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to estimate crater depth, profile due to heat source. Objectives 1. . ". #. To study various accepted thermal models in Electrical Discharge Machining process To understand the effect of variation of pulse time, leading towards variation in desired output in conte!t with various thermal models To acquire knowledge regarding erosion characteristics in EDM To study the temperature distri$ution along the crater depth Prerequisites %or $etter understanding of the e!periment a candidate should acquire following knowledge 1. . ". #. +. Modes of &eat transfer. 'asic knowledge of Electrical Discharge Machining (arious terminologies related to pulse. )nderstanding of various relevant terms vi*. latent heat of melting, latent heat of vapori*ation, latent heat of evaporation. ,ome hands on e!perience for M-T.-' programming.

Theory

E!perimental ,etup

/rocedure

. %eatures 1.. .1 shows graphically representation of the model. the radius of disk heat source.noeys proposed a first ever widely acknowledged thermal model for EDM process and %igure ". 0athode surface is assumed to $e insulated at the outer area. &eat source is assumed to $e of disk shape on the surface of electrode. Snoeys’s Model 112314 . ". the $asic accepted Thermal models are represented here along with assumptions.imulator /ostTest 0onclusion Theory: -mong the various models developed $y different researchers. 5adius at insulated surface is assumed 166 times.

the latter case is similar to . The first case of a finite dimension in the z direction is simplified than infinite case. . 'ased on the assumptions used. The fraction of the energy transferred to the cathode is taken as +69 1Fc : 6.14 . the temperature distri$ution at the cathode is given as equation 1". &owever.1 .+4.+4. The whole medium is assumed to $e initially at am$ient temperature. .here.&eat source assumed to $e e!istent for the pulse7on7time with the gradually increasing and then decreasing heat source radius. ". The entire electrode and workpiece surfaces were assumed to $e insulated outside the heat source. Van Dijck’s Model 1123#4 the model which accounts for the two7dimensional nature of the heat flow is solved for two cases.noeys8s model %raction of discharge energy transferred to cathode is assumed to $e +69 1%c : 6. %igure ". %eatures 1. finite and infinite dimension in the z direction.noeys8s model.

%igure ". (an Di<ck8s model The superposition principle and separation of varia$les were applied to the partial differential equation and the solution of the temperature distri$ution is given as 1". 4 %or. . . eck’s Model 112=14 is also another disk heat source model. ." shows the schematic representation of the model.disk shaped region over material surface is considered to $e heated $y heat flu!.method to account the change in radius of heat source with time is proposed. This mode is not developed specifically for the EDM process $ut resem$les to the one. %eatures 1. The schematic diagram of (an Di<ck8s model is illustrated in the %igure ".#. %igure ". .

The electrode is a semi7infinite $ody with radius ro. /andey of )niversity of 5urkee proposed a thermal model of EDM in 12=". The entire electrode surface is considered to $e insulated. the heat flu! did not take into account the fraction of energy transferred to the cathode. . %igure ".0.. %igure ". 1". !ilani’s Model 112=". e!cept over the circular region where the heat flu! strikes the material surfaces.here. 12=>4 and /.# ?ilani8s model %eatures 1. -s the model is not developed specifically for the EDM process. ." 'eck8s model The temperature distri$ution is given $y equation 1"."4. This model assumes that the heat from the plasma channel is transferred to the workpiece or tool only $y conduction. %igure ".# shows the schematic representation of the model."4 .

". #. %eatures 1. 6 illustrates the spherical symmetry resulting from assumptions as well as the melt front radius 1r-crater4 of the material. 1".#4 @n order to reach a reasona$le degree of appro!imation. This is $ecause the plasma radius at the cathode was assumed to $e much smaller than that at the anode. %igure ". The temperature distri$ution was derived using an infinite num$er of instantaneous point heat sources distri$uted round the circle. The $oiling temperature of cathode material which is used to determine the crater radius is given as equation 1". The radius of heat flu! is considered constant regardless of the discharge conditions. Thus. )nlike all previous models. . >.M4 instead of a disk for conduction into its interior. +4A "#$%& Di itonto’s Model 112=24 of Te!as -BM )niversity. the model takes into account the effect of plasma channel growth through a constant surface temperature approach. this model assumed a point heat source 1/&. the temperature at the center of the cathode spot was assumed to remain constant throughout the pulse on duration and equal to the $oiling temperature of the cathode material.1=4. a leading EDM manufacturer.+4. -$out 269 of the total energy li$erated is conducted to the discharge gap and it was distri$uted equally $etween the anode and cathode 1%c : 6.#4. and it is given $y equation 1". The plasma channel has $een considered to $e a disk heat source situated $etween two semi7infinite $odies 1tool and workpiece4. +. -merica conducted a series of e!periments in association with -C@E 0orporation. The electrode surfaces are completely insulated e!cept for the portion where the heat flu! strikes the material surfaces. The energy distri$uted to the cathode for erosion is assumed to $e 1=9 1Fc : 6. .

