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# CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

## CHAPTER 2: MATTER 1. To determine melting point

Heating

Cooling

Water bat ! to en"#re #ni\$orm eatin% &'ot %ra( ! ) ! a*i" +Start at ,0 o C-. 2. The kinetic theory of matter +"o'id. "o'id !'i/#id. 'i/#id. 'i/#id0%a". %a"Matter i" made #( o\$ tin) and di"1rete (arti1'e" +atom". ion" or mo'e1#'e"-. t ere i" "(a1e bet2een t e"e (arti1'e". a- arran%ement o\$ (arti1'e"0(a13 1'o"e') to%et er. order') arran%ement. \$ar a(art \$rom ea1 ot er b- Mo4ement o\$ (arti1'e"04ibrate". rotate. "'o2'). ra(id'). 4i%oro#"'). random'). 1- 3ineti1 ener%) 1ontent0 d- 1 an%e in ener%) 1ontent0 e- \$or1e o\$ attra1tion0"tron%. 2ea3. 2ea3er
Tem(erat#re.oC

## %oiling point Time. "

to t1 t2 t8

Example: 5ra( " o2" the heating curve o\$ e'ement 6. De cri!e t e %ra( in term" o\$ tate of matter. particle arrangement and change in energy. "ample an #er: "tage to ! t1
t1 0 t 2

## "tate of matter 7i/#id 7i/#id ! %a"eo#" 5a"eo#"

t2 ! t8

Particle arrangement T e (arti1'e" are 1'o"e to ea1 ot er. T e (arti1'e" arran%ement i" not order'). Some o\$ (arti1'e" are 1'o"e to ea1 ot er and "ome \$ar a(art. T e (arti1'e" arran%ement i" not order'). T e (arti1'e" are \$ar a2a) \$rom ea1 ot er. T e (arti1'e" arran%ement i" not order').

Change in energy T e 3ineti1 ener%) in1rea"e" T e 3ineti1 ener%) i" 1on"tant T e 3ineti1 ener%) in1rea"e"

8. Diffu ion ! t e mo4ement o\$ particle +atom9ion"9mo'e1#'e- o\$ "#b"tan1e in bet2een t e (arti1'e" o\$ anot er "#b"tan1e 9 \$rom i% ') 1on1entrated area to 'e"" 1on1entrated area. 5a" : 'i/#id : "o'id ;. \$ otope ! are atom o\$ t e "ame e'ement +"ame n#mber o\$ (roton- 2it di\$\$erent n#mber o\$ ne#tron"9n#1'eon n#mber. 1

## E*am('e< Com(are atom &2' and atom &()

* *

Atom &roton n#mber >o. o\$ e'e1tron ?a'en1e e'e1tron >#mber o\$ ne#tron 9 n#1'eon n#mber C emi1a' (ro(ertie" & )"i1a' (ro(ertie" >o. o\$ o11#(ied " e'' CHAPTER +: CHEM\$CA, -.RM/,A

## ' = = ; =9 12 "imi'ar di\$\$erent "imi'ar

) = = ; @ 91;

=( =n

'

=( @n

10 Empirical formula< 1 emi1a' \$orm#'a t at " o2" t e "im('e"t 2 o'e n#mber ratio o\$ atom" o\$ ea1 e'ement in a 1om(o#nd. CH2 2. Molecular formula< a 1 emi1a' \$orm#'a t at " o2" t e a1t#a' n#mber o\$ atom" o\$ ea1 e'ement t at i" (re"ent in a mo'e1#'e o\$ t e 1om(o#nd. C2H( a- Anrea1ti4e meta' ! rea1tion o*ide meta' 2it )dro%en %a". +C#O. &bO .SnO !1 Diagram H)dro%en Rea1ti4e meta' + M%. Zn ! b#rn in e*1e"" o*)%en 9 air - ! more rea1ti4e t an H2

c1 Proce2ure 0 Wei% and re1ord t e ma"" o\$ 1omb#"tion t#be 2it (or1e'ain di" 0 Add a "(at#'a o\$ 1o((er +II- o*ide on t e (or1e'ain di" . Wei% t e t#be a%ain. 0 A''o2 )dro%en %a" \$'o2 into t e t#be \$or , ! 10 min#te". 0 B#rn t e e*1e"" )dro%en. 0 Heat 1o((er +II- o*ide trongly0 0 T#rn o\$\$ t e \$'ame 2 en !lack oli2 turn !ro#n 1om('ete'). 0 Contin#e t e \$'o2 o\$ )dro%en #nti' t e "et o\$ a((arat#" 1oo' do2n to room tem(erat#re. 0 Wei% t e 1omb#"tion t#be 2it it" 1ontent. 0 0Repeat t e (ro1e"" eatin%. 1oo'in% and 2ei% in% #nti' a 1on"tant ma"" i" obtained and re1ord.
Re ult : 0 1omb#"tion t#be 2it (or1e'ain di" C a % 0 1omb#"tion t#be 2it (or1e'ain di" D 1o((er +IIo*ide C b % 01omb#"tion t#be 2it (or1e'ain di" D 1o((er C 1 % 0 ma"" o\$ 1o((er C 6 c4 a1 g 7 Ma"" o\$ o*)%en C 6 !4 c 1 g

0 3eigh and re1ord a 1r#1ib'e 2it it" 'id 0 Clean M% ribbon 2it "and (a(er t en 1oi' t e M% ribbon and ('a1e into t e 1r#1ib'e. 3eigh and re1ord. 0 Heat trongly 4 W en M% ribbon "tart to b#rn. 1o4er t e 1r#1ib'e 2it 'id. 0 ,ift 5 rai e t e 'id at interval . 0 W en t e b#rnin% i" 1om('ete. remo4e t e 'id and eat "tron%'). 0A''o2 t e 1r#1ib'e to cool 2o#n. 03eigh and re1ord t e 1r#1ib'e 2it 1ontent and 'id. 0Repeat t e (ro1e"" eatin%. 1oo'in% and 2ei% in% #nti' a 1on"tant ma"" i" obtained and re1ord. 0 .! ervation < W ite \$#me 9 "o'id \$ormed
0 ma"" o\$ 1r#1ib'e D 'id C a % 0 ma"" o\$ 1r#1ib'e D 'id D M% C ! % 0 ma"" o\$ 1r#1ib'e D 'id D ma%ne"i#m o*ide C c % 0 ma"" o\$ M% C + ! 8 a 1 g 4 ma"" o\$ o*)%en C + c 8 !1 g

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

Calculation:
E'ement 9 atom Ma"" +%>#mber o\$ mo'e Sim('e"t ratio o\$ mo'e C# * * 9 =; O ) ) 9 1= E'ement 9 atom Ma"" +%>#mber o\$ mo'e Sim('e"t ratio o\$ mo'e M% * * 9 2; O ) ) 9 1=

Precaution : &0 The flo# of H2 mu t !e continuou 2uring cooling 8 to prevent hot copper metal from oxi2i9e20 20 Allo# hy2rogen ga flo# into the tu!e for : 8 &; minute to un ure air totally remove2. The mixture H2 an2 air may cau e an explo ion0 8. To determine a'' air tota'') remo4ed. 1o''e1t t e air and ('a1e 'i% ted "('inter. t e %a" b#rn <uietly. =To prepare H2> ;. Zn D 2HC' ZnC'2 D H2 ,. An )dro#" 1a'1i#m 1 'oride ! to dr) t e H2 %a". =. C#O D H2 C# D H2O

Precaution : 1. Clean M% ribbon 2it "and (a(er to remo4e t e 'a)er o\$ o*ide on it" "#r\$a1e. 2. ,ift 5 rai e t e 'id at interval to allo# air in +0 W en M% ribbon "tart to b#rn. 1o4er t e 1r#1ib'e 2it 'id to a4oid t e 2 ite \$#me (rod#1ed \$rom bein% e"1a(e to t e air. ;. Repeat t e (ro1e"" eatin%. 1oo'in% and 2ei% in% to make ure all magne ium i completely reacte2 #ith oxygen0 :0 2Mg ? .2 2Mg.

8. Ba"ed on t e t2o \$orm#'ae >a2O. C#I +a- State t e oxi2ation num!er \$or "odi#m. and 1o((er. +b- >ame bot t e 1om(o#nd ba"ed on IA&AC nomen1'at#re ")"tem. +1- E*('ain t e di\$\$eren1e bet2een t e name" o\$ t e t2o 1om(o#nd" ba"ed on \$/PAC nomenclature y tem0 "ample an #er: O*idation n#mber \$or "odi#m and 1o((er IA&AC >omen1'at#re Rea"on @a2. D1 Sodi#m o*ide Doe" not a4e roman num!er be1a#"e "odi#m a" only one o*idation n#mber Cu\$ D1 Co((er +I- iodide Ha" roman n#mber be1a#"e 1o((er a" more than one o*idation n#mber

CHAPTER (: PER\$.D\$C TA%,E 1. E*('ain t e \$o''o2in% "tatement". re\$errin% to t e e'e1tron arran%ement o\$ t e e'ement". +a- T e e'ement" o\$ 5ro#( 1@ are unreative and e*i"t a" monoatomic (arti1'e" +8 mar3"-

The point are: +D#('et 9o1tet- e'e1tron arran%ement. >o tenden1) to donate. a11e(t. " are e'e1tron" Remain a" in2ivi2ual particle

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

+b- T e rea1ti4it) o\$ Aroup \$ e'ement" increa e do2n t e %ro#(. 2 erea" t e rea1ti4it) o\$ Aroup &B e'ement" 2ecrea e do2n t e %ro#(. +12 mar3"The point are: 1 2 8 ; , Explanation C an%e in (roton n#mber C an%e in n#mber o\$ e'e1tron" and e'e1tron \$i''ed " e''" C an%e in atomi1 "iEe9radi#"9diameter Stren%t o\$ e'e1tro"tati1 attra1tion bet2een n#1'e#" and 4a'en1e e'e1tron Tenden1) to Aroup \$ In1rea"e" In1rea"e" In1rea"e" De1rea"e" 92ea3er Re'ea"e" e'e1tron in1rea"e" &o"iti4e ion In1rea"e" Aroup &B In1rea"e" In1rea"e" In1rea"e" De1rea"e" 92ea3er Attra1t t9 a11e(t e'e1tron de1rea"e" >e%ati4e ion De1rea"e"

= To be1ome F Rea1ti4it)

+2- E*('ain o2 t e me'tin% (oint o\$ Aroup & e'ement" change 2o#n the group +; mar3" 2ecrea e %rad#a'') Rea on atomi1 "iEe in1rea"e" metallic !on2ing bet2een t e atom" be1ome 2ea3er 7e"" ener%) i" re/#ired 9 needed to o4er1ome t i" meta''i1 bondin%. +8- Chemical propertie of element in group &B I II III Rea1tion 2it 2ater Rea1tion 2it "odi#m )dro*ide Rea1tion 2it iron C'2 D H2O HC' D HOC' C'2 D 2>aOH >aC' D >aOC' D H2O 8C'2 D 2Ge 2GeC'8 +bro2n "o'idC 'orine %a"
To (rod#1e C'2

\$\$\$

## "o2ium hy2roxi2e olution

E*am('e< Compare t e rea1ti4it) o\$ rea1tion" bet2een 1 'orine and bromine 2it iron. HDiagram \$\$\$I Reaction Reactant A Iron D 1 'orine %a" B Iron D bromine %a" .! ervation T e ot iron 2oo' i%nite" ra(id') 2it a bri% t \$'ame. A bro2n "o'id i" \$ormed. T e ot iron 2oo' %'o2" moderate') 2it \$a"t. A bro2n "o'id i" \$ormed.

