2 1.

Industrial Buildings in Steel Equipped with Cranes
1.1. Specific features of industrial buildings
The concept and consequently, the design of an industrial building are prior imposed by the
technological process developed inside them. Choosing the solutions for both structural elements
and the roof and wall shutting depends on the following factors:
- temperature, humidity and ventilation of the internal air;
- phonic insulation;
- natural lighting systems;
- technological equipment and devices that must be placed inside the building.
Two main groups of structures are specific for the industrial activities. In one group there are
the buildings designed for an individual technological process, for example steelwors with
!artin ilns or with converters, worshops for coe production etc. The second group is
designed for the so"called #universal$ or #flexible$ industrial buildings in where various inds of
industrial activities may be developed and also modified or changed during the service life of the
building.
The elements that are parts of the whole structure of an industrial building are the columns,
the rafters or roof trusses, the bracing system and the foundations. In the case when the industrial
building is equipped with a crane, a runway is designed and the crane girder is also a structural
element. %ll these elements tae the actions from dead and live loads &in this category there are
the specific loads due to the technologic equipment and devices' and also climatic actions &wind,
snow' or due to specific natural phenomena as earthquaes, insuring the strength and stability of
the building.
The roof decing and walls shutting are non"structural elements of various nature: steel,
masonry, and glass. Their destination is to protect the building from the climatic actions and
divide the internal space of the building in separate rooms imposed by the specific woring
conditions" either sanitary or technological. In this category there are: external and internal walls,
windows, sylights, gates, doors, roof sheeting and floors.
%nother auxiliary category of construction parts is the one imposed by the function of the
building itself: stairs, elevators for personnel and materials, woring and depositing decs,
special foundations that sustain the equipment and devices, tunnels and galleries for
transportation, basements made for technical purposes etc.
1.2. Plane shapes of the industrial buildings. Tolerances
%n industrial building has a rectangular form or compounded from several oblong forms
&fig. ( '
)ig. ( *lane shape of the industrial buildings
The dimensions of the industrial buildings are largely represented in plane. +ecause of
the differences of temperatures due to the internal processes, and external climatic regime the
variations of the length of the steel elements are important. In the same time of the uneven
settlements at the foundation levels and the connections with the other structures closely situated
are special reasons for splitting the building into more than one continuous structure, fig. ,.
Thus, the tolerances are rather big distances between two running frames. The dimensions of the
units of buildings are imposed by the -T%- (.(./0."1/.
Table (. The distances between the tolerances.
The type of the industrial building The liit braced bloc!
1"
The liit length of a building
2"
2eated 3. m ,4. m
5on"heated and with exothermic
processes
16 m ,.. m
7pen air portal frames 6. m (4. m
#ote$
('
the limit braced bloc" the maximum distance between the end of the building and the
axis of the vertical bracing;
,'
the limit length of a building" the maximum length of a building between two tolerance
distances along the building.
Observations:
8 -teel structures may adopt bigger tolerance distances than structures in reinforced
concrete, due to certain superior features of the steel design. 9eformations are easier to
be absorbed at the level of mechanical connections; also, the cycles of loading having as
a result the development of stresses in plastic domain, safe from exploitation point of
view, are consuming important quantities of energy;
8 -teel columns are more rarely disposed and flexible enough to deform under the
variations of temperature;
8 In the case of a structure that combines columns of reinforced concrete with steel rafters
or trusses, constructive conditions for reinforced concrete structures are to be considered.
%nyway, up to (,. m tolerance distances must be taen into account, if the crane
girders are made in steel.
)ig.,. Tolerances for industrial buildings
1.%. Trans&ersal section of the industrial buildings
The structure of the building is obtained from several transversal plane frames having one or
more spans placed at certain distances, named bays. Two running transversal frames determine
the basic module of the building. The distance between the columns is the span. The distance
between two running plan frames is the bay.
The transversal frame is the main structure of the building consisting in columns and
girders interconnected and its design depends on the dimensions imposed by the technological
processes" equipment, devices and various systems for lifting and transportation both
hori:ontally and vertically inside the building. ;hen the transversal frame has more than one
span, the slope of the roof has to be small &4...6<' &fig.4 '.
)ig. 4. -loping the trusses and girders of the transversal frames of industrial buildings
If the roof has two slopes longitudinal sylights are not recommended because of
adequate water drainage from the roof &fig.= '. The most frequent structures have double pitched
roofs in the central span and mono"pitched roofs in the lateral span.
)ig. =. Types of transversal sections for industrial buildings with one, two or more spans
The current industrial buildings may be equipped or not with cranes. %lso, there may be one
crane or two or even more, placed either at the same level or at different levels. -ometimes, the
cranes travel in one single span, although the building is made of several spans and on the
contrary, sometimes the cranes travel along all the transversal section of the building and special
measures must be taen in order to eep the constant level &fig.=.d '
The span of the building is measured between the axes of the crane girders in the case when
the runway girders are sustained by columns and respectively, in the axes of the columns at the
foundation level in the case when there are not crane girders or when the >..
-tandard -T%- (?/?"13 imposes the modulation of the span L and the bay l
T
of the
industrial buildings, the module being 30 M, where the basic module is !@(.. mm in
construction. 2owever, for steel structures, 60 M or 120 M is preferred. The usual modulation
determines spans of: (/, ,=, 4., 4? m, in this case the bay being of ? m. %nother modulation
imposed by the necessities may be: 3, (6, ,(, ,1, 44 m, the bays being (6, (/ m.
The height imposed by the serviceable necessities, H
u
is measured between the finite level
and the lowest level of the constructive elements or building services hanged by the roof.
The height up to the top of the rail level is imposed by the height of the technological
equipment and also by the clearance gauge of the materials and products transported above the
technological equipment. In this respect, the position of the hoo is restricted to the height of the
personal that wors inside the building, the security distances being also taen into account. The
security distances and other dimensions of electric cranes traveling on girders are imposed by the
-T%- /.."/,.
The necessary height above the crane rail level is dictated by the clearance gauge distance of
the crane itself considering the traveling of the crab on the crane and a security limit of (.. mm
above the crab under the bottom part of the ceiling. % supplementary security limit is also
necessary for the deflection of the roof truss, about ,..>=.. mm depending on the dimensions
of the span and also in accordance with other clearance limits imposed by the electric equipment
that might be suspended from the roof.
In the case of cranes with spans of A @(/>,= m this height is recommended to be a
modulated value, the module being (., m between /.= m > (../ m. )or spans bigger than 4. m
the module is (./ m and the total necessary height bigger than (,.? m.
% minimum height of an industrial building is imposed by the sanitary woring conditions,
and it is of 4., m.
1.2.1. Trans&ersal 'raes(Particular Types and 'eatures
1.2.1.1. 'raes with )oof Trusses and Crane Coluns
1.2.1.1.a. The Crane Coluns
The columns may have an uniform cross section in which case they need bracets for
carrying the reactions from crane beams or girders &fig. ? a',. +racets are then preferred for
small lifting capacities of the cranes" up to (?. B5.
)or loads over (?. B5 the cross section is usually compound, made up of hot"rolled
profiles or build up from steel plates &fig.?.b '. 2eavier loads and rather important moments at
the bottom of the column impose the use of hot rolled sections remote from the gravity centre of
the section and so they are battened or laced, the last for cross sections wider than (... mm;
bigger foundations are needed and frequently they are separate for each leg of the column.
The cross section of the column in the transversal plane is taen 1/151/20 from the
height of the column &above the ground level'.
In the case when the cranes have bigger lifting capacities a variation in two steps of the
cross section is more adequate. Cenerally, the height of the column is decided on several
clearance dimensions and in most of the cases it is the presence of the crane that imposes the
dimensions at the top part, while the bottom is decided by the traffic inside the building.
a b
)ig. ?. -olutions for the cross section of the columns for industrial buildings with crane girders
H
u
, the necessary height of the column depends on the presence of one or two cranes.
;hen there is single crane on the height of the building then this height will be determined as it
follows &fig.1 ':

