INTERPRETATION OF THE QUR’ÓN AND SUNNAH

REFLECTION ON SOME ISSUES

INTERPRETATION OF THE QUR’ÓN AND SUNNAH
REFLECTION ON SOME ISSUES

ISRAR AHMAD KHAN (EDITOR)

IIUM Press

electronic. 2011 ©IIUM Press. Sohirin Mohammad Solihin. photocopying. stored in a retrieval system. Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Sofia Samsudin. Includes Index ISBN ISBN: 978-967-0225-49-4 Department Of Qur’an And Sunnah Studies Kulliyyah Of Islamic Revealed Knowledge And Human Sciences International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Printed by : IIUM PRINTING SDN. 1. Ismail Abdullah. Noor Mohammad Osmani. in any form or by any means. Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa. Ammar Fadzil: Interpretation Of The Qur’Én And Sunnah Reflection On Some Issues. without any prior written permission of the publisher. IIUM All rights reserved. Israr Ahmad Khan. Jalan Industri Batu Caves 1/3 Taman Perindustrian Batu Caves Batu Caves Centre Point 68100 Batu Caves Selangor Darul Ehsan iv . BHD. Habeeb Rahman Md. mechanical. No part of this publication may be reproduced. recording. or otherwise. or transmitted. Ibramsa.Published by: IIUM Press International Islamic University Malaysia First Edition. No.

SHAHNAZ BEGUM AN IDEAL MUSLIM WOMAN IN MY LIFE .DEDICATED TO MY WIFE.

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.............. Ibramsa vii ......CONTENTS Acknowledgment.....49 JihÉd An Analysis from Islamic Perspective Noor Mohammad Osmani Chapter Four…………………………………………………. ............................................33 Hermeneutics of Qur’anic Exegesis Critical Evaluation of Some Muslim Writers’ Views Sohirin Mohammad Solihin Chapter Three……………………………………………………......i Preface…………………………………………………………… iii Chapter One………………………………………………………………1 Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth A Reflection from Islamic Perspective Sofia Samsudin Chapter Two……………………………………………………...…69 Islamic Provision of Theft and Mutiny An Analysis of Muslim Modernists’ Approach Habeeb Rahman Md..

103 The Essential Role of IsnÉd in Preserving Islamic Civilization Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa Chapter Seven…………………………………………………………127 Exposition on the Principles of IslÉm HaÌÉrÊ Qur’Énic Conception of ‘Knowledge’ Ismail Abdullah Chapter Eight……………………………………………………….87 Qur’Énic Concept of Ideal Human Society Israr Ahmad Khan Chapter Six…………………………………………………………….1 57 viii ....Chapter Five…………………………………………………………….…147 JihÉd versus Terrorism Revisiting the Relvant Qur’Énic Verses Ammar Fadzil Index………………………………………………………….

Muaaz Khan. Kulliyyah of IRK & HS. Shahnaz Begum. Dean of the Kulliyyah IRK & HS supported me spiritually as well materially to ensure completion of the edited book project. Ahmad Faris. I wish for him the best in his life. Deputy Rector (Research and Innovations). Head of the Department of Qur’an and Sunnah Studies. Deputy Deans. Dr. He deserves my heartfelt appreciation and prayer. Juwayriya Naznin Khan. It is He alone to whom I stand indebted for this work. International Islamic University Malaysia always motivated me in this task. I pray to Allah for their well being in this world and in the hereafter. Allah. and other officials for their timely and generous help I needed to complete the project. Shah Jani. in words and in practice. International Islamic University Malaysia inspired me to embark on this project. May Allah bless him for his inspiring suggestions and comments. Directors. The Research Management Centre. Hamnah Sheerin Khan. He willed that I should will. remained. Dr. International Islamic University Malaysia sponsored my edited book project. and my sons. Mohd. Prof. Dr. then. I willed. Assistant Directors. Naeylah Zarrin Khan.Acknowledgment All praise id due to Allah alone. Owaym Khan. Badri Najib Zuber. Muawwiz Khan. They never put any extra burden on me to avoid any pressure causing adverse impact on my work. supportive to me in my task. Mariya Seemin Khan. ÓmÊn! ix . My wife. helped me to take the task to its completion. my daughters. Samrah Khan. By His infinite grace. Yasir Khan. I feel deeply grateful to its Dean.

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develop. The first paper is on the role of Islamic principles in business authored by Dr.w. Sofia samsudin.). The Department also came up with the idea of edited books. and Abu Zayd for the task. it does not and should not come to an end. criticize. Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences. Many academic staff members of the Department wrote papers on various dimensions of the issue. It is mainly because man is an intellectual being. Prof. International Islamic University Malaysia aims to interpret and reinterpret the Qur’Én and ×adÊth in order to let them appear relevant to the contemporary situations in the world. The third paper is on Islamic perspective of Jihad authored by xi . The divine revelations are now represented by the Qur’Én and ×adÊth. Whatever there are in these sources are comprehensive and absolute.w. Allah has granted him such a power to think. It has deliberated over how and what Muslim businessmen and businesswomen should do to ensure success in their commercial endeavors. He has criticized their views on how to interpret the Qur’an. its problems.). The knowledge of Allah is absolute and comprehensive. Yet. but it seems there is no end of interpretation of the Qur’Énic injunctions and ×adÊth instructions. Arkoun. For that matter. Dr. Fifteen centuries have passed since the Qur’Én and ×adÊth were introduced to the world by the Last Prophet of Allah (s. The second paper is on critical evaluation of some Muslim writers’ effort to interpret the Qur’Én.a. one in Arabic and the other in English consisting of papers on the dimensions of interpretation of the Qur’Én and ×adÊth.Preface Knowledge of man on any subject is ever growing.a. He has shared His knowledge on matters like human life. human understanding of the knowledge therein varies from person to person. Fazlurrahman. and solutions to those problems in His Last revelations to the Last Prophet (s. interpret. He has selected three Muslim writers. and write knowledge that he himself can not fully grasp and appreciate. Department of Qur’Én and Sunnah Studies. it has encouraged its academic staff to embark on research projects with a view to interpreting the Qur’Én and ×adÊth from new perspectives. evaluate. It author is Assoc. Sohirin Mohammad Solihin. It is their submissions that took the form a book.

Assoc. The seventh paper is on significance of knowledge in establishing Islamic civilization. Dr. The fourth paper is on Muslim modernists’ approach to the interpretation of ×adÊth. He has tried to identify and highlight nine main features of Islamic society the Qur’Én seeks to develop on the earth. Prof. Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa has criticized Muslim modernists’ views on punishments for theft and mutiny. Ammar Fadzil has tried therein to remove confusion over the concept of jihÉd arisen out of some Qur’Énic verses. It has been written by Dr. Yet it is highly appreciable that young Muslim scholars in the Department of Qur’Én and Sunnah Stuides have contributed to the ever growing knowledge of the interpretation of the Qur’Én and ×adÊth. DR. Ismail Abdullah has emphasized significance of knowledge in the light of the Qur’Én and ×adÊth. Assoc. The author. The editor has done his best to edit the papers from conceptual. Readers are appealed to identify errors and bring them to the notice of the editor. May Allah make this edited work useful for those interested! PROF. The fifth paper is on Qur’Énic concept of human society authored by Prof. Israr Ahmad Khan. The eighth paper is on comparative study of jihad and terrorism. Dr. and linguistic angles.Noor Muhammad Osmani. Dr. ISRAR AHMAD KHAN Department of Qur’an and Sunnah Studies Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed knowledge and Human Sciences International Islamic University Malaysia 15 NOVEMBER 2011 xii . The author. Its author. Prof. Dr. This paper suggests that the concept of jihad has been misinterpreted and misunderstood hence need of reinterpretation of the term. The sixth paper is on the role of chain of narrators (isnÉd) in preserving authenticity of ×adÊth hence that of Islamic civilization. Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa. One may not necessarily agree with the views expressed in these papers. There might still be lacuna in some places of these papers. He does not claim perfection of his editing task. methodological.

IRKHS. Department of Qur’Én and Sunnah Studies. business is the most desirable way to manage one’s property. International Islamic University Malaysia. Prophetic traditions. They view business as the best way to ensure safety and further growth of wealth and property. it is rather complete and comprehensive way of life. It emphasizes on the prosperity of mankind in this world as well as in the hereafter. Business. Keywords: Islam. The present article represents an attempt to explain significance and rules of business as available in the Qur’Én and Prophetic traditions. Growth Introduction Islam is a comprehensive way of life (dÊn). Allah said in the Qur’Én: ِ ‫كم بِالْب‬ ِ ُّ‫يا أَي‬ ِ َ ‫كو‬ ٍ ‫ر‬ ِ ‫اط‬ ُ ‫من‬ ُ َ‫ل إِالَّ أَن ت‬ ُ َ‫وال‬ ِّ ‫اض‬ ُ ْ‫آمنُواْ الَ تَأ‬ َ‫وال‬ َ ً‫ارة‬ ْ َ‫م ب‬ ْ ‫كلُواْ أ‬ َ َ َ‫نت‬ َ ْ ُ َ‫ي ن‬ َ ‫ين‬ َ ‫م‬ ْ‫ك‬ َ‫ج‬ ْ‫ك‬ َ ‫ها الَّذ‬ َ ‫َم‬ َ َ‫عن ت‬ ِ‫كم ر‬ ِ َّ َّ ‫يما‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ن‬ ْ َ‫ت‬ ُ‫س‬ ُ ‫قتُ لُواْ أَن‬ ً َ ْ ُ َ َ َ ِ‫م إ‬ ْ‫ك‬ َ‫ف‬ “O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: but let there be amongst you traffic and trade by mutual * Assistant Professor. As it appears. It is this reason that Islam portrays business as the best profession for mankind. guiding mankind in every walk of life including business. The Qur’an and Hadith have both highlighted significance of and rules for business. One of the most important factors of this prosperity is the management of one's property.Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth A Reflection from Islamic Perspective Sofiah Samsudin* Abstract Islam is not a religious in the modern sense of the word. 1 . the Qur’Én.

v. (Amir Qam. among other things. evolved for mankind. and believing in Allah. The Qur’an declares believers as the best community: ِ‫ؤ‬ ِ ‫ن بِالْمع‬ ِ َ ‫منُو‬ ٍ ‫ُم‬ ِ‫ك‬ ِ‫خ‬ ِ ‫ت لِلن‬ ِ‫ع‬ ‫ل‬ َ ‫ْمن‬ َّ ‫ر أ‬ ُ َ‫و‬ ْ ُ‫وت‬ ْ ‫ج‬ ْ ُ‫ة أ‬ ْ َ‫وت‬ ْ َ‫ن أ‬ َ ‫م‬ َ ‫ن‬ ْ‫خ‬ َ‫ن‬ َ ‫َو‬ ْ ‫ول‬ ْ‫ه‬ ُ ‫َّاس تَأ‬ َ‫ر‬ َ ‫آم‬ َ ‫ن بِاللَّه‬ َ‫ر‬ ُ ‫ن ال‬ َ ‫روف‬ ْ ُ‫كنت‬ ُ ْ َ َ ‫رو‬ ُ ‫ْم‬ َ‫ي‬ ُ‫ه‬ ِ ِ َّ ِ َ‫الْكِت‬ ‫ن‬ ْ َ‫وأ‬ َ َ‫اب ل‬ ُ ‫فاس‬ ِّ ‫هم‬ َ ‫قو‬ َ ْ‫م ال‬ َ ‫ؤمنُو‬ َ ‫كا‬ ْ ‫ْم‬ َ ‫ن‬ ُ‫ر‬ ْ‫خ‬ ُ ْ‫من‬ ُ ‫را ل‬ َ‫ن‬ ُ ‫م ال‬ ُ‫ه‬ ُ َ‫كث‬ ُ‫ه‬ ً‫ي‬ “Ye are the best of peoples. but most of them are perverted transgressors” (Ali ‘ImrÉn: 110). KhadÊjah bint al-Khuwailid. This paper is to highlight significance and rules of business as described in the Qur’an and Hadith. Arabs before Islam were basically commercial oriented. as this activity ensures further growth of property and assets. When the Qur’an praises Muslims.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues good-will: nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily Allah hath been to you Most Merciful” (al-NisÉ’: 29). it certainly refers. forbidding what is wrong. It seems Muslims have pushed to oblivion the message of Islam concerning business. 2 . 1 This verse praises Muslims not merely due to the title but owing to their highly admirable thoughts. when they converted to Islam. AbË ×amÊd MuÍammad bin MuÍammad. 1323H). enjoining what is right.w. ImÉm al-GhazalÊ mentioned that one of the MaqÉÎid alSharÊ’ah (Objectives of the SharÊ’ah) is the protection of one's property2. AbË 1 2 Ibid. Deplorable Situation of Business in the Muslim World The Prophet (s.) was a successful businessman. 2nd edition. If only the People of the Book had faith it were best for them. to business. approaches and acts in daily life. among them are some who have faith. married to a very successful businesswoman.a. p 286. Due to the significance of one's property and assets Islam encourages believers to engage in business. Al-MusÏasfa min ‘ilm alUsËl. Qur’Én Al-GhazalÊ. they continued their business profession in the best way possible. 2.

There are Muslims who conduct business blindly and greedily based on the Western ideology devoid of any rules. 4 Refer: MuÍammad Ali ×aji ×ashim.Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth Sofiah Samsudin Bakr al-ØiddÊq. On the other extreme point there are Muslims who avoid and ignore significance of business. The success of these businessmen and businesswomen is on record. Based on the Tracer Study in 2008 done by the International Islamic University Malaysia. Islamic history has given us undeniable proof for the contributions of the Muslims to public welfare. Thus. the situation has shifted. These two extremes have resulted in the passive attitude of Muslims in business hence their decline in today’s global economy4. Freedom and responsibility in Qur’Énic perspective. avoiding selfemployment or entrepreneurship-based professions. Muslims today seem to be far away from the teachings of Islam as available in the Qur’an and Hadith. They are at either of the two extreme points. Translated by M. 1990). considering it undesirable act of worldly pursuit. Unfortunately. the most preferred job sector for the unemployed Muslim 3 Refer: ×asan al-‘Anani. p 22-23. including business. The main reason for Muslims’ wonderful contributions toward economic well being was that their activities were governed by the Qur’Én and Sunnah. as well as many other SaÍÉbah and TÉbi’Ên practised business in the light of the Qur’Én and Sunnah. and the practical scene of the Muslims’ business has inevitably changed. The deviation of Muslims from Islamic teachings is a direct cause of their decline. 1st Edition). This shows that the Muslim Ummah were truly the best people raised for mankind in all aspects of life. The most apparent proof of the passive attitude of Muslims in business is the tendency to work for the government. Bisnes satu cabang Jihad: Pembudayaan Bisnes untuk Survival (Selangor: Utusan Publications. 2003.3 Today. the revival of the Muslim Ummah depends on their return to the purity of Islam. (Indianapolis: American Trust Publications. first of the rightly guided caliphs. 3 . achieving honor and economic prosperity in this worldly life.S. Kayani. It is evident that business no longer has impact on the Muslims’ life. p 1 & 29.

2%). IIUM. Moreover.9%) and multinational and local private companies. Tracer Study 2008 First Degree Graduates (Kuala Lumpur: Alumni and Career Services. the local private sector (26. As a matter of fact business or self-employment is the only profession that can accommodate unemployed Muslim graduates. according to a survey on students of Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge. 4th edn. 76. Allah has made all arrangements to help man everywhere.2%. 4 .3%). at times. errs. it is crucial to examine the importance of business and its guidelines in the Qur’Én and Sunnah. Importance of Business in the Qur’Én and Sunnah Man attempts and. respectively. followed by statutory bodies (33. International Islamic University Malaysia. with 33. These Islamic guidelines can help Muslims achieve true success in business. Therefore.5 Muslim graduates in the Muslim world including Malaysia face difficulties to get a suitable in government sector and remain unemployed. 5 See: International Islamic University Malaysia. In this regard man depends heavily on absolute knowledge of his creator who has not left man on his own wandering in the wilderness. 2009. After that. The rules and regulations of business are available in the Qur’an and Hadith. He has vouchsafed him all the rules and regulations for all the dimensions of his life.4%) takes fourth place.9% and 26.).Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues graduates is the government (56. Yet. p 161-162.0% preferred to enter government job. they are the least inclined to business and selfemployment. with self-employment/entrepreneurship taking last place (38. It is because he does not know how to do what and when.

clothing.(Here) indeed are Signs for a people that are wise” (al-Baqarah: 164). al-‘InÉyah bi al-TijÉrah fÊ al-IqtiÎÉd alIslÉmÊ. 5 . and the clouds which they Trail like their slaves between the sky and the earth. in the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the profit of mankind. 2. Business as a way for an individual to benefit other people It is hard for a person to satisfy all his needs such as food. 1. Man is. 1427H/2006). 6 Refer: Baila Ibrahim AÍmad al-‘Ulaima. (Beirut: Muassasah al-RisÉlah. and shelter on his own by producing them or manufacturing them himself. ImÉm al-QurÏubÊ says that the phrase refers to the permissibility of sailing in order to do business. and the life which He gives therewith to an earth that is dead. we can easily understand that business is acknowledged in the Qur’Én as a way to benefit mankind. vol.Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth Sofiah Samsudin A) The Importance of Business towards an Individual 1. al-JÉmi’ li AÍkÉm al-Qur’Én. attached great importance to business for the purpose of benefiting others through services and goods. bound to purchase his needs from other individuals or organizations who produce them. 7 Refer: Al-QurÏubi. in the beasts of all kinds that He scatters through the earth.. in the alternation of the night and the day. (Kaherah: Jami’ah al-ImÉm MuÍammad ibn Sa’Ëd al-IslÉmiyyah. therefore.. therefore. in the rain which Allah Sends down from the skies. p 76. Interpreting the verse concerning the ‘sailing of the ships through the ocean for the profit of mankind’. in the change of the winds.7 Hence. Islam has. vol. drink. 2007). 1st edin. 1st edn. p 495.6 The Qur’Én illustrates this aspect as follows: ِ ْ ‫ض وٱ‬ ِ ‫مو‬ ِ ‫فل‬ ِ ‫َّها‬ َّ ِ‫إ‬ ِ‫ح‬ ِ‫ج‬ ِ ‫خل‬ ِ‫ي‬ ‫ع‬ َ ‫ما يَن‬ ُ ْ‫وٱل‬ َّ ‫ْق‬ َ ‫ن فِي‬ ْ َ‫ري فِي ٱلْب‬ ْ َ‫ْك ٱلَّتِي ت‬ َّْ‫ختِالَف ٱلل‬ َ ‫وٱلن‬ ْ ‫وٱأل‬ ُ‫ف‬ َ ِ‫ر ب‬ َ‫ر‬ َ‫ل‬ َ ِ ‫َر‬ َ ‫َٰت‬ َ ََٰ ‫ٱلس‬ ٍ‫م‬ ِ ‫ٱلسم‬ ِ ‫ث فِيها‬ ِ ‫آء‬ ِ ٍ َ ‫ل‬ ِ ‫آء فَأ‬ ِ ‫ر‬ ِْ ‫اح‬ َ ‫َنز‬ ِ َ‫ٱلري‬ َّ ‫من‬ ُ ‫من‬ ِّ ‫يف‬ ِّ ‫ك‬ َ‫ع‬ ْ َ‫وت‬ ْ َ‫ض ب‬ َ َّ َ‫وب‬ َ ِ‫وت‬ َ ‫َر‬ ْ َ ‫مآ أ‬ ْ ‫َحيَا بِه ٱأل‬ ْ‫م‬ َ‫د‬ َ‫و‬ َ ‫دآبَّة‬ َ ‫ها‬ َ َّ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ل ٱللَّهُ م‬ َ ‫َّاس‬ َ ‫ٱلن‬ ٍ ِ ِ ٍ ‫ض آلي‬ ِ ‫ح‬ ِ‫خ‬ َّ ‫س‬ ‫ن‬ َِّ‫ات ل‬ َ ‫عقلُو‬ َّ ‫ن‬ َّ ‫و‬ ْ َ‫وم ي‬ ْ َ‫ر ب‬ ْ ‫وٱأل‬ َ ‫ٱلس‬ ْ‫ق‬ َ ِ ‫َر‬ َ ‫مآء‬ َ ‫ٱلس‬ َ‫ي‬ ُ ‫اب ٱل‬ َ َ ‫ْم‬ “Behold! in the creation of the heavens and the earth.

html 9 Muslim. said: I have more right than you to be lenient to My servant.w.quranexplorer. He (Allah) said to him: What (did you do) in the world? (They cannot conceal anything from Allah).quranexplorer. ×adÊth 6 .w. The Prophet (s. business has been described as a very important means for benefiting others and satisfying their needs. 'Uqba b. It was my nature to be lenient to (my debtors).a. 3791. 'Amir al-Juhani and Abu Mas'ud. Al-ImÉm al-BukhÉrÊ has recorded on the authority of Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet (s.w. 8 Al-BukhÉrÊ. said: "Ibn 'Umar used to separate quickly from the seller if he had bought a thing which he liked". I showed leniency to the solvent and gave respite to the insolvent." NÉfi‘. ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ. I used it for transactions with people.)9.com/hadith/English/index. then. ×adÊth 320. the reporter from Ibn ‘Umar. ØaÍÊÍ Muslim.html 34. which means option to cancel or confirm the transaction as long as they (the buyer and the seller) have not yet separated from each other. This Hadith highlights the fact that Allah granted pardon to the person because he had managed his business and transaction as a way to ease and benefit others. http://www. You endowed me with Your riches.) explained the right for buyers and sellers known as ‘khiyÉr majlis’. Book 3. he (the person) said: O my Lord.) said: "The buyer and the seller have the option to cancel or confirm the transaction before they separate from each other. This right was to ensure that their needs were satisfied.a. Volume http://www. the two reporters. Allah. Book 10.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues In the Sunnah of the Prophet.com/hadith/English/index.a. said: This is what we heard from Allah's Messenger (s.8 ImÉm Muslim has recorded a tradition on the authority of Hudhayfah that a servant from amongst the servants of Allah was brought to Him whom Allah had endowed with riches.

and the latter leads to Allah’s blessing in the life hereafter.d. Service to the society from any angle. It merits bounty of Allah in both the phases of life. MujÉhid ibn Jabr interprets this phrase as seeking the bounty of Allah by doing business through land and sea10. one of the subsequent reporter of the above tradition. and thou seest the ships therein that plough the waves. Business as a Way for an Individual to Generate Income and Rewards By doing business.Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth Sofiah Samsudin 2. and that ye may extract therefrom ornaments to wear.‫ن‬ ُ‫ش‬ ُ ‫ولَعَل‬ َ ‫رو‬ ْ َ‫م ت‬ ْ َ‫ولتَبْتَ غُواْ من ف‬ ْ‫ك‬ َ ‫ضله‬ َ ‫ر فيه‬ ََ ُ‫ك‬ َ ‫و‬ “It is He Who has made the sea subject. that ye may eat thereof flesh that is fresh and tender. the present and in the hereafter: ِ ِ ‫ر‬ ِ ُ ْ‫َّر ٱلْبحر لِتأ‬ ِ ‫ه‬ ِ َ‫َحماً ط‬ ‫ْك‬ ُ ْ‫ر ى ٱل‬ ْ َ‫ست‬ َ ‫فل‬ ْ ‫كلُواْ منْهُ ل‬ َ َ ْ َ َ ‫سخ‬ َ َ‫سون‬ َ‫جواْ منْهُ حلْيَةً تَ ل‬ ُ ِ‫خ‬ َ ‫و ٱلَّذي‬ َ ‫ها‬ ْ َ‫وت‬ َ ً‫ريّا‬ َ َُ‫و‬ َ َ‫وت‬ ُ ‫ْب‬ ِ ِ ِ ِ ‫م‬ ِ ِ ِ ‫اخ‬ َّ .). 7 . n. vol. material as well as spiritual. material or moral is very much rewarding in Islam. Jami’ al-BayÉn fÊ TafsÊr Ay alQur’Én. a Muslim businessman or businesswoman is entitled to two rewards. 2nd edn. that ye may seek (thus) of the bounty of Allah and that ye may be grateful” (al-Nahl: 14). p 176. 17. remarks: "I found this in my book: 'Both the buyer and the seller have the option of confirmation or cancellation of the transaction 10 Refer: AbË Ja’far MuÍammad ibn JÉrir Al-ÙabarÊ. The former ensures worldly prosperity. Business is a means of service to the society whereby businessmen or businesswomen help the people in the society to easily access to goods and other necessary services that the people need. ImÉm al-ÙabarÊ explained that ‘that ye may seek (thus) of the bounty of Allah’ conveys the concept of making a living by trading and doing business through ways and methods that Allah the Almighty has provided and facilitated for humans. (al-QÉhirah: Maktabah Ibn Taimiyyah." ×ammÉm. Al-ImÉm al-BukhÉrÊ recorded a tradition on the authority of ×akÊm bin ×izÉm that the Prophet said: "Both the buyer and the seller have the option of cancelling or confirming the transaction unless they separate.

ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ. honesty. Vol. he has to be brave. he has to be patient. who strictly prohibits the illegal use of others' property. a person gains variegated knowledge and experiences through business. customer service. hoping for His grace. their transaction will. they are fully conscious of what is good and what is bad around them. Businessmen and businesswomen learn to develop good character through the process of doing business. http://www. and he can not afford to be lazy. Therefore. establishing connections with various types of people. one of the important aspects of business is its role as a training ground for developing good character. A Muslim businessman or businesswoman obeys the order of Allah the Almighty. All of these experiences develop good characteristics. he can not afford to cheat.html 34. In fact. then. commodities. 8 . they might ensure some financial gain but they will deprive their sale of (Allah's) blessings" 11. he has to be honest. He gains practical knowledge on management. he can not afford to be scared. finance. values and cultures. they know very well that conducting a business is not merely for worldly profits. the Most Gracious. If they speak truthfully and mention the defects of the goods. a businessman or businesswoman learns on how to foster relationships and networking. Business as a Way to Develop Virtuous Personality. but it is a transaction with Allah. education.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues three times. be blessed. ×adÊth 327. places. diligence.com/×adÊth/English/index. he has to be hard working. and humbleness. Book 3. A believer conducting business can not afford to be impatient. unless legalized through business by mutual consent. He conducts business and faces various challenges for the sake of obeying Allah and in fear 11 Al-BukhÉrÊ. Those with the quality of Taqwa will manage their business as someone who walks safely through a thorny path.quranexplorer. As experiences come in many forms. They never forget the position of their activities. and if they speak lies and conceal any defects. handling challenges and so on. bravery. such as patience. 3.

p 426. ImÉm al-Sha’rawÊ says that business is the peak of activity in daily life. rewards them even more by awarding profits from unexpected sources.14 Hence. this does not divert those businessmen from remembering Allah and obeying Him.com/hadith/English/index.15 Based on this ÍadÊth.w. However. p 26. ØaÍÊÍ Muslim. in order to do business and fulfill Islamic obligations at the same time. 4. without measure.” (al-NËr: 37-38) 13 Interpreting these two verses. Book 10. 13 ‘ Abdullah Yusuf AlÊ.Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth Sofiah Samsudin of the Day of Judgment. p 2402. 1411H/1971).quranexplorer. (Al-Azhar: Majma’ al-BuhËth al-Islamiyyah.12 In the Qur’Én. 15 Muslim. http://www. KawÉthir Íawla al-Qur’Én al-KarÊm. ‘Abd Allah ibn 'Umar reported that Allah's Messenger (s. it is very clear that a person in business must wait and be patient while entering a transaction. the Most High. and that one should not enter into a transaction when another person is 12 Muhammad ‘Ali ×aji ×ashim. good time management.html (access date should be mentioned here) 9 . ×adÊth 3617. 2003). as it is the moment of exchange between the producer of sustenance and the consumer. and add even more for them out of His Grace: for Allah doth provide for those whom He will. That Allah may reward them according to the best of their deeds. The holy Qur’Én English translation. 14 Al-Sha’rawÊ. and awareness of the fact that Allah is omnipresent.a. 1st edn.‫ار‬ ُ َ‫زي‬ َ‫ق‬ َ َ َ ْ ‫م ٱللَّهُ أ‬ ْ َ‫وٱللَّهُ ي‬ َ ‫ضله‬ ْ‫ه‬ َ ْ‫عملُوا‬ ُ َ ْ َ ُ ُ ْ‫ال‬ َ ‫ر‬ ُ‫ه‬ “By men whom neither traffic nor merchandise can divert from the Remembrance of Allah nor from regular Prayer. vol. nor from the practice of regular Charity: their (only) fear is for the Day when hearts and eyes will be transformed (in a world wholly new).) said: “None of you should enter a transaction when someone else is bargaining”. Bisness Satu Cabang Jihad (Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publication & Distributors. Allah. Hence. this importance can be derived from the following verse: ِ‫ف‬ ِ ‫قلَّب‬ ِ‫ك‬ ِ َّ ‫ام‬ ِ ِ‫ك‬ ِ ‫عن‬ ِ ‫ه‬ َّ ‫وإِيتَاء‬ ِ َ‫وإِق‬ ِ ْ‫ال تُل‬ ِ ٌ‫ج‬ ‫يه‬ ‫ارة‬ ْ‫ذ‬ ّ ‫ال‬ َ‫الز‬ َ ‫خافُو‬ َ َ‫اة ي‬ َ ‫ع‬ ْ َ‫وال ب‬ ٌ‫ي‬ َ‫مت‬ ً‫و‬ ْ َ‫ن ي‬ َ‫ر‬ َ ‫الْالة‬ َ ‫ر اللَّه‬ ٌَ َ‫ج‬ ْ ِ ‫هي‬ ُ َ َ‫ما تَ ت‬ ِ ِ ‫شآء بِغَي‬ ِ ْ‫قلُوب واألَب‬ ِ ِ ْ َ‫من ف‬ ِ َ ‫َحسن ما‬ ٍ ‫حس‬ ِ َ‫وي‬ ِ‫ج‬ ‫اب‬ ُ‫ز‬ ِّ ‫م‬ َ ‫زي‬ ُ‫ر‬ ْ ُ َ َ‫من ي‬ ُ‫د‬ ْ َ‫ لي‬. they must train themselves to have strong discipline.

ImÉm MÉlik has recorded a tradition on the authority of AbË Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah (s. B) The Importance of Business towards a Society 1.76. 10 . From ImÉm MÉlik’s explanation. including poverty.w. which ultimately leads to the mergence 16 Malik. it is clear that Islam prohibits any kind of uncertain transactions and vague type of businesses. he/she must train himself/herself to have patience while dealing in business. Selling bundles with a list of their contents is different from the sale of a cloak concealed in a bag or the cloth folded up. Munabadhah is that a man throws his garment to another. The day to day increasing number of beggars and drifters speaks volumes of the serious level of unemployment. an uncertain transaction was not intended and it did not resemble mulamasa”16. Unemployment is a very serious problem in society. Islam allows and permits only an honest and transparent business.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues bargaining.a. MuwÏÏa’.html Hadth 35. or he buys something at night and does not know what is that. http://www. Business as a Solution to Unemployment in Society. as it causes many terrific social problems. and what people had done in the past. because in the sale of bundles with a list of contents without undoing them. Book 31. What made it different was that it was a common practice and it was what people were familiar with. 'This is for this.) forbade mulamasa and munabadha.' ImÉm MÉlik maintains: Mulamasah and Munabadhah are both prohibited. and the other throws his garment without either of them making any inspection. Each of them says.quranexplorer. ImÉm MÉlik explains these two business terms: "Mulamasah is when a man can feel a garment but is not allowed to unfold it or examine what is therein. The person must wait until the bargaining is completed. Hence. It was still among the permitted transactions in which they saw no harm.com/hadith/English/index.

162. The Deputy Minister of Higher Education. students.and Soumya Kapoor. p 161. p 88. 20 Refer: Nawwaf ibn Shaleh Al-Hulaisi. In Malaysia. TijÉrah al-AmÊn Muhammad ma’a QawÉfil al-Qurayish wa Tathawwuruha fÊ al-IslÉm. Boosting business skills of graduate. by saving them from hunger and poverty.my_news/NST/article/11mc/Article. for example.nst. the Ministry of Higher Education is planning to enhance entrepreneurial skills among students and graduates. International Islamic University Malaysia.com. 19 Ibid. last viewed on 8 March 2010. Patti Petesch. Moving Out of Poverty. They were blessed by Allah. 2009). and not an intrinsic characteristic of the society.17 Here business profession can play its role in reducing poverty by offering unlimited job vacancies for the unemployed.ebrary. He said that the Ministry was committed to investing and creating opportunities for Malaysians in the field of entrepreneurship.19 In order to understand the impact of commercial activities in a society one can browse pages of history. Tracer Study 2008 First Degree Graduates. It is very important for society to realize that poverty is a condition consequent upon economic weakness of people.com/lib/iium/Doc?id=10290038&ppg=116 18 NST online. VA. Dato’ Saifuddin Abdullah mentioned the need to increase the percentage of students and graduates who can be encouraged to venture into entrepreneurship from 2. for example. 17 November 2009. p 40.Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth Sofiah Samsudin of thieves and robbers.18 Moreover. as nobody knows when and where they might be the victim of robbery and burglary. http://www. The Quraysh. due to high number of unemployed graduates as recorded by Tracer Study 2008 done by the International Islamic University Malaysia. Retrieved on 14 April 2011 from http://site. the Almighty. 11 . As a result the society feels insecure. in pre-Islamic Arabian Peninsula had business links with even distant lands like Syria and Yemen. . Volume 2: Success from the Bottom Up (Herndon. and protecting them from terrorists’ onslought20. In the Qur’Én this privilege of Quraysh is mentioned as follows: 17 Refer: Deepa Narayan.4 per cent to 5 per cent. USA: World Bank Publications.

(Those were the days of poverty) and today some of us have one hundred thousand". (Tunis: al-DÉr al-Tunisiyyah. Refer: Muhammad al-Thahir Ibn ‘AshËr.22 ImÉm al-BukhÉrÊ has recorded tradition narrated by AbË Mas’ud al-AnÎÉrÊ: "Whenever Allah's Apostle (s.w. Let them adore the Lord of this House. 30.‫ت‬ ِ‫ي‬ ِ‫ي‬ ِ ِ‫ إِيالَف‬. vol. http://www.‫ش‬ ِ ‫م‬ ٍ ْ‫ري‬ ‫من‬ َّ ‫ر‬ َّ ‫و‬ َ َٰ‫ه‬ ِّ ‫هم‬ َ َ‫حل‬ ُ ُ‫عب‬ ۤ‫ذ‬ ْ َ‫ذا ٱلْب‬ َ ‫ب‬ ْ َ‫ فَ لْي‬.‫ف‬ ْ ْ‫ٱل‬ ُ‫م‬ ْ‫ر‬ َ ‫ي أَط‬ َ ‫ْع‬ َ ْ‫دوا‬ َ ‫ِّتَآء‬ ْ‫ه‬ َ ُ‫إليالَف ق‬ ٍ ‫خو‬ . Who provides them with food against hunger. 21 22 Abdullah Yusuf Ali. Book 24.html 12 . until the poor became rich. ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues ِ ‫ة ٱلش‬ ِ ِ ِ َّ‫ ٱل‬.23 From this tradition.a. promise many vacancies. The holy Qur’Én English translation. Al-TaÍrÊr wa al-TanwÊr. offering a source of permitted (ÍalÉl) income. it is clear that markets or bazaars.) ordered us to give in charity. ×adÊth 497.‫ع‬ “For the covenants (of security and safeguard enjoyed) by the Quraysh. Ibn ‘ÓshËr said that HÉshim ibn ‘Abd Manaf started the two distant trades in order to cope with a great problem of poverty faced by BanË MakhzËm. p 558. 1984). Business is essential in providing sufficient number of employment. Their covenants (covering) journeys by winter and summer. and with security against fear (of danger)” (Qurayish: 1-5).21 Interpreting this chapter. thereby providing the solution to the problem of unemployment and poverty. we used to go to the market and work as porters and get a Mudd (a special measure of grain) for the purpose. 23 Al-BukhÉrÊ.‫ف‬ ٍ ‫جو‬ ِّ ‫هم‬ ُ َ‫آمن‬ ْ‫م‬ َْ ‫ن‬ َ‫و‬ ُ َ . which are places where business is conducted. HÉshim had then divided the profits of the trades among the rich and poor. p790.com/hadith/English/index.quranexplorer.

and seek of the Bounty of Allah.” (al-Baqarah: 148). Al-TafsÊr al-KabÊr. According to al-ÖaÍÍÉk. this action is better than to wait in the mosque. and celebrate the Praises of Allah often (and without stint): that ye may prosper. al-RÉzÊ said that this verse refers to the permissibility to go back to the business that they had left before in order to perform Jumu‘ah prayer. Allah will bring you together. p 536. p 56. Interpreting this verse. you should disperse through the land. and reasonable price of commodities. then may ye disperse through the land.Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth Sofiah Samsudin 2. For Allah Hath power over all things.25 al-QurÏubÊ said: “After you have finished the prayer. best services. al-JÉmi’ li AÍkÉm al-Qur’Én. Business as a Means of productivity and Competition Business encourages a society to be more productive and competitive. p 536. 26 Refer: Al-QurÏubÊ. 13 . It is through business that entrepreneurs in society will try their best to market their goods. Bisness Satu Cabang JihÉd.”26 Allah encourages the believers to compete and to be eager towards righteousness: ِ ْ‫خي‬ ِ ‫كم ٱللَّهُ ج‬ ِ ِ َّ ِ‫ميعاً إ‬ ِ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫هة‬ ُ َ‫ما ت‬ ُ ِ‫ول‬ ُ‫ى‬ ُ ِ‫ٱستَب‬ ِّ ‫ك‬ ٍّ ‫ك‬ َٰ َ‫ن ٱللَّهَ عَل‬ ٌُ ْ َ‫يها ف‬ َ ِّ‫ول‬ َ‫ج‬ ْ‫و‬ َ َ‫ن‬ ُ‫و‬ َ ْ‫رات أَي‬ َ َ‫م‬ َ‫ه‬ ُ ُ ‫كونُواْ يَأْت ب‬ َ َ ْ‫قواْ ٱل‬ ِ ٍ ‫ش‬ ‫ير‬ ٌ ‫يء قَد‬ َْ “To each is a goal to which Allah turns him. then strive together (as in a race) towards all that is good.24 The Qur’Én encourages believers to be competitive hence productive: ِ ْ ُ‫كم ت‬ ِ ْ‫ض وٱب ت غُوا‬ ِ ِ‫ض‬ ِ ‫ش‬ ِ ِ َ َ‫كرواْ ٱللَّه‬ ِ ُ‫فَِإذَا ق‬ ِ َ‫ضي‬ ‫ن‬ َّ ‫ت‬ َ ‫حو‬ ْ َ‫من ف‬ َ ْ َ ِ ‫َر‬ ُ ‫فل‬ ْ ‫رواْ في ٱأل‬ ْ ُ َّ‫كثيراً لَّعَل‬ َ ‫ل ٱللَّه‬ ُ ُ ْ‫وٱذ‬ ُ َ‫ٱلْالَةُ فَٱنت‬ “And when the Prayer is finished. go back to the business and your needs.” (alJumu‘ah: 10). Refer: Al-RÉzÊ. Wheresoever ye are. The sense of competition ultimately leads to high quality products. 24 25 Refer: Muhammad Ali Haji Hashim.

w. JÉbir b.w. said: Do you wish to have it (free of cost)? They said: By Allah. 1. among others. He took hold of its ear and said: Who amongst you would like to have this for a dirham? The people said: We do not like to have it even for less than that. When a reasonable number of Muslims are engaged in businesses and their businesses are well-known. but as a Mercy for all creatures” (AlAnbiyÉ’: 107).Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues C) The Importance of Business towards the Ummah as a Whole 1. Business as a Way to Spread the Message of Islam. it would be a great contribution for Muslims to establish businesses in the name of Islam. al-‘InÉyah bi al-TijÉrah fÊ al-IqtiÎÉd alIslÉmÊ.w.27 The Holy Qur’Én said: ِ ‫حمةً لِّل‬ ‫ين‬ َ َ‫سلْن‬ َ َ ْ‫ر‬ ْ ‫مآ أ‬ َ ‫َر‬ َ‫و‬ َ ‫ْعالَم‬ َ َّ‫اك إِال‬ َ “We sent thee not. in and through business. If this can be achieved. He. p 536. IrshÉd al-‘Aql al-SalÊm. then. Al-ImÉm AbË al-Sa‘Ëd interpreted this verse by saying that Allah sent Prophet MuÍammad (s.a. for there is a defect in it. have to follow into the footprints of their Prophet (s. all those transacting either directly or indirectly with those businesses will see the practical facets of Islam and get to know that the general perception about Islam is in conflict with the real one.a. by implication.a.) one day while walking through the bazaar he found a dead lamb with very short ears. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (s. p 135. 14 .) said: By 27 Refer: Baila Ibrahim AÍmad al-‘Ulaima. as it is of no use to us. Believers. its ears are very short. vol.w. the message of Islam will automatically get across. ‘Abd Allah reported that Allah's Apostle (s.) with everything needed for the happiness and prosperity of all living beings in this world and the Hereafter28. even if it were alive (we would not have liked to possess that).a. 28 Refer: Abu al-Sa‘Ëd.) and demonstrate the same prophetic quality. making it crystal clear to the world that Islam promotes peace and not terrorism as propagated by the media.

one of the pillars of Islam. Business can be seen as a struggle for the cause of Allah in order to strengthen the economy of the Ummah. this world is more insignificant in the eyes of Allah than it (this dead lamb) is in your eyes”29.html 30 Refer: Baila Ibrahim Ahmad al-‘Ulaima. Book 31. al-‘InÉyah bÊ al-TijÉrah fÊ al-IqtiÎÉd alIslÉmÊ. Muslims constitute true vicegerents of Allah on earth only when they perform their duties related to the development of both material as well as moral life. Muwaththa’. To achieve that. vol. p 120. Hence. the Muslim Ummah should begin this system in their business and consider business as an arena for the struggle in the way of Allah (jihÉd fÊ sabÊlillah).76. Through the system of Zakah. Zakah also helps the poor. The markets and bazaars are places full of people where the messages of Islam can be circulated rapidly. Business as a Way to Strengthen the Economy of the Ummah.Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth Sofiah Samsudin Allah. 2. The biggest profit in business that the Ummah can gain is when profits reach the proper levels (nisÉb) and qualify for the almsgiving or Zakah. ×adÊth 35. 31 ‘ Abdullah Yusuf Al. The holy Qur’Én English translation. which balances between material and spiritual dimensions of life. strengthening and uniting the Ummah as a whole30. nor from the practice of regular Charity…” (al-NËr: 37)31. the Muslims who practise the Islamic system of business can spread the message of Islam. Zakah is like a bridge of love and care that connects the rich with the poor and the needy. p 426. the needy and other acknowledged recipients ( asnÉf al-zakah).The Qur’Én said: ِ‫ك‬ ِ َّ ‫ام‬ ِ ِ‫ك‬ ِ ‫عن‬ ِ ‫ه‬ َّ ‫وإِيتَاء‬ ِ َ‫وإِق‬ ِ ْ‫ال تُل‬ ِ ٌ‫ج‬ …‫اة‬ ‫ارة‬ ْ‫ذ‬ ّ ‫ال‬ َ‫الز‬ َ ‫ع‬ ْ َ‫وال ب‬ ٌ‫ي‬ َ‫مت‬ َ‫ر‬ َ ‫الْالة‬ َ ‫ر اللَّه‬ ٌَ َ‫ج‬ ْ ِ ‫هي‬ “By men whom neither traffic nor merchandise can divert from the Remembrance of Allah nor from regular Prayer. the economy of the Ummah can be strengthened.quranexplorer.com/hadith/English/index. http://www. to a large number of people. 29 Malik. 1. 15 .

He gave the sum to a boy. to invest it in business. and they do not overlook their duties towards the right of human beings. The secret behind the term ‘guidelines’ There are many scholars in Islam who have discussed the details on the ethics of business. and conditions and legislations concerning business in Islam.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues Sayyid QuÏub interpreted this verse by stating. p 28. Through business. strengthening the economy of the Ummah over the course of time. who was a trader. SaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ Arabic English (Turkey: Hilal Yayinlari). and declared that the profit of the money would be given in charity to the poor and the relatives33. 32 33 Refer: Sayyid QuÏb. Dr. p 536. good manners in conducting business. Muhammad Muhsin Khan.”32 ImÉm al-BukhÉrÊ narrated that ImÉm Az-ZuhrÊ mentioned someone who endowed 1000 dinars in the path of Allah. Book of Wills and Testaments. More charities in the form of Zakah and Shadaqah can be given. and more endowments can be made. "They do business for getting income and wealth. not only in business but in all aspects of their life in this world and the Hereafter. they pray. but they do not overlook their duties towards the right of Allah in this busy situation. FÊ ÚilÉl al-Qur’Én. more sources of income are made available. Muslims will be successful. particularly horses & property & gold & silver as endowments. 16 . It is without doubt that by following the Divine guidelines. they pay Zakah. Chapter giving animals. 4. vol. Guideline for Successful Business in the light of Qur’Én and Sunnah A discussion on the guidelines for the successful conduct of business in the light of Qur’Én and Sunnah is very important in order to evidently prove that the best way in doing business is certainly through the guidelines that have been provided and facilitated by Allah the Almighty for humans through His revelation.

The Guideline for a Successful and Blessed Business Allah the Almighty has provided for man all he needs on the earth. ×adÊth 47. ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ.” (al-Baqarah: 29).html 17 . ImÉn. on the other. 2010). conditions. IslÉm and IÍsÉn in a Muslim businessman's life motivates him to do things at his best as he is always conscious of Allah. and He has endowed human beings with the ability to use and improve the utilities created for them. Allah s. pilgrimage. declares: “It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on earth. a Muslim businessman can strengthen his belief and his spiritual self. the scholars rarely used the term ‘guidelines’ when referring to these ethics. http://www.com/hadith/English/index. and legislations discussed by the scholars. acting as a useful reference for necessary information on policies and procedures34. manners. 35 Al-BukhÉrÊ. developing good manners and character. and other obligatory rituals in Islam.Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth Sofiah Samsudin However.w. p 3. Zakah."35 A Muslim businessman must always strengthen his inner spiritual self by strengthening his ImÉn.quranexplorer.t. Book 1 Belief. The term also gives more sense of significance and importance without ignoring any of these ethics. Volume 2. By observing prayer. conditions. The term is used largely in many institutions to conduct any important acts where a guideline or a guide book is prepared to guide people. He may be a practical manifestation of a Prophetic tradition recorded in almost all Hadith collections: "IÍsÉn is to worship Allah as if you see Him. manners. fasting. and legislations. the term itself draws attention of Muslims to follow it step by step while doing business. on the one hand. and observing his spiritual obligations and manners according to what has been prescribed in 34 International Islamic University Malaysia. Guide for Postgraduate students (Kuala Lumpur: CPS. Besides that. and if you cannot achieve this state of devotion then you must consider that He is watching you.

TawÍÊd is the most important feature of faith. had made sure that every businessman in his time knew the 36 37 Sayyid QuÏb. and justice.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues Islam.36 This is because in the Islamic scheme of things. cleanliness. where one denies the existence of other gods and firmly asserts that only Allah is worthy of worship. The first pillar of Islam is the proclamation of faith. Business Ethics in the Light of the Sunnah. He must learn how to make transactions from Islamic angle. he has the responsibility to manage the money properly. p 258. MuÍammad Adli Musa. 18 . vol. a dissertation for the degree of Master (Gombak. Indeed. for example. as this belief is based on fear of Allah and hope for His pleasure. the second Caliph of Islamic history. the belief in the oneness of Allah is the only definite guarantee for good practices in business such as trustworthiness. p 93. FÊ ÚilÉl al-Qur’Én. What differentiates a Muslim businessman from his other colleagues is his ‘aqÊdah (belief system)37. The guideline for a successful business can be put forth in two major categories: strengthening one's inner spiritual self and conducting business. First Part: The Guideline for a Muslim Businessman in Strengthening His Spiritual Self 1. He should make himself aware of what constitutes unlawful in business dealings such as ribÉ. Knowledge Muslim businessman must know that money is the trust from Allah. adherence to moral code and ethical behaviour is a part of ImÉn (faith) itself. Umar ibn al-KhaÏÏÉb. IIUM 2007). who is in reality the owner of all kinds of properties and wealth. As a vicegerent of Allah. 4.

