Specific steel elements in the design of the industrial buildings
3.1. Steel sheet roofing and cladding Profiled steel sheet is commonly used in building as a cladding for roofs and sidewalls, its main properties being strength, lightweight, durability, ease and speed of erection and low cost. Different types of surface protection are used for these buildings: Cladding shuts are formed from cold-reduced steel shut or coil. Appropriate surface treatments are as follows:  galvanized coating: a bond uniform coating applied by the continuous hotdip process. When exposed to the atmosphere, the inc layer corrodes at a relati!ely slow rate until it is all consumed. "his rate depends on the nature of the atmosphere, being #uic$est in polluted industrial areas, as in coastal areas sub%ected to winds off the sea. &lsewhere the inc is a long-lasting reliable protection. "he hea!ier the coating, the longer the life of the gal!ani ed shut'  aluminum coating : a thin layer of tightly-bonded aluminum at about the same thic$ness as the inc on a gal!ani ed shut ().)*+ mm,.-t is considered to ha!e ad!antages as greater corrosion resistance in industrial atmospheres, brighter appearance and greater solar heat reflection but it is a rather expensi!e solution'  plastic coating: a tightly bonded layer of plastic is applied to either a plain or a gal!ani ed steel shut. "he plastic is either a laminate or a will-coated plastisol. .n the steel shut claddings there may be put color and attracti!e surface textures. Plastic coated shut need no maintenance and it is imper!ious to most chemicals, polluted atmospheres, frost, hot sun, dampness but it needs special measures of fire protection'  vitreous enamel coating : it is a glass li$e porcelain which, when put to steel shut, forms a tough, permanent color layer protection.As a cladding, the !itreous enameled shut is most fre#uently used as a flat, curtain walling or external paneling material. "he material is imper!ious to chemicals, polluted atmospheres, frost, sun, dampness and abrasion but it is also an expensi!e solution and it re#uires fire protection'  prepainted sheet: the paint is applied under controlled factory conditions before deli!ery of the sheet. "hus the uniform thic$ness and the correct #uality paint is assumed'  built-up weather proofing: composite steel cladding comprising trough sectioned profile with layers of weather proofing, !apor seals and tough outside surface layers

build up on the top surface of the sheet which are in wide spread use, particularly for the industrial buildings. "hese systems are exceptionally durable and strong enough to form hori ontal roof dec$s able to carry pedestrian and other traffic. "hermal insulation is normally incorporated within the build-up layers. "he !apor seals and the thermal insulation are attached to the exterior surface of the cladding sheet, so the condensation problems are by-passed (the steel remains on the warm, interior side of the dec$,.

/ig.0. Different profile shapes of steel sheeting used for roofing: a,- corrugated' b,- with trough' c,dec$ trough' d, 1 dec$ trough with tray' e, 1 build-up dec$

"he slopes are those recommended by the standards (see tab.,
"ab. 2inimum roof pitches recommended 3r. 0 "ype of roofing 4ong corrugated sheets with no end laps between ridge and ea!es' long sheets in other profiles-trough, tiles, with no end laps * 6 7 between ridge and ea!es 5nprotected profiled sheets where end laps are necessary 0+) Pitch +)

"he resistance of a cladding sheet to longitudinal bending is proportional with the depth of the corrugation and the gauge thic$ness. "he strength of the sheet is proportional with the section modulus of the profile. "he stiffness of the sheet is proportional to the moment of inertia of the profile section. "he design of the appropriate thic$ness of the cladding sheet is based on the tables offered by the producers, depending on the total weight on the roof and on the spans of the co!er sheet. "he cladding may be sustained continuously by three, four or se!eral supports or it may be simply supported. "he design of the cold formed sections is based on the recommendations of &C 6.0.

3.1..1. The layout of the sheeting "here has to be ta$en into account some accessories as: ridge caps, corner and ea!e closures and flashings which are usually made from flat, gal!ani ed sheet and bent to whate!er cur!e it needs (see fig.,

/ig.*. /astening methods for fixing the roof cladding: a,- seam fastener with 8 mm diam. gal!ani ed steel bolt' b, 1 purlin fastener with 9 mm diam. gal!ani ed hoo$ bolt' c,- seam fastener with self tapping screw' d,- purlin fastener with dri!e screw' e,- seam fastener with blind ri!et' f, 1 purlin fastener with gal!ani ed bolt and mo!able hoo$' g,- purlin fastener with stud welded bolt' h,- purlin fastener with a sheetclip' i,purlin fastener with fired stud' %,- purlin and insulation fastener with curtain wall stud

3.2. Skylights "hey are part of the roof structure with multiple functions of lighting and !entilation. -n order to insure these functions, their surface is recommended to be somewhere about 0+: of the