s u
h h H H + + ·
(
&('
where:
H"the height from the finite floor level to the top of the rail; it depends upon the traffic
and the technological processes that are developed inside the building;
h
1
"the clearance gauge height of the crane & according to -T%- /.."/,';
h
s
" security distance imposed by the deflection of the truss &,.....4.. mm'; also, the
distance between the axis of the bottom chord of the roof truss and the lower part of
the building services hanged by the ceiling;.
The length of the upper part of the column, h
top
, &also see fig. 1.a.' depends on the
following values:

' &
( m s gr top
h h h b h h + + + + ·
&,'
where, additionally:
h
gr
" depth of the crane girder;
b" depth of the crane rail &-T%- /.."/,';
h
m
" height of the marginal strut if there is the case or, the height between the cap of the
column and the axis of the bottom chord of the truss.
The above mentioned dimensions h
gr
, h
s
, h
m
are estimated from practical design.
Cenerally, h
gr
is !1/"1/12#L
T
if the crane girder is simply supported and !1/101/15#L
T
if it is
continuous &L
T
is the bay'.
The length of the lower part of the column h
bottom
depends on technological dimensions, as
it follows:
f gr bottom
h h b H h + + − · ' &
&4'
where, in addition:
2" " the level of the rail &the runway level';
h
f
" part of the column sun under finite level D0" ...., usually =....,... mm;
The depth of the cross section of the column &in the transversal plane' at both parts b
top
and b
bottom
has to be in accordance with the clearance gauge of the cranes and the details used for
the supports of the crane girder. The position of the platform for circulation between two running
columns along the building and at the crane rail level is also taen into account.
)ig. 1. 9esign of the geometric dimensions of the columns with steps
;hen the top part of the column has a smaller section &smaller spans, smaller weights of the
roof', the circulation of personnel for reasons of maintenance, repair etc. between two running
bays is insured by passing aside the column and in this case the width of the top part is &fig. 1.b':