"ample an #er: a- C emi1a' e/#ation< 8C'2 D 2Ge 2GeC'8 b- T e reactivity o\$ rea1tion A i" i% er t an rea1tion B. 1- T e atomic i9e o\$ 1 'orine i" maller t an bromine. d- T e force of attraction of the nucleu to#ar2 the electron are tronger. ;

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

e- It i" ea ier \$or 1 'orine atom to attract5receive e'e1tron. +;- Acro perio2 +. atomi1 radi#" +atomi1 "iEe- de1rea"e" 9 electronegativity in1rea"e". Explain0

a- &roton n#mber in1rea"e" b) one #nit. b- T e n#mber o\$ 4a'en1e e'e1tron" in ea1 atom in1rea"e". 1- &o"iti4e 1 ar%e o\$ t e n#1'e#" in1rea"e". t #" d- >#1'ei attra1tion on 4a'en1e e'e1tron in1rea"e". e- Atomi1 radi#" +atomi1 "iEe- de1rea"e" \$- Tenden1) to re1ei4e e'e1tron in1rea"e" +to \$orm ne%ati4e ion- t #" electronegativity increa e . +,- C emi1a' (ro(ertie" o\$ the oxi2e of element a1ro"" &eriod 8 1 an%e" from !a ic oxi2e to amphoteric oxi2e to aci2ic oxi2e0 Ba"i1 o*ide ! "odi#m o*ide +>a2OAm( oteri1 o*ide ! A'#mini#m o*ide +A'2O8A1idi1 o*ide ! "#'( #r dio*ide. SO2 CHEPTER :: CHEM\$CA, %.@D +a- 5ro#( 1 e'ement" rea1t 2it 5ro#( 1F e'ement" to (rod#1e 1om(o#nd" t at a4e high melting point 0 +; mar3"The point are: \$onic compoun2 (rod#1ed Be1a#"e in4o'4e tran fer of electron bet2een meta' atom and non meta' atom. Meta' atom donate" 4a'en1e e'e1tron to \$orm (o"iti4e ion. non meta' atom a11e(t" e'e1tron to ne%ati4e ion. T e oppo itely 1 ar%ed ion are e'd to%et er b) trong electro tatic force0 More heat energy i" needed to overcome t e "tron% \$or1e o\$ attra1tion. -ormation of ionic compoun2 6metal =Aroup &72 C &+> an2 non metal = Aroup &(7 &:7 &*C &B>1 "ample an #er: 1. E'e1tron arran%ement o\$ atom 6 @a 7 2D0& E Cl 20D0B 1 55 valence electron 2. To a1 ie4e "tab'e 9 o1tet e'e1tron arran%ement 8. Atom 6 @a- re'ea"e" one 9 valence e'e1tron to \$orm "odi#m ion. >aD ;. Half e<uation 6 @a @a? ? e1 ,. Atom 6Cl1 %ain 9 a11e(t e'e1tron to \$orm 1 'oride ion. C'0 =. Half e<uation 6 Cl ? e Cl4 1 F. .ppo itely charge2 ion. @a? J Cl4 are attra1ted to one anot er !y trong electro tatic force of attraction to \$orm ioni1 1om(o#nd. >aC' @. Dia%ram -ormation of covalent compoun2 6nonmetal1 1. e'e1tron arran%ement o\$ t e atom 9valence electron 2. to a1 ie4e d#('et 9o1tet e'e1tron arran%ement 8. Atom +Carbon- contri!ute ; e'e1tron" 2 i'e +H- atom 1ontrib#te" 1 e'e1tron 6for haring-. ;. one + Carbon - atom hare ( pair o\$ e'e1tron" 2it ; +H- atom" to \$orm 1o4a'ent 1om(o#nd . CH; 9 ratio ,. dia%ram ,

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

Compare the phy ical propertie of covalent an2 ionic compoun2 Propertie Me'tin% and boi'in% Covalent compoun2 6 naphthalene1 0 'o2 0 1on"i"t o\$ molecule 0 2ea3 inter molecular force !et#een molecule 0 'e"" ener%) needed to o4er1ome t e 2ea3 \$or1e" E'e1tri1a' 0 1on"i"t o\$ molecule 1ond#1ti4it) 0 doe" not 1ond#1t e'e1tri1it) in an) "tate +mo'ten or a/#eo#"-. \$onic compoun2 6 o2ium chlori2e1 0 i% 0 1on"i"t o\$ o((o"ite') 1 ar%ed ion 0 t e ion" are e'd to%et er b) "tron% electro tatic force 0 0 more eat ener%) needed to o4er1ome t e "tron% \$or1e" 0 1on"i"t o\$ o((o"ite') 1 ar%ed ion" 0 1ond#1t e'e1tri1it) in molten or a<ueou olution0 0 in molten or a<ueou olution. ion" 1an mo4e \$ree').

CHAPTER *: E,ECTR.CHEM\$"TR) 1. Ga1tor t at a\$\$e1t t e e'e1tro')"i" o\$ an a<ueou olution +a- (o"ition o\$ ion" in t e e'e1tro1 emi1a' "erie" 6catho2e1 +b- 1on1entration o\$ ion" in t e e'e1tro')te 0 a'ide + C 'oride. bromide and iodide+1- t)(e o\$ e'e1trode" #"ed in t e e'e1tro')"i" ! + anode ! meta' Application +i- Electroplating anode ! e'e1tro('atin% meta' + 'e"" e'e1tro(o"iti4e meta' 9 Cu7 Ag7 @i 1at ode ! meta' 9obKe1t to be e'e1tro('ated e'e1tro')te 0 "o'#tion t at 1ontain" t e metal ion of electroplating metal +ii- Purification anode ! im(#re meta' + C# C#2D D 2e 1at ode !(#re meta' + C#2D D 2e C# e'e1tro')te 0 "o'#tion t at 1ontain" t e meta' ion" + C#2D+iii- Extraction o\$ meta' 6reactive metal7 o2ium7 aluminium1 ! Do2nL" &ro1e"" ! e*tra1tion o\$ "odi#m \$rom mo'ten "odi#m 1 'oride. ! E*tra1tion o\$ a'#mini#m \$rom mo'ten a'#mini#m o*ide + ba#*ite-

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

2. To con truct the electrochemi try ba"ed on ten2ency to relea e electron 9(otentia' di\$\$eren1e" 0 voltaic cell5 Electrochemical cell0

8. To 1on"tr#1t t e e'e1tro1 emi"tr) ba"ed on abi'it) 9 tenden1) o\$ meta' to 2i place another metal \$rom it "a't" "o'#tion. Di placement reaction: a meta' 2 i1 i" i% er in t e e'e1tro1 emi1a' "erie" i" ab'e to di"('a1e a meta' be'o2 it in a "erie" \$rom it" "a't "o'#tion. Example: Zn D C#SO; ZnSO; D C# 99 Zn Zn2D D 2e 9 C#2D D 2e C#

## 1o((er Co((er+II- "#'( ate "o'#tion

Cell P Cell F ;. Com(are and 1ontra"t 1e'' P and F. In1'#de in )o#r an"2er t e ob"er4ation and a'\$ e/#ation \$or t e rea1tion o\$ t e e'e1trode" in bot 1e''". Cell P E'e1tri1a' 1 emi1a' D4e 9 anode< 1o((er +O6IDATIO>04e 9 1at ode< 1o((er C#2D . HD OH0 . SO;20 Anode <C# C#2D D 2e +t)(e o\$ e'e1trodeCat ode< C# D 2e C#
2D

Characteri tic Ener%) 1 an%e E'e1trode Ion" (re"ent in t e e'e1tro')te Ha'\$ e/#ation

Cell F C emi1a' e'e1tri1a' D4e91at ode< 1o((er 04e9 anode< 'ead +O6IDATIO>C#2D . HD OH0 . SO;20 Anode< &b &b2D D 2e Cat ode< C#2D D 2e C# +ECS-

+ ECS-

Ano2e< 1o((er e'e1trode be1ome t inner Catho2e< bro2n "o'id \$ormed9 be1ome" t i13er. Electrolyte< inten"it) !lue "o'#tion 9 1on1entration o\$ C#2D "o'#tion remain. Rate o\$ ioniEed o\$ 1o((er atom to \$orm 1o((er +II- ion at t e anode "ame a" rate o\$ di"1 ar%ed 1o((er +II- ion at t e 1at ode.

Ob"er4ation

Ano2e< be1ome" t inner Catho2e< be1ome" t i13er 9 bro2n "o'id \$ormed Electrolyte: inten"it) !lue "o'#tion de1rea"e 9 b'#e be1ome" (a'er

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

CHAPTER B: AC\$D A@D %A"E An aci2 i" 1 emi1a' "#b"tan1e 2 i1 ioniEe" in 2ater to (rod#1e )dro%en ion. H? A ba"e i" a 1 emi1a' "#b"tan1e 2 i1 ioniEe" in 2ater to (rod#1e )dro*ide ion". .H4 A'3a'i i" a "o'#b'e ba"e. %a icity i" t e n#mber o\$ ioni"ab'e )dro%en atom" (er mo'e1#'e o\$ an a1id. T e (H 4a'#e o\$ 1.0 mo' dm08 )dro1 'ori1 a1id i" 1 T e (H 4a'#e o\$ 1.0 mo' dm08 met anoi1 a1id i" ; 1. E*('ain 2 ) t e"e t2o "o'#tion" a4e di\$\$erent (H 4a'#e" identi\$) "tron% a1id . 2ea3 a1id de\$inition "tron% a1id de\$inition 2ea3 a1id 1on1entration o\$ HD re'ation" i( bet2een (H 4a'#e and 1on1entration o\$ )dro%en ion". H? "ample an #er: 1. H)dro1 'ori1 a1id i" a trong aci2 2 i'e met anoi1 a1id i" a #eak aci2. 2. H)dro1 'ori1 a1id 1om('ete') ioniEe" in #ater to \$orm higher concentration o\$ )dro%en ion". HC' D H2O H8OD D C'0 99 HC' HD D C'0 . H8OD . )dro*oni#m ion 8. Met anoi1 a1id ioniEe" (artia'') in #ater to \$orm lo#er concentration )dro%en ion" CH8COOH CH8COO0 D HD ;. T e higher t e 1on1entration o\$ )dro%en ion" t e lo#er t e (H 4a'#e. 2. Aim< To 2etermine the en2 point 2uring the neutrali9ation of pota ium hy2roxi2e an2 hy2rochloric aci2 A((arat#"< 2, 1m8 (i(ette. b#rette . 2,0 1m8 1oni1a' \$'a"3. retort "tand. 2 ite ti'e Materia'< (ota""i#m )dro*ide and )dro1 'ori1 a1id 0.1 mo' dm08 . ( eno'( at a'ein. Proce2ure: 1. Rin"e a b#rette 2it a "ma'' amo#nt )dro1 'ori1 a1id 0.1 mo' dm08 . 2. C'am( t e b#rette on retort "tand. 8. Gi'' t e b#rette 2it )dro1 'ori1 a1id 0.1 mo' dm08 .AdK#"t t e meni"1#" 'e4e' o\$ a1id to a readin% at 0. ;. Re1ord t e initia' b#rette readin%. ,. &i(ette 2,.0 1m8 o\$ (ota""i#m )dro*ide 0.1 mo' dm08 into 1oni1a' \$'a"3. =. Add t2o dro( o\$ ( eno'( at a'ein. F. Add )dro1 'ori1 a1id 0.1 mo' dm08 1are\$#''). S2ir' t e 1oni1a' \$'a"3 d#rin% t e (ro1e"". @. W en t e 1o'o#r o\$ t e mi*t#re t#rn (a'er. add )dro1 'ori1 a1id dro( b) dro(. M. Sto( addin% t e )dro1 'ori1 a1id a" "oon a" t e "o'#tion t#rn" 1o'o#r'e"". 10. Re1ord t e \$ina' b#rette readin%. 11. Re(eat "te(" 1010 t2i1e. Tab#'ate )o#r readin%. MA?A C MB?B a b @

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

Re ult : Titration Gina' b#rette readin%. 1m8 Initia' b#rette readin%. 1m8 ?o'#me o\$ )dro1 'ori1 a1id 0.1 mo' dm08 . 1m8 1 2 8

+0 Preparation "tan2ar2 olution 6 ;0& mol 2m4+ @a.H7 &;; cm+1 1. 2. 8. ;. ,. =. F. @. 1a'1#'ate t e ma"" o\$ "o'#te + mo'e C 0.1 * 10091000 . 0.01 C ma""9 ;02ei% 0.;% o\$ >aOH in 2ei% in% bott'e #"in% di%ita' ba'an1e 9 e'e1troni1 ba'an1e (o#r into a bea3er. rin"e t e bott'e 2it di"ti''ed 2ater. di""o'4e >aOH 2it a 'itt'e + 10 ! 20 1m8 -di"ti''ed 2ater. tran"\$er t e mi*t#re into 4o'#metri1 \$'a"3 100 1m8 rin"e t e bea3er 2it di"ti''ed 2ater. (o#r t e 2a" in%" into 4o'#metri1 \$'a"3 100 1m8 add di"ti''ed 2ater. " a3e 2e'' add di"ti''ed 2ater dro( b) dro( to \$ina'') brin% t e 4o'#me o\$ "o'#tion to t e 100 1m8 mar3 9 1a'ibration mar3.

