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**Industrial Buildings in Steel Equipped with Cranes
**

1.1. Specific features of industrial buildings

The concept and consequently, the design of an industrial building are prior imposed by the

technological process developed inside them. Choosing the solutions for both structural elements

and the roof and wall shutting depends on the following factors:

- temperature, humidity and ventilation of the internal air;

- phonic insulation;

- natural lighting systems;

- technological equipment and devices that must be placed inside the building.

Two main groups of structures are specific for the industrial activities. In one group there are

the buildings designed for an individual technological process, for example steelwors with

!artin ilns or with converters, worshops for coe production etc. The second group is

designed for the so"called #universal$ or #flexible$ industrial buildings in where various inds of

industrial activities may be developed and also modified or changed during the service life of the

building.

The elements that are parts of the whole structure of an industrial building are the columns,

the rafters or roof trusses, the bracing system and the foundations. In the case when the industrial

building is equipped with a crane, a runway is designed and the crane girder is also a structural

element. %ll these elements tae the actions from dead and live loads &in this category there are

the specific loads due to the technologic equipment and devices' and also climatic actions &wind,

snow' or due to specific natural phenomena as earthquaes, insuring the strength and stability of

the building.

The roof decing and walls shutting are non"structural elements of various nature: steel,

masonry, and glass. Their destination is to protect the building from the climatic actions and

divide the internal space of the building in separate rooms imposed by the specific woring

conditions" either sanitary or technological. In this category there are: external and internal walls,

windows, sylights, gates, doors, roof sheeting and floors.

%nother auxiliary category of construction parts is the one imposed by the function of the

building itself: stairs, elevators for personnel and materials, woring and depositing decs,

special foundations that sustain the equipment and devices, tunnels and galleries for

transportation, basements made for technical purposes etc.

1.2. Plane shapes of the industrial buildings. Tolerances

%n industrial building has a rectangular form or compounded from several oblong forms

&fig. ( '

)ig. ( *lane shape of the industrial buildings

The dimensions of the industrial buildings are largely represented in plane. +ecause of

the differences of temperatures due to the internal processes, and external climatic regime the

variations of the length of the steel elements are important. In the same time of the uneven

settlements at the foundation levels and the connections with the other structures closely situated

are special reasons for splitting the building into more than one continuous structure, fig. ,.

Thus, the tolerances are rather big distances between two running frames. The dimensions of the

units of buildings are imposed by the -T%- (.(./0."1/.

Table (. The distances between the tolerances.

The type of the industrial building The liit braced bloc!

1"

The liit length of a building

2"

2eated 3. m ,4. m

5on"heated and with exothermic

processes

16 m ,.. m

7pen air portal frames 6. m (4. m

#ote$

('

the limit braced bloc" the maximum distance between the end of the building and the

axis of the vertical bracing;

,'

the limit length of a building" the maximum length of a building between two tolerance

distances along the building.

Observations:

8 -teel structures may adopt bigger tolerance distances than structures in reinforced

concrete, due to certain superior features of the steel design. 9eformations are easier to

be absorbed at the level of mechanical connections; also, the cycles of loading having as

a result the development of stresses in plastic domain, safe from exploitation point of

view, are consuming important quantities of energy;

8 -teel columns are more rarely disposed and flexible enough to deform under the

variations of temperature;

8 In the case of a structure that combines columns of reinforced concrete with steel rafters

or trusses, constructive conditions for reinforced concrete structures are to be considered.

%nyway, up to (,. m tolerance distances must be taen into account, if the crane

girders are made in steel.

)ig.,. Tolerances for industrial buildings

1.%. Trans&ersal section of the industrial buildings

The structure of the building is obtained from several transversal plane frames having one or

more spans placed at certain distances, named bays. Two running transversal frames determine

the basic module of the building. The distance between the columns is the span. The distance

between two running plan frames is the bay.

The transversal frame is the main structure of the building consisting in columns and

girders interconnected and its design depends on the dimensions imposed by the technological

processes" equipment, devices and various systems for lifting and transportation both

hori:ontally and vertically inside the building. ;hen the transversal frame has more than one

span, the slope of the roof has to be small &4...6<' &fig.4 '.

)ig. 4. -loping the trusses and girders of the transversal frames of industrial buildings

If the roof has two slopes longitudinal sylights are not recommended because of

adequate water drainage from the roof &fig.= '. The most frequent structures have double pitched

roofs in the central span and mono"pitched roofs in the lateral span.

)ig. =. Types of transversal sections for industrial buildings with one, two or more spans

The current industrial buildings may be equipped or not with cranes. %lso, there may be one

crane or two or even more, placed either at the same level or at different levels. -ometimes, the

cranes travel in one single span, although the building is made of several spans and on the

contrary, sometimes the cranes travel along all the transversal section of the building and special

measures must be taen in order to eep the constant level &fig.=.d '

The span of the building is measured between the axes of the crane girders in the case when

the runway girders are sustained by columns and respectively, in the axes of the columns at the

foundation level in the case when there are not crane girders or when the >..