"Glorified be Allah! By Allah. p 161.. Ma la yasa’u al-TÉjir jahlahu. we expect to fill the markets? The Holy Qur’Én and Sunnah have greatly emphasized on the importance of knowledge: 38 ‘Abdullah Mushlih and Shalah al-Shawi. Tracer Study 2008 First Degree Graduates.Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth Sofiah Samsudin regulations of buying and selling before entering the markets. he acknowledged that a great businessman must also have wide spectrum of knowledge. FatÍ al-BÉÊi.38 The businessmen among the believers in the past always learned from each other about Islamic rules of business. This is indeed a great loss to the Muslim Ummah. which shows the respect the Companions had for each other. Book 5 Merits of the Helpers in Madinah (AnsÉr)." Then I asked al-BarÉ' ibn 'Ózib (about it) and he said. nobody objected to it.com/hadith/English/index.html 40 Ibn ×ajar al-‘AsqalÉnÊ. 2005). http://www. especially in the area of Islamic business and transactions 40.' Go to Zaid ibn al. ImÉm Ibn ×ajar explained the reason why alBara’ bin ‘Azib asked AbË Minhal to ask Zaid bin al-ArqÉm about the transaction. This is due to his status as the greatest trader. We used to make such a transaction when the Prophet came to Medina. 'There is no harm in it if it is done from hand to hand. (2009). AbË Al-Minhal 'Abd al-RahmÉn ibn MuÏ‘Êm narrated: A partner of mine sold some Dirhams on credit in the market. vol. who can. International Islamic University Malaysia. ×adÊth 276.quranexplorer." So I asked Zaid ibn al-Arqam. 162. So he said. students from Islamic studies discipline in universities are no focusing on Islamic business and transactions and they are the least interested in business41. ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ.Arqam and ask him about it. He said the same (as Al-Bara) did"39. If the students with Islamic background refuse to engage themselves in business. "Glorified be Allah! Is this legal?" He replied. p18. I said. 7. when I sold them in the market. In his book. 39 Al-BukhÉrÊ. for he was the greatest trader of all of us. 41 Ibid. 19 . p8. but it is not allowed on credit. 1st edn. then. Volume 58. Unfortunately. (Beirut: DÉr al-Muslim.

and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended”45. 45 Al-BukhÉrÊ. p227. Allah will cause him to travel on the road leading to the Paradise.quranexplorer.com/hadith/English/index. 6. The angels will lower their wings happily towards one who seeks knowledge. 42 “If ye realise this not. the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth and the fish in the deep waters will ask for forgiveness for the learned man. The superiority of the learned man over the devout is like that of the full moon over the rest of the stars. ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ. that they may serve Me” (al-DhÉriyÉt: 56). those who know and those who do not know? It is those who are endued with understanding that receive admonition.”43 2.html 44 Ibrahim bin Muhammad. Dar alShahabah li al-Turath. ask of those who possess the Message” (al-Nahl: 43). 1410H/1990). http://www. ImÉm Ibn Hajar al-‘AsqalÉnÊ has quoted ImÉm al-QurÏubÊ’s view that the above 42 43 Sayyid QuÏb. 2nd edition. (Tonto. FÊ ÚilÉl al-Qur’Én.html 20 .t declares: “I have only created jinns and men. Sunan Abi Dawud.”(al-Zumar: 9).a.w. ‘Umar bin Al-KhaÏÏÉb reports: I heard Allah's Apostle say: "The reward of deeds depends upon intentions. Adab al-Tajir wa Shuruth al-Tijarah. http://www.quranexplorer. ×adÊth 1. Book 1. Intention: Any act without the intention of seeking Allah’s pleasure is meaningless in this world and in the hereafter. The learned men are the heirs of the Prophets.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues “Say: "Are those equal. ×adÊth 3634. and the Prophets leave neither dinÉr nor dirham but knowledge. Volume 1 Revelation. and he who inherits it gets it in abundance. vol.) say: “If anyone travels on a road in search of knowledge. AbË DardÉ’ said: I heard the Apo stle of Allah (s. Book 25 Knowledge.com/hadith/English/index.w. Abu Dawud. p28.44 Allah s. Good intentions are important in order to turn an ordinary act into that of worship (‘ibÉdah).

The Holy Qur’Én and the Sunnah have clearly highlighted the importance of good manners. al-‘Asqallani. p 15.. Good manners: Good manners and attitudes are very important in order to achieve true success in this world and the hereafter. and succor to others47. and ethical standards. Therefore. p468.2. The Holy Qur’Én states: “By men whom neither traffic nor merchandise can divert from the Remembrance of Allah nor from regular Prayer. any acts and deeds with good intentions will only be considered valid if these acts do not result in ignoring obligations such as prayers and zakah48. vol. DÉr al-ØaÍÉbah lÊ al-TurÉth. Sale s and Cntracts in early Islamic Commercial Law (New Delhi: Kitab Bhavan. (Tonto. That Allah may reward them according to the best of their deeds. abstinence from begging. Abdullah Mushlih and Shalah al-Shawi.” (Al-NËr: 37-38). 2nd edn. Ma la yasa’u al-Tajir jahlahu. vol. TafsÊr al-Qur’Én al-‘Azhim. 3. 1. 6. Jumu‘ah prayer. 48 Baila Ibrahim Ahmad al-‘Ulaima.Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth Sofiah Samsudin mentioned ×adÊth insists on the importance of sincere intentions in all actions46. 1410H/1990). 49 Ibn KathÊr. p18. a businessman with good intentions must not neglect his regular obligations such as the five daily prayers. p 68. and paying zakah. without measure. and add even more for them out of His Grace: for Allah doth provide for those whom He will. 2006). which were implemented successfully by businessmen among the Companions and the Successors50. A Muslim businessman must have good intentions such as protection of his own self from ÍarÉm or illegal things. (Al-Qaherah: 1st edition. consolidation of his ibÉdah. 50 ‘Abdullah ‘Alwi Haji Hassan. However. nor from the practice of regular Charity: their (only) fear is for the Day when hearts and eyes will be transformed (in a world wholly new). 2nd edn. 21 . Fath al-Bari. Ibid. p2. al-‘Inayah bi al-Tijarah fi al-Iqtishad al-Islami. Ibn KathÊr while explaining this verse said that the men referred to in this verse are those who put the obedience to Allah’s commands as their first priority even at the cost of their own wants and desires49. 46 47 Ibn Hajar. vol. decency. 2007).

Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues

a. A businessman must be honest and truthful. The Holy Qur’Én and Sunnah have emphasized on honesty and truthfulness: “Allah doth command you to render back your Trusts to those to whom they are due; and when ye judge between people that ye judge with justice: verily how excellent is the teaching which He giveth you! for Allah is He who heareth and seeth all things.” (al-NisÉ’: 58). ImÉm al-RÉzÊ said that Allah commanded the believers in the above verse to honestly perform all their actions in every matter, whether it concerns their religious duties or their worldly contracts and transactions51. “Allah will say: This is a day on which the truthful will profit from their truth: theirs are Gardens, with rivers flowing beneath their eternal home: Allah well-pleased with them and they with Allah: that is the great Salvation (the fulfillment of all desires).” (al-Ma’Êdah: 119). “O ye who believe! Fear Allah and be with those who are true (in word and deed)” (al-Tawbah: 119). ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘Ëd reported that the Prophet (s.a.w.) said: “Truthfulness leads to righteousness, and righteousness leads to Paradise; and a man keeps on telling the truth until he becomes a truthful person. Falsehood leads to al-FujËr (i.e. wickedness, evildoing), and al-FajËr (wickedness) leads to the (Hell) Fire; and a man may keep on telling lies till he is written before Allah as a liar”.52 AbË Hurairah reports that the Prophet (s.a.w.) said, "The signs of a hypocrite are three: (1) Whenever he speaks, he speaks a lie; (2)

51 52

Al-Razi, al-TafsÊr al-KabÊr vol. 5, p 243. Al-BukhÉrÊ, ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ, Book 8 Good manners and form (al-Adab), Vol. 73, ×adÊth 116, http://www.quranexplorer.com/hadith/English/index.html

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Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth

Sofiah Samsudin

whenever he promises, he breaks it; (3) If you trust him, he proves to be dishonest" 53. b. A businessman must be patient and careful The Qur’Én and the Sunnah have emphasized on patience and caution: “O ye who believe! Seek help with patient perseverance and prayer: for Allah is with those who patiently persevere” (al-Baqarah: 153). ImÉm al-RÉzÊ explained this verse by saying that the patience means to force the soul to bear undesirables in order to be obedient in performing acts of worship and avoiding evil acts 54. A businessperson must bear hardships whatsoever in order to maintain Islamic mode of business and avoid any non-Islamic acts such as usury, bribery, and monopoly. The Qur’Én says: “Be sure We shall test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods, lives and the fruits (of your toil), but give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere.” (al-Baqarah: 155). Sayyid QuÏb explained that self-education through hardships such as war, hunger, depreciation of money and property value is very important for the believers in order to strengthen their souls by performing their obligations through hardships55. The same is applicable to a Muslim businessman; he must endure hardships in order to attain to blessed business and gain strength. The Prophet (s.a.w.) encouraged the believers to remain patient and self-sufficient. AbË Sa‘Êd al-KhudrÊ narrates: Some AnÎÉrÊ requested something from Allah's Apostle (s.a.w.) and he gave them. They again asked him for (something) and he again gave them. And then they asked him and he gave them again till all that was with him
53

Al-BukhÉrÊ, ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ, Book 1, Volume 2 Belief, ×adÊth 32, http://www.quranexplorer.com/hadith/English/index.html 54 Al-RÉzÊ, al-TafsÊr al-KabÊr, vol. 2, p. 441. 55 Sayyid QuÏb, FÊ ÚilÉl al-Qur’Én, vol. 1, p.116.

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Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues

finished. And then he said "If I had anything. I would not keep it away from you. Whoever abstains from asking others, Allah will make him contented; whoever tries to make his person self-sufficient, Allah will make him self-sufficient; and whoever remains patient, Allah will make him patient. Nobody can be given a blessing better and greater than patience.”56 Muslim businessmen have to be careful and try their best to avoid anything damaging to business and dangerous risks. Allah the Almighty reminded all the believers to always be careful: “O ye who believe! if a wicked person comes to you with any news, ascertain the truth, lest ye harm people unwittingly, and afterwards become full of repentance for what ye have done.” (alHujurÉt: 6). ImÉm al-RÉzÊ said that sËrah al-×ujurÉt taught the believers good manners towards Allah and His Messenger, and also among themselves. In any society, al-RÉzÊ maintains, there are two kinds of people, true believers and hypocrites; hence believers have to be careful in believing any news brought to them.57 The Prophet (s.a.w.) also reminded believers to be careful especially in suspicious and doubtful matters. Al-Nu'mÉn ibn BashÊr narrates that the Prophet (s.a.w.) said: "Both lawful and unlawful things are obvious, and in between them are (suspicious) doubtful matters. So whoever forsakes those doubtful things, he protects himself from committing sin; and whoever indulges in these (suspicious) doubtful things daringly is likely to commit what is clearly unlawful. Sins may be likened to Allah's meadow; whoever grazes (his sheep) near that is likely to enter it any moment."58 Ibn

56

Al-BukhÉrÊ, ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ, Book 2 Obligatory Charity Tax (ZakÉt), Volume 24, ×adÊth 548, http://www.quranexplorer.com/hadith/English/index.html 57 Al-RÉzÊ, al-TafsÊr al-KabÊr, vol. 14, p171. 58 Al-BukhÉrÊ, ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ, Book 3, Volume 34 Sales and Trade, ×adÊth 267, http://www.quranexplorer.com/hadith/English/index.html

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p131 Al-RÉzÊ. A businessman must be generous and modest. nor shall they grieve. a Muslim businessman must avoid the prohibited things in his business and choose only good things that are permissible in Islam. Allah giveth manifold increase to whom He pleaseth. There are many statements in the Qur’Én and Sunnah that encourage the believers to be generous in the path of Allah: “The parable of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is that of a grain of corn: it groweth seven ears. and each ear hath a hundred grains. al-TafsÊr al-KabÊr. ― for them their reward is with their Lord.7. not to show off one’s status: “Those who spend their wealth in the cause of Allah and follow not up their gifts with reminders of their generosity or with injury.Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth Sofiah Samsudin ×ajar said that by avoiding the doubtful matters. on them shall be no fear. Vol. Allah the Almighty said: “while those who reject Allah will enjoy (this world) and eat as cattle eat. vol. 14. and Allah careth for all and He knoweth all things. d. Those who spend their wealth in the cause of Allah and follow not up their gifts with reminders of their generosity or with injury. ImÉm al-RÉzÊ said that the ultimate concern of non-believers is to fulfill their desires just like animals60. FatÍ al-BÉrÊ. c. Kind words and the covering of faults are better than 59 60 Ibn ×ajar al-‘AsqalÉnÊ.” (al-Baqarah: 261-262). a Muslim is protecting his faith and saving himself from sin59. on them shall be no fear. nor shall they grieve. In contrast. Interpreting this verse. A businessman must avoid selfishness and greed for the worldly life There are many verses from the Holy Qur’Én as well as traditions of the Prophet that warn the believers against being selfish and greedy for the worldly life. ― for them their reward is with their Lord. and the Fire will be their abode” (MuÍammad: 12). p91. 25 . It must be remembered that the generosity is in order to achieve Allah’s pleasure.

They are in Parable like a hard. 1.a. AbË Hurairah narrated: The Prophet (s. which leaves it (just) a bare stone. When he came to take it back. "Give him (his due)." When the people searched for a camel of that age. and He is Most Forbearing. Allah has prescribed regulations regarding debts and business in SËrah alBaqarah. Allah promiseth you His forgiveness and bounties and Allah careth for all and He knoweth all things. the Prophet (s. but found a camel one year older.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues charity followed by injury. FÊ ÚilÉl al-Qur’Én. The Satan threatens you with poverty and bids you to conduct unseemly. And Allah guideth not those who reject faith.” (al-Baqarah: 267-268).) is the best example on generosity in paying back the debt. And know that Allah is Free of all wants and Worthy of all praise. Allah is free of all wants. They will be able to do nothing with aught they have earned. that out of it ye may give away something." Upon that. on which is a little soil. “O ye who believe! Give of the good things which ye have (honourably) earned.” (al-Baqarah: 262-264). O ye who believe! Cancel not your charity by reminders of your generosity or by injury― like those who spend their substance to be seen of men.w.w. they found none. and do not even aim at getting anything which is bad in order. 26 .a.a. Concerning these verses. The Prophet said. the man remarked.) said (to some people). p. and of the fruits of the earth which We have produced for you.w. This can be seen in the Zakah and Øadaqah (almsgiving and charity system). "You have given me my right in full. when ye yourselves would not receive it except with closed eyes. which has been cursed by Allah and His Prophet. Islam has never built the economic system based on usury (ribÉ’). barren rock. May 61 Sayyid Quthb. vol. but believe neither in Allah nor in the Last Day. 283. on it falls heavy rain.) owed someone a camel of a certain age. Sayyid QuÏb explains that Islam has built an economic system on the basis of mutual aid and cooperation. "Give (it to) him.61 The Prophet (s.

The prohibited things in Islam are in fact only the bad things. some are as follows: “Say: Who hath forbidden the beautiful (gifts) of Allah.. then. The answer to what is lawful for the believers indicates that the good things will never be prohibited for the believers. (and) purely for them on the Day of Judgment. and the things clean and pure (which He hath provided) for sustenance? Say: They are in the life of this world.t." The Prophet (s. 27 . Muslim businessman must depend on Allah s. be thankful (Shukr) and be pleased with his portion (RiÌa’).). 2.vol. A) Obligations: 1.w. Thus do We explain the signs in detail for those who understand. The guideline for practices in business can be divided into two: obligations and prohibitions. Keep promises and contracts and choose only lawful business Sayyid QuÏb while interpreting the verse—“O ye who believe! fulfill (all) obligations…They ask thee what is lawful to them (as food): say: Lawful unto you are (all) things good and pure.a.Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth Sofiah Samsudin Allah give you in full.w. (Tawakkul). 307 and 319.” (al-MÉi’dah: 1 and 4)—says that Allah the Almighty has named the systems concerning lives and interactions as contracts. hoping for Allah’s pleasure (RaÌa’) and be pious (Taqwa). sins and trespasses against 62 Ibid. said: "The best amongst you is the one who pays the rights of others generously". Second part: The guideline for a Muslim businessman in dealing and conducting business.62 There are many other evidences in the Qur’Én and Sunnah on what is permitted and prohibited for the believers. for those who believe. Say: The things that my Lord hath indeed forbidden are: shameful deeds. which He hath produced for his servants. He must be afraid of Allah (Khawf and Khashyah). which He has ordered the believers to fulfill. whether open or secret. p.

Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues truth or reason.w. Be lenient and generous to the people while dealing in business The Qur’Én advises believers: “If the debtor is in a difficulty grant him time till it is easy for him to repay. that can hamper his way to Paradise. But if ye remit if by way of charity. Book 9 Judgments (AÍkÉm). and saying things about Allah of which ye have no knowledge. and one should try not to commit anything. for which he hath given no authority. He (Allah) will say to him: What (did you do) in the world? (They cannot conceal anything from Allah) He (the person) will say: O my Lord.html 64 Ibn KathÊr. Allah will expose his intentions on the Day of Resurrection (before the people).”63 2. so that one can eat nothing but good food (×alÉl). ÙarÊf AbÊ TamÊmah says: I saw ØafwÉn along with his friends who asked Jundub: "Did you hear anything from Allah's Apostle (s.1." Jundub said: "The first organ to purify is the stomach. including shedding blood unjustly. Allah will make his way easy to enter the Paradise64. 28 . 'Whoever does a good deed in order to show off. 718. that is best for you if ye only knew. It was my nature to be lenient to (my debtors). Volume 89. I used to enter into transactions with people. http://www. TafsÊr al-Qur’Én al’‘AÐÊm. then. give us some admonition.com/hadith/English/index. ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ.a. vol. assigning of partners to Allah.” (al-A‘rÉf: 32-33). You endowed me with Your riches. said (to Jundab): "please. Ibn KathÊr explains this verse by quoting many narrations regarding the reward in the hereafter for those who alleviate others’ burden in their debts.” (al-Baqarah: 280). and whoever puts the people into difficulties. Allah will put him into difficulties on the Day of Resurrection. I showed leniency to the solvent and gave respite to the 63 Al-BukhÉrÊ. ×adÊth 266. p.quranexplorer. One of the narrations as quoted by Ibn KathÊr is as follows: Hudhaifah reported: A servant from amongst the servants of Allah would be brought to Him whom Allah had endowed with riches.)?" Jundab said: "I heard him saying.'" SafwÉn’s friends.

and let neither scribe nor witness suffer harm. But take witnesses whenever ye make a commercial contract. let his guardian dictate faithfully. whether it be small or big: it is juster in the sight of Allah.Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth Sofiah Samsudin insolvent. for it is Allah that teaches you. so that if one of them errs. Let a scribe write: down faithfully as between the parties: let not the scribe refuse to write as Allah has taught him. so let him write.” (al-Baqarah: 282). then a man and two women. where the importance of recording everything justly and 65 Muslim. And get two witnesses. and more convenient to prevent doubts among yourselves. or unable himself to dictate. So fear Allah. the other can remind her. Organize and record business justly and precisely Islam always asks the believers to do everything justly whether the interactions are among the believers or between them and the nonbelievers. his Lord Allah and not diminish aught of what he owes. but let him fear Allah. 3. for witnesses.65.html ×adÊth 3791. The witnesses should not refuse when they are called on (for evidence). out of your own men And if there are not two men. but if it be a transaction which ye carry out on the spot among yourselves. If ye do (such harm) it would be wickedness in you. in transactions involving future obligations in a fixed period of time. whereupon Allah said: I have more right than you to be lenient to My servant. such as ye choose. ØaÍÊÍ Muslim. Let him who incurs the liability dictate. Disdain not to reduce to writing (your contract) for a future period. reduce them to writing. or weak. If the party liable is mentally deficient. more suitable as evidence. there is no blame on you if ye reduce it not to writing. Sayyid QuÏb said that the verse clarifies on the laws in business. And Allah is well acquainted with all things. 29 . Among the evidence from the Qur’Én and Sunnah concerning this are as follows: “O ye who believe! when ye deal with each other.com/hadith/English/index.quranexplorer. http://www. Book 10.

Economy that allows interest based transaction is certainly fraught with fraud. 4. 2) “Said one of the (damsels): "O my (dear) father! Engage him on wages: truly the best of men for thee to employ is the (man) who is strong and trusty.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues precisely is brought forward66.a. FÊ ÚilÉl al-Qur’Én. instead of concealing it. but Allah hath permitted trade 66 67 Sayyid Qutb. vol. 30 . p316.) said: He who finds something should call one or two trustworthy persons as witnesses. Book 9 http://www.quranexplorer. Logically.1. ‘IyÉÌ ibn ×imÉr reported: The Prophet (s. Abu Dawud.” (Al-Baqarah: 283).com/hadith/English/index. injustice. ×adÊth 1705.” (al-QaÎaÎ: 26). B) Prohibitions: 1. Sunan Abi Dawud.w. it is actually Allah's property which He gives to whom He wills67. let the trustee― (faithfully) discharge his trust and let him fear his Lord.html Zakah. said in the Holy Qur’Én: “Those who devour usury will not stand except as stands one whom the Evil One by his touch hath driven to madness.w. then if he finds its owner he should return it to him. exploitation and lie. That is because they say: "Trade is like usury. Allah s. Choose partners and workers who are capable and trustworthy The Qur’an says: 1) “And if one of you deposits a thing on trust. corruption. with another. it is very clear that a business must be organized and recorded justly and precisely in order to ensure sustainable growth of the business.t. Interest (RibÉ) Islam has prohibited interest based monetary transaction and declared a war against those involved in such transactions.

to practice sorcery. and do deeds of righteousness.a. declaring that they were all equal in terms of nature of the sin. and to accuse chaste and unsuspecting believing women of debauchery. to devour RibÉ (usury). Book 4 Wills and Testaments (Washaya). If ye do it not.Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth Sofiah Samsudin and forbidden usury.) cursed all those involved in usury based transaction.quranexplorer.w.69 Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet (s.) said: "The selling of wheat for wheat is RibÉ (usury) except that it is handed from hand to hand and in equal amount. Those who after receiving direction from their Lord. ØaÍÊÍ Muslim. Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet (s. to flee from the battlefield at the time of fighting. the lender.”68 JÉbir reports that Allah's Messenger (s. will have their reward with their Lord: on them shall be no fear nor shall they grieve.a. Book 10. http://www.com/hadith/English/index.html 31 . deal not unjustly and ye shall not be dealt with unjustly. Volume 51. but will give increase for deeds of charity: for He loveth not creatures ungrateful and wicked.html 69 Muslim. Allah will deprive usury of all blessing. to embezzle in orphan's property. their case is for Allah (to judge).quranexplorer. the borrower. Similarly the selling of barley for barley is RibÉ except that it is from hand to hand and in equal amount. take notice of war from Allah and His Messenger: but if ye repent ye shall have your capital sums. if ye are indeed believers. http://www. and dates for 68 Al-BukhÉrÊ. shall be pardoned for the past. and establish regular prayers and regular charity. ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ.) said: "Keep away from seven fatal sins.w. to kill someone unjustly. ×adÊth 28. 275-279). and the two witnesses. Those who believe.a.com/hadith/English/index. desist. O ye who believe! fear Allah and give up what remains of your demand for usury. but those who repeat (the offence) are companions of the Fire: they will abide therein (for ever).” (al-Baqarah. ×adÊth 3881." When the people enquired: "O Allah's Apostle! What are those sins?" He replied: "To associate partners with Allah.w. the accountant.