7.. <ariable actions are: -the snow action..0' -weight of the industrial dust: characteristic !alue gidn' partial safety factor is 0..*' -weight of the s$ylight: characteristic !alue gskn' partial safety factor is 0...* g bs + 0.0g pn +0...... gshn-factorised with 0.......(0.7 g id . -wind action.internal finite ground le!el. "otal dead and imposed loads are: n n n n n gn p = g sh cos α + g pn + g bs + g sk + g id .. the exposure one... the altitude and also...1. (00.A ⋅ ( q z + q nv ....... /rom wind acting on the walls of the s$ylight: c W0 = p nv ⋅ LT ⋅ ) hsk h c 'W* = p nv ⋅ LT ⋅ sk 6 * * (0*. ... pzn =da3>m*?. according to @"A@ 0)0)0>*)A*' depending on the class of importance of the building..*... "heir maximum lengths are +).....0(0.. 3. they are bigger and hea!ier. and the following combinations of actions are considered: c c qc = qc p + q z ' q nv =da3>m? (0)............0.(9.. being designed as steel framed structures.0g sk +0. "he s$ylights may be placed longitudinally or trans!ersally to the building itself.. -f the function is double.. the limit state of !erification.(.. Skylights design a... the partial safety factor is γF.*.0' -weight of the building ser!ices: characteristic !alue gbsn' the partial safety factor is 0.. "he design !alues are: c c c c c qc p = g p ⋅ LT ' q z = p z ⋅ LT ' q nv = p nv ⋅ LT =da3>m? (A..' -weight of the purlins: characteristic !alue gpnn' the partial safety factor is 0... 4oads -they are distributed on the surface of the sheeting and they are: -the weight of the sheeting....8) m (because of the fire protection and considering the maintenance... the normal component of the wind pressure on the surface of the building pnn =da3>m*?' the partial safety factor γF is determined according to @"A@ 0)0)0>*0-A) depending on the class of importance of the building.. c c c c c gc p = 0.. the aeolian one and the limit state of !erification... g sh cos α + 0. which means for !entilation also...2.. depending on the solution adopted (with or without insulation. -n the %oints of the top chord of the s$ylight the following : c c P = q c ⋅ a' P B = q c p + )...

A m /or bays between A. Types and use Purlins are beams that sustain the layers of a flat roof or the cladding of a sloping roof to an industrial building. 7 ....1.3. channels. "hey are made from hot-rolled profiles. Purlins 3. /inally. the wind pressure on the roof will induce a hori ontal component in the top chord of the s$ylight: c c ∆W = p nv − p nv ⋅ LT ⋅ 0 * ( ) Lsk * (07. "he same resultant will be transferred to the top chord of the roof truss. . 4ongitudinal s$ylight placed on the top chord of the roof truss 3...0+ m the economic solution is the truss made of smaller sections. %oists. "he axial stresses in the members of the s$ylight are determined with the $nown static methods of e#uilibrium of forces.which will induce a hori ontal resultant force in the top chord of the s$ylight: c c W0 − W* = ( p nv − p nv . ⋅ LT ⋅ ) 6 hsk * (06. generally hollow sections (fig. the most used sections being uni!ersal beams.3. /ig. structural hollow sections also special sections as Castella beams all of them for bays between 8. 6..

cap.cap. Coists carrying roof dec$ing may be spaced at larger spans (8 m or more.eff. "ypes of sections (hot rolled.n sloping roofs sheeting is placed o!er insulating board or glass wool. the splices being designed for stresses that come from ).. Purlins may be simply supported or continuous beams. . .n flat roof insulating board.7.0.) m span..+ 2x. + . Prefabricated sandwich panels are fre#uently used do to their accurate execution in factory. depending on the thic$ness of the dec$ing shut and the depth of the profile. 2y.*./ig.eff (fig. "y. "he sheeting may be steel or aluminum corrugated or profile shuts or dec$ing. "he continuous beams need a smaller amount of steel to be used but need a bigger amount of manual wor$ and engender different reactions on the supports. 7. Purlins ha!e to carry the weight of the roofs and other imposed and !ariable actions. for purlins An economic and modern solution is also the use of !arious cold formed sections especially when light structures of industrial buildings are designed. "he computation of sectional characteristics and resistance is done following the recommendations of &C 6. felt and bitumen are laid o!er the steel dec$ing. "x. "hey are %oined together close to the sections where theoretically there is no bending moment. using structural elements also made of cold formed sections. Purlins carrying sheeting are usually spaced at 0. .

/ig. 8. "he purlins made of trusses (lattice girders. than the hot rolled sections.. (fig.welded at site' b. . 8.Connection between the parts of a continuous purlin: a. Details of supports of purlins on trusses 1simply supported purlins "he purlins made up from Castella beams sections ha!e a greater moment capacity (about +): more. /ig. "he internal members of the lattice girders may ha!e circular hollow section. are placed !ertically and ma$e an economy of about 7): from the solution using hot rolled sections.. . "ies placed near the supports render a bigger stability on the longitudinal direction to the roof trusses. . +..bolted Purlins are placed in the %oints of the truss in order to a!oid local bending of elements of the top chord (fig.

. 3.$nee braced purlins' d. Different types of sections for purlins placed on wider bays: a. . the nominal !alue.Castellated sections' b. gshn and the design !alue gshc D gshn 0. the distance between the purlins and the charge from all the uniform distributed loads.-purlins with hangers' f. they may be classified as: 0. Actions. "he design !alue is determined from the nominal !alue amplified with the partial safety factor: gnc D gpnE0. ..purlins placed alternati!ely "he purlins may be placed at the bottom chord of the trusses and in this case tie rods ha!e to be put near the supports (hangers.0' o (0.$nee braced lattice girders' e. Permanent and #uasi-permanent actions: o weight of the purlin: the nominal !alue gpn =da3>m? being adopted either considering a preliminary section or extracted as tabulated !alues =da3>m *? (see tab.lattice girders' c.2.3.3...1./ig. including snow.*.. Combinations of actions "hey are usually uniform distributed and according to limit state design.2. Purlin design 3.0 . "hey also may be placed alternati!ely ... considering the span of the purlin.' weight of the roof sheeting.