-tandard -T%- (?/?"13 imposes the modulation of the span L and the bay l

T

of the

industrial buildings, the module being 30 M, where the basic module is !@(.. mm in

construction. 2owever, for steel structures, 60 M or 120 M is preferred. The usual modulation

determines spans of: (/, ,=, 4., 4? m, in this case the bay being of ? m. %nother modulation

imposed by the necessities may be: 3, (6, ,(, ,1, 44 m, the bays being (6, (/ m.

The height imposed by the serviceable necessities, H

u

is measured between the finite level

and the lowest level of the constructive elements or building services hanged by the roof.

The height up to the top of the rail level is imposed by the height of the technological

equipment and also by the clearance gauge of the materials and products transported above the

technological equipment. In this respect, the position of the hoo is restricted to the height of the

personal that wors inside the building, the security distances being also taen into account. The

security distances and other dimensions of electric cranes traveling on girders are imposed by the

-T%- /.."/,.

The necessary height above the crane rail level is dictated by the clearance gauge distance of

the crane itself considering the traveling of the crab on the crane and a security limit of (.. mm

above the crab under the bottom part of the ceiling. % supplementary security limit is also

necessary for the deflection of the roof truss, about ,..>=.. mm depending on the dimensions

of the span and also in accordance with other clearance limits imposed by the electric equipment

that might be suspended from the roof.

In the case of cranes with spans of A @(/>,= m this height is recommended to be a

modulated value, the module being (., m between /.= m > (../ m. )or spans bigger than 4. m

the module is (./ m and the total necessary height bigger than (,.? m.

% minimum height of an industrial building is imposed by the sanitary woring conditions,

and it is of 4., m.

1.2.1. Trans&ersal 'raes(Particular Types and 'eatures

1.2.1.1. 'raes with )oof Trusses and Crane Coluns

1.2.1.1.a. The Crane Coluns

The columns may have an uniform cross section in which case they need bracets for

carrying the reactions from crane beams or girders &fig. ? a',. +racets are then preferred for

small lifting capacities of the cranes" up to (?. B5.

)or loads over (?. B5 the cross section is usually compound, made up of hot"rolled

profiles or build up from steel plates &fig.?.b '. 2eavier loads and rather important moments at

the bottom of the column impose the use of hot rolled sections remote from the gravity centre of

the section and so they are battened or laced, the last for cross sections wider than (... mm;

bigger foundations are needed and frequently they are separate for each leg of the column.

The cross section of the column in the transversal plane is taen 1/151/20 from the

height of the column &above the ground level'.

In the case when the cranes have bigger lifting capacities a variation in two steps of the

cross section is more adequate. Cenerally, the height of the column is decided on several

clearance dimensions and in most of the cases it is the presence of the crane that imposes the

dimensions at the top part, while the bottom is decided by the traffic inside the building.

a b

)ig. ?. -olutions for the cross section of the columns for industrial buildings with crane girders

H

u

, the necessary height of the column depends on the presence of one or two cranes.

;hen there is single crane on the height of the building then this height will be determined as it

follows &fig.1 ':

s u

h h H H + + ·

(

&('

where:

H"the height from the finite floor level to the top of the rail; it depends upon the traffic

and the technological processes that are developed inside the building;

h

1

"the clearance gauge height of the crane & according to -T%- /.."/,';

h

s

" security distance imposed by the deflection of the truss &,.....4.. mm'; also, the

distance between the axis of the bottom chord of the roof truss and the lower part of

the building services hanged by the ceiling;.

The length of the upper part of the column, h

top

, &also see fig. 1.a.' depends on the

following values:

' &

( m s gr top

h h h b h h + + + + ·

&,'

where, additionally:

h

gr

" depth of the crane girder;

b" depth of the crane rail &-T%- /.."/,';

h

m

" height of the marginal strut if there is the case or, the height between the cap of the

column and the axis of the bottom chord of the truss.

The above mentioned dimensions h

gr

, h

s

, h

m

are estimated from practical design.

Cenerally, h

gr

is !1/"1/12#L

T

if the crane girder is simply supported and !1/101/15#L

T

if it is

continuous &L

T

is the bay'.

The length of the lower part of the column h

bottom

depends on technological dimensions, as

it follows:

f gr bottom

h h b H h + + − · ' &

&4'

where, in addition:

2" " the level of the rail &the runway level';

h

f

" part of the column sun under finite level D0" ...., usually =....,... mm;

The depth of the cross section of the column &in the transversal plane' at both parts b

top

and b

bottom

has to be in accordance with the clearance gauge of the cranes and the details used for

the supports of the crane girder. The position of the platform for circulation between two running

columns along the building and at the crane rail level is also taen into account.

