7. The columns of the industrial buildings 7.1.

General features The columns are structural elements of the transversal frame. They may be classified considering several aspects like: -the cross section of the columns: the height of the cross section may be constant or variable, the cross section itself may be build-up or compound from different elements interconnected (battened or laced), (fig.1);

ig. 1. !olumns for industrial buildings "ith constant cross sections on the height: 1), #)-build up or compound from hot-rolled sections for marginal and central columns; $)- compound section from hot-rolled shapes, laced; %)-compound section, battened, a&ially loaded; ')- compound section, laced, a&ially loaded

-the variation of the cross section may be constant on the height of the column: ("hen the moments and a&ial forces vary a little from the top to the bottom of the stanchion-they are recommended "hen the cranes have small lift capacities or for industrial platforms, etc.) or variable on the height of the column ("hen the variation of the stresses is significant).The variation of the cross section on the height of the column may be constantly developed or in steps of variation. (ne step has a constant cross section and as a rule, the second step is developed under the gantry girder level as a support for the latter. )n this case, "hile the first step has a constant build-up cross section, the second step is generated from a compound cross section "ith hot-rolled

provided at the e&treme parts of the column and at least in t"o cross sections of a transport section of the element. both of them being "elded "ith fillet "elding. longitudinal stiffening ribs should be "elded on. in the longitudinal a&is of the elements. They should also be placed on the "eb ne&t to the position of brackets stiffening it.'. ig.). from hot rolled profiles or build-up profiles "elded together. )n this case the longitudinal stiffener is a continuous element and the transversal ribs are discontinuous. !olumns for industrial buildings "ith variable sections on the height: +). important local forces being e&pected there. The build up cross section is obtained from thick plate "elded ("eb and flanges) or for bigger loads. /hen checking. The battened system is adopted "hen the columns bear a&ial loads. The laced cross sections are obtained from hot-rolled profiles or build-up cross sections and the lace system is obtained from angles "elded or bolted at the *oints and is commonly used for eccentrically loaded columns. /hile the first are used for build up cross sections the second are used for the compound cross sections.1$) continuous variation on the height )n order to avoid local buckling and torsion also. 1.1). . in order to increase the stiffness of the cross section.-)-variation in t"o steps.sections laced or battened (fig. the area of the cross section contains also the surface of the longitudinal rib. the cross section is provided "ith ribs and stiffening diaphragms. The transversal ribs are as a rule. )f the "eb is 0uite slender. #.

)f the cross section is obtained from t"o hot-rolled profiles (or build up cross sections compounded). The vertical reactions from the girder are transmitted to the "eb of the column through vertical ribs. the ribs have at their bottom side stiffening diaphragms. 2 supplementary cross-piece should also be "elded as intermediate "eb. ig. 3ost common are the brackets of the . the "eb is missing and t"o lateral cross pieces are "elded to the profiles. details of supporting the rafter (girder or truss) The brackets and the supports for the gantry girders vary according to the values of the stresses and the design of the cross section. % !apital for the columns of industrial buildings (central columns).The laced cross sections have also diaphragms and their positions follo" the same rules as the ones mentioned above. ig. $. 1ibs and diaphragms for stiffening the cross section of the columns The capital of the column has to support the roof truss (or girder).

The . ig. the corrugated steel sheet is not "elded to the column because at the top flange level the displacements due to the rotation of the girder on the support must be allo"ed (fig.2.+). )f the girders are continuous the corrugated steel sheet of the platform must be "elded to the diaphragms of the column. 6evertheless. for columns "ith big dimensions separate base plates may be designed for the t"o legs of the column. The gantry girder is connected to the column transferring the forces in the e&ploitation conditions. 4).columns "ith constant cross sections or "ith compound cross sections (see fig.elements for the verification of the fillet "elds bet"een the legs of the column and the stiffening diaphragm The base of the column used to the industrial buildings must be able to transfer important a&ial forces and bending moments to the foundation. )f the girder is simply supported. induced by the eccentricity of this force. important negative bending moments and sometimes even negative reactions being e&pected. the differences are in the concept of the connection depending on "hether this connection is a simple supported or on the contrary. Deign of the columns !hecking the stresses in the cross section follo"s the same stages as for all the columns. '. 7pecific details are conceived in order to stiffen the base plate and the ribs and the diaphragms should be able to transmit the stresses re0uested. The brackets "elded on the step of the column are checked considering the force 1 (reaction from the gantry girder) "ithout the dynamic influence (the dynamic coefficients) and the moment M=R⋅e. 5rackets for the columns "ith constant cross section. it provides continuity (fig. 7. considering the particularity of the variation of the cross section.').