0 0. p n.n r. "able..7' *.gpn =da3>m*?EaF=m?' =da3>m? (P. (<.i ⋅ c h ( z ) ⋅ g v =da3>m*?' p n = γ F ⋅ pn =da3>m*? (06.. . pnn.two !ariable actions' qn=da3>m? qc=da3>m? .' γ/-partial safety factor considering the specific limit state (tab. <ariable actions: o snow.: Wind pressureFFFF.: Weight of roof sheeting (dec$ing. the component of the pressure normal to the surface of the roof determined as it follows: n c n pn = β ⋅ c n . .7 0. Actions for design (P !permanent" (C ! #uasi$permanent " (% ! &ariable (P. H).*F 0.' ce-coefficient that ta$es into account the exposure conditions' gz-the reference pressure due to snow load. J I(C. *.p n =da3>m*?Ea=m? 8. 0."A4 : I(P. where: o czi-coefficient that ta$es into account the shape of the agglomeration of snow on the surface of the roof (see tab.' wind. determined with the formulae: n c pz = c z .gbsn =da3>m*?Ea=m? +.gidn =da3>m*?Ea=m? (C. 6.FFF H/(Ha. ng 1 simultaneity factor of the !ariable actions and e#ual to: ng D 0-one !ariable action' ng D ). from @"A@ 0)0)0>*)-A)' ch"z#-the !ariation of the dynamic basic pressure of the wind at the ground according to the point *. according to the map with the territorial di!ision (see tab.0)) da3>m* according to its nature and the distance from the source of pollution' gidc = gidn 0.: Weight of building ser!ice e#uipment 'ominal %alue FF gshn a gidn a gbsn a pzn a pvnn a Partial Safety (actor 0. )esign %alue gpc gshc a gidc a gbsc a pzc a pvnn a (electric cables.* H/(Ha. according to @"A@ 0)0)0>*)-A).: @now deposit on the roof.i ⋅ c e ⋅ g z =da3>m*? ' p z = γ F ⋅ p zn =da3>m*? (0*. where: - β-gust factor' cn!i-aerodinamic coefficient on the surface according to tab. .A.o weight of the industrial dust.J ng EI(<..p!nn =da3>m*?Ea=m? ". Cumulated !alue of uniform distributed loads on the purlins Crt. H). 1 gshn>cosG =da3>m*?Ea=m? (C. 7.+ of the present regulations' gv-reference dynamic pressure at 0) m abo!e the ground.: @elf-weight .: Weight of industrial dust deposit. according to @"A@ 0)0)0>*0-A*. gidn a !alue between *+. (<. height abo!e the /or slopes ≤0*o thwe wind action on the roff will be only suction.

.......... unli$e the other actions that act gra!itational 3...three or more !ariable actions in the combination.wind acts normal to the surface of the roof.0& ..section being: $yD0......the !alues are extracted either from catalogues for different hot-rolled sections or e!aluated in da3>m *..).2 Preliminary design and checking the cross section$of purlins made of hot rolled sections Case I.........................ng D ).. 'ote: F a... pl + ≤ 0.the spacing between two running purlins (the span of the sheeting dec$...... ⋅ cos α + ( pvn ......... depending on the span of the purlins (the bay of the building........ k $ ⋅ W$n k z ⋅ Wzn where the coefficients $y and $ are shape factors. and on the spacing between two running purlins' FFF ..according to @"A@ 0)0)0>*)-A) and @"A@ 0)0)0>*0-A* the partial safety factor is determined explicitly for the limit state in which the !erifications are performed............(*0.. ⋅ l* 9 (0.......normal stresses in bending about two axes: %$ % + z ≤ 0......... FFFF . n (c . .0& .............(0A..3.... for .' FF.9.............. "he elastic modulus of the hot-rolled section sub%ected to bending about two axes will be: W'nec ≥ %$ + k ⋅%z 0.. 2aximum bending moments: % $ ( z ..2..' qz = q n ( c .. = q $ ( z ... ⋅ sin α =da3>m? $ (08...... pl % z .(09......* Tmax shear stresses: τ max = t ⋅ ) ⋅ ( $ ≤ &shear w $ l * where Tmax = q ⋅ "he stiffness of the purlin is !erified with the help of the following relationships: f max = f $* + f z* ≤ l *)) ........ The simply supported purlin "he two components of these loads pro%ected in the plan of the cross section on the axes of the profile are: (c ......: % $ ..... $ D0..0& .... qn = q n ( c ......................... W$n Wzn -f the section is capable of de!eloping plastic hinge (plastic design of the purlins..(*)........... "he !erification of the ultimate limit state of strength and stability will comprise: ...

..... the top flange of the purlin is continuously fixed in the plane of the roof cladding so else specifically imposed by the design solution (purlins made of cold formed sections..where fy and f are the deflection under the components of loading about two axes: f$ = % $ ⋅l* + + % z ⋅l* ⋅ ' f z= ⋅ .... Simply supported purlins with tie-rods "ie-rods are used in the cases of hea!ier loading.......... 79 * ⋅ ) $ .. /ig.... gross 79 * ⋅ ) z .....-with two tie-rods Case 2.... !ery light cladding that is not continuously fixed on purlins...........-with one tie-rod' c.... without tie-rod' b.. i$( z ...... @imply supported purlin: a.(*7... λz ) ≤ λa .......... = l f $(z..........(**.... greater slopes or bigger stresses (LM+))da3>m*..... ... gross Chec$ing the slenderness of the purlin as a part of the roof bracings (strut.o...... "hey will be used only in the case when they clearly determine an economy in the ..(*6..... o!erall buc$ling is not li$ely to occur.. λa = *+) .....: λmax = max ( λ$ ...................... where: λ$ ( z ....... 9.. a..... Kenerally..