)ig. 1. 9esign of the geometric dimensions of the columns with steps

;hen the top part of the column has a smaller section &smaller spans, smaller weights of the

roof', the circulation of personnel for reasons of maintenance, repair etc. between two running

bays is insured by passing aside the column and in this case the width of the top part is &fig. 1.b':

(

=.. , l p mm b $

s

+ + + ·

& ='

where:

b

s

" depth of the superior part of the column;

%00 mm" minimum necessary space for passing;

p" width of the parapet;

l

1

" hori:ontal clearance distance of the crane &standard value, according to -T%- /.."/,'.

The space needed for circulation, =.. mm is present only for the runways situated at

more than / m from the ground level. ;hen this level is less than / m, this term may be missing

from the relationship.

In the case when a bigger depth of the cross section in the top part of the column results

in the preliminary stage of design, the personnel have the possibility to cross through the column

and in this case:

(

, l b $

s

+ ·

&6'

In these relationships b

s

is evaluated as being about !1/"1/12#h

s

, and in the relationship

&6',

mm b

s

1.. ≥

.

The span of the crane is:

$ L L

H p

, − ·

&?'

where:

L

H

" span of the transversal frame;

L

p

E span of the crane expressed as a multiple of 6.. mm &-T%- /.."/,';

2$ E distance between the axis of the bottom part of the column and the axis of the crane

rail; usually is taen between (......,... mm.

(

=..

,

l p mm

b

$

s

+ + + ≥ &1'

where:

b

s

" height of the cross section at top part of the column;

p" the plane dimension of the parapet;

l

1

" minimum distance between the runway axis and the parapet or the face of the column,

&according to -T%- /.."/,'.

The depth of the cross section depends on the height of the top part of the column:

s s

h b

,

_

¸

¸

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·

(6

(

(.

(

&/'

The column with a hollow section inside must have a height of at least 1.. mm>/..

mm.

The span of the crane will be deduced from the span of the building and the distance $:

$ L L

p

, − ·

&3'

The span of the crane must be a multiple of ,6. mm and therefore, we adopt c @16. mm

when there are not any platform for circulation all along the runway and c @(... mm when the

circulation is insured through all the length of the building.

The depth of the bottom part of the column is imposed by the necessity that the crane

girder to be centered in the axis of one leg of the column, the one that is placed internally to the

building. Its value must insure:

$

b

b

s

i

+ ·

,

&(.'

%lso, the depth must be in accordance with the stiffness ratios between the top and

bottom part recommended for a correct modeling for static computation:

( )

s i i

h h b + ≥

,.

(

&(('

If the distance b

i

results too big, the axis of the rail will be eccentric, inwards the

building.

1.3.2. The horizontal structural element of the transversal frame

This element may be designed in two solutions:

a' a steel roof truss made of hot rolled sections, for bigger spans and bays and heavier

loads transferred to the foundations &one, two or more cranes are generally present';

b' a rafter made of hot rolled section or plate girder for buildings with various

destinations in the industry field: worshops, warehouses, showrooms and others. The structure

is characteri:ed by smaller spans &under (6>(/ m' and bays &under 3 m' and generally the

cranes are missing. This solution calls also for a similar cross section of the column &these types

of cross sections are described in the following chapters'.

Foof trusses for industrial buildings have some particular features: the top chord has a

small slope, generally smaller than (.< and the distribution of the internal members and the

distance between the connections at the top chord depend on the roofing system. The roofing

system imposes two different types of supports and hence, two types of trusses: trusses carrying

purlins and trusses that sustain directly the roof sheeting.

*urlins are the structural elements of the roof cladding transferring the external loads to

the truss. They are placed in the Goints at the top chord and fixed at the building site with various

systems, bolted or welded. The distance between these Goints measures usually ,.6>..4.. m.

Hsually the system adopted for the internal members &ties and struts' is triangular &fig. 3 '.

)ig. 3. Foof trusses" usual distribution of the internal members

2eavy roofs, made from light concrete decing, asbestos"cement plates or sandwich

panels made of concrete and thermal insulating materials are lesser and lesser used in the

present. 2eavy roofs will transfer bigger loading to the top chord.

Aighter roofs made of steel sheeting or decing or even asbestos covered sheets are now

more and more preferred.

-till, if an important increase in the weight of the roof appears, the necessity of placing

more purlins has two alternatives in the design stage: diminish the distances between the Goins at

the top chord &at aprox. (.6 m' using intermediary struts and ties or, strengthen the top chord in

order to cope with supplementary stresses coming from bending moments &fig. (.. a, b.'.

In the case of the trusses that sustain the roof directly, the elements of the top chord will

be also subGected to bending moments and accordingly, they must provide the necessary stiffness

in the plane of the truss &fig. (., c.'.