Preparation of a tan2ar2 olution !y 2ilution metho2 M&G& H M2G2 M& 8 initial molarity G& 4 initial volume M2 8 final molarity G2 8 final volume @.TE : C.@CE@TRAT\$.@ 8 &0 M.,AR\$T) 4 mol 2m4+ 20 g 2m4+ >e#tra'iEation in o#r dai') 'i4e" A%ri1#'t#re Ind#"trie" &o2dered 'ime +CaO- . 'ime"tone +CaCO8-. a" e" o\$ b#rnt 2ood A"ed to treat a1idi1 "oi'. 1. &o2dered 'ime +CaOA"ed to treat a1idi1 e\$\$'#ent \$rom \$a1torie". a1idi1 %a" SO2 emitted b) (o2er "tation and ind#"trie". 2. Ammonia (re4ent t e 1oa%#'ation o\$ 'ate* b) ne#tra'iEin% t e a1id (rod#1ed b) ba1teria in t e 'ate*. 1. Anti0a1id" 1ontain ba"e" "#1 a" a'#mini#m )dro*ide and ma%ne"i#m )dro*ide to ne#tra'iEe t e e*1e"" a1id in t e "toma1 . 2. ?ine%ar +1itri1 a1id- i" #"ed to 1#re 2a"( "tin%" t at are a'3a'ine in nat#re. 8. Ba3in% (o2der +>aHCO8- i" #"ed to 1#re bee "tin%" and ant bite" t at are a1idi1 in nat#re. ;. Toot (a"te 1ontain" ba"e" t at ne#tra'iEe t e a1id (rod#1e" b) ba1teria in o#r mo#t M

Hea't

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

CHAPTER D "A,T A alt i" a 1om(o#nd \$ormed 2 en t e hy2rogen ion7 HD \$rom an a1id i" re('a1ed b) a metal ion or an ammonium ion7 @H(? Preparation of olu!le alt ! a1id D rea1ti4e meta'+Zn 9 M%- "a't D H2 9 2H? ? Mg Mg2? ? H2 ! aci2 ? !a e 6 metal oxi2e1 alt ? #ater ! a1id D a'3a'i "a't D 2ater 9 H? ? .H4 H2. 6 @a.H7 I.H7 @H(.H1 ! aci2 ? car!onate metal alt ? C.2 ? H2. 5 2H? ? C.+2? C.2 ? H2. Proce2ure: 1. pour + 2, ! 1001m8- a1id + 0., ! 2.0 mo' dm08- into a bea3er 2. eat "'o2') 8. add "o'id 6metal 5 !a e5 car!onate 1 a little #nti' e*1e"" 9 no more di""o'4e (0 tir ,. filter t e mi*t#re into evaporating 2i h =. heat +"'o2')- t e filtrate #nti' 198 \$rom ori%ina' 4o'#me 9 "at#rated "o'#tion \$ormed F. cool 2o#n t e "at#rated "o'#tion +#nti' 1r)"ta''iEed @. filter +to "e(arate t e 1r)"ta'"M. 2ry 9 tran"\$er onto \$i'ter (a(er 9 dr) bet2een " eet" o\$ \$i'ter (a(er .! ervation Chemical e<uation Preparation of in olu!le alt 8 precipitation reaction 5 2ou!le 2ecompo ition reaction &b2D D SO;20 &bSO; Example : Preparation of lea26\$\$1 ulphate0 Proce2ure 1. pour + 2, ! ,01m8- o\$ "o'#b'e "a't &b+>O8-2 into a bea3er 2. a22 + 2, ! ,01m8- o\$ "o'#b'e "a't +>a2SO;8. tir ;. filter t e mi*t#re ,. rin e re i2ue 9 "o'id 9 (re1i(itate =. 2ry bet2een " eet" o\$ \$i'ter (a(er .! ervation C emi1a' e/#ation Ioni1 e/#ation Action of heat on alt Car!onate o*ide meta' +ba"e- D CO2 except >a. K and >H;D E*am('e< C#CO8 C#O D CO2 @itrate o*ide meta' D nitro%en o*ide D o*)%en except >a. K7 62>a>O8 E*am('e < 2M%+>O8-2 2M%O D ;>O2 D O2 10 2>a>O2 D O2 -

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

6%ro#n ga 1 Ammonium chlori2e ammonia %a" D )dro%en 1 'oride %a". +>H;C' >H8 D HC' Confirmatory te t for cation an2 anion 1. State t e materia' 9 1 emi1a' 9 rea%ent 2. (ro1ed#re 8. ob"er4ation ;. 1on1'#"ion Example: Yo# are %i4en a bott'e o\$ ammoni#m 1 'oride "o'#tion. De cri!e chemical te"t to 4eri\$) t e 1ation and anion. +a- te t for cation +>H;D1. (o#r 2 cm+ t e "o'#tion" into a te"t t#be 2. add 1 1m8 1o((er +II- "#'( ate "o'#tion 8. b'#e (re1i(itate "o'#b'e in e*1e"" to \$orm 2ark !lue olution0 .R ;. add 2 to + 2rop of @e ler reagent into t e te"t t#be ,. bro2n (re1i(itate. *0 Ammonium ion 6@H(?1 pre ent0 6!1 te t for anion 6Cl41 F. (o#r 2 cm+ t e "o'#tion into a te"t t#be @. add 1 1m8 o\$ 2ilute nitri1 a1id and "i'4er nitrate olution. M. 2 ite (re1i(itate \$ormed 10. 1on\$irm t e (re"en1e o\$ chlori2e ion Example: Yo# are %i4en 'ead +II- nitrate and a'#mini#m nitrate "o'#tion. De"1ribe 1 emi1a' te"t to 4eri\$) t e 1ation and anion. 6c1 te t for cation 11. (o#r 2 1m8 t e "o'#tion" into di\$\$erent te"t t#be" 12. add 1 1m8 (ota""i#m io2i2e "o'#tion into t e te"t t#be" 18. yello# (re1i(itate \$ormed 1;. lea2 6\$\$1 ion (re"ent 621 te t for anion 1,. (o#r 2 1m8 o\$ 'ead +II- nitrate olution into a te"t t#be 1=. add 1 1m8 o\$ di'#te "#'( #ri1 a1id 1F. add 1 1m8 o\$ iron +II- "#'( ate "o'#tion 1@. " a3e t e mi*#re 1M. tilt t e te"t t#be. add concentrate2 ulphuric a1id carefully 99 2rop !y 2rop do2n t e "ide o\$ t e te"t t#be 20. t e bro2n rin% \$ormed 21. nitrate ion7 @.+4 pre ent.

11

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

Aim : To 1on"tr#1t t e ioni1 e/#ation \$or t e \$ormation o\$ 'ead +II- 1 romate+?I=Continuou variation metho2> Apparatu Material : Te"t t#be" o\$ t e "ame "iEe. te"t t#be ra13. b#rette. retort "tand 2it 1'am(. r#'er. %'a"" rod. dro((er.

: 0., mo' dm08 (ota""i#m 1 romate +?I- "o'#tion. 0., mo' dm08 'ead +IInitrate "o'#tion. Proce2ure : 1. Se4en te"t t#be" o\$ t e "ame "iEe 2ere 'abe''ed \$rom n#mber 1 to F. T e) 2ere ('a1ed in a te"t t#be ra13. 2. A b#rette 2a" \$i''ed ;0: mol 2m4+ lea2 6\$\$1 nitrate olution7 :0;; cm+ of the lea2 6\$\$1 nitrate olution 2a" r#n into ea1 t e "e4en t#be". 8. Anot er b#rette 2a" \$i''ed 2it 0., mo' dm08 (ota""i#m 1 romate +?I- "o'#tion. ;. &ota""i#m 1 romate +?I- "o'#tion \$rom t e b#rette 2a" added into ea1 o\$ t e "e4en te"t t#be" a11ordin% to t e 4o'#me" "(e1i\$ied in t e tab'e. ,. T e mi*t#re in ea1 te"t t#be 2a" "tirred 2it a 1'ean %'a"" rod. =. T e te"t t#be" 2ere 'e\$t a"ide \$or abo#t an o#r. F. T e ei% t o\$ t e (re1i(itate in ea1 te"t t#be 2a" mea"#red. T e 1o'o#r o\$ t e "o'#tion abo4e t e (re1i(itate in ea1 te"t t#be 2a" ob"er4ed and re1orded. Re ult :
Te t tu!e ?o'#me o\$ 0., mo' dm08 &b+>O8-2 91m8 ?o'#me o\$ 0., mo' dm08 K2Cr O; 91m8 Hei% t o\$ (re1i(itate +1mCo'o#r o\$ "o'#tion abo4e t e (re1i(itate

&
,.00 1.00 0.=0
1o'o#r'e""

2
,.00 2.00 1.20
1o'o#r'e""

+
,.00 8.00 1.@0
1o'o#r'e""

(
,.00 ;.00 2.;0
1o'o#r'e""

:
,.00 ,.00 8.00
1o'o#r'e""

*
,.00 =.00 8.00
)e''o2

B
,.00 F.00 8.00
)e''o2

Paper 2 Di cu ion T e 4o'#me o\$ 0., mo' dm08 (ota""i#m 1 romate +?I-. "o'#tion re/#ired to e*a1t') rea1t 2it ,.00 1m8 o\$ 0., mo' dm08 'ead +II- nitrate "o'#tion i" ,.00 1m8. Calculation: >#mber o\$ mo'e" 'ead +II- ion" C M? C 0., * ,.0091000 C 0.002, mo'. >#mber o\$ mo'e" 1 romate +?I- ion" C M? C 0., * ,.0091000 C 0.002, mo'. Sim('e"t mo'e ratio o\$ 'ead +II- ion" < 1 romate +?I- ion" 0.002, < 0.002, 12

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

< 1

Di cu ion : 1. A )e''o2 (re1i(itate o\$ 'ead +II- 1 romate +?I- i" \$ormed in ea1 o\$ t e "e4en te"t t#be". 2. T e ei% t o\$ t e (re1i(itate in1rea"e" %rad#a'') \$rom te"t t#be" 1 to , be1a#"e more and more 'ead +II1 romate +?I- i" \$ormed d#e to t e in1rea"in% amo#nt o\$ (ota""i#m 1 romate +?I- added to t e te"t t#be". 8. T e 1o'o#r o\$ "o'#tion abo4e t e (re1i(itate in te"t t#be" 1 to ; are 1o'o#r'e"" d#e to t e e*1e"" 'ead +IInitrate. ;. T e 1o'o#r o\$ "o'#tion abo4e t e (re1i(itate in te"t t#be" = to F i" )e''o2 d#e to t e e*1e"" (ota""i#m 1 romate +?I-. ,. Ioni1 e/#ation< &b2D D Cr2OF20 &bCr2OF Conclu ion: A" 9 2 en t e 4o'#me o\$ (ota""i#m 1 romate +?I- "o'#tion #"ed in1rea"e". t e ei% t o\$ t e (re1i(itate in1rea"e" #nti' it a1 ie4e" a ma*im#m ei% t. CHAPTER J : MA@/-ACT/RED "/%"TA@CE" \$@ \$@D/"TR) &0 Contact proce : manufacture2 ulphuric aci2 Sta%e 1 2 8 ; E/#ation SO2 E*('anation S#'( #r i" b#rned in t e e*1e"" o\$ o*)%en %a" to (rod#1e "#'( #r dio*ide %a". SO2 i" t en eated in e*1e"" o*)%en %a". 1ata')"t ?anadi#m +?o*ide. 1 atm and ;,0 ! ,,0 o C . to (rod#1e "#'( #r trio*ide %a". 5a" "#'\$#r trio*ide di""o'4e in "#'( #ri1 a1id to (rod#1e o'e#m O'e#m i" added to 2ater to (rod#1e "#'\$#ri1 a1id

S D O2

## 2SO2 D O2 2SO8 SO8 D H2SO; H2S2OF H2S2OF D H2O 2H2SO;

Aa ".+ i not 2i olve in #ater to pro2uce H2".( traight a#ay !ecau e the reaction #ill pro2uce a lot of heat #hich i 2angerou 6 cau e the forming of aci2 fume 1 A"a%e o\$ "#'( #ri1 a1id< To man#\$a1t#re \$erti'iEer. "oa( and deter%ent To ma3e e*('o"i4e materia'. (aint 9 (i%ment. (o')mer A" meta' 1'eaner and e'e1tro')te in 1ar batter). 20 Ha!er Proce >2 D 8H2 2>H8

Con2ition: Cata')"t< iron. tem(erat#re< ;,0 ! ,,0 oC. &re""#re 200 ! ,00 atm A"a%e< to man#\$a1t#re \$erti'iEer 2>H8 D H2SO; +>H; -2 SO; 8>H8 D H8&O; +>H; -8 &O; 18

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

>H8 D H>O8

>H;>O8

8. Hi% (er1enta%e o\$ nitro%en i" a %ood \$erti'"er \$or ('ant". Ho2 to 1a'1#'ate N> in \$erti'i"erO #rea CO+>H2-2 and ammoni#m nitrate +>H;>O8-. 2 i1 one i" a better \$erti'i"erO H RAM < >.1;P C.12 PO.1=P H.1I "ample an #er: N > in Area C ma"" o\$ nitro%en 9 RMM #rea * 100 C 2*1; 9 =0 * 100 C ;=.=FN N > in >H;>O8 C 2*1; 9 @0 * 100 C 8,.00 N /rea i a goo2 fertili9er t an ammoni#m nitrate. be1a#"e t e percentage o\$ nitro%en in #rea higher t an ammoni#m nitrate. ;. De"1ribe o2 toxic #a te (rod#1t \$rom \$a1tor) a\$\$e1t" t e /#a'it) o\$ t e en4ironment. Yo#r de"1ri(tion " o#'d in1'#de t e \$o''o2in% a"(e1t". "ource7 proce an2 effect0 "ample an #er: 1. H"ource> "#'( #r dio*ide %a" (rod#1ed b) \$a1tor) or b#rnin% o\$ \$o""i' \$#e'" 2. Hproce I "#'( #r dio*ide %a" di""o'4e" in rain 2ater 9 2ater to \$orm a1id rain. 2SO2 DO2 D 2H2O + 2H2SO;I 8. Heffect I to*i1 2a"te 9 a1id \$'o2" to into 'a3e" and ri4er". a1id rain 'o2er" t e (H 4a'#e o\$ 2ater. "oi' and air. ;. Gi" and ot er a/#ati1 or%ani"m" die. ,. a1id rain 1orrode" 1on1rete b#i'din%" and meta' "tr#1t#re" =. a1id de"tro)" tree" in \$ore"t F. A1id rain rea1t" 2it minera'" in "oi' to (rod#1e" "a't 2 i1 are 'ea1 ed o#t t e to( "oi'. @. &'ant" die o\$ ma'n#trition and di"ea"e". M. Soi' be1ome" a1idi1. #n"#itab'e \$or %ro2t o\$ ('ant" and de"tro)" t e root" o\$ ('ant". 10. "#'( #r dio*ide 1a#"e" re"(irator) (rob'em" in #man". ,. P.,\$MER< 0 large molecule made #( o\$ identi1a' re(eatin% "#b0#nit" o\$ monomer 2 i1 are Koined to%et er b) 1o4a'ent bond". "ynthetic polymer &o')t ene &o')(ro(ene &o')4in)' 1 'oride. &?C &er"(e* Monomer Et ene &ro(ene C 'oroet ene Met )'met a1r)'ate /e &'a"ti1 ba%". ('a"ti1 1ontainer &i(in%. 1ar batterie" Arti\$i1ia' 'eat er. 2ater (i(e Sa\$et) %'a"". re\$'e1tor"

