his able guidance and valuable suggestions." SAE Technical Paper [11] Mike Bame. [4] Robert Michelson ―Encyclopedia of Aerospace Engineering. the controllers. Bio-inspired Flying Robots: Experimental Synthesis of Autonomous Indoor Flyers. Sensors for tracking enemy troop movements and other activities 4. MC-Michael. Bulletin of the Polish academy of Technical sciences Vol. and to maximize the battery life for this MAV. Platform stabilization and guidance will require rapid. reducing the weight of the device using lighter materials. Żbikowski ―Some problems of micro air vehicles development‖. (2008). Varadraj K R has been of great help in carrying out the present work. Mueller. Also there will be design improvements to achieve high flight speeds better stability in air. ―Paper on Micro Aerial Vehicles‖ [1] . challenges to the aerospace engineer because they operate in relatively new flight regimes where classical design methods begin to fail for reasons associated with the physical characteristics of air flow around small surfaces.‖ Online © 2010 John Wiley & Sons. For this reason.predict under all but the most benign flight conditions. [6] Robert Michelson ―Encyclopedia of Aerospace Engineering. energy storage. An approach to design a flying mechanism different from the approaches being followed by the researchers around the world has been described. Navigation and communications capabilities 8. and of very limited endurance. EPFL Press/CRC Press. VIII. No.‖ Online © 2010 John Wiley & Sons.. Francis. Ltd [5] Zufferey. certification of the MAV and its support systems. Beyond the engineering of efficient MAVs are many logistical problems yet to be considered: air traffic management. Lower cost 9. We are thankful to all the faculty members who have directly or indirectly helped us in completion of this paper. CONCLUSION Micro Air Vehicles are the new development of the technology by which a variety of operations are done. Unsteady flow effects arising from atmospheric gusting or even vehicle maneuvering are far more pronounced on small scale MAVs where inertia is almost nonexistent. Fly at higher altitude [11] VII. and Palencia. and developing small power sources. Ltd [7] James Upton. Micro Air Vehicles: Toward a New Dimension in Flight. the gyroscope for stabilizing. The constant guidance received from Mr. etc. and Palencia. "Aerodynamic Design of a Micro Air Vehicle: Study of Propeller-Engine Performance. N. Smaller size and lighter – there is active research on ―Nano air vehicles‖ [9] 2. and how to deal with autonomous operations where the vehicle is too small to see. may be impossible to communicate with. N. J." SAE Technical Paper [3] James M. [9] ―Nano Air Vehicle‖.