)ig. (.. Trusses with heavy loads on the top chord: a'" solution with supplementary ties and

struts; b'" solution with stiffened top chord; c'" bending moments in the top chord members from direct

loads on the element

The top chord may be designed in the solution with hot rolled shapes, alternatively, build

up from steel plates, welded &see also chapter (', in the case when the bays are relative small, say

?>(, m. In the case of bigger spans of the transversal frame, say over 6. m, and bigger bays

over (, m, the sections have double walls or made of caisson sections.

%gain, the presence of intermediary struts and ties will reduce the cross section of the top

chord. In the case when bigger spans will impose heavy cross sections, an increase of accuracy at

the design level is recommended. +ending moments of second order, as a result of important

deformations of the elements will be taen into account. In this situation, the top chord will be

statically considered as a continuous beam with elastic restraints.

%ll trusses with spans bigger than ,= m will have camber &fig. ((.'.

The truss has to be designed considering the transportation from the steel worshop to the

building site. The capacities of the transportation systems adopted &railway, lorry etc' and the

lifting capacities of the cranes impose limits to both dimensions and weight of the trusses.

Trusses are made up from several parts fabricated in plant and assembled at the building site,

bolted or welded. The assembling operations have to be as few as possible. Hsually, one unit

must not exceed (, m long and 4.6 m high &fig.((.'

The best solutions, from the economic point of view are those that combine higher

strengths low alloy steels &yield stresses over 4?. 50mm

,

' for chords with a lower strength steel,

7A 41, for the current ties and struts. The diagonal and strut that are close to the supports will be

made of higher strength steel because of the important efforts that are developed in that area.

Cenerally, trusses are prefabricated in worshop in large series and an economic solution

is given by a strict design of the individual members. In this case, a build up shape is preferred,

in T, I, or caisson &fig. (,'. -till, a previous analysis must be performed, to put in balance on

one side an increase of the manoeuvre and welding and on the other side extra dimensioning in

the case of using hot rolled shapes.

In the last decades, due to modern technologies, trusses made up of rectangular or round

tubes, or pipes are more and more adopted as a very economic solution, the Goints being obtained

with a very important reduction of steel consumption. 9ifferent types of connections between

round or rectangular tubes, between tubes with different shapes and also between tubes and hot

rolled opened sections are analy:ed in the Juropean standard regulations" Jurocode 4, part ("/.

%s they are structural elements of the transversal frame, roof trusses have some particular

features in the design of the support area, two main situations being considered: hinged

connection between column and truss and rigid, respectively.

)ig. ((. *refabricated roof trusses" dimensions and design for a'" roofs without thermal insulation;

b'" roofs with thermal insulation

The hinged $onne$tion bet&een the $olumn and the truss is subGected to the hori:ontal

forces coming from the frame effect. These forces are transferred to the column with a certain

eccentricity imposed by the shape and dimensions of the gusset placed in the support; implicit,

one must try to mae the height of the gusset as small as possible.

In the figure (4.a,

.

h H M ⋅ ·

is the bending moment that must be transferred to the two

individual members of the truss" a bar from the top chord and a tie; the bars will tae the efforts

in direct proportion with their own stiffness distributed on their length:

l ' ( ·

. The static

scheme considered for these bars is a beam double articulated. 2owever, the top chord is

considered continuous over the first current Goint due to the increased stiffness of the latter. Thus,

a part of the bending moment is transferred in the Goint.

The distribution of the bending moment ! is according to the relationships:

)ig. (,. Constructive solutions for the Goints of trusses

)ig. (4. 2inged connection" the frame effect upon the members of the truss: a'" scheme; b'"

efforts in the internal members

d $

d

d

d $

$

$

( (

(

M M

( (

(

M M

+

⋅ ·

+

⋅ · ;

&(,'

The members implicated in the process of the distribution of the bending moment are

verified to the axial force and bending moment. This increase of stress has as a result the

strengthening of the top chord on a certain length.

The current details for this type of connection must solve some problems:

• Transfer of the forces and reactions by means of welding or mechanical fasteners, or

both;

• The holes for the mechanical fasteners will be made with bigger diameters and oval

shaped in order to insure mounting tolerances at the building site.

The rigid $onne$tion bet&een the $olumn and the truss leads to a more rational

distribution of the efforts in the support area. The first tie may be in tension or in compression

&fig. (= '. ;elded connections and bolted connections are used, according to the specific

requirements.

The restraints are the cause of a moment in the frame, which is transferred to the top and

bottom chord as a couple of forces:

( ( (

h M ' ·

. The axial force determined by the hori:ontal

actions in the connection, ) is transmitted only to the bottom chord along with the reaction on

the supports, *. &fig. (=.a'.