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

A,,.) An alloy i" a mi*t#re o\$ t2o or more e'ement" 2it a 1ertain \$i*ed 1om(o"ition in 2 i1 t e maKor 1om(onent i" a meta'. 1. T e 1om(o"ition . (ro(ertie" and #"e" o\$ "ome alloy Alloy BronEe Bra"" Stee' Stain'e"" "tee' Compo ition Cu Tin Cu Zin1 \$ron Carbon Propertie 0Hard and "tron% 0doe" not 1orrode ea"i') 0 a" " in) "#r\$a1e 0 arder t an 1o((er Hard and "tron% 0" in) 0"tron% 0doe" not r#"t 0'i% t 0"tron% 0'#"tre. " in) 0"tron% /e 0in b#i'din% o\$ "tat#e or mon#ment". 0in ma3in% o\$ meda'" 0"2ord" and arti"ti1 materia' 0in ma3in% o\$ m#"i1a' in"tr#ment" and 3it1 en2are 0in 1on"tr#1tion o\$ b#i'din%" and brid%e" 0in b#i'din% o\$ t e bod) o\$ 1ar" and rai'2a) tra13" 0in ma3in% o\$ 1#t'er) 0in ma3in% o\$ "#r%i1a' in"tr#ment 0in b#i'din% o\$ t e bod) o\$ aero('ane and b#''et train" In ma3in% o\$ "o#4enir"
Co((er atom

\$ron Carbon C romi#m D#ra'#min Aluminium Co((er Ma%ne"i#m man%ane"e &e2ter Tin. Co((er antimon)

## BronEe i" har2er t an (#re 1o((er. E*('ain.

Rea on: 1. T e (re"en1e o\$ atom" o\$ ot er meta'" 9 tin t at are 2ifferent Stan#m i9e atom 2. Di rupt t e order') arran%ement o\$ 1o((er atom" 8. Tin atom" re2uce t e layer of copper atom \$rom "'idin% ;. A''o) i" "tron%er and har2er t an (#re meta' 2. Yo# a4e 'earnt t e teel i" an a''o) o\$ iron. Stee' i" arder t an pure iron. Bot iron and "tee' 1an r#"t 2 en e*(o"ed to air and 2ater. Do they ru t at the ame rateO Aim : To 1om(are the rate of ru ting bet2een iron. "tee' and "tain'e"" "tee' Pro!lem "tatement Ho# 2oe the rate of ru ting bet2een iron. "tee' and "tain'e"" "tee' di\$\$erO Hypothe i Iron r#"t \$a"ter t an "tee' and "tee' r#"t \$a"ter t an "tain'e"" "tee'. 1,

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

Garia!le Manipulate2 : Iron. "tee' and "tain'e"" "tee'. Re pon2ing : inten"it) 9 amo#nt o\$ dar3 b'#e 1o'o#r 9 rate of ru ting -ixe2 : "iEe o\$ nai'. 1on1entration o\$ "o'#tion. d#ration o\$ r#"tin% Proce2ure: 1. C'ean t e nai'" 2it "and (a(er +to remo4ed t e r#"t \$rom a'' t e nai'"2. &'a1e t e iron nai'. "tee' nai' and "tain'e"" "tee' nai' into t e te"t t#be A. B and C re"(e1ti4e'). 8. &re(are a , N Ke'') "o'#tion b) addin% , % Ke'') to 100 1m8 o\$ boi'in% 2ater. Add a \$e2 dro( o\$ pota ium hexacyanoferrate 6\$\$\$1 "o'#tion. ;. &o#r t e ot Ke'') into t e te"t t#be" #nti' a'' t e nai'" are \$#'') immer"ed. ,. 7ea4e t e nai'" \$or 8 da)". =. Ob"er4e and re1ord t e inten"it) o\$ t e dar3 b'#e 1o'o#r. Ta!ulation of 2ata Te"t t#be A B C T e inten"it) o\$ t e dar3 b'#e 1o'o#r 99 rate o\$ r#"tin%

Paper 2 Conclu ion 1. T e 1on1entration o\$ Ge2D ion" in t e te"t t#be A i" i% er t an in te"t t#be B. >o Ge2D ion" are (re"ent in te"t t#be C. 2. T e rate o\$ r#"tin% in te"t t#be A i" i% er t an t at in te"t t#be B. >o r#"tin% ta3e" ('a1e in te"t t#be C. A''o) "'o2 do2n t e rate o\$ r#"tin%. Propertie 7 compo ition an2 u e 2ifferent type of gla Type G#"ed %'a"" Propertie Chemical /e compo ition SiO2 7en"e". te'e"1o(e mirror". o(ti1a' \$ibre". 7aborator) %'a""2are. SiO2 CaCO8 9 >a2CO8 G'at %'a"". 'i% t b#'b. mirror". %'a"" 1ontainer".

0?er) i% "o\$tenin% (oint 0Hi% ') eat re"i"tant 0Doe" not 1ra13 2 en tem(erat#re 1 an%e" 04er) re"i"tant to 1 emi1a' rea1tion" 0di\$\$i1#'t to be " a(ed Soda 'ime 0'o2 "o\$tenin% (oint %'a"" 0doe" not 2it "tand eatin% 0brea3 ea"i') 0'e"" re"i"tant to 1 emi1a' rea1tion" 0ea") to be " a(ed 0 1ra13" ea"i') 2it "#dden 1 an%e in tem(erat#re Boro"i'i1ate 0'o2er t erma' 1oe\$\$i1ient 0 eat re"i"tant 0 Doe" not 1ra13 2 en tem(erat#re 1 an%e" 1=

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

04er) re"i"tant to 1 emi1a' rea1tion" 0doe" not brea3 ea"i') 0'o2 "o\$tenin% (oint 0 i% den"it) 0Hi% re\$ra1ti4e inde*

ead'i% t". SiO2 &bO CaO De1orati4e item". 1r)"ta' %'a"" 2are. 'en". (ri"m. 1 ande'ier

Compo ite Material i" a "tr#1t#ra' materia' t at i" \$ormed b) com!ining t#o or more di\$\$erent "#b"tan1e" "#1 a metal7 alloy 7 gla 7 ceramic an2 polymer . Compo ite material Rein\$or1ed 1on1rete Component Con1rete Stee' Propertie of component Hard b#t britt'e. 'o2 ten"i'e "tren%t Hard 2it i% ten"i'e "tren%t b#t e*(en"i4e and 1an 1orrode. Propertie of compo ite Stron%er. i% ten"i'e "tren%t doe" not 1orrode ea"i'). 1an 2it "tand i% er a(('ied \$or1e" and 'oad". 1 ea(er. Cond#1t" e'e1tri1it) / e of component Con"tr#1tion o\$ \$rame2or3 \$or i% 2a). brid%e" and i% 0ri"e b#i'din% 5enerator". tran"\$ormer". e'e1tri1 1ab'e. am('i\$ier". 1om(#ter (art" MRI Tran"mit data in t e \$orm o\$ 'i% t in te'e1omm#ni1ation" Water "tora%e tan3". "ma'' boat. e'met

S#(er0 1ond#1tor

## Co((er+II-o*ide. In"#'ator" o\$ e'e1tri1it) bari#m o*ide

Gibre o(ti1" 5'a"" o\$ 'o2 re\$ra1ti4e inde* 5'a"" o\$ i% re\$ra1ti4e inde* 5'a"" &o')e"ter ('a"ti1

## Tran"(arent. doe" re\$'e1t 'i% t ra)".

re\$'e1t 'i% t ra)" and a''o2 'i% t ra)" to tra4e' a'on% t e \$iber 7i% t. "tron%. to#% . re"i'ient and \$'e*ib'e 2it i% ten"i'e "tren%t not in\$'ammab'e. 'o2 den"it). ea"i') 1o'o#red. " a(ed and mo#'ded. Sen"iti4e to 'i% t < dar3en" 2 en 'i% t inten"it) i" i% . be1ome" 1'ear 2 en 'i% t inten"it) i" 'o2.

Gibre %'a""

Hea4). "tron% b#t britt'e and non0\$'e*ib'e 7i% t. \$'e*ib'e. e'a"ti1 b#t 2ea3 and in\$'ammab'e

## Tran"(arent. doe" re\$'e1t 'i% t ra)". Sen"iti4e to 'i% t

& oto1 romi1 o(ti1a' 'en". 1amera 'en". 1ar 2ind" ie'd". o(ti1a' "2it1 e". 'i% t inten"it) meter".

1F

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

CHAPTER &;: RATE .- REACT\$.@ Rate o\$ rea1tion i" the change in electe2 /#antit) o\$ rea1tant" or (rod#1t" (er time ta3en. Aplication 1. E*('ain 2 ) (otatoe" \$ried in boi'in% oi' 1oo3 \$a"ter t an (otatoe" boi'ed in boi'in% 2aterO An #er: 0 Boi'in% (oint o\$ oi' i" i% er t an boi'in% (oint o\$ 2ater 0 At i% er tem(erat#re (otatoe" i" \$a"ter to 1oo3 2. Ba"ed on t e 1o''i"ion t eor). e*('ain 2 ) 2e need to "tore \$re" mi'3 in re\$ri%erator. An #er: +it e temperature in"ide t e re\$ri%erator i" lo#er +ii!acteria are not active at 'o2 tem(erat#re +iiide1om(o"ition o\$ mi'3 1a#"ed b) ba1teria 2i'' lo# 2o#n +i4t i" 2i'' 3ee( t e mi'3 \$re" \$or a'on% time Colli ion theory Effective colli ion: Co''i"ion 2 i1 achieve activation energy +minim#m amo#nt- and 2it correct orientation. Temperature 1. A" temperature in1rea"e". t e 3ineti1 ener%) o\$ t e particle 6 H?7 "2.+24 1 in1rea"e" 9 2. Gre/#en1) o\$ 1o''i"ion bet2een particle 6 H?7 "2.+24 1 in1rea"e" 8. -re<uency of effective 1o''i"ion in1rea"e" ;. Rate o\$ rea1tion in1rea"e" "i9e of particle 6total urface area1 1. T e "ma''er t e i9e of particle . 2. T e 'ar%er t e total urface area e*(o"ed to t e 1o''i"ion 8. Gre/#en1) o\$ 1o''i"ion bet2een particle in1rea"e" ;. -re<uency of effective 1o''i"ion in1rea"e" ,. Rate o\$ rea1tion in1rea"e" Concentration of the olution 1. T e i% er t e concentration o\$ t e "o'#tion. 2. T e %reater the num!er of particle per volume 8. Gre/#en1) o\$ 1o''i"ion bet2een particle in1rea"e" ;. -re<uency of effective 1o''i"ion in1rea"e" ,. Rate o\$ rea1tion in1rea"e" 1@

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

Cataly t 1. T e (re"en1e o\$ cataly t (ro4ide an a'ternati4e (at 2a) 9 ro#te 2. 2it 'o2er a1ti4ation ener%) 8. -re<uency of effective 1o''i"ion !et#een particle in1rea"e" ;. Rate o\$ rea1tion in1rea"e".