+ Di$itonto8s model The temperature distri$ution was given $y 0arslaw and ?aeger in12+> as. @t is completely new and simple approach of thermal modeling where new concept of erosion front velocity is introduced and %igure ". -t the melt radius 5.=4 holds where. '$ Salonitis’s Model 1 66>4 %eaturesA @t is assumed that the distance from the workpiece surface at which the temperature e!ceeds the melting point coincides with the crater depth.alonitis8s Model .> represents the schematic diagram for the model %igure ".> . -long the interface where the phase change takes place 1 4 the equation 1". neglecting the formation of a recast layer. : heat of fusion. This equation assumes constant current @ during the pulse.%igure ". : molten cavity volume.

%urther the predicted results are compared with the e!perimental ones. .%ET type pulse generator . 1". ()*erimental Setu* %or the purpose of machining. The geometry of the heat source considered will finally affect the profile of the crater o$tained.114 Summary: %rom the literature survey carried out it has $een o$served that the models developed can $e widely classified into two su$ groups depending upon the geometry considered of the heat source 1vi*.24.164 where. 1".164. and -nd the velocity on erosion front is stated as D 1". 5a is average surface roughness.aloniti8s model 1disk heat source4 and Di$itonto8s model 1point heat source4. &ence this e!periment emphasi*es on the comparative study of .24 where. Electra7Ecocut #7a!is wireEDM with $rass wire of diameter "66Fm was used with deioni*ed water as dielectric. point and disk heat source4. The resultant material removal rate o$tained will $e estimated from the volume of these individual craters. En the $asis of these estimates one can compare the models with each other and further with the e!perimental results o$tained.The crater is assumed to have circular para$oloid geometry and its diameter on the surface is determined from the empirical relations in equation 1". &eat $alance equation at the erosion front was given $y equation 1". @t employs a ME.

61 model digital oscilloscope was connected to the machine to measure num$er of pulses. Ton. . .urtronic7 +4. Tektroni! TD. Toff. .urfce roughness of machined component was measured using Taylor7&o$son surface roughness tester 1ModelA . Toff1.with three chief controlling parameters vi*.eight of the material was taken on -fcoset Electronic 'alance 1ModelA %G7#664. -ppropriate machining operation is achieved with the help of adequate wire feed control and dielectric flushing rate.

.

".-TE5-. 5-LCE -G@. contactor and " phase overload relay A .e.e Machine S*eci-ications: (oltage sta$ili*ers 1" /hase4 1. ) M . >. E0E0)T @nput voltage Eutput voltage A 3.ingle phasing presetter. ( (E5T@0-. +. #6 ( phase to neutral A K 19J phase of output voltage Eutput voltage regulation (oltage correction rate A "+ (J sec Termination Everload thermal protection A + ways socket on rear door 1 6 -4 A . 1=67 36 (Jphase A #1+ ( line to line.@EMEL. I#1+ ( line to line A "16 ( to #1> ( line to line.+ire (lectric Dischar.1+mm 66mm K1+mm "+6mm +6mm .ith .e. . i. E0E0)T G . 3.ELC@T)D@L-.+ H(-. over7voltage trip =. i. N . #. Ether protection T5-(E.

#. E/T@EL-.E5H/@E0E . .m .TD. . Taper -ngle Taper cutting K +PJ166mm Procedure .ire guide type Diamond closed .33H =#6.E5H/@E0E . ". The workpiece material considered for the e!periment is 0opper with following properties.@NE Ma!.ire feed rate 6. .1+ H .@NE Ma!. /roperty 1..t E0E0)T +3+ O ="+ O 66mm 3+ Hg Main ta$le feed rate =6 mmJmin 5esolution .v Tm T$ (alue 13> k?Jkg +6>+ k?Jkg 1"+3.comparative study of an point and disk heat source model is presented herewith.ire electrode diameter 6. .661 mm 6716 mJmin Main ta$le feed rate =6 mmJmin .E5H/@E0E . 6. Ma!. +. .