and on its bank was standing another man with stones in his hands. Book 3 Sales and Trade. but the other threw a stone aiming at his face and forced him to go back to his original place. http://www. that Day. they would be blessed in their 70 Al-BukhÉrÊ. Day. Volume 34. when they have to receive by measure from men. I was told: 'The person in the river was a Riba-devourer"71.quranexplorer.html 32 .com/hadith/English/index. And what will explain to thee what Sijjin is? (There is) a Register (fully) inscribed.quranexplorer.) once said: "Tonight I dreamt that two men came and took me to a holy land wherefrom we proceeded further until we reached a river of blood in which someone was standing.com/hadith/English/index. ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ. No lies and hiding defects The Qur’Én condemns in the harshest sense dishonesty in business transactions: “Woe to those that deal in fraud. And none can deny it but the Transgressor beyond bounds the Sinner!” (al-MuÏaffifÊn: 1-12 ×akÊm ibn ×izÉm reports that Allah's Apostle (s.) said: "The seller and the buyer have the right to keep or return goods as long as they have not parted. Those who. Those that deny the Day of Judgment. exact full measure. and if both the parties spoke the truth and described the defects and qualities (of the goods).Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues dates is usury except that it is from hand to hand and in equal amount. ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ. Do they not think that they will be called to account? On a Mighty. the other man would throw a stone onto his face and force him to go back to his former place. give less than due.w. http://www.html 71 Al-BukhÉrÊ. to those that deny. A Day when (all) mankind will stand before the Lord of the Worlds? Nay! Surely the Record of the Wicked is (preserved) in Sijjin. When I enquired as to who that man was. Book 3 Sales and Trade.a. Woe. But when they have to give by measure or weight to men. The man in the middle of the river tried to come out. Volume 34.a. ×adÊth 379.”70 Samurah bin Jundub reports that the Prophet (s.w. So. 2. whenever he tried to come out. ×adÊth 298.

w. are an abomination― of Satan's handiwork: eschew such (abomination). 75 Abdullah Yusuf Ali.quranexplorer. (QÉhirah: Jami‘ah al-ImÉm MuÍammad ibn Sa‘dË al-IslÉmiyyah. 4. ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ. the blessings of their transaction would be lost ”. http://www.com/hadith/English/index. and from prayer: will ye not then abstain?” (al-MÉ’dÊah: 9091). vol.Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth Sofiah Samsudin transaction. that ye may prosper.html 73 Al-BukhÉrÊ. Book 8. Volume 34 Belief.” (al-NisÉ’: 29)75. due to their strong faith and piety74.html 74 Al-QurÏubÊ.quranexplorer. and (divination by) arrows. and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah.”73 3. al-JÉmiÑ lÊ AÍkÉm al-Qur’Én. Injustice The Qur’Én is very particular about justice in human transactions: “O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities…. 1st edn.) said: "I saw (in a dream) that two men came to me. 2007). The holy Qur’Én English translation. ×adÊth 293.a. with intoxicants and gambling. so he would be punished like that till the Day of Resurrection. ×adÊth 118. Book 3. No Wine and Gambling The Qur’Én advises believers to keep away from drinking wine and gambling as they are both very damaging for the life: “O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling.72 Samura bin Jundub reports that the Prophet (s. 1. Volume 73.com/hadith/English/index. all the believers quickly left their wine drinking and gambling. and if they told lies or concealed defects of goods. http://www. 33 . who informed me that the person whose cheek I saw being torn away (from the mouth to the ear) was a liar and used to tell lies and the people would report those lies on his authority till they spread them all over the world. 72 Al-BukhÉrÊ. part of their daily habits and customs. ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ. (90) Satan's plan is (but) to excite enmity and hatred between you. ImÉm al-QurÏubÊ said that when this verse was revealed. p106. p 1796. (dedication of) stones.

and He hath given me sustenance (pure and) good as from Himself? I wish not. p268. "That which is left you by Allah is best for you. they conducted their business transactions unjustly merely because they hardly believed in Allah. and my success (in my task) can only come from Allah: in Him I trust and unto Him I look” (HËd: 84-88). to do that which I forbid you to do. TafsÊr al-Qur’Én al-‘AÐÊm. p258. has prohibited any transactions through transgression. And give not short measure or weight: I see you in prosperity. Sayyid QuÏb says that there is another equally significant issue emphasized in the Prophet Shu’ayb’s preaching.2. The people of Madyan opted for their own way.t. I only desire (your) betterment to the best of my power. 4. usurpation. thou art the one that forbeareth with faults and is rightminded!" He said: "O my people! see ye whether I have a Clear (Sign) from my Lord. but I fear for you the Penalty of a Day that will compass (you) all round.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues Ibn KathÊr said that Allah s. Sayyid Quthb. in opposition to you.w. "And O my people! Give just measure and weight. The Qur’Én narrates parable of a people in the past who were used to dishonest sealing and injustice in business transactions: “To the Madyan people (We sent) Shuayb.77 76 77 Ibn KathÊr. Indeed. besides the issue of TawhÊd: issue of honesty and justice in business transactions. if ye (but) believed! But I am not set over you to keep watch!" They said: "Oh Shuayb! does thy (religion of) prayer command thee that we leave off the worship which our fathers practiced or that we leave off doing what we like with our property? Truly. lying in oath or through other unlawful means such as usury and gambling76. nor withhold from the people the things that are their due: commit not evil in the land with intent to do mischief. vol. vol. one of their own brethren: he said: "O my people! worship Allah: ye have no other gods but Him. there is a strong connection between honesty and justice and belief in Allah. FÊ ÚilÉl al-Qur’Én. 34 . false testimony.

81 Conclusion The importance of business has been stated by the Holy Qur’Én from a few aspects. but if he delays the payment.html 81 Shams al-×aq al-‘AzÊm AbadÊ. Fixing prices of goods is considered an act of injustice to sellers. which means ‘a gift and a reward of this world and afterworld’. vol. ‘Aun al-Ma‘bËd.quranexplorer. Fath al-Bari. ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ.quranexplorer. he is allowed to do.) prohibited any act of injustice. Book 23 Wages (KitÉb al-IjÉrah).Business as a Source of Material and Moral Growth Sofiah Samsudin AbË Hurayrah reports that Allah's Apostle (s. The Prophet (s. where it is repeatedly mentioned.com/hadith/English/index.com/hadith/English/index.html 79 Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqallani. ×adÊth 585. p131 80 AbË Dawud. The word “tijÉrah” is also used to remind human beings of their spiritual and metaphysical interactions with Allah the Almighty. none of you will have any claim on me for an injustice regarding blood or property. Majority of Muslim scholars are of the view that if the ruler finds it reasonable for seller and buyer to fix the price of goods.80 A ruler should not be unjust to both sellers and buyers. including this kind of delay. ‘Procrastination (delay) in repaying debts by a wealthy person is injustice. http://www. it is sheer injustice on his part. 35 .a.79 Any improper act in business. so please fix prices for us. 78 Al-BukhÉrÊ. withholds.w. is considered in Islam as an act of injustice.w. Book 3. gives in abundance and provides. The word “faÌl” is also used to describe business. http://www. Ibn ×ajar explained that the delay stated in the ×adÊth is the delay made without any valid reasons. The guidelines for a successful business have been explained in this paper in two major parts: strengthening one's inner spiritual self and conducting business.) said. 7. Vol. Thereupon the Apostle of Allah (s. Anas ibn MÉlik reports that the people said: O Apostle of Allah! Prices of goods have increased.) said: Allah is the One who fixes prices.a. A wealthy person is considered capable of paying the debt. and I hope that when I meet Allah. ×adÊth 3444. There is the specific use of the word “tijÉrah” as a permissible profession in the Holy Qur’Én. Sunan AbÊ Dawud.w. p440. including injustice towards the businessperson.7.a.”78. Volume 21.

intention and good manners are very vital in developing a strong and respectable personality. it is undeniable that the guideline in the light of Qur’Én and Sunnah will bring true success in this world and the Hereafter. Julai 2010. it is truly crucial for a Muslim businessman to follow the Islamic way of conducting business in order to achieve success in this world and the Hereafter.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues Knowledge. 95). but he has also established the Al-BukhÉrÊ foundation. For instance. considered as the modern role model for a Muslim Millionaire. while obeying the obligations and prohibitions in Islamic business is a main factor for a blessed business. 82 Salawati Haris. bil. which has contributed almost RM1 billion to charity82. p. Tan Sri Syed Mokhtar Syah Syed Nor al-BukhÉrÊ. 36 . Therefore. with involvement in many diversified business areas. Indeed. is not only among the richest Bumiputra corporate figure in Malaysia.10-11. MMP communications. Syed Mokhtar model jutawan Muslim (Milenia Muslim.

International Islamic University Malaysia. It was applied originally to interpret Biblical text with a view to coming up with different message. Fazlurrahman. AbË Zayd and others insist on the application of hermeneutics to the Qur’Én so as to reinterpret the Qur’anic stipulations. Orientalists like Kenneth Cragg. Today. Interpretation of the Qur’Én has a very interesting history spreading over almost fifteen centuries. Fazlurrahman. This paper is devoted to this concern. Whether this method is appropriate to the interpretation of * Associate Professor. Department of Qur’Én and Sunnah Studies.Hermeneutics of Qur’anic Exegesis Critical Evaluation of Some Muslim Writers’ Views Sohirin Mohammad Solihin* Abstract Hermeneutics was originally to interpret the Bible with a view to coming up with original message of God. Among new methods developed in the modern times one is what is called hermeneutics. Zaid Introduction The Qur’Én was interpreted and is still being interpreted by Muslim scholars. This approach has several pitfalls. Arkoun. the Qur’Én. These methods are at variance with each other due to various objectives of Qur’anic interpretation. Regardless of its propriety and efficacy. 37 . Arkoun. Various methods and approaches were used in that exercise. Keywords: Hermeneutics. and their Muslim counterparts like Fazlurrahman. IRKHS. this method is applied by some liberal Muslim writers to interpret the Qur’Én. and AbË Zayd have tried to apply hermeneutics to interpret the Qur’an. It is quite timely to review and evaluate new hermeneutics of the Qur’anic interpretation. Arkoun.

it can in no way be equated with Biblical hermeneutics. and it is generally applied to areas where traditions. TafsÊr is based on well-defined rules and principles carefully laid down by Islamic scholars. exegesis of a sacred text is related to hermeneutics. Interpretation of the Qur’Én is known as tafsÊr. religious texts. However. Some scholars of religion have tried to apply the concept of hermeneutics to Islam. as language is to grammar. the reputed messenger and interpreter of the gods.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues the Qur’an is a pressing issue today. 38 .83 Interpretation of the Bible is also claimed to have been based on traditions. whereas hermeneutics is nothing but independent interpretation of Christian and Jewish Scriptures guided by so called western intellectualism. or as reasoning is to logic. in turn. The usage has restricted the meaning of hermeneutics to the science of Biblical exegesis. which signifies analysis of religious messages. Certain scholars connect the derivation of the word with the name of Greek figure Hermes. One can see three European giants of the hermeneutic tradition: Martin 83 http://www. This article is devoted to address it. legal precedents are considered important in people's life. In view of this. it is not clear what sort of traditions have been employed to serve Biblical exegesis. Some others regard that the word is derived from hermeneuin. The mid-twentieth century witnessed philosophical hermeneutics enriched by development of phenomenology. Early Christian writers explained Sacred Scripture without relying on any formal principles. A Brief History of Hermeneutics Some claim that hermeneutics is basically a Greek word. to the collection of rules which govern the right interpretation of Sacred Scripture.newadvent. that is. does not require the rules developed by Muslim theologians. which.org/cathen/0727/a.htm. which means translation and interpretation of religious text.

is already to overturn the claims of modernist epistemology.Hermeneutics of Qur’anic Exegesis Sohirin Mohammad Solihin Heidegger. Gadamer and Ricoeur are somewhat more indirect in ontological claims than the former philosophers. namely via the accumulation of constructions. it is simply a theory about how traditions evolve. itself. Modern scholars have deconstructed further and found that there was no "original" text but an evolution of 39 . In post modernism deconstruction is usually applied to set out a bias in the literature alongside with criticism. but the phenomenologically enriched epistemologies of late modern hermeneutics shows how. epistemological implications of a hermeneutic ontology. Ontology precedes epistemology and this. and Paul Ricoeur. scientific knowledge as well as cultural knowledge must be derived from (human) ontology. Hans Georg Gadamer. Not only can one note the muting or virtual disappearance of a strong understanding distinction in the operative theory of these three hermeneutists. for some other reason been deemed to be undesired. in particular the Reformation Biblical translators like Luther who. There remain. Heidegger was in turn inspired by earlier hermeneutics. along with a methodology for ferreting out constructions that have. Hermeneutical Methods The authors with the tool of hermeneutics coined an epithet "deconstruction" which is mainly related to "destructive criticism". insofar as there can be a hermeneutic ontology there can be a methodological generalization which reaches beyond any historical or humanistic trajectory. And. In Heidegger this becomes the derivation of the objects of science from the pratical knowledge of pragmatic or tools. in principle. hermeneutics in the views of three thinkers becomes ontological. In effect this was to argue that scientific knowledge was derivative from practical knowledge. But deconstruction in its original sense is not a criticism at all. and thereby learn some more about its method and use. Enriched by Husserlian phenomenology. were trying to deconstruct the Catholic Church's interpretations to get back to the supposedly inspired original text. To continue our reflexive deconstruction. however.

Biblical hermeneutics refers to complex set of rules for expressing true sense of the inspired writer. 84 85 http://zsabo.63-71. and who were also imbued with the early oral traditions containing the true explanation of many difficult passages of Sacred Scripture. Thompson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.best. Anyone acquainted with the variety of opinions concerning the meaning of some of the most important passages of the Bible may wonder at the suggestion of explaining Scripture without the aid of hermeneutics. Paul. Edited and Translated by John B. pp. but it must be remembered that the so-called sacred languages were the vernacular tongues of the Syrian and Greek writers. 40 .85 Objectives and Principles of Hermeneutics The main objective of hermeneutics is to explain a text on the basis of author’s own understanding.net/hermenuetics/html# For the details see: Paul Ricoeur.vwh. the principles of hermeneutics began to develop. It is true that in the early Christian era the science of exegesis was not developed. who were familiar with what are to us Biblical antiquities. its knowledge is not significant for the Bible student. and then (finally) the Gospels.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues texts from the Essences. None can make this claim that the variety of exegetical results on the part of writers well-versed in the principles of scientific interpretation shows the uselessness of hermeneutics in the explanation of Sacred Scripture. But in the case of Scripture hermeneutics has diminished several opinions of interpreters simply on the ground that the views of Biblical interpreters are not supported by any solid scientific principle. As soon as these natural aids of the Christian Biblical interpretation began to wane. St. Hermeneutics and the Human Sciences. 1994).84 Hermeneutics is a mere accomplishment of the Biblical exegetes. No scientific principles have ever done away with all disagreement of scientists in any branch of knowledge. the Dead Sea Scrolls.

cannot be the true sense of Scripture. Such first principles exist in other sciences. and the internal and external conditions of its author. in logic. Returning to hermeneutics. and by way of the writer's mental and external condition. hence any meaning not in keeping with Scriptural grammar. cannot be the true sense of the writer. thought must be derived from language according to the same law which regulates the expression. it ought to be possible to determine the first and highest principle or law of hermeneutics. or not in harmony with the fact that inspiration and the spirit of the Church's interpretation. context. but only determine them more accurately in order to adapt them to the particular writings which they are to explain. He employs language in accordance with its peculiar usages and its rules of grammar. In this respect language in general does not differ from a cipher message which must be read according to the code in which it was written. for instance. If the interpreter wishes to fully understand the writer. we have the Aristotle’s principle of noncontradiction and the Golden Rule respectively. A writer commonly uses the code of his day and of his own peculiar circumstances. or the concrete conditions of the Biblical writers. expression of his thoughts and his words reflect his mental as well as his physical and social conditions. Hence flows the first and highest principle of hermeneutics: Find the sense of a book by way of its language (grammatically and philologically). the fact of its inspiration and of its authentic interpretation by the Church must be added to the three common criteria of interpretation. and in ethics. 41 . Since the more special hermeneutical laws do not contradict the more general laws. by way of the rules of logic (from the context). his train of thought or the context. and his psychological and historical condition at the time of writing. he must be guided by these quasi-criteria of the author's meaning: his language.Hermeneutics of Qur’anic Exegesis Sohirin Mohammad Solihin Thus the discovery and presentation of the genuine sense of Sacred Scripture may be said to be its formal objective. we may say that any meaning of a passage which does not agree with its grammar. from which all the special exegetical rules are derived. its context. too. In the case of Scripture. Expressing the same truth negatively.

this is a theological act. but rather it is an issue that arises out of the particular needs of that community. may be either of universal or particular application. underpinnings of interpretation. in this sense. the principles of understanding any text 42 . to read Scripture 'just like any other book'. that is. at least in academia. not because the universal rules of exegesis are inapplicable to the Sacred Books. the concept of hermeneutics has acquired at least two different meanings. the more recent development is to understand the term Biblical hermeneutics as the broader philosophy. Biblical hermeneutics mainly relates to the problem of how one has to understand the Holy Scripture. The rationale of this approach is that while Scripture is more than just an ordinary text. Sacred Scripture or canon law. and for the general theory of hermeneutics he considered applicable to all texts. Secondly.e part of the discourse of a faith-community. both of which are in use today: firstly. thus circumscribed. in fact. which are not applicable to profane writings. it is in the first instance text. however.. including the Bible. in the older sense. g. etc. though precisely what that might mean is by no means without dispute! Schleiermacher argued against a distinction between 'general' and 'special' hermeneutics. they may be valid for the right explanation of any book or writing. e. linguistics. which human beings try to understand. This does not mean that it is of no relevance to those who do not consider themselves to be part of that community. or they may be adapted for a particular class of books. Biblical hermeneutics belongs to this second class. Since the days of Schleiermacher. By definition. it is often virtually synonymous with principles of Biblical interpretation or methodology of Biblical exegesis. Biblical hermeneutics may be understood as the theological principles of exegesis. i.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues Biblical Hermeneutics The rules of hermeneutics. but because the sacred character of the Bible demands additional rules of interpretation. Biblical hermeneutics was usually seen as a form of special hermeneutics (like legal hermeneutics): the status of the Holy Scripture was thought to necessitate a particular form of understanding and interpretation. Since Schleiermacher's days. it has become increasingly common.

irrational. according to Tertulian. Saint Anselm used the deductive approach to give interpretation of Scriptures on the basis of rationalism. There are obvious examples of this in the links between 20th century philosophy and Christian theology: for examnple. linguistic principles for hermeneutics are considered applicable to the Biblical texts as well. the theology was seen by their leaders as something stagnant.wikipedia. vehemently denied the interpretation based on logical approach. which they regarded as detrimental to the essence of the message. a Church father at 2nd century and Kierkegaard. Theological Liberation In the history of Judeo-Christian tradition.86 All aspects of philosophical. and since the 1970s. Even long before that already emerged the opposition to interpret the holy Scripture merely on the basis of rationalism in which. 43 . Proslogion and Cur Deus Homo. Danish Philosopher of the 19th century. Rudolf Bultmann's hermeneutical approach was strongly influenced by existentialism. 87 This can be considered as the new phase of the beginning of rationalization in giving the interpretation of the Bible. the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer have had a wide-ranging influence on Biblical hermeneutics as developed by a wide range of Christian theologians. and in particular by the philosophy of Martin Heidegger. which could not give satisfactory answers to the contemporary issues. In the eleventh century.org/wiki/Biblical_Hermeneutics# In his theological concept. Anselm argues that the doctrine of incarnation and atonement can be deduced by logical necessity. Many theologians came out with different theories in their approaches toward the textual religion to suit with public demand in the light of new changing realities although they never reached unanimous agreement.Hermeneutics of Qur’anic Exegesis Sohirin Mohammad Solihin apply to the Bible as well (regardless of whatever other specificallytheological principles one might want to consider in addition to that). 86 87 http://en.

whether biblical or dogmatic. This was done somewhat naively in the older handbooks. It is also important to notice that many of the methods of 44 . but that nonetheless involves many procedures similar to those of other theologians. Every major theologian has a method that is unique in detail. twentieth-century German theologian Rudolf Bultmann advocated a method of demythologizing on the assumption that the essential meaning of the New Testament is an understanding of human existence that must be disengaged from the mythological language current at the time when the New Testament was written. Even a transposition intended to reproduce the exact meaning of the original text may result in substantial changes. and that even the most venerated dogmas periodically need reinterpretation and may lead to new insights.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues During the period of Reformation and post-Reformation Protestant theology. analyzing human experience and its problems. Formally similar to the biblically based theologies of Protestant writers are those of Roman Catholic writers who have tried to develop theologies based on the dogmatic pronouncements of the church. The principal types of theological method are obviously capable of being combined in different ways. begin the task from the opposite end. but it is now recognized that hermeneutical questions are as relevant to dogma as they are to scripture. the Church witnessed significant changes with regard to the interpretation of the Bible combining the textual explanation with logical exercises. He and others have made much use of phenomenology in their analysis of human experience. and then asking how traditional wisdom might illuminate or resolve these problems. In the light of the above concept. The term hermeneutics as a new way of interpreting the Bible was firstly introduced on the assumption that it should be something innovative instead of just the textual exposition from an ancient to a modern context. Twentieth-century German theologian Paul Tillich has used the expression “method of correlation” to describe this procedure in theology. Theologians who are reluctant to begin with an appeal to authoritative texts.

he holds.89 In a more vivid way.) to address different social issues. the law as contained in the Qur’Én is not necessarily to be taken in literal way. Rahman describes the nature of hermeneutics: But the method of Qur’Énic hermeneutics I am talking about is concerned with an understanding of its message that will enable those who have faith in it and want to live by its guidance – in both their 88 Fazlur Rahman. Islam and Modernity: Transformation of an Intellectual Tradition (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. In his view.Hermeneutics of Qur’anic Exegesis Sohirin Mohammad Solihin theology are the same as those employed by historians. Muslims’ Internalization Fazlurrahman is one of the Muslim scholars who eulogize the concept of hermeneutics to give interpretation to the texts of the Qur’Én. and others. While emphasizing on the importance of hermeneutics he declares that most of the Muslim scholars view the law of the Qur’Én from literal angle ignoring the reality that the revelations came down to the Prophet Muhammad (s. He gave the example of early generation of Muslim scholars especially during the medieval period in giving the interpretation of the Qur’Én from the customs of the conquered land and later modified them in the light of the Qur’Énic teaching. 88 He said that Muslim scholars especially in the field of exegesis should regard the textual revelation as raw materials which.w. He regards that the system of education in the Muslim world has failed to produce scholars who could give interpretation to the Qur’Én on the basis of situational changes. 19982). it is rather mostly linked with moral improvement of individual in a concrete and communal sense. initially stemmed from the law which prevailed in Arabia before the arrival of Islam. according to him. philosophers.2.a. students of language and literature. To deduce the Qur’Énic law. rationalists during the medieval period somehow reached a certain level of maturity and goodness of interpretation of the Qur’Én based on situational context. p. as it does not reflect pietistic indoctrination. 45 . 89 Ibid.