(
=.. , l p mm b $
s
+ + + ·
& ='
where:
b
s
" depth of the superior part of the column;
%00 mm" minimum necessary space for passing;
p" width of the parapet;
l
1
" hori:ontal clearance distance of the crane &standard value, according to -T%- /.."/,'.
The space needed for circulation, =.. mm is present only for the runways situated at
more than / m from the ground level. ;hen this level is less than / m, this term may be missing
from the relationship.
In the case when a bigger depth of the cross section in the top part of the column results
in the preliminary stage of design, the personnel have the possibility to cross through the column
and in this case:

(
, l b $
s
+ ·
&6'
In these relationships b
s
is evaluated as being about !1/"1/12#h
s
, and in the relationship
&6',
mm b
s
1.. ≥
.
The span of the crane is:

$ L L
H p
, − ·
&?'
where:
L
H
" span of the transversal frame;
L
p
E span of the crane expressed as a multiple of 6.. mm &-T%- /.."/,';
2$ E distance between the axis of the bottom part of the column and the axis of the crane
rail; usually is taen between (......,... mm.
(
=..
,
l p mm
b
$
s
+ + + ≥ &1'
where:
b
s
" height of the cross section at top part of the column;
p" the plane dimension of the parapet;
l
1
" minimum distance between the runway axis and the parapet or the face of the column,
&according to -T%- /.."/,'.
The depth of the cross section depends on the height of the top part of the column:
s s
h b
,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
(6
(
(.
(
&/'
The column with a hollow section inside must have a height of at least 1.. mm>/..
mm.
The span of the crane will be deduced from the span of the building and the distance $:
$ L L
p
, − ·
&3'
The span of the crane must be a multiple of ,6. mm and therefore, we adopt c @16. mm
when there are not any platform for circulation all along the runway and c @(... mm when the
circulation is insured through all the length of the building.
The depth of the bottom part of the column is imposed by the necessity that the crane
girder to be centered in the axis of one leg of the column, the one that is placed internally to the
building. Its value must insure:
$
b
b
s
i
+ ·
,
&(.'
%lso, the depth must be in accordance with the stiffness ratios between the top and
bottom part recommended for a correct modeling for static computation:
( )
s i i
h h b + ≥
,.
(
&(('
If the distance b
i
results too big, the axis of the rail will be eccentric, inwards the
building.
1.3.2. The horizontal structural element of the transversal frame
This element may be designed in two solutions:
a' a steel roof truss made of hot rolled sections, for bigger spans and bays and heavier
loads transferred to the foundations &one, two or more cranes are generally present';
b' a rafter made of hot rolled section or plate girder for buildings with various
destinations in the industry field: worshops, warehouses, showrooms and others. The structure
is characteri:ed by smaller spans &under (6>(/ m' and bays &under 3 m' and generally the
cranes are missing. This solution calls also for a similar cross section of the column &these types
of cross sections are described in the following chapters'.
Foof trusses for industrial buildings have some particular features: the top chord has a
small slope, generally smaller than (.< and the distribution of the internal members and the
distance between the connections at the top chord depend on the roofing system. The roofing
system imposes two different types of supports and hence, two types of trusses: trusses carrying
purlins and trusses that sustain directly the roof sheeting.
*urlins are the structural elements of the roof cladding transferring the external loads to
the truss. They are placed in the Goints at the top chord and fixed at the building site with various
systems, bolted or welded. The distance between these Goints measures usually ,.6>..4.. m.
Hsually the system adopted for the internal members &ties and struts' is triangular &fig. 3 '.
)ig. 3. Foof trusses" usual distribution of the internal members
2eavy roofs, made from light concrete decing, asbestos"cement plates or sandwich
panels made of concrete and thermal insulating materials are lesser and lesser used in the
present. 2eavy roofs will transfer bigger loading to the top chord.
Aighter roofs made of steel sheeting or decing or even asbestos covered sheets are now
more and more preferred.
-till, if an important increase in the weight of the roof appears, the necessity of placing
more purlins has two alternatives in the design stage: diminish the distances between the Goins at
the top chord &at aprox. (.6 m' using intermediary struts and ties or, strengthen the top chord in
order to cope with supplementary stresses coming from bending moments &fig. (.. a, b.'.
In the case of the trusses that sustain the roof directly, the elements of the top chord will
be also subGected to bending moments and accordingly, they must provide the necessary stiffness
in the plane of the truss &fig. (., c.'.
)ig. (.. Trusses with heavy loads on the top chord: a'" solution with supplementary ties and
struts; b'" solution with stiffened top chord; c'" bending moments in the top chord members from direct
loads on the element
The top chord may be designed in the solution with hot rolled shapes, alternatively, build
up from steel plates, welded &see also chapter (', in the case when the bays are relative small, say
?>(, m. In the case of bigger spans of the transversal frame, say over 6. m, and bigger bays
over (, m, the sections have double walls or made of caisson sections.
%gain, the presence of intermediary struts and ties will reduce the cross section of the top
chord. In the case when bigger spans will impose heavy cross sections, an increase of accuracy at
the design level is recommended. +ending moments of second order, as a result of important
deformations of the elements will be taen into account. In this situation, the top chord will be
statically considered as a continuous beam with elastic restraints.
%ll trusses with spans bigger than ,= m will have camber &fig. ((.'.
The truss has to be designed considering the transportation from the steel worshop to the
building site. The capacities of the transportation systems adopted &railway, lorry etc' and the
lifting capacities of the cranes impose limits to both dimensions and weight of the trusses.
Trusses are made up from several parts fabricated in plant and assembled at the building site,
bolted or welded. The assembling operations have to be as few as possible. Hsually, one unit
must not exceed (, m long and 4.6 m high &fig.((.'
The best solutions, from the economic point of view are those that combine higher
strengths low alloy steels &yield stresses over 4?. 50mm
,
' for chords with a lower strength steel,
7A 41, for the current ties and struts. The diagonal and strut that are close to the supports will be
made of higher strength steel because of the important efforts that are developed in that area.
Cenerally, trusses are prefabricated in worshop in large series and an economic solution
is given by a strict design of the individual members. In this case, a build up shape is preferred,
in T, I, or caisson &fig. (,'. -till, a previous analysis must be performed, to put in balance on
one side an increase of the manoeuvre and welding and on the other side extra dimensioning in
the case of using hot rolled shapes.
In the last decades, due to modern technologies, trusses made up of rectangular or round
tubes, or pipes are more and more adopted as a very economic solution, the Goints being obtained
with a very important reduction of steel consumption. 9ifferent types of connections between
round or rectangular tubes, between tubes with different shapes and also between tubes and hot
rolled opened sections are analy:ed in the Juropean standard regulations" Jurocode 4, part ("/.
%s they are structural elements of the transversal frame, roof trusses have some particular
features in the design of the support area, two main situations being considered: hinged
connection between column and truss and rigid, respectively.