@ote: 1. Cata')"t ! a "#b"tan1e #hich alter t e rate o\$ 1 emi1a' rea1tion 2 i'e remain chemically unchange2 at t e end o\$ rea1tion. 2. .! erva!le change \$or mea"#rin% t e rate o\$ rea1tion. +a- 4o'#me o\$ %a" 'iberated +b- (re1i(itate \$ormation +1- 1 an%e in ma"" d#rin% rea1tion. 1o'o#r .tem(erat#re. (re""#re 1. Cata')"t +Man%ane"e +I?- o*idea- De1om(o"ition o\$ "odi#m 1 'orate +?-. 2>aC'O8 2>aC' D 8O2 b- De1om(o"ition )dro%en (ero*ide . 2H2O2 2H2O D O2 2. Catalytic converter in t e 1ar e* a#"t ")"tem 1ontain r odi#m. ('atin#m or 1 romi#m +III- o*ide Cr2O8. Example: &0 Aim: To in4e"ti%ate t e effect of temperature o\$ "odi#m t io"#'( ate >a2S2O8 olution on t e rate o\$ rea1tion Pro!lem "tatement: Ho# 2oe tem(erat#re o\$ "odi#m t io"#'( ate >a2S2O8 "o'#tion a\$\$e1t t e rate o\$ rea1tionO Hypothe i : W en t e tem(erat#re o\$ "odi#m t io"#'( ate >a2S2O8 olution in1rea"e". t e rate o\$ rea1tion in1rea"e".99 t e i% er t e tem(erat#re o\$ "odi#m t io"#'( ate olution. t e i% er t e rate o\$ rea1tion. Garia!le : Manipulate2 :Tem(erat#re o\$ "odi#m t io"#'( ate "o'#tion. Re pon2ing :Rate o\$ rea1tion9 Time ta3en \$or t e 1ro"" Q6R to di"a((ear \$rom t e "i% t. -ixe2 : Concentration an2 volume o\$ "#'( #ri1 a1id. concentration an2 volume o\$ "odi#m t io"#'( ate "o'#tion. Apparatu : 1,0 1m8 1onni1a' \$'a"3. ,0 1m8 mea"#rin% 1)'inder.101m8 mea"#rin% 1)'inder. "to(2at1 . t ermometer. B#n"en b#rner. tri(od "tand. 2ire %a#Ee. Material : ;02 mol 2m4+ "odi#m t io#'( ate "o'#tion. 1.0 mo' dm08 "#'( #ri1 a1id. 2 ite (a(er mar3ed S6T at t e 1entre. Proce2ure< 1. ,0 1m8 o\$ 0.2 mo' dm08 "odi#m t io"#'( ate "o'#tion i" mea"#red #"in% mea"#rin% 1)'inder and (o#red into a 1oni1a' \$'a"3. 1M

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

2. T e tem(erat#re o\$ t e "o'#tion i" mea"#red 2it a t ermometer. 8. T e 1oni1a' \$'a"3 i" ('a1ed on a 2 ite (a(er mar3edL6L. ;. , 1m8 o\$ 1 mo' dm08 "#'( #ri1 a1id i" mea"#red and t en (o#red /#i13') and 1are\$#'') into t e "odi#m t io"#'( ate "o'#tion. ,. T e "to(2at1 i" "tarted immediate') and t e 1oni1a' \$'a"3 i" "2ir'ed. =. T e mar3 L6L i" 4ie2ed 9 ob"er4ed 4erti1a'') \$rom abo4e. F.T e "to(2at1 i" "to((ed a" "oon a" t e mar3 di"a((ear \$rom "i% t. @.Time ta3en i" re1orded. M. Ste(" 1 to M are re(eated b) #"in% t e di\$\$erent tem(erat#re o\$ "odi#m t io"#'( ate "o'#tion. Data an2 .! ervation Experiment Temperature 7 6oC1 1 2@ 2 8, 8 ;0 ; ;, , ,0 Time taken for the K'L mark to 2i appear from vie#7 t 6 1 &5 time taken 7 &5t 6 4&1

Di cu ion Ba"ed on ('otted %ra( < H 1a'1#'ation I T e i% er t e tem(erat#re o\$ "odi#m t io"#'( ate. t e " orter t e time ta3en \$or 1ro""Q6R to di"a((ear \$rom t e "i% t. T e rate o\$ rea1tion dire1t') (ro(ortiona' to t e tem(erat#re o\$ "odi#m t io"#'( ate "o'#tion #"ed. 99 A" t e tem(erat#re "odi#m t io"#'( ate "o'#tion in1rea"e". t e time ta3en de1rea"e". T ere\$ore t e rate o\$ rea1tion in1rea"e". Conclu ion : T e rate o\$ rea1tion in1rea"e" a" t e tem(erat#re "odi#m t io#'( ate "o'#tion in1rea"e".

## Energy profile 2iagram

0UH

1. Ea ! a1ti4ation ener%) 2it o#t 1ata')"t 2. EaR 0 a1ti4ation ener%) 2it 1ata')"t 8. E*ot ermi1 rea1tion ! eat re'ea"ed 9%i4en o#t ;. Ener%) 1ontent in rea1tant" i% er t an (rod#1t" ,. U H i" t e ener%) di\$\$eren1e in rea1tant" and (rod#1t" =. Heat %i4en o#t d#rin% !on2 formation i" greater t an eat ab"orbed d#rin% !on2 !reaking F. E*ot ermi1 rea1ton.

20

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

20 Aim: to in4e"ti%ate effect of cataly t on t e rate o\$ de1om(o"ition )dro%en (ero*ide. Pro!lem tatement: ho# 2oe a 1ata')"t a\$\$e1t t e rate o\$ de1om(o"ition )dro%en (ero*ideO Hypothe i < man%ane"e +I?- o*ide. MnO2 in1rea"e" t e rate o\$ de1om(o"ition o\$ )dro%en (ero*ide Garia!le : Mani(#'ated Re"(ondin% Gi*ed < (re"en1e o\$ man%ane"e +I?- o*ide +MnO2< rate o\$ rea1tion < 1on1entration o\$ H2O2. initia' tem(erat#re o\$ H2O2 "o'#tion.

Apparatu < te"t t#be. 10 1m8 mea"#rin% 1)'inder. te"t t#be ra13. "(at#'a. Material : +,010- ! 4o'#me o\$ H2O2 "o'#tion. man%ane"e +I?- o*ide +MnO2- (o2der. 2ooden "('inter Proce2ure : 1. 'abe' t2o te"t t#be a" A and B 2. A"in% a mea"#rin% 1)'inder mea"#re , 1m8 o\$ 20 ! 4o'#me o\$ H2O2 "o'#tion and (o#r into te"t t#be A. 8. Add V "(at#'a o\$ man%ane"e +I?- o*ide (o2der into te"t t#be A. ;. S a3e t e te"t t#be. ,. Immediate') ('a1e a %'o2in% "('inter into t e te"t t#be. =. Ob"er4e and re1ord t e 1 an%e". F. Re(eat t e "ame (ro1ed#re \$or te"t t#be B 2it o#t MnO2 .! ervation: =Paper 2> Te t tu!e A B .! ervation E\$\$er4e"1en1e o11#rred. T e %'o2in% 2ooden "('inter re'i% t. >o e\$\$er4e"1en1e. T e %'o2in% 2ooden "('inter did not re'i% t.

Di cu ion: Man%ane"e +I?- o*ide +MnO2- in1rea"e" t e rate o\$ de1om(o"ition o\$ )dro%en (ero*ide. De1om(o"ition o\$ )dro%en (ero*ide (rod#1e" o*)%en %a". 2H2O2 2H2O D O2

21

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

CHAPTER &&: CAR%.@ C.MP./@D 1. Hy2rocar!on ! 1 emi1a' 1om(o#nd 1ontainin% car!on and hy2rogen atom only. 2. Alkene ! 1 emi1a' 1om(o#nd 1ontainin% car!on an2 hy2rogen atom and at 'ea"t one car!on4car!on 2ou!le !on2 6 C H C 1 +0 \$ omer are mo'e1#'e" 2it t e ame molecular formula. b#t 2it 2ifferent tructural formula. Example: C(H&; 8 !utane n0b#tane 20met )'(ro(ane

C=H12O= Germention C2H;Br2 C2H= C2H;+OH-2 C2H,OH C2H,Br 0 CH20 CH20 Br2 H2 C2H;
KMnO;9 H . K2Cr2OF9 HD
D

H2O H6

A d d i t i o n

## E"teri\$i1ation H2SO; CH8COO C2H, Et )' et anoate

CnH 2nD 2 . n C 1.2 a'3ane CnH2n . n C 2. 8 a'3ene CnH 2nD 1 OH. n C 1. 2 a'1o o' CnH 2nD1 COOH . nC0.1.. Carbo*)'i1 a1id

KMnO;9HD 9 K2Cr2OF9 HD

Yea"t

H 2SO;. 1on"

## H 8 &O;. =0 atm. 800 oC

2C2H,OH D 2CO2 Aeneral formula -unctional group Sin%'e 1o4a'ent bond bet2een 1arbon atom". C0 C Do#b'e 1o4a'ent bond bet2een 1arbon atom". CCC H)dro*)' %ro#( 9 0 OH Mem!er 7 example Et ane

CnH2n D 2 . n C 1.2..

Et ene Et ano'

Carbo*)'i1 a1id

28

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

;. Yo#r are re/#ired to (re(are one name') e"ter b) #"in% ethanoic aci2 i" one o\$ t e rea1tant". B) #"in% a namely alcohol. 2e cri!e one e*(eriment to (re(are t e e"ter. In )o#r de"1ri(tion in1'#de t e chemical e<uation and o! ervation in4o'4ed. E ter: et )'et anoate Material: et ano'. eta anoi1 a1id. 2ater. 1on1entrated "#'( #ri1 a1id Apparatu : %oiling tu!e 5 te t tu!e. B#n"en b#rner. te"t t#be o'der. bea3er Proce2ure: 1. Pour 2 1m8 o\$ et ano' into a boi'in% t#be 9 te"t t#be 2. A22 1 1m8 o\$ et anoi1 a1id 8. A22 2 to ; dro(" o\$ 1on1entrated "#'( #ri1 a1id ;. Heat t e mi*t#re gently \$or abo#t t2o min#te" ,. Pour t e mi*t#re into a bea3er 1ontainin% 2ater. .! ervation: S2eet9 ('ea"ant 9 \$r#it) "me'' 99 in"o'#b'e in 2ater Chemical e<uation< CH+C..H D C2H:OH CH+C.. C2H: D H2O

(0 Dehy2ration of alcohol Dia%ram o\$ "et #( o\$ a((arat#" 1. Com('ete and \$#n1tiona' 2. 7abe'" o\$ "et #( o\$ a((arat#" 1orre1t

2;

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

Proce2ure: a- &'a1e "ome %'a"" 2oo' in a boi'in% t#be b- A"e a dro((er to add (ro(an010o' to 2et t e %'a"" 2oo'. 1- C'am( t e boi'in% t#be oriEonta'') and ('a1ed #n%'aEed (or1e'ain 1 i(" in t e mi2 ection o\$ t e boi'in% t#be. d- Heat t e #n%'aEed (or1e'ain 1 i(" trongly0 e- T en eat t e gla #ool gently to 4a(oriEe t e (ro(ano'. \$- HDe"1ri(tion o\$ t e chemical te t to t e %a" 1o''e1ted in t e te"t t#be.I Add 1 1m8 o\$ !romine #ater and " a3e 2e''. =.! ervation>: Re22i h !ro#n colour of !romine 2ecolouri e2 Or. Add 1 1m8 o\$ a1idi\$ied (ota""i#m man%anate+?II- "o'#tion and " a3e 2e''. =.! ervation>: Purple colour of pota ium manganate6G\$\$1 olution 2ecolouri e2 Chemical e<uation: C8HFOH C8H= D H2O

2,

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

,. Tab'e " o2" re"#'t" o\$ 'ate* 1oa%#'ation Proce2ure &ro(anoi1 a1id +2ea3 a1id- i" added to 'ate* 7ate* i" 'e\$t #nder nat#ra' 1ondition"
&rotein membrane"

0 0 0

0 0

## R#bber (arti1'e" R#bber mo'e1#'e"

E*('ain 2 ) t ere i" a 2ifference in t e"e ob"er4ation" An #er: 1. A1id ioni9e in 2ater to (rod#1e i% 1on1entration o\$ 9 a 'ot o\$ hy2rogen ion 2. H)dro%en ion". HD ne#tra'iEe t e negative charge on t e protein mem!rane 8. T e ru!!er particle colli2e and t e (rotein membrane" brea3 ;. R#bber molecule are re'ea"ed and 1ombine 2it one anot er and entangle. ,. T e e*i"ten1e o\$ !acteria in nat#ra' 1ondition" =. T e %ro2t o\$ ba1teria (rod#1e 9 lactic aci2 9#eak aci2 9 'o2 1on1entration o\$ HD ion". F. D#e to t e lo# !acterial action. t e 1oa%#'ation o\$ 'ate* ta3e" a longer time to o11#r. =Monomer of natural ru!!er: 2 8 methyl!uta4&7+4 2iene 7 C:HD 5 i oprene > Explain ho# to prevent coagulation of latex 1. A22 ammonia olution 2. Ammonia "o'#tion 1ontain" 9 ioniEed to (rod#1e hy2roxi2e ion 7 .H4 8. H)dro*ide ion". OH0 neutrali9e2 t e )dro%en ion". HD 9 a1id (rod#1ed b) t e ba1teria ;. T e r#bber (arti1'e" remain negatively charge2 and 1oa%#'ation i" (re4ented. =. H&a(er 8I Aim: To 1om(are t e ela ticity 9 trength o\$ 4#'1ani"ed and #n4#'1ani"ed r#bber Pro!lem tatement< Doe" 4#'1ani"ed r#bber more e'a"ti1 t an #n4#'1ani"ed r#bber Hypothe i : ?#'1ani"ed r#bber i" more e'a"ti1 t an #n4#'1ani"ed r#bber Garia!le: Manipulate2 < 4#'1ani"ed r#bber and #n4#'1ani"ed r#bber Re pon2ing < 'en%t o\$ r#bber "tri( 9 e'a"ti1it) -ixe2 < ma"" o\$ 2ei% t. "iEe o\$ r#bber Material an2 apparatu < Retort "tand. b#''do% 1'i(. meter r#'er. 2ei% t. 4#'1ani"ed and #n4#'1ani"ed r#bber 2=

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

Proce2ure: 1. Han% bot r#bber "tri(" to t e retort "tand 2it b#''do% 1'i(. 2. Mea"#re t e initia' 'en%t o\$ bot r#bber "tri(" and recor20 8. Han% ,0 % 2ei% t to t e end o\$ ea1 r#bber #"in% b#''do% 1'i(. ;. Remo4e t e 2ei% t and mea"#re t e 'en%t o\$ bot r#bber "tri(" and recor2.99 ,. Re1ord a'' t e data obtained.