. is of course characteristic only of those who are genuine Muslims. that due to the fact that many scholars have written and even laid down what so called uÎËl al-tafÉsÊr. as well as malpractices in trade.) mind particularly to the problems of the commercial Meccan society of his day. provided the latter have the necessarily sympathy and sincerity.91 Rahman regards the social problems in Arabia at the advent of Islam as burden which could crack down the back of the Prophet (s.5.a. According to him. the problem of Arabia was mainly related with polytheism.w. 46 . 94:1-3.) who taught the divine guidance. more patently. p.93 The needs for adopting the hermeneutical method in giving interpretation to the Qur’Én is.w. He claims that the Prophet (s.).a. in certain areas. but faith which provides the motivation necessary to live by it.a. ‘ Have We not expanded thee thy breast? And removed from thee thy burden. The Holy Qur’Én: English translation of the Meanings and Commentary (Madinah: King Fahd Holy Qur’Én Printing Complex.w.w.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues individual and collectives lives – to do so coherently and meaningfully. He does not negate the great contribution of Muslim scholars in serving the Qur’Én but nevertheless there is dire needs for 90 91 Ibid Ibid. 92 Qur’Én. nonMuslims can share. I do not deny that faith may be born out of this cognitive effort itself or that. The which gall thy back?’ 93 For details see YËsuf ÑAlÊ.a. but the point is that pure cognition and emotive faith can be practically separated.90 In his criticism to the way how Muslim scholars interpret the religious text he considers that the arrival of revelation was in response to moral-social situation through the prophet’s (s. In this purely cognitive effort both Muslims and.1974.92 He suggests that the Qur’anic verses should be interpreted in the light of social conditions of Arabia as the main cause of the arrival of the textual guidance.) was granted the Q ur’Én ensuring to relieve him. exploitation of the poor. faith may and ought to lead to such a cognitive effort. p. 2002). among other things. and because of that majority of Arabs converted to Islam. the problem was solved with the arrival of the Prophet (s. The translation of those three verses says.

customs. In Afkar Inquiry. The prominent role of the Qureish. 47 . In view of this.45. the situation in Makkah immediately before Islam calls for a deep understanding. institutions and the general way of life of the Arabs therefore becomes essential for understanding the activity of the Prophet. and general way of lives could be considered as master key to reveal the hidden message of the Qur’Én. the interpretation on ÉyÉt al-zakÉh should. op. An attempt must be made not only to understand the pre-Islamic Arab religion but as we have said also their social institutions economic life and the political relationships. To shed more lights on the proposed hermeneutical methods. p. According to him. of which only nine-tenth is visible. to understand the Qur’Én through the activity of the Prophets once should take into account the historical background of the Arabs.. Without understanding these matters it is a hopeless task to try to understand the message of the Qur’Én as a whole. Its law can be adjusted with other man made law provided that it guarantees justice. 46. the globalization of the divine message is to interpret the Qur’Én based on rationalization. Interpreting the Qur’Én. Fazlurrahman. and its religio-economic ascendancy among the Arabs. The customs. In particular. May. 1996. be linked with God’s direction to the use of wealth and its social impact on the community. cit.95 It seems his views on the global message of the Qur’Én differ from the rest of Muslim scholars. must be understood. He suggests that the idea behind the rationale of such religious norms is not to let the 94 95 See Fazlur Rahman.Hermeneutics of Qur’anic Exegesis Sohirin Mohammad Solihin hermeneutical theory that will help in understanding the meaning of the Qur’Én as a whole. his statements says. the powerful tribe to which the Prophet himself belonged. He regards that the Qur’Én is like the tip of an iceberg. not necessarily sticking to the formal legal aspect as stated in the text. An example of his hermeneutical approach towards the Qur’Énic text is related to the law of zakÉh. on the first part.94 He is of the view that the activities of the Prophet throughout the passage of live is to actualize the message of the Qur’Én. According to him. p.

cannot be interpreted as it appears in the text. It could be assumed by others the establishment of other administrative aspect in the hand of the government such as obligation of taxes which. Another example speaks volumes of his view on socioconditional interpretation of gradual stages of prohibition to drink alcohol.w. The verse on wine-prohibition. never bother on the establishment of an institution with similar purpose to eradicate the poverty rather it revolves on fostering the obligatory paying zakÉh on the individuals. He regards that zakÉh is only one of the ways and it is imperative for Muslims to formulate other legislation besides zakÉh which would put the economic life of Muslim society on a truly Islamic basis. Here Rahman left the idea in vague without articulation what he means by other legislation besides zakÉh.97 Even Muslims.) received revelation in response to Muslims’ concern about wine: These people keep asking about alcohol and games of chances. during the Madinan period drank alcohol and a group of people including ÑUmar b. the purpose of zakÉh is to maintain the justice and the poor should be given the benefit from the economic distribution through the process of industry and economic development. even Muslim scholars are with different stands with regard to its interpretation. he considers it as actualization of zakÉh in non-formalistic way. according to him. KhattÉb wished the Qur’Én to declare prohibition on wine. he argues. He suggests that the Qur’Én views alcohol among the blessings of God along with milk and honey. it can be replaced by another system to govern the income distribution. tell them that there is a great deal of harm in them but there are also 96 97 Ibid.96 He says that eradication of poverty and maintaining justice to give benefit to others is not necessarily dependent on application of the formal concept of zakÉh. he maintains. SËrah al-NaÍl: 16:66-69. 48 . perhaps. 59:7).a.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues wealth circulated among the rich in the society (Q. and the Prophet (s. He criticizes Muslim jurists in which.

98 According to Rahman. but their harm (or sin) outweighs their benefits. and the incident was reported to the Prophet (s. and those who converted to Islam were small in number who continued their habit of drinking wine even 98 99 SËrah al-Baqarah: 2:219. Rahman holds that these verses which outwardly look contradictory need to be supported with historical evidence in which.) who soon received a revelation: Do not approach prayers when you are under the influence of alcohol so that you should know what you are sayings. which resulted in physical assault.a.Hermeneutics of Qur’anic Exegesis Sohirin Mohammad Solihin certain profits for people in them.w. diving by arrows and idol-altars are an abomination and work of the devil.). intoxication caused brawl among them. So that they might attain to a happy state. games of chance. Muslim scholars especially in the field of jurisprudence have different perceptions with regard to these verses (2:219. 4:43. When this was reported to the Prophet (s. It is reported that SaÑd b. The devil wants to sow discord and rancor among you and that you should become oblivious of your duty of praying to God. at one time the anÎÉrs hosted a party where some people consumed alcohol to the extent that some of them became intoxicated. during the Makkan period there was hardly any Muslim community. some people even quoted pre-Islamic poetry against each other. when one of them led prayer he misread the Qur’Én. 5:90). Others consider these verses gradual process of prohibition of drinking alcohol among the Arabs.a. Therefore desist from alcohol. according to him. Some of them view that the first one (2:219) still remains valid.w. There was a party hosted by some anÎÉr where alcohol was served. the verse 5:90 came down: Alcohol.99 Rahman cites another historical event leading to revelation of 5:90. 49 . AbÊ WaqqÉs had his nose broken. SËrah al-NisÉ´: 4:43.

is of course that when human beings become a society. the situation did not cause any problem as they did not yet emerge as a distinct community. alcohol can be consumed by Muslims? Considering hermeneutical approaches similar to qiyÉs as laid down by Muslim jurists is too much to be proved valid. According to him. He vehemently criticizes approach of those who take the Qur’Énic texts in their literal sense. 50 . 46. op. His opinion with regard to the use of hermeneutical approach is concluded with this statement: The net conclusion. Rahman’s views as mentioned above regard that prohibition of alcohol is not really absolute but it is based on environmental condition.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues after conversion of prominent members of the community such as ÑUmar b. He refers to three main conditional aspects: alwaÍy (revelation). He disagrees with the exegetical theory of abrogation of these revelations. p. Does it mean that if there is hardly any Muslim community at a particular time and space like the one founded in Madinah. He uses similar approaches as employed by Rahman.100 Socio-conditional aspect. al-tÉrÊkh (history). so far as our present case is concerned. KhattÉb and Hamza. cit. and drinking alcohol was regarded as harmful for communal life. Mohammad Arkoun regards hermeneutics as necessary to interpret Islamic textual revelations.. He uses another theory of hermeneutics for which he mostly relies on Orientalists’ writings. ignoring environmental conditions that played the dominant role in revelations. Arkoun criticizes tradition of Muslims to begin their reading of the Qur’Én with the phrase: qÉla Allah taÑÉlÉ (Allah says) and to end with another 100 Fazlurrahman. he says. they formed a community. has initial similarity with the concept of qiyÉs (analogical reasoning) hence Muslim legists need to broaden their concept of qiyÉs in order to be in consonance with the realities. when they moved to Madinah. al-haqÊqah (reality). alcohol becomes harmful in a way that its consumption cannot be allowed.

we can assume that his idea revolves around the attitude of Muslims who mostly regard the textual message of the Qur’Én as simply dogmatic. Although he did not give the details and examples of the historical approach to the Qur’Énic texts. He argues that if Muslims believe that the Qur’Én was revealed in certain historical context. The goal of hermeneutics is to ensure that the laws of 101 Arkoun. its law should be understood in the light of environmental changes.102 Hermeneutical approaches are closely related to the assumption that religious messages as contained in the text may not be suitable to be observed in the present situation. 2003). and that it does not bear the characters of eternality. This practice. Muhammad. 102 Zayd.101 Those who seem to be in love with hermeneutics have arrived at the conclusion that the message of Islam was revealed in Arabia and needs to be revised to adjust it in the changing situation. He laments further that only a small group of scholars accept the dictum that the Qur’Én was created (al-khalq). This is in fact. 2001). NaÎr ×Émid AbË Zayd regards historical context as prerequisite to interpret the message of the Qur’Én. he holds. treat the Qur’Én with philological approach instead of socio-historical analysis.92-93. pp. He views that Islamic religious text manifests the socio-historical context hence interpretation of the Qur’Én should be done in the light of history. NaÎhr ×Émid AbË. Most of Muslim scholars. dan Kekuasaan: Kontroversi dan Penggugatan Hermeneutik Al-Qur’É. 51 . This is in total conflict with main principles of Islamic faith.Hermeneutics of Qur’anic Exegesis Sohirin Mohammad Solihin assertion: ‘sadaqa Allah al-ÑaÐÊm’ (Allah the great uttered truth).17. Al-Qur’Én. the approach of non-Muslim scholars who initiated hermeneutic method in the Qur’Énic studies. ‘Al-Qur’Én: Min al-TafsÊr al-MawrËth ilÉ taÍlÊl al-KhiÏÉb al-DÊnÊ (BeirËt: DÉr al-ÙalÊÑah. (Bandung: Research for Qur’Énic Studies. Advocates of hermeneutics seem to suggest that the Qur’anic revelations do not correspond with the changing reality. pp. Hermeneutics. according to him. conveys the message that the Qur’Én has been tightly closed for new interpretations.

lxxxiii. Moreover. Sahiron. ×assan HanafÊ views that hermeneutics is not just to reveal the hidden meaning of the Qur’Én but it is rather to expose the reality of the message so as to let it comply with the human socio-environmental condition. Vol. (ÑAÐamÊ. ‘The Qur’Én as a Sacred Scripture’. This approach contradicts with the purpose of revelation as source of guidance. In view of this.K Islamic Academy. Muslim World. NaÎr ×Émid AbË Zayd. 2003). hermeneutics is totally incongruent to the system of Qur’anic interpretation. April 1993. 103 See: Peter Ford. Most the exponents of hermeneutics such Kenneth Cragg. no. 2003). 2003). quoted by MuÎÏafÉ al-ÑAÐamÊ. p. they claim.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues the SharÊÑah comply with the modern society hence need to be revised and amended. the main concern of hermeneutists is to ensure the elements of human authorship in the Holy Book. addressed particular environment and different socio-economic and political conditions.156.2. Fazlurrahman.104 Conclusion It has become obvious from the above exposition that hermeneutics is basically aimed at creating doubt about the Qur’Én. p. 52 .60-61. and Mohammad Arkoun are very critical of certain aspects of Qur’Énic discourse which. 104 See Syamsuddin. Hermanutika al-Qur’an Mazhab Yogya (Yogyakarta: Prostudia Islamica. pp.103 This can be seen in the views of Kenneth Cragg who urges Muslim to re-think about the concept of waÍy to abrogate the Madinan verses (with their political and legal emphasis) in favor of Makkan sËrahs which are more concerned about the concept of monotheistic belief implying that political Islam deserves no shelter in the midst of growing democratic concern.318. the Qur’an: from Revelation to Compilation (Leicester: U.

(2001).newadvent. Madinah: King Fahd Holy Qur’Én Printing Complex. (April 1993). YËsuf ÑAlÊ. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hermeneutics. BeirËt: DÉr al-ÙalÊÑah. Paul Ricoeur. In Afkar Inquiry. Muslim World. Fazlur Rahman. (2003). Kuwait. MabÉhith fÊ ÑulËm al-Qur’Én. (1982). Zayd. MuÎÏafÉ al-ÑAÐamÊ. (1994). The Holy Qur’Én: English translation of the Meanings and Commentary. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Muhammad. Hermeneutics and the Human Sciences. n. Al-Qur’Én.2. Peter Ford. 1999. DÉr al-Qalam. (2002).best. ‘The Qur’Én as a Sacred Scripture’.htm. http://en. xxxiii.p. Thompson. dan Kekuasaan: Kontroversi dan Penggugatan Hermeneutik AlQur’É.wikipedia. Fazlur Rahman. NaÎhr ×Émid AbË. ‘Al-Qur’Én: Min al-TafsÊr al-MawrËth ilÉ aÍlÊl al-KhiÏÉb al-DÊn.Hermeneutics of Qur’anic Exegesis Sohirin Mohammad Solihin References: Arkoun. The Qur’an: from Revelation to Compilation. Islam and Modernity: Transformation of an Intellectual Tradition.vwh. Interpreting the Qur’Én. Bandung: Research for Qur’Énic Studies. Edited and Translated by John B. Sahiron. (2003). no. http://zsabo. (2003).org/wiki/Biblical_Hermeneutics# http://www. (May 1996).K Islamic Academy. Syamsuddin. Leicester: U. Yogyakarta: Prostudia Islamica. 53 . Vol. Hermanutika al-Qur’an Mazhab Yogya.org/cathen/0727/a.Ê.net/hermenuetics/html# MannÉÑ al-QatÏÏÉn.

54 .

my. and Islamic history. abusajid@yahoo. It signifies utmost endeavor to achieve a target. the Qur’Én. They have all jumped to the conclusion without going through basic sources.) JihÉd and his struggles to establish Islam in all aspects of human life have been misinterpreted by western writers. ×adÊth. and views of Muslim scholars.w. This paper * Assistant Professor. It is called a term referring to Islamic war against non-believing forces.com. and ×adÊth. Explanations Introduction Islamic JihÉd.edu. This situation is to be blamed equally on Muslims and non-Muslims. IRKHS. Justice demands deeper understanding of the term jihÉd not in the light of any sources but the Islamic ones. Department of Qur’Én and Sunnah Studies. Due to known and unknown reasons this term is surrounded by misconceptions.w. Misinterpretation of jihÉd is consequent upon misreading the Qur’Én. ×adÊth. The Qur’Én. Misconceptions. terrorism.JihÉd An Analysis from Islamic Perspective Noor Mohammad Osmani* Abstract JihÉd stands for peace.a. Key words: JihÉd. Despite explanations offered by Muslim scholars.) exemplary mission. Email: abusajid@iium. the classical Arabic language. it is due to its misinterpretation not merely by others but also by Muslims themselves. killing the infidels and suicide bombings are some terms cited frequently in the eastern as well as western media. holy war. the Prophet’s (s. 55 . The Prophet’s (s.a. this term is looked at as an offensive and inhuman approach. Whenever jihÉd is referred to as war against nonMuslims. International Islamic University Malaysia. This paper is devoted to the discussion on jihÉd on the basis of the Qur’Én.

Today there are different types of ×arb (war) such as cultural. It also refers to struggle against injustice. psychological war and so on. Five of these contain the phrase jahd aymānihim. and oppression hence usage of the term jihÉd. p. and JihÉd against enemy through armed struggle. While Islam does not neglect its multifarious usage of the word in different meanings. 105 Landau-Tasseron. Ella. It has commonly been used in the sense of 'Fighting' 'war' 'battle' 'Islamic crusade' and so on.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=q3_COM-00101 106 Ibn al-Qaiyyim. 2010. JihÉd against injustice. exploitation. ×arb (war). exertion. its primary meaning should not be neglected. (Beirut: Muwassasat al-RisÉlah.106 JihÉd is also used in the meaning of QitÉl (fighting). Ibn Qaiyyim writes 13 different stages of JihÉd. Washington DC. 3. exhaustion. 35. 04 March 2010 http://www. or retribution against tyranny.brillonline. "Jihād. including JihÉd against Satanic desire. strain. Brill Online." Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān. denoting effort. General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe. economic.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues represents a humble attempt to understand jihÉd from Islamic perspective. communicative. ZÉd al-Ma‘ad.. Brill. vol. Defining JihÉd The word jihād is derived from the root j-h-d. JihÉd against hypocrisy and hypocrites.” Encyclopedia of the Qur’Én asserts that there are only ten places in the Qur’ ān where jihÉd definitely signifies warfare. tyranny and corruption in society. Derivatives of this root occur in forty-one Qur’ānic verses. Georgetown University. patience and perseverance. Islam allows armed struggle for self-defense. 56 . meaning “[to swear] the strongest oath. JihÉd through preaching. International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM).105 JihÉd primarily connotes inner struggle of a person to develop virtues and maintain submission to God in all aspects of life. 1986) 3/5-9.

Though the term ‘holy war’ originated for Christian wars. its different usages in the Qur’Én and ÍadÊth should not be ignored.w. ×asan al-BaÎrÊ. to be better Muslims. n. the self-discipline (common to the three Abrahamic faiths) in which believers seek to follow God's will. 919. to make society more moral and just.107 While not denying the fact of its use in the meaning of armed struggle. "JihÉd" signifies the battle against evil and devil. 3/160..) to engage in fighting during his stay at Makkah. 108 Ibn JarÊr al. 57 . and no other JihÉd could be greater than this. was reported to have regarded the struggle against one’s illicit desires as the greatest JihÉd. In its most generic meaning.w. He writes: The term JihÉd has a number of meanings which include the effort to lead a good life. Mahmud Muhammad Shakir (Cairo: Maktabah al-Khanji.ÙabarÊ. it seems many people applied the same term for Islamic JihÉd. it has been defined in the Western media as 'a holy war fought by Muslims. you get relieved. Finally. JihÉd means the struggle to spread and to defend Islam. TahdhÊb al-AathÉr. which misled many Muslims and non-Muslims alike.d. 107 John Esposito. a prominent TÉbi‘Ê scholar.a. The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality (Oxford: Oxford University Press. No.JihÉd Noor Mohammad Osmani Generally.a. It is the lifelong struggle to be virtuous. to be true to the straight path of God. 1992).”108 JihÉd in the light of the Qur’Én and Sunnah Relevant Qur’Énic ÉyÉt and aÍÉdÊth of the Prophet MuÍammad (s. ed. He says: “If you kill your enemy. p 32.). It was only at Madinah that Allah permitted Muslims to fight back against nonbelievers if they continued their terrorism against Muslims. teaching. But the real enemy is the ‘nafs’ or desire that you cherish in your chest. against those who reject Islam’.. and to spread Islam through preaching.) indicate that Allah did not permit the Prophet MuÍammad (s. or armed struggle. John Esposito presents a moderate view of JihÉd.

and raise for us from thee one who will protect. Muslims are urged to stop it and accept the invitation of peace and treaty. but it seeks to establish peace and harmony in society. (Al-NisÉ’ 4: 90) But if the enemy incline towards peace. and raise for us from thee one who will help!" (Al-NisÉ’ 4: 75) The Qur’Én made it clear that the war may continue so long as the other party is engaged in it. Allah says: And why should ye not fight in the cause of Allah and of those who. Muslims must respect it. but do not transgress limits. and children. and trust in Allah: for He is One that heareth and knoweth (all things). whose people are oppressors. but also the whole humanity. are ill-treated (and oppressed)?. and (instead) send you (Guarantees of) peace. do thou (also) incline towards peace. being weak. for Allah loveth not transgressors. He says: Fight in the cause of Allah with those who fight you.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues Allah commands Muslims to get engaged in war with those who fight against them. (Tawbah 9: 36) One of the primary objectives of JihÉd is to help the oppressed and free them from tortures and oppression. Allah says: If they withdraw from you but fight you not. If they desist from war. nor aided any one against you. JihÉd is against the tyrants and the oppressors. So fulfill your 58 .Men. whose cry is: "Our Lord! Rescue us from this town. (Al-Baqarah 2:190) Fight the Pagans all together as they fight you all together. (Al-AnfÉl 8: 61) The Qur’Én commands to respect the treaties done with nations. It is not applied for only Muslims. women. then Allah Hath opened no way for you (to war against them). Unless they violate it. Allah says: (But the treaties are) not dissolved with those Pagans with whom ye have entered into alliance and who have not subsequently failed you in aught. without any transgression or exceeding the limits. But know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves. This serve as a clear testimony that Islam is not blood-thirsty.

BÉb Man Qatala lÊ al-Maghnam. from dealing kindly and justly with them: for Allah loveth those who are just. his is in the way of Allah. Who among them fights in the Way of Allah? The Prophet said: "He who fights to make Allah's word superior. ØaÍÊÍ Muslim. no. (Beirut: DÉr Ibn KathÊr. 10/5. 2894. the fighting was generally made for revenge.a.d. (AlMumtaÍinah 60: 8) The Prophet Muhammad (s.JihÉd Noor Mohammad Osmani engagements with them to the end of their term: for Allah loveth the righteous. The others could even be the friends of Muslims. BÉb Man Qatala LitakËna Kalimatullah. A companion said to him: “O Prophet of Allah! There are people who fight for wealth and booties. During the early days before Islam. Allah declares it to be a great victory: Verily We have granted thee a manifest Victory. 3534.w. It was a treaty of peace.). with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes. establishing close link among them. (Al-FatÍ 48: 1) Muslims are urged to extend the hands of cooperation to those who are not engaged in war with them. 10/371. popularity and enslaving others especially beautiful girls for enjoyment. and some other for showing his courage and position. The Prophet (s. (Beirut: DÉr alFikr. KitÉbKitÉb al-Imarah.a. 59 . no. (Tawbah 9: 4) Even the treaty of Hudaybiah is treated by Allah as a great victory. 1407AH/1987). harmony and peaceful living that Makkan pagans agreed to desist from fighting for 10 years which could be extended further.w) did not even hesitate to accept derogatory terms demanded by Makkans in order to establish greater harmony and peace. Allah says: Allah forbids you not. another for popularity. KitÉb Fard al-Khumus.) set right the motives of his companions in JihÉd. n. wealth.”109 109 ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ.

n. no. Sunan AbÊ Da’wud. ØaÍÊÍ M uslim. they should sacrifice their lives for the Cause of Allah. if the worker is engaged in fighting. he could also be killed. 112 Azimabadi.a. KitÉb alJihÉd. ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ. she could be killed.a.112 The Prophet (s. Tell Khalid that he should not kill a lady or a worker". 2744. “Do not desire to fight the enemies. Remember the Paradise is beneath the shades of swords. Likewise. KitÉb al-JihÉd wa al-Siyar.w. it becomes imperative on Muslims to face the enemies and should not run away. KitÉb al-JihÉd wa al-Siyar. 2nd edn.111 This shows that if woman gets engaged in fighting. and ask Allah's forgiveness and mercy. Once you face them. be firm and persevering. 6/105. 2295. also the Turks till they get engaged in war.w. 60 . 7/274.a. The valid reason for not killing is 'not engaging in war'. 10/124. But if the fighting breaks out.). 113 AbË Dawud.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues The Prophet MuÍammad (s.) once saw a woman killed in one of the expeditions under the leadership of KhÉlid ibn al-WalÊd. it is to be applied to all.d. no. 9/169. 2295. The Prophet (s. 1415AH).) outlined principles of war: 110 Al-BukhÉrÊ."113 Even though the ÍadÊth mentions only the Abyssinians and the Turks. and disapproved such an act: "This lady was not supposed to engage in war. 3748. 'Awn al-Ma'bud Sharh Sunan AbË Da'wud (Beirut: DÉr al-Kutub al‘Ilmiyyah.) made it clear that Muslims should not desire to fight with the enemies. BÉb FÊQatl al-NisÉ’. KitÉb al-Malahim. no.) also asked Companions not to engage in war so long as the other party does not engage in war.w.a. (Beirut: DÉr KitÉb al-‘Arabi. If the fighting breaks out. Sunan AbÊ Da’wud. BÉb Karahat Tamanni LiqÉ’ al -‘Aduw. 3276. He advised them: "Leave the Abyssinians till they attack on you.w. BÉb FÊ al-Nahy ‘an Taheej al-Turk wa al-Habashah. 11/377. No. no. 111 AbË Dawud. BÉb kÉna al-Nabiyy ’idha lam YuqÉtil." 110 The Prophet (s.

JihÉd

Noor Mohammad Osmani

“Fight in the name of Allah in His Path. Fight those infidels who reject belief in Allah; do not commit theft in booties; do not violate the treaty; don't mutilate bodies; and do not kill a child."114 Philosophy of JihÉd The philosophy of JihÉd is summed up in the following verses: (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except that they say, "our Lord is Allah". Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid His (cause);- for verily Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will). (Al-×ajj 22: 40) And did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, the earth would indeed be full of mischief: But Allah is full of bounty to all the worlds. (Al-Baqarah 2: 251) It is divine rule that when people transgress limits and try to pose to be absolutely powerful, Allah punishes them and defeats them by others. This check and balance is imminent to preserve human society and safeguard it from tyranny and oppression. This is called, Sunnat al-TadÉfuÑ (divine law of protection). Human kind from its inception has two segments, good and bad, virtuous and corrupt. The corrupt and criminals outnumber the virtuous. The crime began in human society from the murder of one of the sons of Ódam by another, as Jewish and Islamic traditions establish. The criminals need to be dealt with harshly. Good advice may not usually work with them. That is why Allah has made JihÉd obligatory to defend one's religion, life, dignity, property, freedom, human rights, and values. Had JihÉd not

114

Muslim, ØaÍÊÍ Muslim, KitÉb al-JihÉd wa al-Siyar, BÉb Ta’mir al-ImÉm alUmara’, no. 3261, 9/150; Sunan AbÊ Da’wud, KitÉb al-JihÉd, BÉb fÊ Du`a alMushrikin, no.2246, 7/194.