)inal efforts in the bars are determined by the superposition of the efforts from the external

loading in the hypothesis of a simple supported truss with the efforts imposed by the presence of

the restraints:

)

i

M

i i i

' ' ' ' + + ·

.

&(4'

where:

"the term #i$ refers to the current internal member of the truss;

I

i

" the final effort ;

I

i

.

" the effort in the case of a simple supported truss;

I

i

!

"the effort determined by the moment in the rigid connection, i.e.:

i i

M

i

h M ' ·

;

I

i

5

" the effort determined by the axial force, ).

The usual details must cope with the following situations:

• ;elding or mechanical fasteners will tae the efforts coming from the frame effect;

• If a special support is used, then the reaction will be transferred to that, integrally;

• The lower Goint is usually subGected to compression, due to the sign of the bending

moment; the compression is entirely transferred directly to the face of the column;

• The distance between the centre of the welding lines or of the rows of bolts and the

application point of the resultant of the hori:ontal forces &fig. (6.' will develop a

rotation moment acting in the plane of the connection. The value of the efforts

transferred to the connection is amplified according to the distance from the centre to

the farthest point of welding or bolt, respectively. In the case when the sectional

effort causes tension in bolts, the following relationship will be used to verify:

n

H

h

h

e H )

i

+ ⋅ ⋅ ·

∑

,

max

max &(='

• The upper Goint is centred and verified for tension; in the case of a bolted connection,

the design stages follow the case of mechanical fasteners used for flanges.

)ig. (=. Figid connection"forces due to frame effect upon the truss: a'"scheme; b'"design

)ig. (6. )orces acting in the connection between the column and the truss: a'" welded connection;

b'"bolted connection

2.*.+. Structural fraewor! design

2.*.+.1. Introduction

The structures of the industrial buildings are made of transversal frames, with one or

more spans. The transversal frames are usually single storey buildings, rarely with two or more

storeys, sometimes in one span only &fig. (?'. The Goint between the girder &it is also nown as

rafter' and the column may be hinged or fixed. The column may be fully restraint in the

foundations or it may be articulated.

)ig. (?. Hsual types of transversal frames for industrial buildings equipped with cranes with one and ,, 4

spans & scheme of truss and columns and simplifications for the static computation'

The fixed Goint between the girder and the column is used in the case of the structures with wide

spans and small heights of the columns while the hinged Goint is used in the case of the big

heights and small spans &fig.4.= .(.a.,b.,c.'.

)ig. /. Fational solutions of the static scheme for transversal frames: a'" small heights; b'" big heights

The girder and the columns of the transversal frame are build up cross sections &for ex.

from hot rolled profiles, box sections, plate girders etc.' or lattice girders. The columns may have

constant cross section &if they carry loads under 6 5' or variable &if the loads are above 6. 5'.

2.*.+.2. Static coputation of the trans&ersal one span fraes carrying crane

girders with hinged ,oints between the colun and the rafter

The stages for computation are:

I"a preliminary choosing of the cross section of the columns in order to determine the top

and the bottom moments of inertia

II"static computation of the frame;

III"design and verifications of the sections chosen for the column and the girder.

ST-.E I$ The top of the column is supposed to be hinged. The loads that are taen into

account are:

"permanent and quasi"permanent actions:

a' dead loads transferred from the girder:

+ ,

L

p p

H

· ⋅

,

&(6'

b' weight of the top &Cs' and bottom &Ci' of the stanchion:

i i

s s

h -

h -

⋅ ·

⋅ ·

(6.

(..

&(?'

c'vertical loads transmitted by the Goists that are in fact the structure of the longitudinal

wall from the :ones situated at the top and at the bottom part of the columns &*s, *i" weights of

the windows, sheeting, masonry', self"weight;

"variable actions:

a' snow, transferred from the girder:

+ ,

L

. .

H

· ⋅

,

&(1'

b' wind on the roof: Kv, 2v..&4.4'

c' maximum vertical loads &F' and hori:ontal loads &F)' transferred to the columns by

the runway system"crane girders, cranes, crabs; these are reactions determined with the influence

lines &fig.4.=.,.a':

∑

∑

⋅ + ⋅ ·

⋅ + ⋅ ·

T i

T i

L , / r

L , / *

η

η

min

max

&(/'

* 0

0 $ i

· ⋅

∑

η

&(3'

d' wind normal to the longitudinal wall:

¹

;

¹

⋅ ·

⋅ ·

T v v

T v v

L p ,

L p ,

L L

&,.'

Kertical loads are transferred to the vertical neutral axis of the column considering also

bending moments determined by the eccentric application of the forces &fig.4.=.,.b'.