) % % ≤ &' $ .. "he elastic modulii will be determined for both sections:  % $ ......(*+. )) W$ .. "he !erification of stiffness and slenderness are: f $ . n (*. "ie-rods ta$e a part of the loads acting in the plane of the roof ( qz... that is if the section of the purlin simply supported without a rod is the result if the strength or slenderness condition.....6l ) * l* = q $ ⋅ 6 ⋅ ' % z ...... "he rele!ant bending moments in the cross sections --.. )) l* ' % z. )) + k% z .....(*...........(*8.. . n W$ ...direction is considered due to une!en screwing of the rod....and ----. .... ) % $ .... "he preliminary design and the strength chec$ing are similar as in the case of the simply supported purlin........ ) = q$ ⋅ % $ ... being internal supports of the purlins in this plane.. "he effort for design will be whiche!er the biggest tension !alue according to the s$etch (fig.... )) ≤ f a .......0& W$ . nec ≥ max  & ' 0..) = ) 9 ........... )) + z . n Wz ...steel consumption..... ) ≤ f a ' f )) = * f $* .. and !erification of strength: % $.......... Noth ends of the rod are threaded in order to be screwed between two running purlins and fixed with nuts at the building site.0&      (*8..... + n ( ) (*9. λmax = max( λ$ . (0.... )) ≤ 0..........: c c c + max = max + n −0 .. )) + f z .......are: % $..... @hear stress will be !erified... )) = q $ ⋅ 6* 6* An increase of 6): of the span on the . λz ) ≤ λa = *+) λ$ = lf$ i$ = l l l ' λz = f z = i$ iz *iz ....

.. ) = q $ ⋅ (0.. + ) ⋅ .. n Wz ........c c c +n −0 = ∑.0& ..........(*A... c = 0...... ) + f z* .........i c ⋅ n l l = ( n − ).(67.....09 mm. @ometimes one single tie-rod is not enough and still a good solution is to use hot rolled sections for simply supported purlins with two tie-rods....... : ..... ) = qz ⋅ 9 9 * Preliminary design of the cross section: W$ .. Simply supported purlins with tie-rods "he stages for design are identically the same...i = ( n − 0....) = f $*. * cos α * cos α i =0 c l .. c ⋅ O.. ' i =0 c where: + n = ∑...... l* ' % z ...) ≤ fa * * + % $...........(66.. gross 79 * ⋅ ) z ....*+ ⋅ q z ⋅ * n "he diameter of the tie-rod will be: d) ≥ 7 + max π ⋅ &t (6)... ) ⋅ ( l 6) .0& (6*.) % + z ............ where PtD*))) da3>cm* ..... ' λz = f z = i$ iz iz "he cross section of the tie-rod is determined on the basis of the maximum effort (tension. nec ≥ % $ + k% z 0... ) ≤ 0............ ⋅ ' f z.... deflections and slenderness...... λz ) ≤ λa λ$ = lf$ i$ = l l l 6 .+ ) ⋅ ... dD0)...... gross λmax = max( λ$ ...) ⋅ l + % z .... Case 3....) = ⋅ 79 * ⋅ ) $ ........ exepting for the slight alteration of !alues of bending moments...... see fig . n Chec$ing the stiffness and slenderness: f) = f $.... -n section ---: % $ . W$ .(60........ and chec$ing the strength of the purlin: % $............6 ⋅ l 6) ...(6+...

.. % $ ..+ max = + n = ( n − )..0)+6 ⋅ q $ ⋅ l * ' % z . Continuous purlins without tie-rods or with one tie rod % $ ..0& 0.....*7 ⋅ q $ ⋅ l * ' % z ... = 0.. )) % $ .. . -n this situation the bending moments are determined in the cross sections ---.. )) + k% z .(68. -n other cases.0* ⋅ q z ⋅ l * % $ . Purlins as continuous beams "he static scheme of continuous beams is most rational especially in the case when there are more than + bays along the building and also.. the purlins and the tie-rods are considered as an e#ui!alent uniform distributed load =da3>m*?...A ⋅ q $ ⋅ l * ' % z ...  0.. ))) W $ . A . -----. A.(6+... ) % $ ..... cos β 6 An analysis of the steel consumption must be performed in order to adopt the one of the present solutions and for this. ))) = ).... )) = ).0*+ ⋅ q z ⋅ l * O. ------(fig. nec ≥ max ..... .: /ig.. the minimum !olume of manual wor$ in the plant or at the building site will pre!ail on choosing a certain solution. ) = )..0 ⋅ q $ ⋅ ..). )) = ). ))) = ) "he preliminary design will consider the most unfa!orable !alues of bending moments both axes:  % $ . l '.).. ) + k% z .+) ⋅ . Case 4... ) = ).0& &      (68.. the bays ha!e e#ual dimensions.

gross n q$ ⋅l7 f % s = ). ) ≤ 0... "he stiffness will be chec$ed in the cross section of the middle of the first span: 7 qn $ ⋅l f $ = f q − f % = ). ) $ .l l O.. gross ) $ ... ) = )..(6A. ))) = ) T max ≈ ).A ⋅ q $ ⋅ l * ' % z . )) = ).)8. max ⋅ ( $ ≤ &shear W$ ... gross = ). ⋅ fq = ) $ ..)*A. n W$ .....)*) ⋅ q z ⋅ (0.. gross f $* + f z* ≤ f a where: % nq!ma' = -.0)+6 ⋅ q $ ⋅ l * ' % z . ))) = ). n W$ . )) ≤ 0.))606 ⋅ fz = f = ) $ .).0&' $ . λz ) ≤ λa = *+) λ$ = lf$ i$ = l ).8 ⋅ n * %q . n Wz .))8* ⋅ z ' 697 * ⋅ ) z ..6l ) % $ .. gross 79 * ⋅ ) $ .s ⋅ l (69... the !alues of bending moments being of course.n (6.)7A8 ⋅ q . max 697 * ⋅ ) $ .))6)... ) = ). gorss n + qz ⋅l7 qn ⋅ l 7 ⋅ = ). )) = ).. gross ) z ... "he continuous purlin with tie-rod will be designed in the same manner.... n tw ⋅ ) $..))8* ⋅ $ = ⋅ = )..)60* ⋅ q z ⋅ (0.6l ) % $ ./-12 qn$ l0 1 the negati!e moment on the second support of the continuous beam "he slenderness will be chec$ed accordingly: λmax = max ( λ$ . -------: % $ .. gross ) $ .. "he rele!ant bending moments will ha!e the following !alues in sections ---. n Wz ..+ ⋅ q $ ⋅ l * * (7). )) + z ..) % % T % % + z ../01 qn$ l0 maximum !alue of the bending moment on the simply supported beam due to uniform distributed loading' % nq!s = -.and the !erifications of strength are done with the help of the same relationships as in the cases studied abo!e: % $.0&' $ . altered. ' λz = f z = i$ iz iz @imilar to the simply supported purlin.. in the case when the cross section is the result of strength or slenderness criteria. an economic alternati!e is to use tie-rods.. max ⋅ l ⋅ = ). -----. ))) ≤ &' $ . According with the !alues of these moments the cross section will be determined: . gross ' n n * q$ ⋅l7 qn ⋅ l 7 %n ⋅l* + + % q .7 ⋅ q $ ⋅ l * ' % z .