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Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues

been made obligatory by Allah, human society would have vanished long ago. Allah commands people to fight until the tyranny and oppression disappear. He says: And fight them on until there is no more Tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah; but if they cease, Let there be no hostility except to those who practice oppression. (Al-Baqarah 2: 193) Allah does not like FasÉd (mischief) to prevail on earth. He removes criminals and mischievous people by others. Allah confirms: Every time they kindle the fire of war, Allah doth extinguish it; but they (ever) strive to do mischief on earth. And Allah loveth not those who do mischief. (Al-MÉ’idah 5: 64)115 Islamic Ethics of War JihÉd in the sense of war, as allowed by Islam keeping particular situation in view, is not free from regulations under Islamic SharÊ‘ah. All the rules of war are governed by three fundamental principles: necessity, humanity and chivalry. The main rules of war in Islam are as follows: A non-combatant who is not taking part in warfare, either by action, opinion, planning or supplies, must not be attacked; the traders or peasants who are just working for their masters should not be attacked unless they take active part in the battles. No killing of women, children, and innocents, including hermits, monks, other religious leaders who are deemed as non-combatants.

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115

See for details, Abul A`la Mawdudi, Al-JihÉd fÊ al-Islam, (Lahore, Pakistan: Idarah Tarjumanul Qur’Én, 12th edn., 1990), pp 37-40.

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JihÉd

Noor Mohammad Osmani

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Non-combatants are guaranteed security of life even if their state is at war with an Islamic state. The destruction of property is prohibited, except when it is a military necessity to do so, such as for the army to penetrate barricades, or when that property makes a direct contribution to war, such as castles and fortresses. No killing of livestock and animals, and no destruction of wells. Principles of humanity and virtue should be respected during and after war. It is desirable to prevent as early as possible the continuation of warfare.116

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The conduct of hostilities is strictly regulated by the Qur’Én, the words of the Prophet (s.a.w.), commands of AbË Bakr al-ØiddÊq (632-634), the first Caliph of Islam, as well as those of other Muslim commanders. The Prophet (s.a.w.) once advised his Companions: “Move forward in the Name of God, by God, and on the religion of God’s Prophet. Do not kill an elderly, or a child, or a woman, do not misappropriate booty, gather your spoils, do good for God loves good doers.”117 AbË Bakr formulated a detailed set of rules for Islamic conduct during war. He gave the following instructions to a Muslim army

116

Wahbah al-ZuhailÊ, “Islam and International Law,” in International Review of the Red Cross, Volume 87 No. 858 (June 2005), 282-283 http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/review-858p269/$File/irrc_858_Zuhili.pdf; see also Youssef H. Aboul-Enein and Sherifa Zuhur, Islamic Rulings on Warfare (Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, 2004), at http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub588.pdf. 117 Ibn AbÊ Shaybah, Al-Musannaf, chapter 95, 7/654; also in Bayhaqi, Ma‘rifat alSunan wa al-’AthÉr, KitÉb al-Siyar, ×adÊth no. 5643, 14/365.

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with the (Qur’Én). he had to endure tortures and persecutions at the hands of Makkans and people in ÙÉ'if.a. Madinan JihÉd was armed struggle against the non-believers.a. which is through da‘wah (preaching) and Îabr (patience). See Jalal al-DÊn al-SayuÏÊ. while in Makkah it was the JihÉd of Da‘wah. (Al‘AnkabËt 29: 69) Allah also commands the Prophet (s. 6. which was then governed by the Byzantine Empire: “O people! I want to share with you ten rules for your guidance in the battlefield.) Mission Regular JihÉd in Life The Prophet MuÍammad (s. In 13 years of Makkan life.w. Do not commit treachery or deviate from the right path. Sharh `ala Muwatta’ Malik (Cairo: al-Halabi Press. He will show him the true path. patience.d.w.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues setting out for Syria. Allah promised that one who strives (does JihÉd) in His Path. nor an aged man. Bring no harm to the trees. Allah says in the Qur’Én: Therefore listen not to the Unbelievers.) lived a life full of struggle in Makkah and also in Madinah. You are likely to pass by people who have devoted their lives to monastic services.) to struggle against MushrikÊn (polytheists) with the Qur’Én. Vol. n. TanwÊr al-Hawalik. education and training etc. He says: And those who strive in Our (cause). (Al-FurqÉn 25: 52) 118 Related by Imam Malik. but strive against them with the utmost strenuousness.a. 64 . Øabr. II). Neither kill a child. Slay not any of the enemy’s flock. especially those which are fruitful. You must not mutilate dead bodies. nor a woman.”118 JihÉd in the Prophet’s (s. nor burn them..We will certainly guide them to our Paths: For verily Allah is with those who do right. leave them alone.w. save for your food.

and Allah will certainly know those who are true from those who are false.. and legal right. but the spirit of the Prophet (s.) knew very well that self-defense was their natural.) instruction based on Allah’s advice: Therefore patiently persevere. KitÉb al-JihÉd.JihÉd Noor Mohammad Osmani Muslims were brutally tortured at Makkah by MushrikËn.119 He also did not ask them to demolish the idols installed in Ka‘bah. economically. They suffered extreme hunger and faced terrible challenges during these trying times. H.w. his followers and relatives. But they refrained from doing that simply because it would be against the Prophet’s (s. Their struggles in the way of Allah remained firm and strong. no. and psychologically the Prophet (s. (Beirut: DÉr al-Ma`rifah. 65 .w. moral. The Prophet (s.w.). (AlAÍqaf 46: 35) Quraysh boycotted socially. 10/128. and that they will not be tested? We did test those before them. Allah revealed Qur’Énic revelations to console the Prophet (s. WujËb al-JihÉd. 1420AH).w. yet he did not give them permission to fight back and prohibited them from engaging in any combats. as did (all) messengers of inflexible purpose. (‘AnkabËt 29: 2-3) 119 Sunan Nasa’Ê. The victims sought permission of the Prophet (s. 3036. Allah says: Do men think that they will be left alone on saying.a.). His devoted Companions could sacrifice their lives to demolish those idols in the darkness of night.w. "We believe".) and his followers never faded. and reminded Muslims to remain steadfast in their Islamic stand and offer utmost sacrifices. and be in no haste about the (unbelievers).a. BÉb no.a.a. there were idols in and around Ka‘bah. When he performed minor pilgrimage in 7th A.) to fight back in retaliation.w.a. 1.a.

a. AbË Sufyan. The Muslims in Mecca enjoyed neither safety nor security. For details. but AbË Jahl. Allah granted victory to Muslims. The early Muslims had every international right to resent persecution and intolerance of the Makkaans and to establish themselves by force of arms. sent Damdam bin 'Amr al-Ghifari to Makkan people to inform about the Prophet's (s. They were expelled from their homes. 70 Qurayish leaders were killed. the commander. sensing the Prophet Muhammad's attack on him.). Makkan people became furious and vowed to attack Madinah. took a safer sea side pathway to reach Makkah. 70 others made prisoners. and then only shall we return. and suggested Quraysh not to march towards Madinah. 1980). they did not let him and his Companions live peacefully in the new Islamic state of Madinah. SÊrat Ibn ×ishÉm.) The Prophet MuÍammad (s. Also in Al-Waqidi. KitÉb al-MaghazÊ. see Ibn Hisham.) went out to deal with the Caravans of AbË Sufyan.120 Battle of Badr (2 A. Religious freedom was denied to them.w.121 120 121 Cheragh Ali. They were aggressors. 66 . said: No by God! We shall deal with Muhammad.a.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues Reasons for the warfare in the Prophetic Mission The Prophet Muhammad (s. H. The Prophet (s.a. n.w.a. They would not allow the believers to renounce the religion of their forefathers and profess Islam. 1/12-50.) was justified in taking up arms against Qurayish. (Beirut: ‘Alam al-Kutub.d. The persecution of the early Muslims by the Qurayish was on religious grounds. (Beirut: DÉr al-Fikr. who was coming from Syria after trade and purchase of arms. 1/606636.) sent a contingent of his Companions to waylay the caravan. though they were harmless and peaceful members of the community.) intended attack.w. on the other hand. AbË Abdillah Muhammad bin ‘Umar. 25-27. AbË Sufyan. to enjoy their religious liberty and to practice their religion freely.w.

who tried to 122 For details.a.w. All of them agreed. The Muslims became powerful again. But the 50 archers that the Prophet assigned on mountain pass. KhÉlid ibn WalÊd. Quraysh were eager to annihilate Muslims totally.) and his companions dug trench around Madinah.a. Other MushrikËn also turned back after knowing the development in their favor.w.a. Prophet (s. Though they had upper hand in UÍud. They even told the MushrikËn that Shirk (polytheism) was better than the religion of Muhammad (s. see Al-Waqidi.JihÉd Noor Mohammad Osmani Battle of UÍud (3 A. The Prophet (s.000 soldiers marched towards Madinah with the intention to annihilate the Muslims.) The Prophet (s. the leaders of NaÐÊr went to Quraysh and other Arab tribes with an invitation to fight against Muslims and destroy them totally.w. left their position and came down to collect the booty.122 Battle of Ditch (5 A. The Prophet (s. and were able to hold the MushrikËn. and Quraysh felt unsafe in traveling to Syria for trade. leaving the place unsafe. They were able to kill 70 Muslims. 67 .) expelled Jews of BanË NaÐÊr due to their treachery against Islamic state. 1/199-240.a. H. H. and attacked on them. and utilize the trade output of AbË Sufyan for this purpose. Muslims initially were victorious and Quraysh fled the battleground.). and also could not enter Madinah.w.) Makkan people and leaders were very sad over their defeat in battle of Badr and decided to take revenge on the Muslims. Those.) upon consultation with the Muslims came out of Madinah and encouraged them for greater sacrifice and dedication. 3000 fighters marched towards Madinah. Many others joined them. ×uyyay ibn Akhtab and SallÉm bin AbÊ al-×aqÊq.a. grabbed the chance and quickly marched towards Muslim army from behind. they could not destroy Muslims' power.w. A huge army of 10. They were waiting for a final chance to invade Madinah.) also got injured. a kÉfir commander then.

S. you are a noble brother and son of a noble brother. were killed by Muslims. there is no reproof for you). all of you are free. he forgave Wahshi the killer of his beloved uncle.124 He forgave those who tortured him and his companions and fought against him after his migration to Madinah. Al-RaÍÊq al-MakhtËm.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues cross over. 1/274-282. destroyed the tents of MushrikËn by storm and thunderbolt. Therefore. leaving behind Bani Qurayzah on the mercy of the Muslims. “No blame will there be upon you today…” 68 . such as ‘Ikramah bin AbË Jahl. 1996).) to stand for the help of KhuzÉ`ah. and the son of Safwan bin Umayyah. The Prophet loved peace and not war.a. It was imperative on the Prophet (s. the Prophet went to perform 'Umrah together with 1400 companions.. (Beirut: Mu’wassasat al-TÉrÊkh al-‘ArabÊ. MushrikËn violated the treaty and killed Bani Khuza`ah. The Prophet (s.) had said: "La Tathriba ‘alaykumul Yawm" (today. The MushrikËn fled to Makkah.H." He. But within 2 years.) after conquering Makkah addressed Quraysh: "What do you think that I am going to do with you?" They said: "We expect something noble of you. Finally. and kept it a total secret. but in a way that was suitable only for him. Allah sent His help. It ended in a Treaty of ×udaybiyyah which was termed as 'FatÍ MubÊn' (decisive victory) by Allah. It means. The Jews of Qurayzah also betrayed in the crucial moment. So it was. He forgave the notable enemies of Islam. then.w." The Prophet then said: "You may go. so that he could free it without any bloodshed. 124 It is a part of ayah 92 of SËrah Yousuf (12). 123 See: Safiyurrahman Mubarakfuri. Makkan Mushriks did not let them perform ‘umrah.w.) In 6 A. said what Prophet YËsuf (A. the Muslims' allies in the MasjÊd alHarÉm. he welcomed the deal and the Treaty was made for 10 years with no fighting. He planned to attack on Makkah.a. 123 Conquest of Makkah (8 A. He marched along with dedicated companions to Makkah and freed it totally from idolatry. H.

and Mohammad. and to extend his hostilities to a reasonable measure of satisfaction and retaliation. A year’s pay. in order that the soldiers be well-furnished for a long campaign. The travelers and traders arriving from Syria brought news of the gathering of a large army on the borders of Syria. they said. to repel.w.” “by force of arms. the Bani Lakhm. and GhassÉn were flocking around the Roman Eagles. The Prophet (s. Judzam.a. and he therefore returned with his army to Madina. his person and his possessions. the violence of his enemies. Rather.) was that of TabËk. and the vanguard was already at Balca.) at once resolved to meet this challenge.a. 3/572. the tribes of the Syrian desert. See for details.JihÉd Noor Mohammad Osmani Hamzah.126 Expedition of TabËk (9 A. Edward Gibbon opines: “In the state of nature every man has a right to defend. In the free society of the Arabs. H. MubarakpurÊ. he found no troops to oppose him.) The last expedition of Muhammad (s. Amila. Al-RaÍÊq al-MakhtËm. which made most of Makkan idolaters convert into Islam. 1/372-394. the duties of the subject and citizen imposed a feeble restraint.127 A brief analysis of all these battles shows that the Prophet did not advance towards the enemies simply for the expansion of Islamic rule. it was due to defend the Islamic state. or even to repeat. who was then at Hams. had been advanced by the Roman Emperor. Mr.w. When he arrived in the vicinity of the Syrian border at TabËk.125 He declared amnesty for all. 69 . protect and safeguard the Muslims living therein and strengthen the land of Islam from all kind of dangers. in the exercise of a peaceful and benevolent 125 126 Ibn Kathir. and it was also purely to defend the Islamic state from the intended attack of Romans. 127 Cheragh Ali. 40. There were no signs of impending danger.

). all of it. 66. p.”128 The Most Misunderstood Verses on JihÉd in the Qur’Én There are misconceptions about some Qur’Énic verses that purportedly command believers to kill infidels wherever they were found. “And when the sacred months have passed. Yet there were many non-believing tribes. vol.” (9:29) The first verse (9:5) was revealed to the Prophet in Dhul Qa`dah 9AH just before the ×ajj. And if they cease – then indeed. had been despoiled and banished by the injustice of the countrymen. A Critical Exposition of Popular JihÉd (Delhi: Idarat-i Adabiyat-i Delli. then kill the polytheists wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them and sit in wait for them at every place of ambush. Allah is Seeing of what they do.w. 2. 129 See Mawdudi. 130 Ibid. Even after the battle of TabËk in Rajab 9 AH. (Lahore: Idarah Tarjuman al-Qur’Én. 2. waiting for the right time to revolt against Islamic state.” “And fight them until there is no fitnah and (until) the religion. 70 .a. 170. Abul A`la.” (8:39) “Fight those who do not believe in Allah or in the Last Day and who do not consider unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have made unlawful and who do not adopt the religion of truth from those who were given the Scripture – (fight) until they give the jizyah willingly while they are humbled. TafhÊm al-Qur’Én. 128 Mowlavi Cheragh Ali. p. is for Allah.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues mission. It was due to their treason and constant violation of the treaties.129 Prophet Muhammad (s. p.130 the Islamic state became one of the most powerful states of the world then.. 25. vol. Let us analyze some of those verses which are claimed to have commanded the believers to kill infidels indiscriminately. 12th ed. 1984).) was able to control major parts of Arabia. 1991. No Qur’Énic verse ever commanded the believers to kill the infidels due to their faith.

who violated the treaties. The command to kill the non-believers in the verse (9:5) is to kill those from the enemies fighting believers. 131 See for details. The Qur’Én granted non-believers four months to decide whether to stop betrayal and live as peaceful citizens of Islamic state by paying tax (Jizyah). The same statement could be found elsewhere in the Qur’Én: “And kill them wherever you overtake them and expel them from wherever they have expelled you. (Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 71 . The situation referred to in these verses (9:4-6) is that of war between Muslims and the non-believers. In the succeeding verse (9:6) Allah advises believers to respond positively to the request for refuge by someone from non-believer seeks refuge. Qaradawi Yousuf. Fiqh al-JihÉd. expelled them from their homes and looted their properties. pp. 2009). 131 In the second verse (8:39). After the first Fitnah or persecutions. Fitnah here means tortures and persecutions. There is nothing wrong in it.JihÉd Noor Mohammad Osmani In the previous verse (9:4) Allah commanded the Muslims to remain firm in their treaties with non-believers. Allah commanded the Muslims to fight back with Makkan non-believers and to expel them from Makkah as they expelled the Muslims from their homelands.RÉzÊ mentioned that Muslims in Makkah faced persecutions twice: once in the early stage of Islam and the other after the bay`ah (pledge) of Madinan people. or to migrate to other lands if they could not accept Islamic rule over them. Allah commanded the believers to fight the non-believers until there was no fitnah and the religion belonged to Allah. or to accept Islam and live like fellow Muslims. Fakhr al-DÊn al. It was known fact that Makkan idolaters severely persecuted the believers. Therefore. tortured them.” (2: 191) It is a command to kill Makkan enemies of Islam. 267-290. It is not a command to kill the non-believers of the world due to their faiths. and fitnah is worse than killing. the Prophet asked the Muslims to migrate to Abyssinia.

They attacked on the emissaries of the Prophet. 133 Al-Qasimi.) because Muslims were tortured due to their faiths and non-believers either killed the believers or punished them till Islam became stronger and no tribulation remained in place.132 Jamal al-DÊn QÉsimÊ wrote: ‘there is no greater danger than the one inflicted upon someone due to his faith. 135 MawdËdÊ. 136 132 Fakhr al-DÊn al.000 Roman army after a huge sacrifice. 2/171. vol. they were asked to migrate to Madinah. pp. MafÉtÊÍ al-Ghayb (Beirut: DÉr al-Fikr. 168-169. 2003). KitÉb al-TafsÊr. vol. 2002). the Romans started gathering against Muslims. 2. was revealed when the battles against Romans have already been started in Mutah (Jumadal ’UlÉ 8AH). Mahasin al-Ta'wil. 168. In the following year.Al-RÉzÊ. 72 .Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues and after the second. 136 Ibid.Qur’Én. 15. the fighting is not allowed. and TabËk (Rajab 9AH). killed ×ÉrÊth bin ‘Umayr . 4. vol.a. The Prophet (PBUH) never allowed the enemies to come to Madinah and attack on Muslims. 3/134-138.000 dedicated companions to deal with Romans. The verse 8:29. the emissary of the Prophet to Shurahbil bin ‘Amr. He advanced with 30. Governor of Busra. p. 134 ØaÍÊÍ BukhÉrÊ.w. but the Romans quickly dispersed and returned to safety after knowing about the Prophet’s march towards them. rather he always preferred to advance towards enemies and give them lesson in their own lands. 641. It simply means that if tribulation is non-existent. TafÊim al.135 The Prophet (PBUH) sent an army of 3000 people in MuÏah who were able to defeat 200.134 The verse in view commands for the battles whenever there is persecution and torture due to one’s faith. which made the whole Arabian nations respect the newly established Islamic state of Madinah. no. SËrah al-Baqarah. The super power of the time was not ready to tolerate the new religion that claims to be universal in nature. p. The Prophet (PBUH) stayed for 20 days in TabËk and subjugated a few nations and tribes under Islamic state and then returned to Madinah safely.133 ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar said: we participated in battles during the time of the Prophet (s. which he holds firmly out of full conviction’. (Cairo: DÉr al-×adÊth. 4243.

” (Al-NisÉ’ 4: 90) 137 See Qaradawi.JihÉd Noor Mohammad Osmani Hence. they would never come to fight against the Messenger of Allah. while He has clearly commanded for peaceful living with non-believers: “So if they remove themselves from you and do not fight you and offer you peace. But the Ahl al-KitÉb were quite closer to Muslims in terms of faith. but the Christians themselves Romanized and apostatized from Jesus’ religion.”137 In dealing with such ÉyÉt and aÍadÊth. 73 . QÉÌÊ ‘Abdul JabbÉr Mu‘tazali says: “The Romans never became Christians and accepted Jesus. There are various ÉyÉt where Allah has commanded the believers to accept and give priority to peace and treaties. but in fact they were the furthest from his religion. the battle has already been started against the Ahl alKitÉb. we should not only look into these ÉyÉt in isolation from others. vol. 296. These ÉyÉt came down concerning non-believers who were far apart from the believers in terms of faith and traditions. The Romans claimed to have followed the religion of Jesus. p. So. They were the people who did not really believe in Allah and the Day of Judgment. 1. culture and tradition. If they believed in Allah and the Judgment Day. Fiqh al-JihÉd. how could we claim that Allah did not allow Muslims to make peace with Ahl al-KitÉb. then Allah has not made for you a cause (for fighting) against them.

w.w.) brought a message of peace. All the wars fought under the leadership of the Prophet (s. At these places it truly signifies war. It is to struggle in one’s life according to the best of one’s ability in order to achieve an admirable goal. advised his followers to remain ever engaged in the task of jihÉd. These instructions concerning jihÉd are not applicable to every situation but only to that where there is already a war.a. blessing.a. It is not merely what the people in the east and the west have come up with. He. He was advised by Allah to carry out jihÉd in his life. then.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues Conclusion The Prophet Muhammad (s. The Qur’Én and ×adÊth have both given instructions to believers to do jihÉd against non-believers. It is because Allah wants the believers to do their best to defeat the enemies. and mercy to all mankind.) had some reasons blamed mainly on enemies of Islam. 74 .

Mahasin al-Ta'wil. MafÉtÊÍ al-Ghayb. Al-Rawd al-Unuf.d. Sharī‘ah al-Qitāl fī al-Islām. (n. Beirut: DÉr al-MasÊrah. (n. (1980). AbË Abdillah Muhammad bin ‘Umar. (1992). (1986). Beirut: Muwassasat alRisÉlah. Abul Qasim. Cairo: Maktabah al-Zahra’.d. Al-SÊrah al-Nabawiyyah. Mowlavi. 'Awn al-Ma'bud Sharh Sunan AbË Da'wud. The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality. Azimabadi. Al-Waqidi. Cairo: DÉr al-×adÊth. Beirut: ‘Alam al-Kutub. Ibn Hisham.d. Beirut: DÉr Ibn KathÊr. Cheragh Ali. ed. Al-Sharqawi. (1987). Al-RÉzÊ. al-SayuÏÊ. Al-ÙabarÊ. SÊrat Ibn ×ishÉm. Ibn AbÊ Shaybah. (1984). (2002). TanwÊr al-Hawalik. Ibn al-Qaiyyim. Jalal al-DÊn. Sharh `ala Muwatta’ Malik.) Al-Musannaf. AbË ‘Abdullah MuÍammad Ibn IsmÉ‘Êl. (n. AÍmad ibn ×anbal.JihÉd Noor Mohammad Osmani References: AbË Dawud. Beirut: DÉr Ihya’ al-TurÉth al-‘Arabiy. Al-BukhÉrÊ.). Fakhr al-DÊn. KitÉb alMaghazÊ. (2000).p. ØaÍÊÍ. Ibn KathÊr.d. Al-Qasimi. (2003). Beirut: DÉr KitÉb al-‘Arabi. (n.).). Beirut: DÉr al-Fikr. Al-Suhayli.d. 2nd edn.).) Sunan AbÊ Da’wud. (n. 75 . ‘UthmÉn al-Sa‘id. Musnad ImÉm Aímad. (n. (1415 AH). Ibn JarÊr. ZÉd al-Ma‘ad. Oxford: Oxford University Press. John Esposito. (1987). Mahmud Muhammad Shakir. Beirut: DÉr al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah. Cairo: Mu’wassasah Qurtubah. (1972). Cairo: al-Halabi Press. n. Cairo: Maktabah al-Khanji. A Critical Exposition of Popular JihÉd. Delhi: Idarat-i Adabiyat-i Delli. Beirut: DÉr al-Fikr. TahdhÊb al-AathÉr.d.