( ? 6 =

4 , (

; ;

; ; ' &

e * M e / M e / M

e / M e - M e + + + M

s i i

s s s v . p

⋅ · ⋅ · ⋅ ·

⋅ · ⋅ · ⋅ + + ·

&,('

The eccentricities are determined according to the following relationships between the

geometric elements:

e

b b

e

b

e

t b

e

t b

i s

i

s

p s

i

p i

s

·

−

· − ·

+

·

+

, , , ,

; ; ;

&,,'

where:

" bi, bsE the plane dimensions of the top and bottom part of the column, respectively;

" t

p

" the thicness of the longitudinal wall.

% satisfying static computation may be run considering the five simplified cases of

loading in fig.4.=.,.c which cover all values of bending moments on the columns for all the

loading cases in fig.4.=.,.b. The maximum efforts in the cross sections are determined with the

help of a tabel &tab.%'.

The system is hyper"static; the redundancy, M is determined for certain types of loading

situations and different ratios

h h

s i

0

respectively

' '

s i

0

.

Hsually the ratio

i

s

'

'

n ·

.

is:

"n

o

@ .., for cranes with low lifting capacity and heavy roofs;

"n

o

@ .../ for cranes with heavy lifting capacity and light roofs.

ST-.E II: the static computation of the transversal frame is started considering a certain

ratio

' '

s i

0

the same from the stage I and taing the loads in the cases studied.

)ig. 3. Aoading schemes for the computation of one span frames with articulated connection between the

truss and the column

)ig.(.. %ctions transferred to the columns from crane girders

)ig. ((. *reliminary design of the column of the transversal frame: actual loading schemes and simplified

schemes for computation

)ig. (,. -ectional efforts in the column"preliminary stage of design

2.*.+.2.1. The &ariation of teperature in the trans&ersal frae

The longitudinal elements are prevented to deform because of the bound between the

stanchion and the foundation so in this way in the column may appear supplementary stresses.

The initial assumption is that at the top of the columns the displacements are proportional

with the distances from the axis :ero, its position may be determined with the relationships

&fig..':

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆

( ( , ( (

4 ( 4 = = ( = 6 (

· − ⋅ ⋅ · − ⋅ ⋅ −

· ⋅ ⋅ − − − · ⋅ ⋅ − − · ⋅ ⋅ −

α α

α α α

t L t L l

t L L l l t L L l t L L

; & ';

& '; & '; & '

N &,4'

)ig. (4. Temperature variation effect

%s the displacements are proportional with the stiffness of the stanchions we may write

* r

i i i

· ⋅ ∆

so:

* r t L r * t L l r

* r t L L l l r * r t L L l r

* r t L L r

( ( ( ( ( , , ( ( ,

4 4 4 ( 4 = 4 = = = ( = =

6 6 = ( 6

· ⋅ · − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · − ⋅ · − ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅

· ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ − − − ⋅ · ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ − − ⋅

· ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆

∆ ∆

α α α

α α

α

; & '

& ' ; & '

& '

N &,='

where:

ri " the hori:ontal reaction at the top of the stanchion i because of a displacement equal

with ( &O

i

@ (' taen as it follows:

ri@

(,

4

⋅ ⋅

⋅

1 '

h

2

, the factor depending on the variation of the moment of inertia along the

height of the stanchion;

Fi " the hori:ontal reaction at the top of the stanchion i because of the hori:ontal

displacement O

i

.

)rom the static equilibrium condition:

*

i

i

·

·

∑

.

(

6

&,6'

or:

− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ +

+ ⋅ ⋅ − − − ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ − − ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ·

α α

α α α

∆ ∆

∆ ∆ ∆

t L r t L l r

t L L l l r t L L l r t L L r

( ( ( ( ,

( 4 = 4 ( = = ( 6

.

& '

& ' & ' & '

we obtain:

L

l r r r r r l r r r l r r l r

r r r r r

(

( ( , 4 = 6 , 4 = 6 4 = 6 = 6

( , 4 = 6

·

⋅ + + + + + ⋅ + + + ⋅ + + ⋅

+ + + +

& ' & ' & '

&,?'

The displacements and the reactions at the top of the stanchion are:

∆ ∆

∆ ∆

i i

i i i i i

t L

* r t L r

· t ⋅ ⋅

· t ⋅ · t ⋅ ⋅

α

N &,1'

The simplifi$ation of the stati$ $omputation may be achieved by geometrical

& , , L h h

H s i

',

elastic &

' ' '

s i

, ,

' and mechanical &loading' symmetry. The determination of the sectional efforts

on the frame in the (1 loading cases &fig.4.=.6.' is possible to be done with the help of six

simplified cases &fig.4.=.4.b'; the static computation is done with the help of the method of

forces. ;ith the help of the table that totali:e the sectional efforts for the different loading cases

one is able to determine the maximum sectional efforts in the specific points 9, Cs, Ci, % only

for one stanchion of the transversal frame &the left one'. The combinations that give the

maximum efforts in these points &

M ) T ) M T

$oresp $oresp max max

, , ; , ,

' are done considering the

following assessments:

a'"the dead and live loads are always present;

b'"only one alternative of each temporary loads presented on the schemes may taen once

&for ex. snow on the left side or on the right side of the roof or on the whole roof, and so on';

c'"the snow and the maximum temperature effects are not possible together;

d'"the action of the force F) is always taen together with the action of the pair of forces

F"r &or F"r';the action of the forces F"r may be taen without the action of the force F);

e'"if the seismic load is taen into account then neither the crab effects nor the wind are

considered.