/nvulcani e2 ru!!er Re ult 5 Data T)(e o\$ r#bber 4#'1ani"ed #n4#'1ani"ed Initia' 'en%t . cm

Gulcani e2 ru!!er

## 7en%t a\$ter remo4a' o\$ 2ei% t . cm

Compare an2 contra t the propertie of vulcani9e2 ru!!er Gulcani9e2 ru!!er Harder More e'a"ti1 Stron%er Can 2it "tand i% er tem(erat#re 7e"" ea"i') o*idiEed Doe" not be1ome "o\$t and "ti13) ea"i') Conclu ion: 1. Gulcani e2 ru!!er i" more ela tic t an #n4#'1ani"ed r#bber d#e to t e (re"en1e o\$ cro 4linkage of ulfur atom bet2een t e r#bber mo'e1#'e". ?#'1ani"ed r#bber 1o#'d ret#rn to it" ori%ina' 'en%t a\$ter remo4a' o\$ t e 2ei% t. To prepare vulcani e2 ru!!er R#bber 1an be 4#'1aniEed b) di((in% nat#ra' r#bber " eet" into 2i ulphur 2ichlori2e olution in methyl!en9ene or eated 2it ulphur0 @ote: ?#'1ani"ed r#bber i more heat re i tance d#e to t e (re"en1e o\$ cro 4linkage of ulfur atom increa e the i9e of ru!!er molecule . Gor1e o\$ attra1tion bet2een mo'e1#'e" 2i'' in1rea"e. 2F Ela ticity Hardne"" E'a"ti1it) Ten"i'e "tren%t Re"i"tan1e to eat Re"i"tan1e to o*idation E\$\$e1t o\$ or%ani1 "o'4ent /nvulcani e2 ru!!er 7e"" arder 7e"" e'a"ti1 Wea3er Cannot 2it "tand i% er tem(erat#re More ea"i') o*idiEed Be1ome "o\$t and "ti13) ea"i')

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

B0 Compare and 2ifferentiate bet2een name') alkene and alkane Alkane 6 hexane 1 1 2 8 ; , = F @ Alkene 6 hexene 1 H)dro1arbon + 1ontain C and H atom7o2 me'tin% and boi'in% (oint In"o'#b'e in 2ater. "o'#b'e in or%ani1 "o'4ent Cannot 1ond#1t e'e1tri1it) Den"it) 'e"" t an 2ater Com('ete') 1omb#"tion (rod#1e CO2 D H2O An"at#rated . 1ontain at 'ea"t one do#b'e bond CCC Rea1ti4e ! #nder%o addition rea1tion+ )dro%enation. a'o%enation". o*idation. (o')meriEation. 2it a'ide. "team+ )dration. CnH2n . nC 2 W 1. More "oot \$'ame. + N o\$ 1arbon (er mo'e1#'e i" i% er-. 2. de1o'oriEed !ro#n bromine 2ater 8. purple 1o'o#r i" de1o'o#riEed

Sat#rated . "in%'e 1o4a'ent bond. C0C Anrea1ti4e ! #nder%o "#b"tit#tion 2it a'o%en in t e (re"en1e o\$ "#n'i% t 9 A? ra) 5enera' \$orm#'a . CnH2nD2 . n C 1.2 W

10 \$2entify te t 1. Comb#"tion. b#rn 'e"" "oot \$'ame. +N o\$ 1arbon (er mo'e1#'e i" 'o2erChemical te t 2. add bromine 2ater . !ro#n 1o'o#r remain" 8. add a1idi\$ied KMnO; . purple 1o'o#r remain"

2@

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

CHAPTER &2: RED.' Re2ox reaction are 1 emi1a' rea1tion" in4o'4in% oxi2ation an2 re2uction o11#rrin% imultaneou ly. 1. 2. 8. ;. Tran"\$er o\$ e'e1tron. M% M%2D D 2e 99 C#2D D 2e C# 7o"" or %ain o*)%en. C D 2C#O 2C# D CO2 7o"" or %ain )dro%en. H2S D C'2 2HC' D " 1 an%e" in o*idation n#mber

Ru ting of iron 1. W en iron e*(o"ed to #ater and oxygen 2. Iron atom re'ea"e" 2 electron to \$orm iron 6\$\$1 ion. Ge2D 9 i" o*idiEed to \$orm iron +II- ion. Ge2D 8. Ge Ge2D D 2e 99 +anode- = oxi2ation> ;. Iron a1t" a" re2ucing agent ,. O*)%en and 2ater receive 5gain electron to \$orm )dro*ide ion". =. O2 D 2H2O D ;e ;OH0 +1at ode- =re2uction> F. O*)%en a1t" a oxi2i9ing agent. @. Iron +II- ion. Ge2D 1ombine 2it )dro*ide ion. OH0 to \$orm iron +II- )dro*ide. Ge+OH-2. M. Iron +II- )dro*ide. Ge+OH-2 o*idiEed b) o*)%en to \$orm iron 6\$\$\$1 oxi2e. !ro#n oli25precipitate. Ge2O8.* H2O. 99 Ge2D Ge8D D e Effect of the contact of other metal on the ru ting of iron0 2M

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

Aim : To in4e"ti%ate the effect o\$ in 1onta1t o\$ ot er meta'" on t e r#"tin% o\$ iron. Pro!lem tatement< Ho2 doe" t e effect on r#"tin% 2 en iron i" in 1onta1t 2it anot er meta'O 99 Ho2 doe" di\$\$erent t)(e o\$ meta' in 1onta1t 2it affect t e r#"tin% o\$ ironO Hypothe i : W en a more e'e1tro(o"iti4e meta' i" in contact 2it iron. t e meta' inhi!it r#"tin%. W en a 'e"" e'e1tro(o"iti4e meta' i" in contact 2it iron. t e meta' pee2 up t e r#"tin%. Garia!le: Mani(#'ated Re"(ondin% Gi*ed < T)(e o\$ meta' t at in 1onta1t 2it iron. < R#"tin% o\$ iron < Iron nai'". tem(erat#re. medi#m in 2 i1 iron nai'" are 3e(t.

Apparatu < Te"t t#be. te"t t#be ra13 Material : iron nai'". ma%ne"i#m ribbon. 1o((er "tri(. Ein1 "tri(. tin "tri(. ot Ke'') "o'#tion. (ota""i#m e*a1)ano\$erat +III- . K8Ge+C>-= "o'#tion. ( eno'( t a'ein indi1ator. "and (a(er. Proce2ure: 1. Gi4e iron nai'". ma%ne"i#m ribbon. 1o((er "tri(. Ein1 "tri( and tin "tri( 2ere 1'eaned 2it "and (a(er. 2. Go#r iron nai'" 2ere 1oi'ed ti% t') 2it t e ma%ne"i#m ribbon. 1o((er "tri(. Ein1 "tri( and tin "tri( re"(e1ti4e'). 8. A'' \$i4e iron nai'" 2ere ('a1ed in "e(arate te"t t#be. ;. T e 4o'#me o\$ ot Ke'') "o'#tion t at 2a" mi*ed 2it a 'itt'e K 8Ge+C>-= "o'#tion and ( eno'( t a'ein indi1ator 2a" (o#red into t e ea1 te"t t#be to 1om('ete') 1o4er a'' t e nai'". ,. T e te"t t#be" 2ere 3e(t in a te"t t#be ra13 and 2ere a"ide \$or a da). =. A'' ob"er4ation" 2ere re1orded. .! ervation
Meta' Ge Ge0 M% Ge0Zn Ge0Sn Ge0C# Moderate Hi% Inten"it) o\$ dar3 b'#e 1o'o#ration 7o2 Inten"it) o\$ (in3 1o'o#ration Hi% Hi% 7o2 7o2 Ob"er4ation Condition o\$ nai' T e "#r\$a1e o\$ t e nai' 2a" (artia'') 1o4ered 2it reddi" bro2n "o'id >o reddi" bro2n "o'id 2a" \$o#nd on t e "#r\$a1e o\$ t e nai'. >o reddi" bro2n "o'id 2a" \$o#nd on t e "#r\$a1e o\$ t e nai'. T e 2 o'e "#r\$a1e o\$ t e nai' 2a" 1o4ered 2it reddi" bro2n "o'id T e 2 o'e "#r\$a1e o\$ t e nai' 2a" ea4i') 1o4ered 2it reddi" bro2n "o'id

T e nai' in te"t t#be A r#"ted a 'itt'e. >o r#"tin% o11#rred to t e nai'" in te"t t#be" B and C .T e nai' in te"t t#be D r#"ted b#t t e nai' in te"t t#be E r#"ted e4en more. 80

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

Di cu ion 1. Ba"ed on t e ob"er4ation" ma%ne"i#m and Ein1 meta'" in ibit r#"tin% o\$ iron. 2 i'e 1o((er and tin meta'" "(eed #( r#"tin% o\$ iron. 2. T i" i" be1a#"e ma%ne"i#m and Ein1 are more e'e1tro(o"iti4e t an iron. Ma%ne"i#m atom or Ein1 atom re'ea"e" it" e'e1tron more ea"i') t an iron. M% M%2D D 2e O2 D 2H2O D ;e ;OH0 8. Co((er and tin are 'e"" e'e1tro(o"iti4e t an iron. Iron atom re'ea"e" it" e'e1tron" more ea"i') t an 1o((er atom or tin atom. ;. Ge Ge2D D 2e ,. The le electropo itive metal t at in contact 2it iron. the fa ter t e r#"tin% o\$ iron o11#r". =. The more electropo itive metal t at in contact 2it iron prevent iron \$rom r#"tin%. Conclu ion: R#"tin% 1an be prevented 2 en iron i" in contact 2it a more electropo itive meta'. R#"tin% o11#r" fa ter 2 en iron i" in 1onta1t 2it a le electropo itive meta'. &0 Di placement reaction Metal: Example: Mn ? Cu".( Mn".( ? Cu 55 Mn ? Cu2? Cu ? Mn2? a1 Zn atom o*idiEed to Zn2D . Zn Zn2D D 2e b- O*idation n#mber o\$ Zn 1 an%e" 9 in1rea"e \$rom 0 to D2. 1- Zn a1t" a" red#1in% a%ent. d- Co((er +II- ion red#1ed to C#. C#2D D 2e C# e- O*idation n#mber o\$ 1o((er 1 an%e" 9 de1rea"e \$rom D2 to 0 \$- C#2D ion a1t" a" o*idiEin% a%ent E*am('e< An e*(eriment i" 1arried o#t to determine t e re'ati4e (o"ition o\$ t ree meta'". "i'4er. 7 and M. in t e e'e1tro1 emi1a' "erie".

E*(eriment

## "i'4er nitrate "o'#tion

7 nitrate "o'#tion

## M %re) de(o"it 'i% t b'#e "o'#tion

M no 1 an%e

Ob"er4ation

Ba"ed on re"#'t". arran%e t e t ree meta'" in order o\$ in1rea"in% e'e1tro(o"iti4it). E*('ain )o# an"2er. Sam('e an"2er< 81

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

1. Si'4er. M and 7 2. 7 1an di"('a1e "i'4er \$rom "i'4er nitrate "o'#tion. 8. 7 i" more e'e1tro(o"iti4e t an "i'4er 99 7 i" i% er t an "i'4er in e'e1tro1 emi1a' "erie". ;. M meta' 1an di"('a1e "i'4er \$rom "i'4er nitrate "o'#tion. ,. M i" more e'e1tro(o"iti4e t an "i'4er 99 M i" i% er t an "i'4er in t e e'e1tro1 emi1a' "erie". =. M 1annot di"('a1e 7 \$rom 7 nitrate "o'#tion. F. M i" 'e"" e'e1tro(o"iti4e t an 7 99 7 i" i% er t an M in t e e'e1tro1 emi1a' "erie".