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have ruled that the penalty for theft is chopping hand and that for mutiny is severe torture and death sentence. In this paper an analysis will be made of this approach in order to see whether this new method to interpret the Qur’Énic provisions and ×adÊth instructions is acceptable. Two such laws are related to penalty for theft (sariqah) and mutiny (ÍirÉbah). IRKHS. Mutiny Introduction The Qur’Én and Hadith prescribe laws and provisions for life. Theft. Qur’anic provisions. Some Muslim writers in the contemporary world like Muhammad ShahrËr and ØÉdiq have come up with essentially different approach to Islamic punishments in general and to those for theft and mutiny in particular. despite minor differences of opinion. Ibramsa* Abstract There are some Muslim modernists who try to reinterpret Qur’anic provisions. ×adÊth Instructions. International Islamic University Malaysia. They are the view that the Qur’Én and Hadith need n ot to be interpreted literally. Keywords: Muslim Modernists. and laws and also those in ×adÊth with a view to adjust them in the new contemporary environment. instructions.Islamic Provision of Theft and Mutiny An Analysis of Muslim Modernists’ Approach Habeeb Rahman Md. 77 . In the light of the Qur’Én and Hadith Muslim jurists. Muslim modernists have suggested new method to explain punishment of theft and mutiny as prescribed by the Qur’an and ×adÊth. Department of Qur’Én and Sunnah Studies. They suggest that the new interpretation of all the injunctions available in the Qur’Én and Hadith must be in line with the * Assistant Professor.

or of traditions. a Western product. in all its dimensions. defines what he calls the “Intellectual School” (al-Madrasat al-‘Aqliyyah) as the tendency in thought “that seeks a synthesis between texts of the SharÊÑah (nuÎËÎ al-sharÑÊ) and western civilization or contemporary western thought. A Saudi scholar. Hadith. UsËl al-Fiqh etc. The present article represents a humble attempt to analyze their views on the two already mentioned punishments. Muslim Modernists are in most cases non-experts in highly sophisticated disciplines related to the Qur’an.9. according to ‘Audah. Everything that does not sui their design is given a new “spin” in the name of interpretation.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues existing situations in every age. Muslim Modernists’ Concept of ×adÊth Islamic Modernism is both unique in its term and yet so clearly. His brilliant and insightful comments highlight the importance of 138 139 SalmÉn ibn Fahd al-ÑAudah. Ibid.139 ÑAudah’s analysis of this school is essential. SalmÉn ibn Fahd al-‘Audah. not just because his criticism underscores the difficulty facing Muslim thinkers. Like Western modernism. takes the form of interpretation (ta’wÊl) of the texts in a new manner consistent with the established perspectives of the West. whether theological or legal. they are rather very much devoted to so called Islamic oriented research works. 78 . Fiqh.” 138 Members of this school are said to “go to excess” in their hermeneutic of the texts. Islamic modernism is difficult to define: it is rather the general label for a number of movements using heuristic trends. for example. p.” This effort. and the new scientific and technological discoveries of the present time. This approach to the study of Islam is not without its critics. Their reinterpretation of the punishment for theft and mutiny seems to have stirred the academic environment. ×iwÉr HÉdi’ MaÑa MuÍammad al-GhazÉlÊ. The principal thrust of Islamic modernism has been to attempt for new interpretations of Islamic law or construct new hermeneutics that facilitate interpretations consistent with the demands of modern society.

relegating the status of the Prophetic traditions. 11. Rejection of the traditions of the prophet in total or in part. 3. but on nationality) and freedom of thought or conscience etc. 5. 2. national unity (i. Broad scope in the Qur’Énic exegesis even if it results in interpretations contradictory to the rules of the Arabic language or views of the earlier pious generations (al-salaf al-ÎÉliÍ). due to the predominance of materialism in modern thought. citizenship and brotherhood not based on religion. Tendency toward limiting the scope of metaphysics (the scope of the unseen . 1.umËr al-ghaibiyyah). “The Prophetic 140 Ibid. namely. Nevertheless. 6. 4. and nullifying its hermeneutic role to understand the holy Qur’Én. with few exceptions. (legal theory). for instance.e. Ibramsa authenticity and help explain why many attempts at finding this elusive synthesis have been met with resistance in the Muslim world. Insistence that the practical application of the sharÊÑah must be circumscribed by the reality of existence. 79 .Islamic Provision of Theft and Mutiny Habeeb Rahman Md. as we find. as much as possible. Great freedom in making legal rulings (ijtihÉd) without attention to the conditions (shurËÏ) required in an independent jurist (mujtahid) leading them to pronouncements at variance with every one else’s. He lists what he calls the most obvious attributes (abraz al-maÑÉlim)140 of this school as the basis for his critique of Islamic modernists. This covers questions such as usury. all these approaches come to terms with one target. p. in MuÍammad ÑAbduh’s work. Reducing the importance of consensus (ijmÉÑ) either by discounting it completely (as with Ahmad Khan) or imposing new limitations on its scope that were non-existent among scholars of the uÎËl. Muslim modernists espouse various approaches to deal with the Prophetic traditions due to their diverse spectrums of thought.

and the practical example that the Arabs are to follow in the instance of the theoretical absence of the methodological awareness”.. p.546-549. 142 Ibid. MuÍammad AbË al-QÉsim ×Éj ×amad. and the effective meddling between the realities of the Qur’Énic awareness in its absolute sense. Thus.142 Moreover. 1990). the holy Qur’Én had emerged within an environment of animism. p. which lacks the characteristics of “Direct dealing. al-KitÉb wa al-Qur’Én: QirÉ’ah MuÑÉÎarah (Damascus: alAhÉlÊ Publication.144 From such a perspective. As asserted by the modernists. penalties (×udËd). who claimed that the leading role of the Prophet arose mainly because “he is the role model. 80 . 548.487488. from a functional perspective. 1996). the Prophetic tradition is only an initial response of Islam to a very primitive environment that completely differs from our contemporary age. pp. worships. al-ÑÑÓlamiyyah alIslÉmiyyah al-ThÉniyyah (Beirut: DÉr Ibn ×azm Publication. according to the modernists’ perception. the Prophetic tradition had effectively acquired its historical worthiness. “the vivid relation.. 144 Ibid. namely. and political circumstances of the Arab peninsula in the seventh century. 145 141 MuÍammad ShahrËr.143 So. vol.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues traditions are the prophet’s personal reasoning (ijtihÉd) in executing the injunctions of the holy book. ethics while reckoning for the realistic world wherein he lives”. This fact was to be yielded within a specific space-time factor that comprehends the economic. and conspicuous feasibility of the Qur’Énic methodology through analysis”. the Prophetic tradition appeared to be a crucial factor in the early time of Islam. 143 Ibid.68.141 The term “ijtihÉd” discards the peculiarity of the true concept of the Prophetic tradition becomes just a mental speculation similar to other human’s reasoning that succumbs to the objective fact. pp. and the conceptions of human awareness in its historical proportion”. 145 Ibid. 2. social.

Then. and by corollary. op. and they even rate themselves to be a par with the Prophet (s. as well as being a stroke of illusion that disregards the reality of the facts and concrete life. pp. themselves. as acknowledged by Muslim scholars in the past and the contemporary era. That is we want to think as they (Muslim ancestors). is basically clear distortion of history and development and leaping over the space-time dimension.. these Prophetic traditions constitute eventually the Prophet’s reasoning in a very particular space and time. it is the age of the second globalization. vol.147 Hence. the Prophetic th th th th th th 146 147 ShahrËr.148 The latter statement signifies that the modernists put themselves on an equal footing with the past prominent Muslim scholars. Ibid. those who come after the Prophet are not bound to adhere to it.a.w) himself.566. Ibramsa The modernists contend that the eminent Prophetic traditions are not suitable for modern times. 567. 148 Ibid. and this impossible. used to think. 81 . p. op.149 In other words. 487-488. Yet the modernists enunciate that their understanding is superior to the Prophet’s understanding who had to live in a pastoral age that consisted of very primitive means of production compared to the modernists who belong to the cutting edge technology and computer era.Islamic Provision of Theft and Mutiny Habeeb Rahman Md. according to the modernist advocates. but not what he had literally done”.cit. 149 ×Éj ×amad. after that we (want to) leap back from the 7 century in order to present Islam of that (distant) age in the 20 century. cit. due to the tremendous scientific advances achieved by man in the 20 century. “The big fallacy is that we want to understand Islam by shifting our way of thinking from the 20 century to the 7 century. and then we should say that we are in the 20 century capable of transforming the Qur’Én from an absolute state to a relative one like our Prophet had done. the solution is: “We must be confident and trust ourselves. p. the orthodox definition of the Prophetic tradition.. 2.146 According to the modernist perception.. both on the technical and epistemic levels.

w. and when they became healthy. 1314.a. 3. p. p. or steals a rope 154 for which his hand has to be cut off!"155 As regards the latter. p. nd. ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ (Beirut: DÉr Ibn KathÊr."152 In another version it is found AbË Hurairah reported that the Prophet (s.a. 2493.) said : "The hand of a thief should be cut off for a quarter of a dinar151 and what is above that. which was sizable and costly. 6. ØaÍÊÍ Muslim (Beirut: DÉr IÍyÉ’ al-TurÉth.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues tradition has accordingly lost its expository role in dealing with the Qur’Én. Such an explanatory role came to an end with the demise of that traditional hermeneutic mentality that emphasizes only the surface (of the reality). 153 for which his hand is to be cut off. This news reached the Prophet early in the 150 151 Ibid. So they went and drank it. 154 The rope here means a ship’s rope..a.). 155 Muslim ibn al-×ajjÉj Al-NÊsÉbËrÊ. ÑÓ’ishÉ (r. was not a small sum.150 Prophetic Traditions on Sariqah (Theft) and ×irÉbah (Rebellion) Several narrations are found in the six canonical ÍadÊth collections (al-kutub al-sittah) in regard to sarÊqah (theft) and ÍirÉbah (rebellion).w) said: “God curses the thief who steals an egg. 1987). so) the Prophet ordered them to go to the herd of camels and drink the camels’ urine and milk (as a medicine). a word taken from the Roman denarius. vol. and looks at a great multitude of figures without being capable of analyzing them. either. vol.) reported that the Prophet MuÍammad (s. 507. Anas ibn MÉlik narrated that a group of people from the ÑUkl (or ÑUraina) tribe came to Madinah and (they became ill. As for the former. they killed the camel herder and drove away the camels. 82 . but not exorbitant. A dinar. 152 MuÍammad ibn IsmÉÑÊl Al-BukhÉrÊ. 153 Some commentators say that an "egg" was really a helmet.

As for branding their eyes. and fought against Allah and His Apostle”). vol.a. the Prophet (s.w. 6. 2496.Islamic Provision of Theft and Mutiny Habeeb Rahman Md.156 Sayings. or have their hands and feet on alternate sides cut off.a.w) came to know about this.) expound precise and concise meaning of the Qur’Én. Muslim jurists regard the above narrations as elaboration to the Qur’Énic verdicts for the sariqah and ÍirÉbah. When they became healthy. 83 . (AbË QilÉbah said: “Those were the people who committed theft and murder and reverted to disbelief after being believers (Muslims). ImÉm Ibn ×ajar stated the differences of opinions among scholars and he said. “The only reward of those who make war upon Allah and His Messenger and strive after corruption in the land will be that they will be killed or crucified. in reference to the above ÍadÊth) was in retaliation and Allah Almighty says: 156 157 Ibid. he applied the Qur’Énic punishment for the ÍirÉbah on them. When the Prophet (s.a.a. they were not given water. The Prophet advised them to go to the herd of camels and drink their milk and urine (as medicine). and in the Hereafter theirs will be an awful doom” (SËrah al-MÉ’idah: 33).w) were Muslims and they were sick. so he sent (some) men in their pursuit and they were captured and brought to the Prophet before midday. He ordered their hands and legs to be cut off and their eyes to be branded with heated iron pieces and they were thrown at al-×arra. and when they asked for water to drink. they killed the herder of the Prophet and drove away all the camels that were allocated for Îadaqah (charity). p.. Such will be their degradation in the world. “The killing that took place (that is. They also indicate that the penalty could be imposed even for trivial thefts.w) branded the eyes of the people of ÑUkl or ÑUraina with iron because they killed the herder and branded his eyes with iron. 157 They indicate that the penalty cannot be explained away as anything but literal and physical. Anas ibn MÉlik's narration refers to the case of ÍirÉbah in which the people who came to the Prophet (s. actions. or will be expelled out of the land. Ibramsa morning. and tacit approvals of the Prophet MuÍammad (s.

518-544. 1985). 639-640. traditional scholars agreed on the verdict. ÑAbd al-QÉdir ÑAudah.. then they should be asked to perform the ritualistic bath for repentance. 2. 84 . (2) If the robbers kill someone and steal his property. most jurists agree that the tribesmen’s crime comes under the category of highway robbery or brigandage. or if the reason for theft is real and justified such as hunger [or real poverty]. during a raid. Second. but did not kill anyone. if the theft situation is only a suspicion.159 The traditional scholars differ in regard to the ÍirÉbah verdict. pp.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues ‘And one who attacks you. then their right hand and left 158 159 SËrah al-Baqarah: 194. Even though the supposed historical context of SËrah al-MÉ’idah verse 33 deals with renegade tribesmen. crucifixion. vol. However. then they are executed (presumably beheaded). in such a case. the hand of the thief will not be amputated. the stolen item must be under lock and proper protection. but do not take his property. al-TashrÊÑ al-JinÉ’Ê (BeirËt: DÉr IÍyÉ’ al-TurÉth al-IslÉmi. based on very specific conditions and circumstances. some scholars interpret the clause "wage war against God and His messenger" as an armed rebellion against an Islamic ruler.160 This crime is committed outside of the city along the trade routes or highways. not in a city by an ordinary thief. attack him in like manner as he attacked you’. While explaining the sËrah al-MÉ’idah verse 38. pp. 160 Ibid. Third. First. then they will be hanged and after death the funeral rites and burial will take place.”158 Prevailing Muslim View on Injunction of Sariqah and ×irÉbah Prophetic penalty for theft is clear. When and how are the punishments of execution. (3) If they robbed property. (1) If the robbers kill someone. mutilation. that a thief’s hand should be cut off.. which happened often enough in Arabia at the time. the theft must be within the set limit. or banishment applied? The ShÉfiÑÊ School has several applications.

since the connection between the text and modern society does not turn “upon a literalist hermeneutic” that ignores contexts. and flexible area of ijtihÉd. but the judge has discretionary authority to execute. (3) The least punishment is flogging and exile. then the penalty is exile. 85 . (2) If they stole property. but do not kill or rob. op.” It insists that interpretation of texts must consider “the spirit and broad intention behind the specific language of texts”. but did not murder. (4) If they only threaten. Sometimes exile can be replaced with imprisonment. Ibramsa foot are to be amputated. promoted the theory of limits (naÐariyyat al-ÍudËd) in his controversial work.161 Muslim Modernists’ Interpretation on Injunction of the Sariqah and ×irÉbah Islamic modernist movements stand as an insensitive antithesis to traditionalism. is characterized by its understandin g of revelation “as both text and context. pp. then they are to be punished by imprisonment (substitute for banishment) and according to the judge’s discretion. or amputate the alternative hand and foot. either by execution or crucifixion. MuÍammad ShahrËr.561.. depending on the circumstances.660. cit. alKitÉb wa al-Qur’Én: QirÉ’ah MuÑÉÎarah. ShahrËr. among several Muslim modernist movements. The MÉlikÊ School says that the punishments are applied as follows: (1) if the robbers commit murder. The term limits (ÍudËd) used by ShahrËr refers to the meaning of “the restrictions of God which should not be violated.”162 161 162 Ibid. Islamic liberalism. The ×anafÊ School agrees with this explanation of the ShÉfiÑÊ School. ShahrËr asserts that the theory of limits is an approach within ijtihÉd to interpret the ÉyÉt almuÍkamÉt (obvious legal verses) of the Qur’Én.Islamic Provision of Theft and Mutiny Habeeb Rahman Md. a Syrian liberal Muslim figure. crucify.. 643 . pp. they are to be put to death. contained in the dynamic. 550 .

Those two contradictory things will deliver dialectic movement (al-Íarakat al-jadaliyyah) in knowledge and social science.a. which he perceived as the restrictions that God has placed on man’s freedom of action. Their understanding was correct for their own time but we must arrive at an understanding that is relevant to our own lived reality. cut off their hands” and considers this verse to be an upper limit standing alone.) but addressed to all mankind in every generation. ShahrËr applies his theory to a number of instances in Muslim law and some of the examples are directly relevant to human rights law.w. Here the stipulated penalty is an upper limit that may not be exceeded. 86 . I will restrict myself to his interpretation on the penalty for theft. The second key element of his theory is the dual concept of constancy (istiqÉmah) and flexibility (ÍanÊfiyyah). therefore it will result in a continual dialectic and progress of the Islamic legal system.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues The first key element of Shahrur’s theory is.163 What this means is that every generation must interpret the Qur’Énic verses in a manner that makes it relevant to their circumstances and we are not bound by the understanding of other (previous) generations. This Islamic flexibility is within the frame of theory of limits. The analytical framework of the theory of limits is based on two main Islamic characters (the constant and the flexible). ShahrËr considers the verse 38 in the sËrah al-MÉ’idah: “as for the thief. which will lead to Islam’s survival. The preservation of the “Remembrance” makes it our property as much as that of earlier generations and confers upon us the right to interpret it based on our own reality. it is a “Remembrance” (dhikr). In other words amputation is the maximum penalty for theft and it is for every generation to define the nature and magnitude of theft that calls for this maximum penalty. Here the new paradigm is expected in the formation of the Islamic legal system (tashrÊÑ). is that the Qur’an is God’s speech revealed to the Prophet (s. Its minimum limit is to be forgiven as stated in the verse 34 of the same 163 Ibid. male and female. which God has taken upon himself to preserve. as far as I understand it.

stoning. However. In his book. such as giving a prison verdict. Here ShahrËr assumes that a judge may perform ijtihÉd by observing the objective conditions of the thief. which remains faithful to the text. The Amputation is one possible punishment for theft. certainly the maximum and the society may choose not to invoke the maximum penalty for reasons of. 87 . which do not execute hand amputation. where it is inflicted there should be proportionality so that those who commit the same offence with more gravity are not given a more lenient penalty than petty thieves. Ibramsa sËrah.Islamic Provision of Theft and Mutiny Habeeb Rahman Md. the judge may perform ijtihÉd around those maximum and minimum limits. an Egyption Muslim modernist wonders over the prevailing Muslim jurists’ view on the penalty for ÍirÉbah and sariqah and its implementation in practical life.164 ShahrËr’s theory therefore leads to conclusions that are the opposite of other modernists. ShahrËr argues that the essence of a legal punishment is daunting for the offender. ØÉdiq al-BilÑÊd. Therefore state or government. The dismissal penalty for a corrupt officer is still between both limits. Besides giving the punishment of hand amputation to enforce the legal verdict. ShahrËr would retain it as a maximum punishment subject to proportionality. say. general poverty. qiÎaÎ (death sentence) and several other legal verdicts in the Qur’Én and the Prophetic traditions. alQur’Én wa al-TashrÊÑ: 164 Ibid. It seems that this position addresses the concerns of Muslim critics of the manner of sharÊÑah implementation and represents a more just and proportionate interpretation of the law. ØÉdiq al-BilÑÊd’s interpretation of the ÍirÉbah verdict is the second example representing the Muslim modernist hermeneutic approach. Other modernists would have the Muslim world drop the limit of amputation from its statutes due to it being “cruel and inhuman”. should not be accused as being infidel states as claimed by the fundamentalists.

According to him.a.166 General application of the ÍirÉbah verdict would be. 1999). 166 Ibid.w. not open 165 Sadiq al-BilÑÊd. ØÉdiq claims that the two verses of sËrah al-MÉ’idah indicating the verdict of ÍirÉbah were revealed due to the Prophet MuÍammad’s (s.w. because f which they died. 194-195.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues QirÉ’ah JadÊdah fÊ ÓyÉt al-AÍkÉm. who believed that such a judgment is no longer suitable after the demise of the Prophet (s. al-Qur’Én wa al-TashrÊÑ: QirÉ’ah JadÊdah fÊ ÓyÉt al-AÍkÉm (Tunis: Markaz al-Nashr al-JÉmiÑÊ. Therefore the prevailing view of the Muslim jurists on the ÍirÉbah is incorrect and should be rejected.a.a.) ordered to amputate their legs and hands in addition to burning their eyes with fire. This exception is valid as long as there is regret from the criminal. Al-ÍirÉbah is associated to the event in which the Prophet (s. The Prophet (s. The Prophet (s.w. 88 . pp. Therefore the verses show the historicity of the ÍirÉbah verdict and represent a conditional legislation and not an absolute one. problematic. He agrees with the view of MuÍammad SaÑÊd AshmawÊ.165 ØÉdiq further explains the verdict in the ÍirÉbah verses. It is also absolute. To him the verdict should be applied only to that particular case and restricted to the Prophet (s.w. The two verses were revealed and brought quite different verdict from that of the Prophet. since he is the only one upon whom the revelation was sent down.w.). He argues that the verse 34 of the sËrah al-MÉ’idah.a. the phrase in the verse.w.) was very angry as he was generous to them and treated them nicely.a.) and the time in which he lived. illalladhÊna tÉbË min qabli ’an taqdirË Ñalaihim (except those who repent before you seize them) indicates clarification of the exception and links it to conditions surrounding the event. pp.) command to arrest a group of people who stole the cattle of the shepherd and killed him.) witnessed and is appropriate to restrict the application of the verdict to his period. 197-199.a.. does not contain direct object (mafÑËl) if we generalize the ÍirÉbah verdict in the preceding verse. in the view of ØÉdiq.

compared to his 14 167 168 Ibid. 89 . mercilessness. and that amputation was. in spite of his repentance.200.. 169 Ibid.e. Ibramsa for any discussion. 170 Ibid.a.) attitude in accepting such a severe punishment appears to be logical considering the nature of the society of that time i. He claims that it was the practice of the ÎaÍÉbah and some great jurists to discard the verdict on the criminal after his repentance. 200-203. pp. whereas. He insists that the ÍirÉbah is a much severe crime compared to the sariqah hence after his repentance. p. due to its condition to the criminal’s regret. This indicates. as if it does not consist of any injunction. as having absolutely ignored to comment verse 5:39. He refers to Ibn al-ArabÊ.167 According to ØÉdiq. and it’s a legality that should be obeyed. that he has control over his fate and could avoid penalty if he decided to. that the Prophet MuÍammad (s. He interprets the words tÉba (repented) and Ðulmihi (his transgression) not in accordance with Arabic rules. ØÉdiq maintains. He interprets the former as “to return the stolen item” and the latter as “after stealing”. as they treated differently.a.169 ØÉdiq claims that amputation of the hand for theft is a penalty practiced during the jahiliyyah period.w. the criminal is free when he repents. the effective way to maintain peace and protect people’s property. for example.. and lack of stable judicial institutions. dominance of power. the offender of the ÍirÉbah could not avoid penalty.170 ØÉdiq also claims that Muslim jurists’ methodology in dealing with the ÍirÉbah and sariqah verses is incoherent. Ibid..) had adopted this pre-Islamic penalty in his legislation. the thief escapes the punishment. then.w.Islamic Provision of Theft and Mutiny Habeeb Rahman Md. He condemns the way traditional schools deal with the verdicts of these issues. the Prophet’s (s. the two crimes of the same nature.168 ØÉdiq argues that nature of the verdict for theft should be the same to that of the ÍirÉbah.

It does not. he simply reasserts. ØÉdiq feels uneasy that some other orthodox scholars are in agreement with the view and approach of Ibn al-ÑArabÊ. transgress human rights. Therefore interpreting the Qur’Énic injunctions and the Prophetic traditions to discredit the well accepted legal system is unjustified and will be unacceptable to Muslims unless it is based on a hermeneutic of the Qur’Én and the traditions of the Prophet. the prevailing view of the jurists that repentance does not guarantee that the thief will be spared the penalty. 171 Ibid.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues pages of comment on the verse 5:38. ØÉdiq criticizes Ibn al-‘ArabÊ’s approach by suggesting that he was supposed to explain. legal punishments according to Islam. It is then quite pertinent to have a critical look at the concept of human rights in the eyes of Islam. ØÉdiq makes a final remark that the jurists usually misinterpret the Qur’Énic verses in order to accommodate their personal views even though their interpretation goes against the logical as well as the clear meaning of the Qur’Éni c verses. without thorough discussion or comment. He laments over traditionalists like al-Shaykh al-SÉyis’ approach. He is of the view that they have not been objective as well on the subject.171 Concept of Human Rights and Islam Muslim modernists seem to feel uncomfortable with Islamic punishments mainly because of their view that these run counter to basic human rights. Muslims. in any way. since the early days of Islam believe that all commandments in both the Qur’Én as well as in the Prophetic traditions never neglected human rights. ØÉdiq complains that though al-SÉyis accepts the different views of the jurists in this matter. is not a cruel and barbaric act. at least. the reason for the absence of the provision of repentance in sariqah verse like that in the ÍirÉbah verse. ØÉdiq further wonders about the reason behind this juristic disagreement in dealing with both the cases of ÍirÉbah and sarqah. Although an Islamic state may be set up in any part of the earth. Execution of ×udËd. 90 .