a single section being chosen. n tw ⋅ ) $.. and the strength will be !erified: % $.... ) + k% z .. ))) W$ .(77.Continuous purlin in plastic domain -t is assumed that the section is able to rotate sufficiently as to allow de!eloping plastic hinges in the internal spans and supports. @tiffness will be !erified in the middle of the first span: f $ = ). a prior assumption is that the roofing is made of profiled steel sheet and it is stiff enough as to carry the integral component qz in its plane.) % % T % % + z . n W$ .0& &      (70.))6).. λz ) ≤ λa = *+) λ$ = lf$ i$ = lf ) . . n Wz . and slenderness will also be chec$ed : λmax = max (λ$ ...0&' $ . Also.n (7*. )) + z ... % $ . ))) ≤ &' $ ... n (78.. "he purlins will be designed for plastic bending moment. ⋅ fz = ) 7 qn $ ⋅l ) $ .. )) + k% z . ) ≤ 0..+ ⋅ q $ ⋅ l W$ . ' λz = z = i$ iz iz Case 5. "his aspect particularly in!ol!es a continuous fixing of the steel sheeting in the roof plane and special care for the fixing details.... l l * O.... 2 plD#nyEl*>08.  0.. this redistribution must not affect the external support and conse#uently.0&' $ .. n Wz ... )) ≤ 0. max ⋅ ( $ ≤ &shear W$ ... "he plastic hinges will determine a redistribution of the bending moments in these sections.. nec ≥ % pl & (7+.0& 0. "he !erifications of strength for the current section: % pl T ≤ &' max ⋅ ( $ ≤ &shear ' Tmax ≈ ). gross ≤ fa (76. n tw ⋅ ) $ ... nec ≥ max . ) % $ . the first span' otherwise the structure will become unstable. n W$ .. Qowe!er. "he !erification of slenderness in the internal spans: . )) % $ . W$ .

gross * % q .9A ⋅ q n $ ⋅l /ig. gross ≤ fa n 7 q$ l ) $ . "he reinforced section is determined based on this marginal bending moment and considering that the height of the section must not be changed.)7A8 ⋅ n %q .))8*0 ⋅ ) $ .)+A+* ⋅ n %q .. max n 7 q$ l ) $ .moments for design' b. because of the sheeting placed at the top flange le!el: . and also the stiffness (only in elastic domain. ) $ .. ⋅ ) $ . λz ) ≤ λa = *+) λ$ = lf$ i$ = lf ). gross n * $ = ).).0*+ ⋅ q l ' % s = ).0D#yEl*>00.consolidation of the cross sections in the first span "his section will be reinforced in the marginal spans with additional profiles.. for an increased !alue of the bending moment 2 y. gross = ).))7. and c. in the internal spans: f = f q $ − f % s = ). Continuous purlin considering the plastic reser!es of the sections: a.+l l ' λz = z = i$ iz iz (7.))0+0 ⋅ f q $ = ).. max = ). gross n 7 q$ l f % s = ).λmax = max ( λ$ . 0). max O (79.

9. /rom the limit conditions for the function f(x. f % s = ). "he graphical determination of total consolidated distance is presented in figure Rand the analytical !ersion is the e#uation of intersection between the parabola describing the bending moment 2(x. f(x.9. * 08 .D)' -for xD).D20D#yEl*>00 the parabola has the following expression: q $ ⋅ l * 7 ' ⋅ ( ). re inf orcing 'W ≤& 0 $ .+l − ' ) q $ ⋅ l * ⋅ = 00 (). gross % n $ n q .. λz ) ≤ λa = *+) λ$ = lf$ i$ = lf ). gross % q . angles.0 0 W$ .they may be channels.)*A.77l (S ).9. and the parallel to the axis x-x.: -for xD). eff = )0 $ . gross * = ). nec ≥ %0 0 h ' ) $ .D)' -for xD).)7A8 ⋅ n * %q . gross q ⋅l n $ n $ 7 O (+0. f(x. = ⋅ 00 (). nec − ) $ & * (7A. .W$0.))6)9 ⋅ f q $ = ). steel plates.))606 ⋅ ) $ . 2 plD#yEl*>08.+l .+l .+l>*. * (+6. eff h * ' % $ . nec = W$0. = % pl ⇒ q $ ⋅ l * 7 ' ⋅ ( ).+l. f(x.+l − ' ) f ( '. eff = ) $ + ) $ .))8*0 ⋅ * ) $ . (+7.l l ' λz = z = i$ iz iz (+*.0*+ ⋅ q ⋅ l ' % s = ). gross ≤ fa n q$ ⋅l 7 ) $ . eff (+). max = ).9.9. "hen: f ( '. "he stiffness is !erified with the relationships: f = f q $ − f % s = ). nec ⋅ ' ) re inf orcing = ) 0 $ .0)+6 ⋅ q ⋅ l * And the slenderness: λmax = max ( λ$ . according to the catalogue for hot-rolled sections.8 ⋅ ⋅l ) $ . max = ).9. After choosing the profiles that will reinforce the cross section. max ⋅ l 7 qn $ ⋅l ) $ . the strength will be !erified considering the section adopted: ) 0 $ .