)ig. ((. *refabricated roof trusses" dimensions and design for a'" roofs without thermal insulation;
b'" roofs with thermal insulation
The hinged $onne$tion bet&een the $olumn and the truss is subGected to the hori:ontal
forces coming from the frame effect. These forces are transferred to the column with a certain
eccentricity imposed by the shape and dimensions of the gusset placed in the support; implicit,
one must try to mae the height of the gusset as small as possible.
In the figure (4.a,
.
h H M ⋅ ·
is the bending moment that must be transferred to the two
individual members of the truss" a bar from the top chord and a tie; the bars will tae the efforts
in direct proportion with their own stiffness distributed on their length:
l ' ( ·
. The static
scheme considered for these bars is a beam double articulated. 2owever, the top chord is
considered continuous over the first current Goint due to the increased stiffness of the latter. Thus,
a part of the bending moment is transferred in the Goint.
The distribution of the bending moment ! is according to the relationships:
)ig. (,. Constructive solutions for the Goints of trusses
)ig. (4. 2inged connection" the frame effect upon the members of the truss: a'" scheme; b'"
efforts in the internal members
d $
d
d
d $
$
$
( (
(
M M
( (
(
M M
+
⋅ ·
+
⋅ · ;
&(,'
The members implicated in the process of the distribution of the bending moment are
verified to the axial force and bending moment. This increase of stress has as a result the
strengthening of the top chord on a certain length.
The current details for this type of connection must solve some problems:
• Transfer of the forces and reactions by means of welding or mechanical fasteners, or
both;
• The holes for the mechanical fasteners will be made with bigger diameters and oval
shaped in order to insure mounting tolerances at the building site.
The rigid $onne$tion bet&een the $olumn and the truss leads to a more rational
distribution of the efforts in the support area. The first tie may be in tension or in compression
&fig. (= '. ;elded connections and bolted connections are used, according to the specific
requirements.
The restraints are the cause of a moment in the frame, which is transferred to the top and
bottom chord as a couple of forces:
( ( (
h M ' ·
. The axial force determined by the hori:ontal
actions in the connection, ) is transmitted only to the bottom chord along with the reaction on
the supports, *. &fig. (=.a'.
)inal efforts in the bars are determined by the superposition of the efforts from the external
loading in the hypothesis of a simple supported truss with the efforts imposed by the presence of
the restraints:
)
i
M
i i i
' ' ' ' + + ·
.
&(4'
where:
"the term #i$ refers to the current internal member of the truss;
I
i
" the final effort ;
I
i
.
" the effort in the case of a simple supported truss;
I
i
!
"the effort determined by the moment in the rigid connection, i.e.:
i i
M
i
h M ' ·
;
I
i
5
" the effort determined by the axial force, ).
The usual details must cope with the following situations:
• ;elding or mechanical fasteners will tae the efforts coming from the frame effect;
• If a special support is used, then the reaction will be transferred to that, integrally;
• The lower Goint is usually subGected to compression, due to the sign of the bending
moment; the compression is entirely transferred directly to the face of the column;
• The distance between the centre of the welding lines or of the rows of bolts and the
application point of the resultant of the hori:ontal forces &fig. (6.' will develop a
rotation moment acting in the plane of the connection. The value of the efforts
transferred to the connection is amplified according to the distance from the centre to
the farthest point of welding or bolt, respectively. In the case when the sectional
effort causes tension in bolts, the following relationship will be used to verify:
n
H
h
h
e H )
i
+ ⋅ ⋅ ·