dimensions of the stiffening ribs and their fillet "elds are obtained from the stresses in the flanges of the brackets (in cross section. The hori:ontal ($i) and vertical ($t) fillet "elds are determined considering the capacity of the hori:ontal plate (A%) : . The value of the coefficient is: R r = min (#) Rma& 5oth Rmin and Rmax are taken "ith their o"n sign. if the cranes are 0uite heavy (fig.): A ⋅M H= t (1) W 8. 8old-do"n bolts that attach the gantry girders to the bracket "ill also have to be checked for fatigue. The cross pieces that keep together the brackets and the profiles that form the compound cross section of the inferior part of the column are "elded and the fillet "elds have to be checked for the stresses that come from the t"o cross pieces: !1 = R ⋅ ( h + e) R ⋅e .! = h h ($) The hori:ontal diaphragm has to be checked for local crush also. 9ery important is the fact that R has a variable value and in the case of continuous gantry girders even its algebraic sign may be changed. for e&. +.'. 7o. fig. !hecking the fillet "elds follo"s the ordinary rules. ⋅R l1 ⋅ t1 + b1 ⋅ t # (%) The "oints bet#een the top and the bottom part of the column are "elded.the stress transferred to the cross section of the rib from the flanges of the bracket.+): ig. the fatigue check has to be done for the *oint considering that a single crane acts on the girder. !heck for crushing under the supporting plate ! ≤ 11 . considering that the loading cycle is pulsating (Rmin= ).

σ ech = σ # + $ ⋅ τ # ≤ 11 ..min = ( . 2ccording to the diagrams of stresses "e may "rite: & M tr =( ! M ! M + ) ⋅ a.+ ⋅ R..) The fillet "elds that *oin the cross piece to the bottom part of the stanchion have to be checked to the stress coming from the efforts: ! tr = ! M + +R # h (-) ig. <lements for the design of the cross piece under the support of the crane girder . Ttr&& = R && The cross section has to be checked as an ) section: M T σ = tr ≤ R..'. τ = tr ≤ ... ⋅R Wtr t tr ⋅ htr "here "e impose : htr .! c = A1 ⋅ R.+) ⋅ ltr (. Ttr = + # h # h (+) (4) or: && M tr = R && ⋅ c. +.. l s = !c % ⋅ a s ⋅ R fs (') /hen the bottom part of the column is compound (most of the cases) the cross piece is stressed "ith the sectional efforts from the top part of the column (bending moment and a&ial force).

=etails of supports for the continuous crane girders-the steel plate (platform) is continuously "elded to the column ig. 4. .. =etails for simply supported crane girders on the step of the columns providing the necessary releases for vertical and hori:ontal translations on the support area .ig.

7o. + .strengthen the plates ). = T h M ! + . ≤ R. The shear force (>) is transferred through the plate ). σ ech = σ # + $ ⋅ τ # ≤ 11 .τ s = ≤ Rs f # ⋅ A% As% (1$) (1%) (1') . σ = tr ≤ R htr A# + A$ A1 H H tr τ s = tr ≤ R s ≤ Rs f . The plates ). # (1.'hecking the top part in the cross section #ith hole in the #eb is done on the assumption that the t"o legs that result from the initial cross section are fi&ed at their e&treme parts.) !hecking the cross section: M ! T σ = . # ⋅ hi ⋅ t i (1#) ig. H tr ⋅ htr = ( ⋅ e . -. transfers from the hold do"n bolts the moment that results from tension stresses to the stiffening ribs )%. = + # # h. )*. ⋅R W A. )+..σ = ≤ R. τ = ≤ R f . 1.τ s = f As1 As # τ= ( ( ≤ R f . the stresses are (fig. the couple of forces. !. <lements for the design of the cross section of the column "ith hole on the "eb 'hecking the base of the column .. )n this situation checking means: H tr = H tr H ( ⋅e .-): M.particular checking of the stiffening system designed according to fig. against local buckling.

s # ⋅ a s ⋅ htr σ= (1+) (14) ..b. 1. is transferred only through the plates ). 1. The only plate "hich has to be checked is )1: ( ⋅e ( ≤ R../ )0/ )1 "hich may or may not act together "ith the thick plate )% . τ # = ≤ Rs τ1 +τ# f . τ = ≤ Rf Wx htr ⋅ t ( ⋅e ( # s τ1 = ≤ R fs . =etails for the foundations of the columns for the industrial buildings and elements for the design of the ribs and diaphragms The bending moment in the base plate in fig.ig. τ ma& = # ≤ Rf Wx .