7ne span building &fig.(.=.6.a' the method of forces is expressed by the relationship

written for the top of the stanchions:

∆ ∆

(( ( (

. ⋅ + · 3

/

&,/'

if we mae the annotation

n

'

'

s

i

·

we may write:

∆

((

(

,

(

,

(

,

(

,

(

,

(

,

( (

(

·

⋅

+

⋅

·

⋅

⋅ ⋅ +

⋅

⋅ ·

·

⋅

⋅ + ⋅

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

∫ ∫

m

1 '

ds

m

1 '

ds

1 '

m ds

1 '

m ds

1 '

m ds n m ds

s i s i s s i i

s s i

& '

N &,3'

∆

(

( (

( (

( (

( (

(

/

/

s s

/

i i s

/

s i

/

i

s

/

s

/

i

M m

1 '

ds

M m

1 '

ds

1 '

M m ds

1 '

M m ds

1 '

M m ds M m ds

·

⋅

⋅

+

⋅

⋅

·

⋅

⋅ ⋅ +

⋅

⋅ ⋅ ·

·

⋅

⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

∫ ∫

& '

&4.'

-o from these relationships, M

(

is obtained

3

M m ds M m ds

m ds n m ds

/

/

s

/

i

s i

(

(

((

( (

(

,

(

,

· ·

⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅

⋅ + ⋅

∫ ∫

∫ ∫

∆

∆

&4('

2ere the values of the moments !

*

and m are the sectional efforts &bending moments'

coming from the exterior loading respectively from M@(, both of them being determined on the

static determined system. %fter we find the force M, the diagrams for the final moments &

M M m 3

/

· + ⋅

( (

' are traced on the stanchions and we proceed to the design of the cross

section of the stanchion.

The truss of the transversal frame is designed with the help of the first stage axial efforts

for the simply supported girder, 5

i

.

. In the second stage efforts 5

i

are determined considering

the girder double articulated, these corrections being the result of the effect of the hori:ontal

forces that act upon the transversal frame &column and roof truss' &fig. (=':

)ig. (=. Jffect of the frame redundancy &frame effect upon the members of the truss'

) ) )

) ) )

i2 i2 i2

'

i2 i2 i2

'

· +

· −

.

.

& '

& '

max

min

N &4,'

The trusses with the hori:ontal bottom flange the corrections will affect only the

members of this flange; if the bottom flange has a camber, all the members will be affected by

these corrections.

The axial efforts will be computed considering the combination of actions possible to be

simultaneous and according to the relation:

) , T

) , T

i2 i2 i2 4

i2 i2 i2 4

· ⋅ + ⋅

· ⋅ − ⋅

∑

∑

α γ

α γ

& '

& '

max

min

N &44'

2.*.+.%. Static coputation of the two span trans&ersal fraes with hinged ,oints

between the colun and the rafter

In the case of the static computation with the method of forces the equal displacement of

the top of the stanchions will be expressed:

δ δ δ

a b $

· ·

&4='

and the two equations have the redundants M

(

and M

,

.Considering the displacements to the right

side positive and to the left side negative we may write:

δ δ δ

δ δ δ δ δ δ

δ δ δ

a a a/

b b b b/ b b/

$ $ $/

3

3 3 3 3

3

· ⋅ +

· ⋅ − ⋅ + · ⋅ − +

· ⋅ +

( (

( ( , , ( ( ,

, ,

& '

N &46'

The coefficients P

iG

and P

i*

will be computed with the !ohr"!axwell method.

The two forces determined from the elastic equilibrium equations are used in order to

trace the diagrams of !, 5, T. The column is the one on the left side and the internal one in the

cross sections at the levels +, 9, Cs and Ci, %. The cases taen in consideration are (? but it is

enough to mae the static computation only for 1 simplified cases of loading .

2.*.+.+. Static coputation of one span fraes with rigid ,oint between the

colun and the rafter

This solution is adopted in the cases &fig. (6 ':

"when the worshop has a big height &(6...(/ m' and they use heavy lift capacities for

cranes and these ones function in heavy and very heavy woring groups ;

"the building is equipped with two cranes situated at different levels.

In fig. (?. the simplified scheme of the frame with rigid Goint is presented, the height of

the column being determined on the basis of the design of the truss &whether the first diagonal is

ascending or descending'.