,
max
max &(='
• The upper Goint is centred and verified for tension; in the case of a bolted connection,
the design stages follow the case of mechanical fasteners used for flanges.
)ig. (=. Figid connection"forces due to frame effect upon the truss: a'"scheme; b'"design
)ig. (6. )orces acting in the connection between the column and the truss: a'" welded connection;
b'"bolted connection
2.*.+. Structural fraewor! design
2.*.+.1. Introduction
The structures of the industrial buildings are made of transversal frames, with one or
more spans. The transversal frames are usually single storey buildings, rarely with two or more
storeys, sometimes in one span only &fig. (?'. The Goint between the girder &it is also nown as
rafter' and the column may be hinged or fixed. The column may be fully restraint in the
foundations or it may be articulated.
)ig. (?. Hsual types of transversal frames for industrial buildings equipped with cranes with one and ,, 4
spans & scheme of truss and columns and simplifications for the static computation'
The fixed Goint between the girder and the column is used in the case of the structures with wide
spans and small heights of the columns while the hinged Goint is used in the case of the big
heights and small spans &fig.4.= .(.a.,b.,c.'.
)ig. /. Fational solutions of the static scheme for transversal frames: a'" small heights; b'" big heights
The girder and the columns of the transversal frame are build up cross sections &for ex.
from hot rolled profiles, box sections, plate girders etc.' or lattice girders. The columns may have
constant cross section &if they carry loads under 6 5' or variable &if the loads are above 6. 5'.
2.*.+.2. Static coputation of the trans&ersal one span fraes carrying crane
girders with hinged ,oints between the colun and the rafter
The stages for computation are:
I"a preliminary choosing of the cross section of the columns in order to determine the top
and the bottom moments of inertia
II"static computation of the frame;
III"design and verifications of the sections chosen for the column and the girder.
ST-.E I$ The top of the column is supposed to be hinged. The loads that are taen into
account are:
"permanent and quasi"permanent actions:
a' dead loads transferred from the girder:
+ ,
L
p p
H
· ⋅
,
&(6'
b' weight of the top &Cs' and bottom &Ci' of the stanchion:
i i
s s
h -
h -
⋅ ·
⋅ ·
(6.
(..
&(?'
c'vertical loads transmitted by the Goists that are in fact the structure of the longitudinal
wall from the :ones situated at the top and at the bottom part of the columns &*s, *i" weights of
the windows, sheeting, masonry', self"weight;
"variable actions:
a' snow, transferred from the girder:
+ ,
L
. .
H
· ⋅
,
&(1'
b' wind on the roof: Kv, 2v..&4.4'
c' maximum vertical loads &F' and hori:ontal loads &F)' transferred to the columns by
the runway system"crane girders, cranes, crabs; these are reactions determined with the influence
lines &fig.4.=.,.a':