Machine settings were changed after every cut to o$serve effect on performance and all the relevant factors were noted down. Di itonto’s Model 5adius of crater predicted $y this model was calculated using following relation R#S This equation was solved for calculating 5 using numerical methods. / Pulse measurement Measurement of num$er of pulsesA Q Q Q %or the measurement of pulses. 3. #. /ro$es are connected to anode 1wire electrode4 and cathode 1workpiece7 ta$le4 and voltage pulse train is captured. Total machining time is counted using a stop watch.JmH 1.amples of copper were cut to a length of 3.+. -fter the cut.co**er 0/1 1. . Techtroni! oscilloscope is used. mm apart.H "=+ . .6 mm with each cut $y manual programming.1 "#O167#m Js Table /: Pro*erties o. Digital oscilloscope was connected to the machine wire and machine ground to measure num$er of pulses using sampling method. %rom this. >. Lum$er of pulses is counted on the hori*ontal scale ad<usting it to 1666 readings are taken for each cut and then average is found out. The cut was set Electronic $alance was set up for sta$ili*ation nearly "6 minutes $efore the operation. =. num$er of pulses for total machining time is found out using following formula D . %ive such 2 3alculations usin. Density 0p Ht a =2#6 kgJm" "=" ?Jkg. the workpiece was properly dried and weighed on the $alance to find out mass of machined material. ". .

radius of crater was calculatedA #$/ M44 calculation %or copper. ':6. 3onclusion The 0onclusions deviveried from the e!periment are summari*ed as $elowA .hness A**roach: .alonitis also proposed a different approach which esta$lished relationship $etween radius of crater and surface roughness. new crater radius were estimated.and ' used $y 5e$elo et al.M44 calculation (olume of crater. surface roughness of the machined component was measured on Taylor7&o$son surface roughness tester. 'ased on those values. Salonitis Model 5adius of heat source was calculated using following equationA )sing the constants . following relationship was proposedA -fter cutting. 'ased on the para$olic geometry of the crater. -:13#"."3 R S (olume of a single crater was calculated $yA Material removal rate was calculated using the equationA #$2 Sur-ace 4ou. which is the $asic assumption of this model. (c was calculated using following relationA # 3alculations usin.

'arrufet. pp. . TTransient temperatures in a semi7infinite cylinder heated $y a disk heat sourceU. T0onduction of &eat in . (ol. . T... @nternational ?ournal of &eat and Mass Transfer. T/roperties and selectionA Lonferrous -lloys and .simple cathode erosion modelU. TElements of &eat TransferU.1. pp. 'eck ?. ".. -.. D. (ol. E*isik M. 1>"1D1>#6. 112==4.. +. #. 112=1 $4. (olume /urpose MaterialsU . ?ournal of -pplied /hysics. (.olidsU. 'aya*itoglu M. M. pp. 0larendon /ress.. 'eck ?. T. %orm this one can predict the recast layer. pp.pecial7 .. recrystali*ed depths which can predict the appro!imate surface topography and integrity 1qualitatively4. Di'itonto D. TTheoretical models of the electrical discharge machining process @A . McCraw &ill @nternational Editions. .. ".arge time solutions for temperatures in a semi7infinite $ody with a disk heat sourceU. M.>>. The disk heat source thermal models are considered to $e more nearer to the actual processes 1those involving higher pulse frequencies4.. (. (ol.M &and$ook. >. 4(5(4(63(S 1. 0arslaw &. /oint heat source model is one of the easiest thermal models for determining stock removal rate corresponding to temperature gradient within the surface. and ?aeger ?. #62+D#16". 5. /. E!ford. 0. 112+24. 1++D 1>#. # 114. @nternational ?ournal of &eat and Mass Transfer. /atel. # 1164.. &eat transfer is assumed to $e uniform in three directions giving a hemi7spherical temperature profile.1#671#". -. 112=24. nd Edition. Eu$ank.. 112=1a4.