# then the continuous purlins will be stiffened with tie-rods. λz ) ≤ λa $ z ). Considering this situation. a couple of !alues. eff (+. gross ) $ .) ⋅ n 7 q$ l O (++.))8*0 ⋅ ) $ .. gross ) z ..6 ⋅  'Tmax ≈ )... eff % + 0 z ≤ 0. gross % zn (0. .6 ⋅  00 9  6 "he purlin is designed in the current span: W$ . gross f $* + f z* ≤ f a - slenderness: λ$ = i ' λz = 6i ' λmax = max (λ$ . ⋅ fq $ n 7 q$ l % $ + k% z .)7A8 ⋅ f = ) $ . where the actual !alues will be obtained by extending the theoretic points of intersection outside the reinforced area see figR. nec ≥ "he !erifications of the cross section are: . eff b % $0 W$0.))0+0 n 7 q$ l ) $ .)7A8 ⋅ = ).in the current span: % $ = % pl = q $ ⋅ -in the marginal span: % $ . max ⋅ l = ). max ⋅ l f % s = ).6 l 6) qn ⋅l 7 = ). eff h * 'Wz0. 7A . eff = )0 $ . gross = ). 0.strength: -stiffness: f = f q $ − f % s = ().+ ⋅ q $ ⋅ l ' 08 9  6 * * l* 0  l ' % z = q z ⋅ ⋅ 0. the design will mix the solution of continuous purlin with the solution of purlin with two tie-rods.0& %$ %z T + ≤ 0. -f the roof co!ering is not rigid enough to carry the component in its plane. gross ≤ fa n * n 7 %q q$ l .0&' max ⋅ ( $ ≤ &shear ' W$ Wz tw ⋅ ) $ ) $ . x 0theoretic and x*theoretic will be determined.8*0 ⋅ z ) z . gross n * %q .0 = q $ ⋅ l* 0  l ' % z = q z ⋅ ⋅ 0. -n the marginal span the section must be reinforced (see rel./rom the last e#uation. gross * = ). eff = ) z + ) z .0& Wz . eff = )0 z .))7. eff = ) $ + ) $ . re inf orcing ' ) z . re inf orcing 'W $ . "he maximum bending moments and shear force will be: .))8*0 − ).+l l (+8. "he reinforced section will be de!eloped on the distance x * actual -x0actual. ) $ .)+A+* ⋅ f z = ).))7. And the strength !erifications: 0 0 )0 $ .

Tnee braced purlins . gross ' l n %z 0. and the slenderness: λ$ = ).))6)..+mR0+m.3.l l ' λz = ' λmax ≤ λa i$ 6iz (+A. gross f = f $* + f z* ≤ f a (+9. gross ) z .. $ − f % s = ). 5sing purlins with braces or hangers (fig. they do not cope with stiffness conditions. and conse#uently. 00. -n the case when the purlins are placed themsel!es at the bottom chord of trusses.3.. *nee braced purlins -f the spans of the purlins made of hot rolled sections are rather big (. the hangers are placed between the top chord and the top flange of the purlins."he stiffness of the new section will be also chec$ed: f $ = f q . 3.))8*0 q z ⋅ l ' f z = ). ⋅ * 7 qn $ ⋅l ) $ . /ig.6  O n 7 6   = ). -n e!ery span there will be two braces placed between the bottom chord of the trusses and the bottom flange of the purlin. 00. is ade#uate for a rational distribution of the bending moments along the span also to diminish their deflection.)7A8 ⋅ ) z .

of the trans!ersal frame is will sol!e two problems: it insures against o!erall buc$ling by fixing the chord of the truss (or flange of the cross beam. /urther simplifications are used in the process of calculation: the geometrical symmetry will be considered together with a symmetric loading scheme' if uniform distributed loads are considered all o!er the spans. As !ertical reactions in the supports will push up the purlins. Due to this conclusion. "he hangers are used in the case when the purlins are placed at the bottom chord of the trusses. / and n will remain on the same line and the triangles m/k and n/k will be undeformed (3l = 3r. the system is hyperstatic (redundant. -n order to determine the efforts. -t is common that in the plane of these hangers s$ylights to be designed. the purlins are fixed to the top chord of the truss and the braces are short rigid elements that do not buc$le. will be considered fix as no effort must affect the first brace. "he $nee braced purlins are hinged on trusses (or cross beams. under !ertical reactions in the supports (points 0. in compression' this may happen near the corner of the frames.the $nee and in the apex. and an elastic restraint will be considered in addition the points where the braces are attached (or hangers. there will be no side rotations on the supports so 3l = 3r=-' "he marginal supports (the marginal trusses. *. being elements in tension (fig. . the elastic e#uilibrium conditions are imposed considering that the stiffness of the truss in the plane that contains its cross section is rather small. 0*."he continuity of the purlins on the supports is insured only for axial efforts but not for bending moments the sections being considered articulations. . in the connection one between the two sloped cross beams' implicitly the effecti!e length of the members at the bottom chord in the plane normal to the plane of the trans!ersal frame will be diminished.0 and ). the articulations m.*. see fig. -n this situation.. and conse#uently. parallel to the truss (trans!ersally in the plane of the roof. otherwise the system will collapse. the efforts in two braces ad%acent to the current truss will be e#ual and in n spans there will be n-/ un$nown efforts. 5sually. the ratio a>l is between ). their bottom flange will be fixed with bolts to the top chord of the truss... R.. Placing the braces between the bottom flange of the purlins and the lower part of the trusses (or the cross beams.