⋅ + ⋅ ·
⋅ + ⋅ ·
T i
T i
L , / r
L , / *
η
η
min
max
&(/'
* 0
0 $ i
· ⋅

η
&(3'
d' wind normal to the longitudinal wall:
¹
;
¹
⋅ ·
⋅ ·
T v v
T v v
L p ,
L p ,
L L
&,.'
Kertical loads are transferred to the vertical neutral axis of the column considering also
bending moments determined by the eccentric application of the forces &fig.4.=.,.b'.
( ? 6 =
4 , (
; ;
; ; ' &
e * M e / M e / M
e / M e - M e + + + M
s i i
s s s v . p
⋅ · ⋅ · ⋅ ·
⋅ · ⋅ · ⋅ + + ·
&,('
The eccentricities are determined according to the following relationships between the
geometric elements:
e
b b
e
b
e
t b
e
t b
i s
i
s
p s
i
p i
s
·

· − ·
+
·
+
, , , ,
; ; ;
&,,'
where:
" bi, bsE the plane dimensions of the top and bottom part of the column, respectively;
" t
p
" the thicness of the longitudinal wall.
% satisfying static computation may be run considering the five simplified cases of
loading in fig.4.=.,.c which cover all values of bending moments on the columns for all the
loading cases in fig.4.=.,.b. The maximum efforts in the cross sections are determined with the
help of a tabel &tab.%'.
The system is hyper"static; the redundancy, M is determined for certain types of loading
situations and different ratios
h h
s i
0
respectively
' '
s i
0
.
Hsually the ratio
i
s
'
'
n ·
.
is:
"n
o
@ .., for cranes with low lifting capacity and heavy roofs;
"n
o
@ .../ for cranes with heavy lifting capacity and light roofs.
ST-.E II: the static computation of the transversal frame is started considering a certain
ratio
' '
s i
0
the same from the stage I and taing the loads in the cases studied.
)ig. 3. Aoading schemes for the computation of one span frames with articulated connection between the
truss and the column
)ig.(.. %ctions transferred to the columns from crane girders
)ig. ((. *reliminary design of the column of the transversal frame: actual loading schemes and simplified
schemes for computation
)ig. (,. -ectional efforts in the column"preliminary stage of design
2.*.+.2.1. The &ariation of teperature in the trans&ersal frae
The longitudinal elements are prevented to deform because of the bound between the
stanchion and the foundation so in this way in the column may appear supplementary stresses.
The initial assumption is that at the top of the columns the displacements are proportional
with the distances from the axis :ero, its position may be determined with the relationships
&fig..':
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
( ( , ( (
4 ( 4 = = ( = 6 (
· − ⋅ ⋅ · − ⋅ ⋅ −
· ⋅ ⋅ − − − · ⋅ ⋅ − − · ⋅ ⋅ −
α α
α α α
t L t L l
t L L l l t L L l t L L
; & ';
& '; & '; & '
N &,4'
)ig. (4. Temperature variation effect
%s the displacements are proportional with the stiffness of the stanchions we may write
* r
i i i
· ⋅ ∆
so:
* r t L r * t L l r
* r t L L l l r * r t L L l r
* r t L L r
( ( ( ( ( , , ( ( ,
4 4 4 ( 4 = 4 = = = ( = =
6 6 = ( 6
· ⋅ · − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · − ⋅ · − ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅
· ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ − − − ⋅ · ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ − − ⋅
· ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
∆ ∆
α α α
α α
α
; & '
& ' ; & '
& '
N &,='
where:
ri " the hori:ontal reaction at the top of the stanchion i because of a displacement equal
with ( &O
i
@ (' taen as it follows:
ri@
(,
4
⋅ ⋅

1 '
h
2
, the factor depending on the variation of the moment of inertia along the
height of the stanchion;
Fi " the hori:ontal reaction at the top of the stanchion i because of the hori:ontal
displacement O
i
.
)rom the static equilibrium condition:

*
i
i
·
·

.
(
6
&,6'
or:
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ +
+ ⋅ ⋅ − − − ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ − − ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ·
α α
α α α
∆ ∆
∆ ∆ ∆
t L r t L l r
t L L l l r t L L l r t L L r
( ( ( ( ,
( 4 = 4 ( = = ( 6
.
& '
& ' & ' & '
we obtain:
L
l r r r r r l r r r l r r l r
r r r r r
(
( ( , 4 = 6 , 4 = 6 4 = 6 = 6
( , 4 = 6
·
⋅ + + + + + ⋅ + + + ⋅ + + ⋅
+ + + +
& ' & ' & '
&,?'
The displacements and the reactions at the top of the stanchion are:

∆ ∆
∆ ∆
i i
i i i i i
t L
* r t L r
· t ⋅ ⋅
· t ⋅ · t ⋅ ⋅
α
N &,1'