M. @@. 5urther 4eadin. Harafu<i &. D..s: 1. #16#D#111. Motoki. 0attaneo 0. -. T. TThermal modeling of the material removal rate and surface roughness for die7sinking EDMU. #3. #. "+D"3.. -nnals of 0@5/.form of heat conduction equation which eliminates the parado! of instantaneous propagationU. 11. 1+. -nnals of 0@5/. >> 124. 16.ept.td. &asiguchi H. pp. >=7=+. .. @( @nternational . 5. 112+=4. Eu$ank. Chosh -.ome results of physical research in EDMU. 0ompte 5endus. =. T&eat 0onduction Model for the 0alculation of the (olume of the Molten Metal in Electric DischargesU.. M. ?ournal of -pplied /hysics. TEnergy distri$ution at the gap in Electric discharge machiningU.. . process... 112>34.noeys 5. /. 112=24. (ol. 12>#4.>>.. and Mallik. "=>7"26. (ol. pp. @nternational ?ournal of -dvanced Manufacturing Technology. /atel M. 1 .. 2. 3>= 1-ppendi! 07 4. 5. T&eat TransferU. TDevelopment of researchers and applications of spark erosion and electrolytic machining in ?apanU. (ol.. pp. 1123"4. D. . /atel. pp. pp. 1 66=4. DA -ppl.noyes. TTheoretical models of the electrical discharge machining. 112=24. T.. . 112314. #=+7#=2. 'arrufet. (an Di<ck %. TManufacturing . . vol. (an Di<ck %. 1>. 'arrufet M. 1". "1>7" ".. pp. 112=24. (ol. Harlekar ' ( and Desmond 5 M. M. . Di'itonto D.3. 1 66>4. /hy. ?.. 1123#4. pp. 1#.ymposium for Electromachining.alonitis H. 6 114.. /hy. #16#D#111. pp. 5. /rentice &all of @ndia /vt. 3 1>4. Eu$ank /.. T. T.. . vol. 1#. #"1D#"". =22D216. Di$itonto D.. pp.. . ?ournal of -pplied /hysics./ Lew Delhi. pp.econd Edition. .. -. -nnals of 0@5/. TTheoretical models of the electrical discharge machining process @@A The anode erosion modelU. (ol.1. -.ciencesU E. 0rookall ?. 1. T@nvestigation of electro discharge machining operations $y means of thermo7mathematical modelU.. (andick %. The anode erosion modelU.. (ol..

. /. 1 3 J 3+2. TEffect of Thermal . + . 1?anuary 12=+4. ">27 "31. .1?anuary 12=#4. pp. Transactions of L-M0@. . 1+D 1. "6. 112= 4. Dekeyser . (ol. 112="4..cience and Engineering.1"3"7 1"=6. pp. . Masu*awa T. /recision Eng.. ?ilani . 6. Dhanik . /. /. +. TModeling of a . 'rain (ick. 5. #. 1267 121. >7 " . T-n investigation on wire wear in ..noeys. 1 .T. ?ournal of Material /rocess Technology. (ol. pp. pp. T.. 3"D 3=.. %rankel ?.oad on .EDMU. M. M. M.. . . # 1#4. E*isik.. 1122 4. (ol.tudy of specific discharge energy in . 1 66#4 T. 1"27 1##. pp. 112>14..noeys.. ?ennes. 1@. "". and .T. and Dekeyser.ang . (ol. /andey. 11.ymposium for Electro Machining. -nnals of 0@5/. (ol..ome possi$le complications in the phenomena of thermal conductionU. 5.2"7 2=. 112=24. (ernotte M. 0ogun 0.. @...0.ire 5upture in . and 5a<urkar H..... T. 0omptes 5endus. /andey. 1 66"4. ##. T0omparison of various approaches to model the thermal load on the EDM7 wire electrodeU. 1"#1"4. 2. . L."#.EDM and its applicationU @nternational ?ournal of Machine Tool and Manufacture (ol.ingle 5esistance 0apacitance /ulse Discharge in Micro7Electro Discharge MachiningU.andeep. 1Lovem$er 66+4. pp. =. M.EM724 Lagoya. Tosun L.EDMU. T-nalysis and modelling of EDM parametersU.. /roceedings of the @nternational ... ?ilani . 3.. TCeneral formulation and analysis of hyper$olic heat conduction in composite mediaU. /.3. Lo.U -nnals of 0@5/. 112=34.iao M..ire electro discharge grinding for micro machining. . ?oshi . . "..ire EDMU. and Mu. pp.. pp. T-nalysis of surface erosion in electrical discharge machiningU.. 16.. /. >.uhas. (ol. and Ho$ayashi H. pp. 3+D =#. TCeometrical accuracy of . (ol. %un<ino M. ?ournal of Manufacturing . #"17 #"#. pp.ear =# 1"4. 1 2"71"6+.0. @nternational ?ournal of &eat and Mass Transfer.

0.ignal /rocessing for Manufacturing.. 1#. T-nalysis of early7 time transient heat conduction $y method of characteristicsU. 0. T0ritical assessment and numerical comparison of electro7thermal models in EDMU.. 22. pp. #1D +1.. pp.parking %requency and /redicting . M. (ol. and 5a<urkar H.ME special volume on . /. #27>#. -.. ... ++. -. 1 66=4. 1122 4.ang .ensors and .EDMU. &. /ED (ol. pp. Meo .iggert D. 6". "+7#6..ME ?ournal of &eat Transfer. .. ..1". TMonitoring . 1+.ire 'reakage in . (ol. Hurnia . ?ournal of Materials /rocessing Technology. 112334. Tan /.

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