The static computation follows the stages:

a'"preliminary design of the cross section of the girder considered simply supported for

determining the moment of inertia Ir;

b'" preliminary design of the top and bottom part of the column on the basis of a

simplified scheme for determining the moments of inertia Is and Ii;

c'" static computation of the frame for certain loads in order to determine the maximum

sectional efforts;

d'"the final design of the girder and of the girder and of the column.

)ig. (6. Cases Gustifying the rigid connection between the column and roof truss

)ig. (?. -implified schemes for the computation of the frame with rigid connection between the column

and the roof truss

The preliminary design of the truss means to determine the maximum axial stresses in the

top and in the bottom flange in the central panel &5

s

, 5

i

' then to find the cross sections %

s

and %

i

&fig.(1.'. The equivalent moment of inertia of the truss is determined with the relationship:

' 2 ' 2 5 y 5 y

6 s s i i

· ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ & '

, ,

&4?'

where depends on the slope of the top chord of the girder &@..3 for p@.< and @..1

for p@(.<'.

)ig. (1. *reliminary evaluation of the sections for the internal members of the truss

%ccording to the fig. (/. axial efforts 5

i

.

are corrected with the frame effects :

) ) M M T

i2 i2 i2 4 i2 4 i2 4

· + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅

∑

.

& '

L

α β γ

&41'

The stresses Q

i

R

i

and S

i

are obtained from the methods of static computation.

)ig. (/. Jffect of the redundancy &rigid connection' upon the members of the truss

;hen the loads are applied to the column, by taing I @ T we simplify the static

computation. Thus, we may write:

r r

r

r

ii /

/

⋅ + ·

· −

∑ ∑

∑

∑

∆

∆

( (

(

(

((

.

&43'

where:

Ur

((

" the sum of the reactions at the top of the stanchion when 9(@(;

Ur

(*

" the sum of the hori:ontal reactions at the top of the stanchions due to the external

loads applied to the column.

;hen the frames have two distinctive translations we determine the unnown O

(

, O

,

from

the equations:

.

.

, , ,, ( ,(

( , (, ( ((

· + ∆ ⋅ + ∆ ⋅

· + ∆ ⋅ + ∆ ⋅

∑ ∑ ∑

∑ ∑ ∑

/

/

r r r

r r r

......................................&=.'

The rigid Goint between the roof truss and the column

In the case in the fig. (3 and ,. the efforts T, K, 2@!02m &the forces T and K are placed

in the bottom or in the top end connection of the truss considering that the end diagonal of the

truss is ascending or descending'.

The Goint may be bolted or welded alternatively, may be placed in the axis of the column

&fig.(3' or aligned to the internal face of the column, closely to the cross section with no bending

moment &fig. ,.'.

The Goint is a typical column to girder fixed connection subGected to axial efforts, shear

and bending moments:

( )

( )

( )

b

bearing g

b

bearing $

b

shear

b

shear $

b

bearing $

b

shear $ b $ b $ v h

v

i

i h

* t d ) *

d

)

) ) ) ) ) ) *

n

+

)

n

H T

y

y

M )

e + e H T M

⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ·

· ≤ + ·

·

+

+ ⋅ ·

⋅ − ⋅ + ·

∑

,

,

,

, , , ,

( (

,

max

( (

;

=

,

, min ;

;

, ,

π

N....................&=('

( )

( )

b

bearing shear t e$h

b

p

angle

v

p

b

shear

v

t

h

t

b

t

h

t

v

i

h

*

*

t d

)

*

d

)

d

)

*

d

)

n

+

)

n

H T

h

h

M )

e + e H T M

( . ( 4

;

=

=

;

=

,

;

, ,

, ,

,

, ,

.

, ,

,

max

,

, ,

(

(

≤ + ·

≤

⋅

· ≤

⋅

·

⋅

· ≤

⋅

·

⋅

·

⋅

+

− ⋅ ·

⋅ − ⋅ + ·

∑

τ σ σ

σ

π

τ

π

σ

π

σ

&=,'

The fillet welds in the Goint from fig. ,.. are subGected to the bending moment !

(

and the

efforts T and 2 " in the hori:ontal plan and by the force K " in the vertical plan. The number of

bolts n

,

is checed in a similar way as in the first case.

( )

&

shear v h

& &

v

& & & &

h

*

l a

+

l a

H T

l a

M

e H T M

≤ +

⋅

·

⋅

+

+

⋅

⋅ ·

⋅ + ·

, ,

,

(

(

,

;

, ,

?

τ τ

τ τ

)ig. (3. Figid connection of the members of the truss to the column: the internal members are aligned to

the axis of the column

)ig. ,.. Figid connection of the members of the truss to the column: the internal members are aligned to

the internal face of the column

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