+. 4attice systems as purlins: a. at the top chord and suspending at the end of the cantile!ers the purlins that are placed at the bottom chord of the truss with !ertical hangers (fig. on the top chord and on the bottom chord of the truss.3. "he hangers are struts for the !ertical lattice girder which will carry the gla ing. An ingenuous way of ma$ing more rational the bending moments consists in placing a cantile!ered purlin (both ends.. being simply supported. "he purlin at the bottom chord is a continuous beam on three une!en .07. /ig.06 . Purlins with hangers -f either the spans or the loading are !ery big.. -n this case the computation of efforts will be made in the same way as in the pre!ious case considering that the elastic restraint is placed in the intersection of the 3. Purlins placed alternati&ely "his combined system is adopted in order to obtain s$ylights with !ertical gla ing (which is much easier to maintain. 0*. "he purlins are placed alternati!ely. all the trans!ersal span of the building. 1$nee braced' b.. of the lattice girder with the axis of the brace (fig./ig.A. An e#ui!alent moment of inertia will be adopted in the preliminary stage for the lattice girder.with hangers 3. lattice girders will be adopted as a solution for purlins. 06.

platforms made of light materials and supported by purlins are used for the maintenance of the gla ing. Purlins placed alternati!ely 3. "hey are placed in the !ertical plane with parallel chords and a depth smaller that the depth of the structural truss. 5sually the top chord of the purlin is made of channels placed with the ma%or axis of bending parallel to the plane of the truss or with a inclination e#ual with the slope of the roof (figR. "he rest of the internal members are sub%ected only to axial effortstension and compression. "ies with round bar sections may be placed between the bottom chord of the purlin and the botttom chord of the truss only for the case when the sign of stresses might be re!ersed due to a change of loading. the economy made of the steel consumption may be rather significant and a lighter weight of the whole roof may be reached... "he last two solutions for purlins ha!e ma%or disad!antage: important snow deposits and industrial dust must be ta$en into account.. increasing the design efforts. Purlins made of trusses "his solution is adopted only in the case of wide bays (AmR09m. and wide spans (M*7m. "hey are simply supported and since the roof sheeting or dec$ing runs continuously on the top chord.spans. "he members of the top chord of the purlins will be considered simply supported between two running %oints but since elastic deformations may appear the bending moment in the middle of their length will be 2D88:E2). @till.07. -n some cases only one of the supports will be fully restrainted while the other will be free to mo!e. "he . the latter will be sub%ected to compression and bending moment also and conse#uently designed.3. /ig. Netween the truss and the !ertical hangers.. where 2) is the bending moment of a simply supported beam under uniform distributed loading.

As their length is big enough to consider the buc$ling phenomenon chec$ing about both axes will be considered.. @olutions for the supports of the purlins made of trusses on the trans!ersal structural truss: a. Purlins made of trusses: sections used for the internal members /ig. "he cross section is not !ery rigid about minor axis and reinforcing elements are necessary in order to stiffen it accordingly (fig.without s$ylight' b.with s$ylight 3. hot rolled or cold formed. tee shapes. /ig.-.3. rectangular or s#uare.bottom chord and the internal members are usually designed from angles. Specific details for purlin design -n the marginal bays usually there are trans!ersal bracing placed at the top chord of roof trusses' purlins are the struts of these hori ontal lattice girders so in this case they will be sub%ected not only to bending moments but also to compression. 0+. 08.. "he purlins made of trusses may be partially or totally designed from hollow sections. . simple or compound sections.0. .

where 5$ is the buc$ling ratio about the ma%or axis of bending.+.8..n the contrary. . because the axial efforts in the bracing system are rather small' also for the sa$e of a simplified calculation the flexural-tortional buc$ling factor Ug will be determined based only on the stiffness of the flange in compression. the latter being pre!ented from o!erall buc$ling. -n the support one they will ha!e to be cut in order to maintain the continuity of the roof sheeting (see fig. 0./ig.0.. . in the case when the sheeting is fixed continuously on the top of the purlin.0& Wz (. . -n the case when the longitudinal s$ylights interrupt the continuous purlins. the reinforcing elements will be placed only on its web (see also fig. $-$ and %$ is the moment in the supports for a fully restraint beam sub%ected to uniform distributed loads and the !erification corresponds to flexural buc$ling. -n the last relationship the elastic beha!ior (second order effect. "he top chord of the purlin will be sub%ected to axial compression and bending between two running %oints. in the marginal bays the purlins are simply supported so they will ha!e a greater depth. only the bending moment in the plane of the purlin will be considered in the relationship (the top chord is laterally restrained all o!er. is neglected. Another !erification of stability will be necessary in the case of the purlins made of lattice girders. .: % + + $ ≤& ϕ $ ⋅ 4 W$ (.Peinforcement of the cross section of the purlin in the marginal bay "he stability of the purlin will be !erified considering flexural-tortional buc$ling: + ϕmin ⋅ 4 + %$ ϕg ⋅ W$ + %z ≤ 0. -n the case when the component of loading in the plane of the roof is ta$en o!er by the sheeting.

and 5min will be determined from the two buc$ling ratios. the long leg attached with bolts to the web of the purlin and the short leg welded to the chord (fig. 09.-f on the contrary. /ig. -ts top chord will be sub%ected to important loads in both its rele!ant planes' the axial effort 3y and 3 and also. the sheeting is not stiff enough as to be able to ta$e the component of loading in its plane. The connections bet/een the purlins and truss Qot rolled sections (channels..9. local bending moment 2y due to the loading from the roof: + $ + +z % $ + ≤& ϕ4 W$ (. 3.0& ϕg ⋅ W$ Wz ϕmin ⋅ 4 + (. are connected to the top chord of the truss with une!en angles. where %z is the bending moment from this last component (depending on the distance between the tie-rods..3.. 5$ and 5z about the principal axes of the top chord of the purlin. the !erification of stability will be done with the relationship: + %$ % + z ≤ 0. A particular case will be the purlin next to the ea!e which will be included in the hori ontal longitudinal bracing at the top chord of the truss. @upports of the purlins on the roof truss-simply supported and continuous .. 09..