20 Di placement of Halogen: Aim< To in4e"ti%ate o*idation and red#1tion in t e di"('a1ement o\$ a'o%en \$rom it" a'ide "o'#tion. &ro1ed#re< 1. &o#r 2m 1m8 o\$ (ota""i#m bromide "o'#tion into a te"t t#be. 2. Add 2 1m8 o\$ 1 'orine 2ater to t e te"t t#be and " a3e t e mi*t#re. 8. Add 2 1m8 o\$ 1.1.10tri1 'oroet ane 9 tetra1 'orometane to t e te"t t#be and " a3e t e mi*t#re and 'ea4e it on t e te"t t#be ra13 ;. Re1ord t eob"er4ation. ,. Re(eat "te(" 1 to ; #"in% anot er a'o%en" and a'ide "o'#tion". Tab#'ation o\$ data< Ha'o%en Ha'ide "o'#tion &ota""i#m 1 'oride &ota""i#m bromine &ota""i#m iodide C 'orine Bromine 6 9 9 9 Iodine 6 6

82

## Cl2 ? 2e 6 2Cl4 6 re2uction1

2\$4 6 \$2 ? 2e 6oxi2ation

bromine 2ater

## (ota""i#m iodide "o'#tion

+0 Tran fer of electron at a 2i tance 8 /4tu!e Proce2ure: 1. 1'am( a A0t#be to a retort "tand 2. (o#r di'#te "#'( #ri1 a1id 8. add "olution 6oxi2i9ing agent1 into one end o\$ t e arm o\$ t e A0t#be ;. Add olution 6re2ucing agent1 into t e ot er end. ,. ('a1e 9 di( 1arbon e'e1trode" into ea1 arm o\$ t e A0t#be =. 1onne1t t e e'e1trode" to a 4o'tmeter9 %a'4anometer #"in% 1onne1tin% 2ire F. 'ea4e t e a((arat#" \$or 80min#te" @. re1ord t e ob"er4ation

;. Ba"ed on e'e1tron tran"\$er7 E'P,A\$@ t e o*idation and red#1tion rea1tion in +i- C an%in% o\$ Ge2D ion" to Ge8D ion" +ii- C an%in% o\$ Ge8D ion" to Ge2D ion" A"e a uita!le example \$or ea1 o\$ t e rea1tion. In1'#de a'\$ e/#ation" in )o#r an"2er. "ample an #er: 6i1 a. GeD2 GeD8 D e b. Br2 D 2e 2Br ! 2. Iron +II- ion" re'ea"e" 9 donate" e'e1tron to be1ome iron+III- ion". Iron+II- ion" are o*idiEed. 8. Bromine mo'e1#'e" re1ei4e9 %ain e'e1tron" to \$orm bromide ion". Bromine mo'e1#'e" are red#1ed. +an) "#itab'e o*idiEin% a%ent. C'2. KMnO;9HD 6ii1 1. GeD8 D e GeD2 2. Zn ZnD2 D 2e 8. Iron+III- ion" %ain e'e1tron to be1ome iron+II- ion". Iron+III- ion" are red#1ed. ;. Zin1 atom" re'ea"e"9 donate" e'e1tron" to \$orm Ein1 ion". Zin1 atom" are o*idiEed. +a< an) "#itab'e red#1in% a%ent,. De"1ribe an e*(eriment to in4e"ti%ate o*idation and red#1tion in t e 1 an%e o\$ iron+II- ion" to iron+III88

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

ion" and 4i1e 4er"a. +iC an%in% o\$ Ge2D ion" to Ge8D ion"

&ro1ed#re< 1. &o#r 2 1m8 o\$ \$re" ') (re(ared iron+II-"#'( ate "o'#tion into a te"t t#be. 2. A"in% dro((er. add bromine 2ater dro( b) dro( #nti' no \$#rt er 1 an%e" are ob"er4ed. 8. Heat "'o2') 9 %ent') ;. Add 8 dro(" o\$ (ota""i#m e*a1)ano\$errate +II- "o'#tion 9 "odi#m )dro*ide "o'#tion. ,. Dar3 b'#e (re1i(itate 99 bro2n (re1i(itate \$ormed. +ii- C an%in% o\$ Ge8D ion" to Ge2D ion" &ro1ed#re< 1. &o#r 2 1m8 o\$ iron+III-"#'( ate "o'#tion into a te"t t#be. 2. Add a'\$ "(at#'a o\$ Ein1 9 M% (o2der to t e "o'#tion. 8. S a3e t e mi*t#re #nti' no \$#rt er 1 an%e" are ob"er4ed. ;. Gi'ter t e mi*t#re. ,. Add 8 dro(" o\$ (ota""i#m e*a1)ano\$errate +III- "o'#tion 9 "odi#m )dro*ide "o'#tion into t e \$i'trate. =. Dar3 b'#e (re1i(itate 99 %reen (re1i(itate \$ormed.

Reactivity erie &0 reactive metal #ith oxygen Aim< 1. to in4e"ti%ate t e rea1ti4it) o\$ meta' 2it o*)%en 2. To arran%e meta'" in term o\$ t eir rea1ti4it) 2it o*)%en &ro1ed#re< 1. &#t one "(at#'a o\$ (ota""i#m man%anate+?II-. KMnO; . into a boi'in% t#be. 2. &#" "ome %'a"" 2oo' into t e boi'in% t#be and 1'am( oriEonta''). 8. &'a1e one "(at#'a ma%ne"i#m (o2der on a (ie1e o\$ a"be"to" (a(er and (#t into t e boi'in% t#be. ;. Heat ma%ne"i#m (o2der "tron%') and t en eat t e "o'id KMnO;. ,. Ob"er4e and re1ord o2 4i%oro#" t e rea1tion and 1o'o#r o\$ t e re"id#e 2 en it i" ot and 2 en it i" 1o'd. 2Mg ? .2 2Mg.
&rod#1e o*)%en

8;

## 20 hy2rogen ga #ith oxi2e of le reactive metal H2 ? P!. P! ? H2.

+0 car!on #ith oxi2e metal C ? 2Cu. 2Cu ? C.2 Aim< To determine t e (o"ition o\$ 1arbon in t e rea1ti4it) "erie" o\$ meta'" &ro1ed#re< 1. Mi* t oro#% ') a "(at#'a o\$ 1arbon (o2der and a "(at#'a o\$ 1o((er+II-o*ide in a 1r#1ib'e. 2. Heat t e mi*t#re "tron%'). 8. Re1ord t e ob"er4ation. ;. Re(eat "te(" 1 to 8. #"in% ma%ne"i#m o*ide. a'#mini#m o*ide and Ein1 o*ide to re('a1e 1o((er+II-o*ide. (0 Car!on 2ioxi2e #ith metal C.2 ? 2Mg 2Mg. ? C O*idiEin% a%ent red#1in% a%ent

Application of reactivity erie in the extraction of metal E*tra1tion o\$ iron \$rom it" ore". ematite. Ge2O8 E*tra1tion o\$ tin \$rom it" ore". 1a""iterite. SnO2 0 in !la t furnace . 1arbon 9 1o3e a" a red#1in% a%ent. E*am('e< C D O2 CO2 C D CO2 2CO C. CO2 . 2CO red#1ed t e iron o*ide" to iron 2 Ge2O8 D 8C ;Ge D 8CO2 8,

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

Ge2O8 D 8CO 2Ge D 2CO2 CaCO8 CaO D CO2 + 'ime "tone de1om(o"edCaO D SiO2 CaSiO8 + im(#ritie" -

8=

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

CHAPTER &+: THERM.CHEM\$"TR) 1. Exothermic ! A 1 emi1a' rea1tion t at give out heat to t e "#rro#ndin%" 0 T e rea1tant" 'o"e eat ener%) to \$orm t e (rod#1t" 0 T e ener%) 1ontent o\$ rea1tant" i" higher t an (rod#1t" 0 XH ne%ati4e 2. Ener%) 'e4e' dia%ram +'abe' energy. rea1tant" and (rod#1t 2it 1orre1t 1 emi1a' 9 ioni1 \$orm#'a. eat o\$ rea1tion 2it unit. 8. Heat o\$ rea1tion ! eat 1 an%e9re'ea"e" 2 en & mole o\$ (rod#1t \$ormed. H 3Jmo'0 I C mCY 9 mo'e Heat o\$ ne#tra'iEation ! eat re'ea"e" 2 en & mole of H? 1ombine" 2it & mol of .H4 to \$orm & mole of #ater. H? ? .H4 H2. ;. Heat o\$ 1omb#"tion ! eat re'ea"e" 2 en & mole o\$ a'1o o' b#rnt 1om('ete') in e*1e"" o*)%en. C2H:.H ? +.2 2C.2 ? +H2. ,. A" t e n#mber o\$ 1arbon atom (er mo'e1#'e in1rea"e". t e eat o\$ 1omb#"tion in1rea"e". d#e to more pro2uct forme2 +CO2 J H2O- . T ere\$ore more eat re'ea"ed 2 en more !on2 are forme2. 8F

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

=. To determine eat o\$ 1omb#"tion +materia' and a((arat#". (ro1ed#re. tab#'ation o\$ data. 1a'1#'ation. ob"er4ation". (re1a#tion"-. Proce2ure: 1. +100 ! 200- 1m8 o\$ #ater i" mea"#red #"in% a mea"#rin% 1)'inder 2. and (o#red into a 1o((er tin. 8. T e initia' tem(erat#re o\$ 2ater i" mea"#red and re1orded. Z 1 ;. A "(irit 'am( i" \$i''ed 2it b#tano'9 ot er a'1o o' and 2ei% ed. * %ram ,.T e "(irit 'am( i" 'i% t and (#t #nder t e 1o((er 1an. =.T e 2ater i" "tirred 1ontin#o#"') 2it a t ermometer. F.W en t e tem(erat#re o\$ 2ater increa e2 !y +;oC. t e \$'ame i" (#t o\$\$. @.T e "(irit 'am( i" 2ei% ed a%ain. ) %ram M.T e i% e"t tem(erat#re i" re1orded. Z2 Re ult : Ma"" o\$ 2ei% t o\$ "(irit 'am( D b#tano' 9% Gina' ma"" o\$ "(irit 'am( D b#tano' 9% Ma"" o\$ b#tano' #"ed9% Hi% e"t tem(erat#re o\$ 2ater 9oC Initia' tem(erat#re o\$ 2ater 9oC In1rea"ed in tem(erat#re 9oC Calculation: Heat 1 an%e C m1Z C 100 * ;.2 * +Z2 ! Z1CaJ * ) +*0)- 99 E Z1 Z2 +Z1 0 Z2 - 99 Z8

## Heat o\$ 1omb#"tion o\$ b#tano' C

aJ +E9F;- mo'

Precaution : 1. Ma3e "#re t e \$'ame \$rom t e 1omb#"tion o\$ et ano' to#1 e" t e bottom o\$ t e 1o((er 1an 99 T e "(irit 'am( i" ('a1ed 4er) 1'o"e or K#"t beneat t e bottom o\$ t e 1o((er 1an. 2. "tir t e 2ater in t e 1o((er 1an 1ontin#o#"'). 8. T e "(irit 'am( m#"t be 2ei% ed immediate') +be1a#"e t e et ano' i" 4er) 4o'ati'e-. ;. A #in2 hiel2 m#"t be #"ed d#rin% e*(eriment. Heat o\$ di"('a1ement Aim< To determine t e eat o\$ di"('a1ement o\$ 1o((er b) Ein1 and iron &ro1ed#re< 1. Mea"#re 2, 1m8 o\$ 0.2 mo' dm08 o\$ 1o((er+II-"#'( ate "o'#tion and (o#r into a ('a"ti1 1#( 9 (o')"trene 1#(. 2. Re1ord t e initia' tem(erat#re o\$ t e "o'#tion. 8. &o#r 0.,% o\$ Ein1 (o2der into t e "o'#tion. ;. Stir t e mi*t#re 2it t ermometer ,. Mea"#re and re1ord t e i% e"t tem(erat#re o\$ t e rea1tin% mi*#tre. Tab#'ation o\$ data< 8@

## Meta' Zin1 Iron

Initia' tem(erat#re. oC

## Hi% e"t tem(erat#re. oC

Heat o\$ (re1i(itation Aim< To determine t e eat o\$ (re1i(itaion o\$ "i'4er 1 'oride. A%C' A((arat#"< ('a"ti1 1#(. t ermometer. mea"#rin% 1)'inder Materia' < "i'4er nitrate "o'#tion . 0., mo' dm08 . "odi#m 1 'oride "o'#tion. 0., mo' dm08 &ro1ed#re< 1. Mea"#re 20 1m8 0., mo' dm08 o\$ "i'4er nitrate "o'#tion and (o#r into ('a"ti1 1#(. 2. Mea"#re and re1ord t e initia' tem(erat#re o\$ "i'4er nitrate "o'#tion. 8. Mea"#re 20 1m8 0., mo' dm08 o\$ "odi#m 1 'oride "o'#tion and (o#r into ('a"ti1 1#(. ;. Mea"#re and re1ord t e initia' tem(erat#re o\$ "odi#m 1 'oride "o'#tion. ,. Add t e "odi#m 1 'oride "o't#ion" into t e "i'4er nitrate "o'#tion /#i13') and "tir t e mi*t#re. =. Mea"#re and re1ord t e i% e"t tem(erat#re o\$ t e rea1tin% mi*t#re. Tab#'ation o\$ data< initia' tem(erat#re o\$ "i'4er nitrate "o'#tion. oC initia' tem(erat#re o\$ "odi#m 1 'oride "o'#tion. oC A4era%e tem(erat#re o\$ bot "o'#tion". oC i% e"t tem(erat#re o\$ t e rea1tin% mi*t#re. oC Heat o\$ (re1i(itation i" t e eat re'ea"ed 9 eat 1 an%e 2 en one mo'e o\$ (re1i(itate i" \$ormed \$rom t eir ion" in a/#eo#" "o'#tion.