The simplifi$ation of the stati$ $omputation may be achieved by geometrical
& , , L h h
H s i
',
elastic &
' ' '
s i
, ,
' and mechanical &loading' symmetry. The determination of the sectional efforts
on the frame in the (1 loading cases &fig.4.=.6.' is possible to be done with the help of six
simplified cases &fig.4.=.4.b'; the static computation is done with the help of the method of
forces. ;ith the help of the table that totali:e the sectional efforts for the different loading cases
one is able to determine the maximum sectional efforts in the specific points 9, Cs, Ci, % only
for one stanchion of the transversal frame &the left one'. The combinations that give the
maximum efforts in these points &
M ) T ) M T
$oresp $oresp max max
, , ; , ,
' are done considering the
following assessments:
a'"the dead and live loads are always present;
b'"only one alternative of each temporary loads presented on the schemes may taen once
&for ex. snow on the left side or on the right side of the roof or on the whole roof, and so on';
c'"the snow and the maximum temperature effects are not possible together;
d'"the action of the force F) is always taen together with the action of the pair of forces
F"r &or F"r';the action of the forces F"r may be taen without the action of the force F);
e'"if the seismic load is taen into account then neither the crab effects nor the wind are
considered.
7ne span building &fig.(.=.6.a' the method of forces is expressed by the relationship
written for the top of the stanchions:

∆ ∆
(( ( (
. ⋅ + · 3
/
&,/'
if we mae the annotation
n
'
'
s
i
·
we may write:


((
(
,
(
,
(
,
(
,
(
,
(
,
( (
(
·

+

·

⋅ ⋅ +

⋅ ·
·

⋅ + ⋅
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
∫ ∫
m
1 '
ds
m
1 '
ds
1 '
m ds
1 '
m ds
1 '
m ds n m ds
s i s i s s i i
s s i
& '
N &,3'



(
( (
( (
( (
( (
(
/
/
s s
/
i i s
/
s i
/
i
s
/
s
/
i
M m
1 '
ds
M m
1 '
ds
1 '
M m ds
1 '
M m ds
1 '
M m ds M m ds
·


+


·

⋅ ⋅ +

⋅ ⋅ ·
·

⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
∫ ∫
& '
&4.'
-o from these relationships, M
(
is obtained

3
M m ds M m ds
m ds n m ds
/
/
s
/
i
s i
(
(
((
( (
(
,
(
,
· ·
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅
⋅ + ⋅
∫ ∫
∫ ∫


&4('
2ere the values of the moments !
*
and m are the sectional efforts &bending moments'
coming from the exterior loading respectively from M@(, both of them being determined on the
static determined system. %fter we find the force M, the diagrams for the final moments &
M M m 3
/
· + ⋅
( (
' are traced on the stanchions and we proceed to the design of the cross
section of the stanchion.
The truss of the transversal frame is designed with the help of the first stage axial efforts
for the simply supported girder, 5
i
.
. In the second stage efforts 5
i
are determined considering
the girder double articulated, these corrections being the result of the effect of the hori:ontal
forces that act upon the transversal frame &column and roof truss' &fig. (=':
)ig. (=. Jffect of the frame redundancy &frame effect upon the members of the truss'
) ) )
) ) )
i2 i2 i2
'
i2 i2 i2
'
· +
· −
.
.
& '
& '
max
min
N &4,'
The trusses with the hori:ontal bottom flange the corrections will affect only the
members of this flange; if the bottom flange has a camber, all the members will be affected by
these corrections.
The axial efforts will be computed considering the combination of actions possible to be
simultaneous and according to the relation:
) , T
) , T
i2 i2 i2 4
i2 i2 i2 4
· ⋅ + ⋅
· ⋅ − ⋅


α γ
α γ
& '
& '
max
min
N &44'
2.*.+.%. Static coputation of the two span trans&ersal fraes with hinged ,oints
between the colun and the rafter
In the case of the static computation with the method of forces the equal displacement of
the top of the stanchions will be expressed:

δ δ δ
a b $
· ·
&4='
and the two equations have the redundants M
(
and M
,
.Considering the displacements to the right
side positive and to the left side negative we may write:

δ δ δ
δ δ δ δ δ δ
δ δ δ
a a a/
b b b b/ b b/
$ $ $/
3
3 3 3 3
3
· ⋅ +
· ⋅ − ⋅ + · ⋅ − +
· ⋅ +
( (
( ( , , ( ( ,
, ,
& '
N &46'
The coefficients P
iG
and P
i*
will be computed with the !ohr"!axwell method.
The two forces determined from the elastic equilibrium equations are used in order to
trace the diagrams of !, 5, T. The column is the one on the left side and the internal one in the
cross sections at the levels +, 9, Cs and Ci, %. The cases taen in consideration are (? but it is
enough to mae the static computation only for 1 simplified cases of loading .
2.*.+.+. Static coputation of one span fraes with rigid ,oint between the
colun and the rafter
This solution is adopted in the cases &fig. (6 ':
"when the worshop has a big height &(6...(/ m' and they use heavy lift capacities for
cranes and these ones function in heavy and very heavy woring groups ;
"the building is equipped with two cranes situated at different levels.
In fig. (?. the simplified scheme of the frame with rigid Goint is presented, the height of
the column being determined on the basis of the design of the truss &whether the first diagonal is
ascending or descending'.
The static computation follows the stages:
a'"preliminary design of the cross section of the girder considered simply supported for
determining the moment of inertia Ir;
b'" preliminary design of the top and bottom part of the column on the basis of a
simplified scheme for determining the moments of inertia Is and Ii;
c'" static computation of the frame for certain loads in order to determine the maximum
sectional efforts;
d'"the final design of the girder and of the girder and of the column.
)ig. (6. Cases Gustifying the rigid connection between the column and roof truss
)ig. (?. -implified schemes for the computation of the frame with rigid connection between the column
and the roof truss
The preliminary design of the truss means to determine the maximum axial stresses in the
top and in the bottom flange in the central panel &5
s
, 5
i
' then to find the cross sections %
s
and %
i
&fig.(1.'. The equivalent moment of inertia of the truss is determined with the relationship:

' 2 ' 2 5 y 5 y
6 s s i i
· ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ & '
, ,
&4?'
where depends on the slope of the top chord of the girder &@..3 for p@.< and @..1
for p@(.<'.
)ig. (1. *reliminary evaluation of the sections for the internal members of the truss
%ccording to the fig. (/. axial efforts 5
i
.
are corrected with the frame effects :

) ) M M T
i2 i2 i2 4 i2 4 i2 4
· + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅

.
& '
L
α β γ
&41'
The stresses Q
i
R
i
and S
i
are obtained from the methods of static computation.
)ig. (/. Jffect of the redundancy &rigid connection' upon the members of the truss
;hen the loads are applied to the column, by taing I @ T we simplify the static
computation. Thus, we may write:

r r
r
r
ii /
/
⋅ + ·
· −
∑ ∑




( (
(
(
((
.
&43'
where:
Ur
((
" the sum of the reactions at the top of the stanchion when 9(@(;
Ur
(*
" the sum of the hori:ontal reactions at the top of the stanchions due to the external
loads applied to the column.
;hen the frames have two distinctive translations we determine the unnown O
(
, O
,
from
the equations:
.
.
, , ,, ( ,(
( , (, ( ((
· + ∆ ⋅ + ∆ ⋅
· + ∆ ⋅ + ∆ ⋅
∑ ∑ ∑
∑ ∑ ∑
/
/
r r r
r r r
......................................&=.'
The rigid Goint between the roof truss and the column
In the case in the fig. (3 and ,. the efforts T, K, 2@!02m &the forces T and K are placed
in the bottom or in the top end connection of the truss considering that the end diagonal of the
truss is ascending or descending'.
The Goint may be bolted or welded alternatively, may be placed in the axis of the column
&fig.(3' or aligned to the internal face of the column, closely to the cross section with no bending
moment &fig. ,.'.
The Goint is a typical column to girder fixed connection subGected to axial efforts, shear
and bending moments:
( )
( )
( )
b
bearing g
b
bearing $
b
shear
b
shear $
b
bearing $
b
shear $ b $ b $ v h
v
i
i h
* t d ) *
d
)
) ) ) ) ) ) *
n
+
)
n
H T
y
y
M )
e + e H T M
⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ·
· ≤ + ·
·
+
+ ⋅ ·
⋅ − ⋅ + ·

,
,
,
, , , ,
( (
,
max
( (
;
=
,
, min ;
;
, ,
π
N....................&=('
( )
( )
b
bearing shear t e$h
b
p
angle
v
p
b
shear
v
t
h
t
b
t
h
t
v
i
h
*
*
t d
)
*
d
)
d
)
*
d
)
n
+
)
n
H T
h
h
M )
e + e H T M
( . ( 4
;
=
=
;
=
,
;
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
max
,
, ,
(
(
≤ + ·


· ≤

·

· ≤

·

·

+
− ⋅ ·
⋅ − ⋅ + ·

τ σ σ
σ
π
τ
π
σ
π
σ
&=,'
The fillet welds in the Goint from fig. ,.. are subGected to the bending moment !
(
and the
efforts T and 2 " in the hori:ontal plan and by the force K " in the vertical plan. The number of
bolts n
,
is checed in a similar way as in the first case.
( )
&
shear v h
& &
v
& & & &
h
*
l a
+
l a
H T
l a
M
e H T M
≤ +

·

+
+

⋅ ·
⋅ + ·
, ,
,
(
(
,
;
, ,
?
τ τ
τ τ
)ig. (3. Figid connection of the members of the truss to the column: the internal members are aligned to
the axis of the column
)ig. ,.. Figid connection of the members of the truss to the column: the internal members are aligned to
the internal face of the column