-f the purlin is simply supported.. welded at the building site or. against any o!erturning tendency under the component in the plane of the roof. "he fixing system of the purlin to the top chord of the truss ta$es into account the presence of negati!e bending moment and also the possibility of negati!e reactions so generally is !ery important that the bottom flange of the purlin to be rigidly tied to the top chord with welding (see fig.. . and the other upper than the 3. Purlins made of . Design of the splices on the flanges: %p = % q ⋅l* + + ⇒ + = p ' 4nec = bs ⋅ t s ≥ ⇒ t s ≥ 08 h & bs ⋅ & (.A. the holes in these splices being ellipsoidal in order to cope with the tolerance limits at the building site. sometimes a splice being placed on the opposite side of the web (fig.. Continuous purlins made of hot rolled sections are %oined usually between two current spans in the section where the diagram of bending moments crosses the axis the connections being usually with splices. 0A . it is possible that the solution with build up sections to be preferred. and bolted with two bolts. Purlins made of lattice girders are fixed to the top chord of the truss with similar systems. in the wor$shop. -f the purlin is made of build-up sections the continuity on the support is insured by reinforcing the cross section to correspond to both bending moment and shear force (see fig. 09 . one or two bolts are sufficient for fixing the angle to web.sections are fixed in a similar way. -n the figure below the design of the splices and the welding follow the steps: 0.A.the bending moment is considered to be most li$ely the redistributed !alue considering the capacities of the purlins for plastic design' .. When the loading is rather important and the bays big. "he purlin is bolted this way to one splice. bolted (see figR. the detailing depending on the sections used both for the purlin and for the truss. one of these bolts being placed in the 3.A. @pecial steel fixing elements are obtained by welding three plates one to another and finally welded to the top chord of the truss. where: %p . more often.

especially when the wall is made of rigid cladding. /ig. 0A. +.the width and the thic$ness of the splices. The steel structure of the side/alls "he light sheeting is sustained by the hori ontal %oists and sometimes intermediary stanchions. ⋅ min ( t . Side/alls "he steel industrial buildings ha!e in many cases external steel walls-cladding and sheeting. a !arious number of types of sections being used. While the first specified is carrying both !ertical and hori ontal loads. ⋅ tmin = ). "he intermediary columns are not tied up to the gantry girders because the !ibrations may cause damages to the wall. any degree of fixing pre!enting from free deforming the purlins and trusses' . t s )' lw ≥ + + * aw w *aw ⋅ &shear (9). the cladding may be insulated or not.h. "hey are made of a steel structure and the sheeting.the depth of the purlin' bs! ts . "he gable structural elements for sustaining the cladding which are hori ontal beams and stanchions ha!e their own foundations at the bottom and at the top they transfer the loads to the trans!ersal bracings situated at the bottom chord of the roof truss.0. "he connection has to ta$e only the hori ontal loads. 2ainly. the other three carry only hori ontal loads. -n the figure *) and *0 the details show the connections between the hori ontal %oists and the columns of the trans!ersal frame. 7. "he hea!y walls ha!e their own foundations and only the hori ontal loads are transferred to the %oists "he hori ontal %oists of the longitudinal walls may ha!e se!eral functions:     -carry loads' -framing' -separate different spaces: -sustain the window frames... @upport of the purlin with a lattice section on the top chord of the trans!ersal truss <erification of the resistance of welding: aw ≤ ).

2odulated systems of the second order structure (intermediary columns and secondary beams for side walls. *). /ig. for different bays' sections for intermediary columns and foundations . the static scheme of the trans!ersal frame is altered and transfer additional !ertical efforts in the columns.. *0.wall beam' 6.' +.bolted connections at site /ig..rods (hangers.beam at the foundation le!el' 7. 4ongitudinal beams that sustain the sheeting of the side walls: 0-column' *.this way.steel sheeting' 8.

as a function of the l0:)r7h0:)$ 8 . "he cross section is !erified first for strength and stability criteria and finally the for stiffness: %$ W $n f * $ ≤ &.tr#8 .5g=f".6=+74! 6cr=90:*7. where: .a8 .tr=>:l/7iz and > is ta$en from @"A@0)0)9>)-. "he hori ontal %oists ha!e to carry the self-weight and the weight of the sheeting -!ertical loads. or : +f * z %$ W $n + %z ≤ 0.*8. "he computation of the beams is presented in the schemes below.+.0&  σ   0 − σ   ⋅ Wz cr   (9*.z=lfz7iz8 . "he efforts are:  centric compression coming from the weight of the intermediary column and the !ertical reactions of the hori ontal %oists'  bending moments %$ and %z from the wind action on the wall respecti!ely from the !ertical reactions of the %oists that may occur to be different.2.9.=:h7i$ 8.c$=cz=/--.$=lf$7i$=-..ma'=ma'". At the top they are articulated on both directions (figure .08 .4! W'! W$! i$! iz-mechanical properties of the cross section of the intermediary column ratio : .$! .ma'#8 . )esign of the structural elements of the side/alls "he sheeting has to carry the wind loads acting on the cladding.267σcr8 .z#<. and the wind -hori ontal loads. "he !erifications of strength and stability are: + + ϕ min ⋅ 4gross c$ ⋅ % $  σ ϕg ⋅ 0 − σ cr     ⋅W$  + cz ⋅ % z ≤ 0.. the stresses are obtained from bending about one or both principal axes.5min=f". tab. At the bottom.0& W zn l ≤ fa = *)) (90.. the intermediary columns are encased in the plane of the wall and articulated in the plane normal to the plane of the wall.