8M

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

CHAPTER &(: CHEM\$CA," -.R C.@"/MER" Example: 1. +a- A "t#dent 2a" ed i" "o13" 2 i1 ad oi') "tain". E*('ain t e 1'ean"in% a1tion o\$ "oa( on t e oi') "tain". In 2ater oap ioni9e to \$orm ion"9anion CH8+CH2-* C..4 and 1ation. "odi#m ion". >aD T e anion" 1on"i"t" o\$ hy2rophilic part + 0COO 0- and hy2ropho!ic part + )dro1arbon Hy2rophilic part 2i olve in #ater on') b#t )dro( obi1 (art di""o'4e in %rea"e on'). T e anion re2uce urface ten ion of #ater. 1a#"in% 2ettin% o\$ %rea") "#r\$a1e. D#rin% 2a" in% and "1r#bbin%. t e anion" (#'' t e %rea"e and 'i\$ted it o\$\$ t e "#r\$a1e and brea3 it into a "ma'' dro('et" +Em#'"i\$)in% a%ent Rin"in% a2a) t e dirt) 2ater remo4e" t e %rea"e +t e dirt- and e*1e"" "oa( and t e "#r\$a1e i" 1'ean. ;0

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

+b- Anot er "t#dent 1arried o#t \$o#r e*(eriment" to in4e"ti%ate t e 1'ean"in% e\$\$e1t o\$ "oa( and deter%ent on oi') "tain" in "o\$t 2ater and ard 2ater re"(e1ti4e').

Compare t e 1'ean"in% e\$\$e1t bet2een +i- E*(eriment" I and II +ii- E*(eriment II and I? Explain the 2ifference in the o! ervation Exp0 \$ an2 \$\$ T e oi') "tain di"a((ear" in E*(eriment I b#t remain" oi') in E*(eriment II. Har2 #ater contain Ca2? an2 Mg2? ion 2 i1 rea1t" 2it "oa( ion" to \$orm cum 6in olu!le alt1 T e \$ormation o\$ "1#m ma3e" anion" 'e"" e\$\$i1ient \$or 1'eanin% t e oi') "tain on t e "o13 In "o\$t 2ater. a'' anion" are #"ed to 1'ean t e oi') "tain T #". "oa( i" on') e\$\$e1ti4e a" a 1'ean"in% a%ent in "o\$t 2ater and ine\$\$e1ti4e in ard 2ater. Exp0 \$\$ an2 \$G T e "o13 in E*(eriment II remain" oi') b#t i" 1'ean in e*(eriment I?. T e "oa( anion" \$orm "1#m 2 en rea1t" 2it Ca2D and M%2D ion" in ard 2ater. T e \$ormation o\$ "1#m ma3e" anion" 'e"" e\$\$i1ient \$or 1'eanin% T e deter%ent anion" CH8+CH2-* .".+4 9 CH8+CH2-* ".+4 do not \$orm a (re1i(itate 2it Ca2D O and M%2D in ard 2ater. Hen1e. deter%ent 1'ean" e\$\$e1ti4e') in ard 2ater b#t "oa( doe" not 1'ean e\$\$e1ti4e') in ard 2ater.

20 Preparation of oap Proce2ure 1. (o#r 10 1m8 (a'm oi' + 4e%etab'e oi' - into a bea3er 2. add ,0 1m8 o\$ :0; mol 2m4+ >aOH 9 KOH "o'#tion ;1

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

8. ;. ,. =. F. @. M.

eat t e mi*t#re \$or +10 min#te""tir "to( eatin%. add ,0 1m8 di"ti''ed 2ater and oli2 @aCl boi' t e mi*t#re \$or , min#te" 1oo' \$i'ter. 2a" 9 rin"e dr) + (re"" t e re"id#e bet2een \$i'ter (a(er"

Te t 10. &'a1e a "ma'' amo#nt o\$ t e re"id#e into a te"t t#be add di"ti''ed 2ater. " a3e it 2e''. (rod#1e a 'ot o\$ 'at er + 4er) \$oam).! ervation < 2 ite "o'id. "'i((er) and (rod#1e a 'ot o\$ 'at er + 4er) \$oam)-. C emi1a' e/#ation<

+0 Yo# are %i4en 'i/#id "oa(. "am('e o\$ ard 2ater. "am('e o\$ "o\$t 2ater and ot er materia'". De cri!e an experiment to in4e"ti%ate t e e\$\$e1t o\$ 1'eanin% a1tion o\$ t e "oa( in di\$\$erent t)(e" o\$ 2ater. Yo# de"1ri(tion m#"t in1'#de e*am('e o\$ har2 #ater and oft #ater. ob"er4ation and 1on1'#"ion. H10 mar3"I "ample an #er: 1. ard 2ater < "ea 2ater 2. "o\$t 2ater < di"ti''ed 2ater Materia'"< 'i/#id "oa(. "ea 2ater. di"ti''ed 2ater. (ie1e" o\$ 1'ot 2it oi' "tain. A((arat#"< bea3er +"#itab'e 1ontainer-. %'a"" rod. mea"#rin% 1)'inder Proce2ure: 1. (o#r +100 ! 200- 1m8 "ea 2ater into a bea3er9 "#itab'e 1ontainer 2. Add +10 ! 20 - 1m8 'i/#id "oa( into t e bea3er. ;2

## CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK

8. ;. ,. =.

"tir t e mi*t#re &'a1e a (ie1e o\$ 1'ot 2it oi' "tain into t e bea3er. Re1ord t e ob"er4ation. Re(eat "te( 1 ! ; #"in% di"ti''ed 2ater.

.! ervation: 1. T e oi' "tain in ard 2ater remained b#t remo4ed in "o\$t 2ater. Conclu ion: 1. Hard 2ater 1ontain" M%2D or Ca2D. Soa( anion \$ormed cum +in"o'#b'e "a't- 2 en react 2it M%2D or Ca2D. 2. Soa( i" not an e\$\$e1ti4e 1'ean"in% a%ent in ard 2ater b#t on') e\$\$e1ti4e in "o\$t 2ater.

## Compare an2 contra t oap an2 2etergent "oap

CH8 +CH2-1, COO >a
0 D

Detergent

Sodi#m 1arbo*)'ate Materia' < \$at. 4e%etab'e oi'. >aOH 9 KOH. mo' dm08 &re(aration Sa(oni\$i1ation

Sodi#m a'3)' "#'( ate &etro'e#m \$ra1tion" < 'on% 1 ain a'1o o'. >aOH 9 KOH. , mo' dm08 . H2SO; 1. "#'( onation 2. ne#tra'iEation

Sodi#m a'3)'benEene "#'( onate &etro'e#m \$ra1tion" < 'on% 1 ain a'3ene. >aOH 9 KOH. , mo' dm08. H2SO; 1. a'3)'ation 2. "#'( onation 8. ne#tra'iEation

The a22itive in 2etergent Type Gra%ran1e" Bio'o%i1a' enE)me" W itenin% a%ent" -unction Example To add \$ra%ran1e to bot t e deter%ent and \$abri1" To remo4e (rotein "tain" "#1 a" b'ood Am)'a"e". (rotea"e". 1e''#'o"e". 'i(a"e" To 1on4ert "tain" into 1o'o#r'e"" ;8 Sodi#m (erborate

## S#"(en"ion a%ent" Gi''er" O(ti1a' 2 itenin% B#i'der

"#b"tan1e" To (re4ent t e dirt (arti1'e" remo4ed \$rom rede(o"itin% onto 1'eaned \$abri1" To add to t e b#'3 o\$ t e deter%ent and enab'e it to be (o#r ea"i') To add bri% tne"" and 2 itene"" to 2 ite \$abri1". To en an1e t e 1'eanin% e\$\$i1ien1) o\$ deter%ent b) "o\$tenin% t e 2ater

Carbo*)met )'1e''#'o"e +CMCSodi#m "#'( ate. "odi#m "i'i1ate G'#ore"1ent d)e" Sodi#m tri(o')( o"( ate

-oo2 a22itive Type &re"er4ati4e" -unction To "'o2 do2n9 (re4ent t e %ro2t o\$ mi1roor%ani"m. t ere\$ore \$ood 1an 3e(t \$or 'on%er (eriod" o\$ time Example "alt 5 ugar< 2ra# the #ater o#t o\$ t e 1e''" o\$ mi1roor%ani"m and retar2 the gro#th of microorgani m0 Ginegar: (ro4ide" an a1idi1 1ondition t at inhi!it the gro#th of microorgani m0 @a@.+ +B#r%er%en9oic aci2 5 o2ium !en9oate< to lo# 2o#n the gro#th of microorgani m0 A cor!ic aci2 and vitamin E +To1o( ero'S#%ar . "a't. MS5. 4ine%ar. a"(artame and ")nt eti1 e""en1e" +e"ter7e1it in. \$att) a1id &e1tin. a1a1ia %#m. %e'atin >at#ra' d)e" and arti\$i1ia' d)e"< A9o compoun2 or triphenyl compoun20

## Antio*idant" G'a4orin%" Stabi'iEer" T i13ener" D)e"

To (re4ent o*idation t at 1an 1a#"e" ran1id \$at" and bro2n \$r#it" To im(ro4e t e ta"te o\$ \$ood and re"tore ta"te 'o"" be1a#"e o\$ (ro1e""in%. To (re4ent em#'"ion \$rom "e(aratin% o#t. It" #"e to t i13en \$ood" To add or re"tore t e 1o'o#r in \$ood in order to en an1e it" 4i"#a' a((ea' and mat1 1on"#mer" e*(e1tation".

Me2icine ;;

Type Ana'%e"i1

## -unction To re'ie4e (ain 2it o#t a\$\$e1ted 1on"1io#"ne""

Example A"(irin

Effect on health 0Interna' b'eedin% and #'1eration 01an 1a#"e brain and 'i4er dama%e to 1 i'dren O4er do"e 1an 1a#"e brain and 'i4er dama%e Addi1tion. de(re""ion and na#"ea Can 1a#"e a''er%i1 rea1tion. Can 1a#"e na#"ea. 4omitin%. diEEine"". ra" e". \$e4er 0Hi% do"e 1an 'ead to an*iet). a''#1ination". "e4ere de(re""ion. and (")1 o'o%i1a' de(enden1e. O4erdo"e 1an 'ead to re"(irator) di\$\$i1#'tie". "'ee('e""ne"". 1ome. deat . DiEEine"". dro2"ine"". ra(id eartbeat.

&ara1etamo' Codeine Antibioti1" To treat in\$e1tion" 1a#"e b) ba1teria +t#ber1#'o"i". TB- and pneumonia. Can 3i'' or "'o2 do2n t e %ro2t o\$ ba1teria. &eni1i''in +Penicillium notatum) Stre(tom)1in

&")1 ot era(e#ti1 To a'ter t e abnorma' t in3in%. \$ee'in%" and be a4ior". Di4ide into 8 1ate%orie" < a- timulant< to red#1e \$ati%#e b- anti2epre ant: to red#1e ten"ion and an*iet) 1- antip ychotic: to treat (")1 iatri1 i''ne""

## Amphetamine %ar!iturate 5 tran<uili9er chlorproma9ine haloperi2ol7 clo9apine

T e e*i"ten1e o\$ C emi1a'" 1. Deter%ent< [ 2ear %'o4e" 2 en 2or3in% 2it "tron% deter%ent" to (rote1t )o#r and" [ #"e biode%radab'e deter%ent [ #"e a((ro(riate amo#nt" o\$ deter%ent" 2. Good additi4e" [ Be 2i"e 1on"#mer. Read t e 'abe' to 3no2 2 at )o# are eatin%. [ A4oid 1on"#min% too m#1 "a't" and "#%ar [ a4oid \$ood"t#\$\$ 2it additi4e" 2 i1 are )o# "en"iti4e to. [ a4oid re2ardin% 1 i'dren 2it K#n3 \$ood. 8. Medi1ine< [ do not "tore #( medi1ine". [ no "e'\$ medi1ation [ do not ta3e medi1ine (re"1ribe \$or "omeone e'"e [ 1 e13 \$or e*(ir) date [ \$o''o2 )o#r do1torL" in"tr#1tion" \$or ta3in% medi1ine. [ 3ee( a2a) \$rom 1 i'dren [ do not o4erdo"e ;,

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