The same is the case with the rights accepted and recognized by the dictators. old people. they have not been granted by any king or by any legislative assembly. Islam has laid down some universal fundamental rights for humanity as a whole. the naked clothed. SËrah al-MÉ’idah: 5: 32. “Whose ever slays a soul not to retaliate for a soul slain.”173 It is not permissible to oppress women. Women's honor and chastity are to be respected under all circumstances. whether he is at peace with the state or at war. 91 . But in Islam God has 172 173 SËrah al-MÉ’idah: 5: 8. nor for corruption done in the land. irrespective of whether they belong to the Islamic community or are from among its enemies. and they can openly violate them when they like. Ibramsa Islam does not seek to restrict human rights or privileges to the geographical limits of its own state. and the wounded or diseased treated medically. The rights granted by the kings or legislative assemblies can also be withdrawn in the same manner in which they are conferred. Let not detestation for a people move you not to be equitable.Islamic Provision of Theft and Mutiny Habeeb Rahman Md.that is nearer to the god-fearing. which are to be observed and respected under all circumstances whether such a person is resident within the territory of the Islamic state or outside it. The hungry person must be fed.”172 Human blood is sacred in every way and cannot be spilled without justification. When we speak of human rights in Islam we really mean that these rights have been granted by God. They can confer them when they are pleased and withdraw them when they are angry. should be as if he had slain mankind altogether. be equitable . And if anyone violates this sanctity of human blood by killing a soul without justification. The Qur’Én very clearly states: “O believers! be you securers of justice. witness for God. the Qur’Én equates it with the killing of the entire mankind. the sick or the wounded. children.

or make amendments and changes in them. Nor are they like philosophical concepts that have no sanctions behind them.”174 Human rights in Islam encompass all aspects of life. p. No one has the right to abrogate them or withdraw them. 1976).Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues conferred human rights. or administrators who claim to be Muslims. for instance.e. the verdict of the Qur’Én for such men is clear: “Those who do not judge by what God has sent down are the disbelievers. MuÍammad ibn IsmÉÑÊl Al-BukhÉri. p. vol. 176 Ahamd ibn ×ajar Al-ÑAsqalÉnÊ. If they fail to enforce them. Nor are these basic human rights that are conferred on paper for the sake of show and exhibition and denied in actual life when the show is over. The Qur’Én states: 174 175 SËrah al-MÉ’idah: 5: 44. vol. (Cairo: al-Maktabah al-Salafiyyah. Khalq AfÑÉl al-ÑibÉd (Riyad: DÉr al-MaÑÉrif. FatÍ al-BÉrÊ bi SharÍ ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉri. or practically violate them while paying lip service to them. 269. 92 . 1978). In regard to the security of life and property. They are a part of the Islamic Faith."176 As for the Protection of Honor. Every Muslim. The former is not applicable on anybody while the latter is applicable on every believer. no one on earth has the right or authority to make any amendment or change in the rights given by Him. The proclamations and the resolutions of the United Nations are incomparable with the rights sanctioned by God."175 He has also said about the dhimmis (non-Muslim citizens of the Muslim state): "One who kills a man under covenant (i. 90. and start denying the rights that have been guaranteed by Allah. the Prophet said: "Your lives and properties are invoilable to one another until you meet your Lord on the Day of Resurrection. dhimmi) will not even smell the fragrance of Paradise. will have to accept. 6. recognize and enforce them. 1.

Referring to this.but fear Allah: for Allah is Oft-Returning Most Merciful. who said in his very first address as Caliph: "Cooperate with me when I am right.a."178 In Islam all power and authority belongs to God. obey me so long as I follow the commandments of Allah and His Prophet. 132. but turn away from me when I deviate. A woman belonging to a high and noble family was arrested in connection with theft. 179 AbË DÉwËd SulaymÉn ibn al-AshÑath Al-SijistÉnÊ..”177 Among the rights that Islam has conferred on human beings is the right to protest against tyranny. which becomes a trust."179 Accountability of Rulers to the legal system is another important aspect of Islamic human right. the Qur’Én says: “God does not love evil talk in public unless it is by someone who has been injured thereby. SËrah al-NisÉ’: 4:148. vol. but correct me when I commit error. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Nay ye would abhor it. The case was brought to the Prophet MuÍammad (s. and it was recommended 177 178 SËrah al-×ujurÉt: 49: 11-12.. Everyone who becomes a recipient of such a power has to stand in awful reverence before his people towards whom and for whose sake he will be called upon to use these powers. This was acknowledged by AbË Bakr alØiddÊq..). p. Ibramsa “O you who believe! Let not some men among you laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): Nor let some women laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames: Ill-seeming is a name connoting wickedness (to be used of one) after he has believed: And those who do not desist are (Indeed) doing wrong. 4. and with man there is only delegated power. nd. Sunan AbÊ DÉwËd (Beirut: DÉr IÍyÉ’ al-TurÉth al-ÑArabÊ.Islamic Provision of Theft and Mutiny Habeeb Rahman Md. 93 .w). O you who believe! Avoid suspicion as much (as possible): for suspicion in some cases is a sin: and spy not on each other nor speak ill of each other behind their backs.

al-KhulafÉ’ al-RÉshidËn (Beirut: DÉr al-Kutub alÑIlmiyyah. and economic privileges. linguistic arrogance. acceptance of foreign concepts must be based on a critical 180 ÑAbd al-WahhÉb Al-NajjÉr. Therefore. Acceptance of these paradigms is seen as undermining the authenticity of Muslim identity.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues that she might be spared the punishment of theft. "The nations that lived before you were destroyed by God because they punished the common-man for their offences. The chief reason for such conflicting attitude on the part of Muslim modernists is based on the sources related to secular paradigms. First they must reject the genetic fallacy of traditional scholarship. man can realize the ideal of the brotherhood (ukhuwwah) of man. by reason of his inner excellence. Muslim modernists are faced with a number of complex issues that must be addressed for their contribution to succeed in providing an authentic interpretation of Muslim law so as to make it relevant to the dictates of the modern world in which Muslims live. 33. daughter of MuÍammad. The Prophet replied. 1979). It invites mankind to move on to a plane of existence where. Appropriate Approach of Muslim Modernists Muslim modernists' hermeneutic approaches are essentially in disagreement with traditional Muslim thought. While doing so. had committed this crime. who are engaged in interpreting both the Qur’Énic texts and the Prophet traditions independent of all established rules and regulations. p. 94 . clear understanding on the Islamic concept of human rights is an essential criterion for those scholars and exegetes. racial superiority."180 Islam attempts to achieve these human rights not only by providing certain legal safeguards. including the Muslim modernists. I would have amputated her hand. but also mainly by inviting mankind to transcend the lower level of animal life to be able to go beyond the mere ties fostered by the kinship of blood. however. I swear by Him who holds my life in His hand that even if FÉÏimah. and let their dignitaries go unpunished for their crimes.

Secondly. would not be an intellectual exercise within the Islamic tradition. How can issues related to this criminal law be addressed on the basis of a new hermeneutic that doubts authenticity of Islamic law? It seems that Muslim modernists are not consistent in their interpretation of the sacred law. they feel that life in prison is humane and civilized.Islamic Provision of Theft and Mutiny Habeeb Rahman Md. This is mainly because the Qur’Én explicitly covers them and. a coherent hermeneutics that may be applied to interpretations of the Islamic law. or that the Prophet (s. they claim that stoning to death is barbaric but facing the firing squad is not. It appears from their judgments that Muslim modernists have failed to understand the attributes of God who revealed Islamic legal system to the Messenger MuÍammad (s. Any suggestion that the Qur’Én be abandoned. a consensus has been built upon them for generations.a. 95 . particularly the Qur’Én and the Prophetic traditions. Muslim modernists must sincerely comprehend the meaning of the verse “Indeed Allah is the Most Merciful and the Most Beneficent”. Muslim modernists' new interpretation of Islamic criminal laws as barbaric in nature is unethical.a. which is stated in almost every page of the Qur’Én in which they believe in.w.w). In addition. They should not consider any arguments true simply because they are from the West. The intellectual product of such an exercise would have no affiliation to Islam and remain counter-productive to the objective of reform. even at times. the modernists' hermeneutics reflect lack of depth. slack of minimum understanding of Islam and the methodology of hermeneutics in Islam. which are essential for an objective analysis on the Qur’Énic and the Prophetic injunctions. with one or two possible exceptions. the interpretations they make of Muslim legal system should be based on a rigorous theory. Ibramsa analysis of their claims. they declare that amputation is barbaric but that the electric chair is not.) implemented an essentially barbaric and cruel law.

for the sake of the society as a whole. to maintain the world’s security. and prevent people from spreading mischief in the land. ÍirÉbah etc. who is a fountain of mercy for mankind. Islam cares much about individuals’ rights and rights of the society. Muslim modernists appear to be lenient towards the criminals but they do not take into consideration the plight of the victims.a. never tortured his enemies for personal vengeance. it should be addressed. If someone is proven to be guilty of any crime and all the conditions for the punishment are fulfilled. they rather champion the cause of the West. Their interpretation of Islamic texts doe not reflect intellectual sincerity.w. block all the avenues leading to oppression. Islam has prescribed punishments for theft. In order to preserve these rights. The Prophet (s. 96 . Islam and the West are two parallel lines that can never meet. there is no leniency or pardon for the perpetrator.).Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues Conclusion It is noteworthy that whenever a danger threatens the Ummah.

Damascus: al-AhÉlÊ Publication. Al-BukhÉrÊ. Al-KhulafÉ’ al-RÉshidËn. Sunan AbÊ DÉwËd. Beirut: DÉr IÍyÉ’ al-TurÉth. 97 . Beirut: DÉr al-Qalam. Beirut: DÉr Ibn ×azm Publication. ÑAbd al-WahhÉb. YaÍyÉ ibn Sharaf.d. ÑAbd al-QÉdir.d. Cairo: al-Maktabah al-Salafiyyah. ShahrËr. MuÍammad. (n.). Al-NÊsÉbËrÊ. Sadiq al-BilÑÊd. ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ. Al-NawawÊ. Beirut: DÉr al-Kutub al-ÑIlmiyyah. ×awla al-DaÑwah Ila TaÏbÊq alSharÊÑah. ×Éj ×amad. (1996). Tunis: Markaz al-Nashr al-JÉmiÑÊ. Al-TashrÊÑ al-JinÉ’Ê. (1990). AbË DÉwËd SulaymÉn ibn al-AshÑath. Beirut: DÉr IÍyÉ’ al-TurÉth al-ÑArabÊ. Sharh ØaÍÊÍ Muslim. (1985). (1929).d. Al-SijistÉnÊ. Ahamd ibn ×ajar. MuÍammad AbË al-QÉsim. (n. Al-ÑÓlamiyyah alIslÉmiyyah al-ThÉniyyah. Ibramsa References: Al-ÑAsqalÉnÊ. BeirËt: DÉr IÍyÉ’ al-TurÉth al-IslÉmi. Beirut: DÉr Ibn KathÊr. FatÍ al-BÉrÊ bi SharÍ ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉri. (1979). (1992).). AmÊn Husayn Ahamd.Islamic Provision of Theft and Mutiny Habeeb Rahman Md. Cairo: DÉr SuÑÉd al-ØabbÉh. Muslim ibn al-×ajjÉj. ØaÍÊÍ Muslim. ÑAudah.). Al-Qur’Én wa al-TashrÊÑ: QirÉ’ah JadÊdah fÊ ÓyÉt al-AÍkÉm. MuÍammad ibn IsmÉÑÊl. (1976). (1987). (n. Al-NajjÉr. Al-KitÉb wa al-Qur’Én: QirÉ’ah MuÑÉÎarah.

98 .

(4) Honor to Human Rights. It addresses the man in his both the capacities as an individual and as a social being. (5) Predominance of High Moral Values. social. The salient features of the human society from the Qur’Énic perspective are: (1) Total Submission to God. moral. Introduction Man cannot survive in the real sense of the word without society. cultural. These societies reached their pinnacle and also faced either partial or total decline. (2) Intellectual Development and Freedom. Ideal Society. collectivism. and spiritual (17:23-37). Keywords: The Qur’Én. IRKHS. and (9) Multi-Culturalism. (3) Full Blooming of Knowledge. (7) Equitable Standing of Men and Women. 99 . economic. This society is not an ideal one because it has caused decline of individuals and societies from almost all angles including material. History bears witness to the fact that there emerged so many societies at different stages of the time. educational. This paper represents a humble reflection on these dimensions of human society as conceived by the Qur’Én. * Professor. (6) Prosperity and Well-Being. Equitability. It seems very much concerned about the development of man from all angles.Qur’Énic Concept of Ideal Human Society Israr Ahmad Khan* Abstract The Qur’Én declares that it is for the man and about the man (21:10). Department of Qur’Én and Sunnah Studies. and Multi-Culturism. International Islamic University Malaysia. intellectual. The western society has been dominating the human world for the last few centuries. The society it seeks to develop and set up on the earth ensures peace and harmony among various sections of the setting (60:4-8). political. (8) Collectivism.

man is obliged to submit either to the One True God. In this article only main features are intended to study. It should be born in mind that the downfall was not that of Islamic civilization but that of Muslims who abandoned the idea of Islamic society based on the Qur’anic teachings. As long these principles prevail in human societies. All the features of such an ideal society are available in Islamic sources. or to false deities man has himself imagined and developed in his belief as partners of the One God.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues even though its very objective is to develop man materially and economically. 1. It is historically real one. the Provider. Time and again it was established on earth. the Sovereign. they cannot escape submission to another category of false deity or deities. 45:23) as well as to other men whom 100 . It can still be set up. Downfall will begin in a society when the Qur’anic ideals are ignored and replaced with other ideals. It may be argued that decline of Islamic civilization proves that it was not viable. there cannot take place any kind of decline. Such people submit to their impulses (25:43. It is not possible to accommodate all the desirable elements of a successful society as featured in Islamic sources in the present article. Characteristic Features of an Ideal Human Society An ideal human society signifies a human setting where the social problems are rare and less serious.w. the Almighty. Islamic society as conceived by the Qur’an was once a dominant civilization in the world for around a thousand years. Submission to God Psychologically. Such a society is not a utopia. Yet. the Sustainer. the Creator. Its principles really ensure development of human individuals and societies. the Qur’Én and life history of the last Prophet (s. they neither subscribe to the concept of One True God nor accept the message about imaginary deities.). Some men reject the idea of godhood. For that matter a comprehensive book is needed. This paper represents a humble attempt to identify and highlight those principles of ideal human societies that are enshrined in the Qur’an.a.

(29:45). it does not exist in practical life. and sincerity towards the society serve as keys to maintain integrity of human life. Man’s commitment to Allah makes him commit to the society. As for atheism. and economic status. Consequently. Probably. disappointment. profession. hardly falls victim to dejection. it is merely a fallacy. Thus.181 A society subscribing to the concept of obedience to God is the least vulnerable to social problems. Devotion to the Almighty creates a very healthy environment in the human settings. Islam invites man to believe in. Such a 181 Translation of the Éyah concerned is “Behold. leads to unity of thought as well as unity of man. therefore. obey and submit to the True One God (2:21). which serves as the basis for man’s subservience to God. It is a universally established fact that those who are sincere to One True God are sincere to their own selves as well their fellow beings around them. he develops strength to easily fend off criminal mentality. Thus love. It is a life-long relationship man establishes with the Supreme Being.Qur’Énic Concept of Ideal Human Society Israr Ahmad Khan they consider superior to themselves (9:31). Love for God leads to love for humanity. People of a society where sincerity of commitment to One True God forms the basis of life-pattern live in total harmony and peace. Unity of God. One of the highest forms of practical manifestation of man’s submission to God is ÎolÉt through which man several times a day reiterates his pledge to remain loyal to God. in reality there are only two choices: unity of God or plurality of gods. concern. and prepares himself mentally as well as physically for demonstrating this commitment in his daily life. Submission to God signifies total and unconditional obedience to God’s commands. 101 . cast. love. which may cause one or another psychological and social problems. He. it is this wisdom that the Qur’Én refers to ÎolÉt as a shield with which man can comfortably defend himself against evil thoughts and actions. and depression. commitment. It is just as plurality of gods leads to disunity in thought and discrimination against members of a society merely on the basis of differences of color. ÎolÉt prevents from loathsome deeds and from all that runs counter to reason”. This relationship generates harmony in man’s life.

102 . 42. Should it happen that they accept it. vol. you will be most honorable man for them”. 183 Ibn HishÉm. ÍadÊth no. and the people therein experienced a new life in which the peace was the order of the day. Musnad (DÉr IÍyÉ’ al-TurÉth al-‘ArabÊ.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues society may hardly find itself in a social dilemma. Allah may unite them through you. and were united.w. security of life. vol. property and honor. 5. which we have accepted. vol. and call them to your message. The more the use of these powers the stronger the man becomes intellectually. If these are suppressed due to any reason whatsoever. 17:36).w.). p. 1994). ÍadÊth nos. Al-SÊrah al-NabawÊyyah (DÉr IÍyÉ’ al-TurÉth al-‘ArabÊ.182 When the Arabs responded to his call enmasse. insecurity.a. 6. and volatility of situation in the city into stability. The Prophet Muhammad (s. 182 Ahmad ibn ×anbal. analyze. 22641 & 22681. vol. submitted to Him unconditionally and wholeheartedly. Intellectual Development and Freedom Man is an intellectual being. Beirut. ÍadÊth nos. man will turn animal. as well as continuity of peace and tranquility: “We have left our people who are full of enmity and hatred against one another. During the first meeting between some people from preIslamic Madinah and the Prophet (s.a. 4.) invited the people to submit to One True God in these words: “Say there is no deity but Allah. and bli ssful life is guaranteed for you”. 1997). 2. and reflect (16:78. What remained elusive for around a hundred years was achieved within no time only by accepting the supremacy of Allah theoretically and practically.183 History bears witness to it that the people of Madinah who were fed up of the life of insecurity and hostility accepted the message of God. After we go back to them. 16168 & 18552. He has been granted faculties to observe. which represents a life quite contrary to human standard. Beirut. 2. 15593. the former expressed their heartfelt wish to turn instability. strife-torn Arabian Peninsula turned into one unity.

Arabs during pre-Islamic period had almost suspended their power of discernment. Intellectual development as a result of intellectual freedom is a state of life where society hardly makes mistakes in its judgment on what is right and what is wrong.). The Qur’Én makes it crystal clear that criminality is born from the non-use of mind (7:179). choose and act. Vol. Had they used their mind they would never have made the same observation. It exhorts its followers not to suspend their ability of reflection in any matter including purely religious ones 184 Fakhr al-DÊn Al-RÉzÊ. Intellectual slavery mars the development. others come forward to rectify it. which allows the people to enjoy freedom in this matter. When they were invited by the Qur’Én to give up their abominable acts. Once ‘Umar ibn al-KhaÏÏÉb. 5:104. second leader of Islamic state in Arabian Peninsula after the last Prophet of Islam. If an individual makes a mistake. which made the Caliph review his decision.13. A society encouraging intellectual freedom to its members experiences man’s conquest of untouched vistas of knowledge. but his decision was criticized by a lady citing revealed words (4:20). Intellectual freedom leads to all kinds of development ensuring social awareness of the people. 103 . It was this criticism. 7:28).184 To follow others blindly is an undesirable approach.a. thus causing the people to behave like non-human beings. 1995). The former is boon and the latter is bane of human society. Al-TafsÊr al-KabÊr (Beirut: DÉr IÍyÉ’ al-TurÉth al-‘ArabÊ.Qur’Énic Concept of Ideal Human Society Israr Ahmad Khan Human situations are bound to reflect either intellectual freedom or intellectual slavery. It seems they had made their ancestors’ practices as criteria of something being right. It snatches away from man his own freedom to think. due to which they were unable to see true nature of things. they defended their position by the argument that they had inherited the traditions from their forefathers (2:170. 4. p. made a decision to standardize the amount of dower due to abuse of this provision in the society. Muhammad (s.w.

The very first revelation (96:15) the Prophet (s. which keeps its bearers to the right. 76.a. 7:169 etc. 1994) vol.w. Arabs who were addressed by the Prophet (s.) were almost illiterate. Islam seeks to promote knowledge and stamp out ignorance from human life and thought.a. and pen (al-qalam). reading (iqra’). then. 3:65. When he established a new society in Madinah based on Islamic principles. Full Blooming of Knowledge None can contest the idea that knowledge is light. 2217.). be said that the very basis of ideal human life as sought by the Qur’Én is knowledge (‘ilm and ma‘rifah). indicates that human development rests mainly upon proper and constant application of reason. 104 . 2:44. 186 Ahmad b. almost every house and every mosque 185 The first revelation (96:1-5) uses three terms. referring very clearly to the entire process of acquiring knowledge. Musnad (Beirut: DÉr IÍyÉ’ al-TurÉth al-‘ArabÊ. Knowledgeable personalities deserve lofty rewards (58:11) because they maintain equilibrium in the society thus protecting it from chaos and disorder. report serial no. teaching (‘allama). ×anbal. The Qur’Én has warned mankind a number of times in these words: “Will you not. then. and that ignorance is darkness. It is because mere speculation may wreak havoc with social relationship.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues (25:73). which invariably misguides its victim. 3. he made his effort as the leader to ensure that none remained illiterate.w.) received consisted of the message concerning the significance of knowledge. use your reason ?” (e. Qur’Énic invitation to man to exercise his intellectual ability in every matter. 185 It may. 1.a. In Islamic society people are barred from expressing views on any matter without knowledge (17:36). For that matter he had used expertise of even prisoners of war who were experts in the art of reading and writing Arabic language to teach Muslim children.w.) the society in Arabian Peninsula witnessed emergence of new educational culture. 6:32. big or small.g.186 After the demise of the Prophet (s.

sympathy. Animals wrong one another because they have no way to recognize one another’s rights. It is this recognition. IÍsÉn signifies good treatment. Man recognizes well position of each and every single individual around him. The Qur’Én uses a comprehensive term “iÍsÉn” referring to human rights of all the individuals in human society. Followers of Islam traveled far and wide to acquire knowledge.a. 4. benevolence etc. Justice is not merely a principle to be applied in the court of law.a. vol. neighbor. it is a rule. and the less fortunate (4:36). 1564. which leads man to respect others’ rights.Qur’Énic Concept of Ideal Human Society Israr Ahmad Khan turned into centers of learning. A society where every individual is aware of the significance of justice and its application in daily life may not easily face social problems. spouses. particularly parents. generosity. which governs every act of a man. Ya‘qËb Al-FÊrozÉbÉdÊ. The original statement of the linguist is: “iÍsÉn signifies all that is not offensive or hurtful”. 105 . During this period culture of obtaining knowledge dominated the world.187 Another major human right is justice. One can see that the first revelation served as foundation stone of the civilization Prophet Muhammad (s. 2. Once a companion of the Prophet (s.) requested the latter to be witness to his giving a gift to only one of his children as a mark of blessing. The first ten centuries of Islamic civilization are the golden era of human history. kindness. next of kin. Al-QÉmËs al-MuÍÊÏ (Beirut: DÉr IÍyÉ’ alTurÉth al-‘ArabÊ. p.) established in Arabian Peninsula.w. De -recognition of and dishonor to human rights on the part of members of a society cause human society to turn into a jungle where individuals bully one another. The Qur’Én exhorts its followers to uphold justice in their dealings (16:90). Honor to Human Rights Human setting is essentially different from the environment animals dominate. cooperation. 1997). The Prophet 187 Muhammad b. It is noteworthy that the education in these seminaries was free and easily accessible.w.

see Ibn HishÉm. children honor their parents’ rights. 2228. arise out of the human rights violation. serial no.) to help her to get separated from her husband on the ground that he had beaten her severely.) appears to be a declaration on human rights. This sermon was not to introduce these features afresh but to remind the audience of what they had already been taught.a. before this speech the Prophet (s. When a Muslim woman who was married with several children got an opportunity. ÍadÊth nos. 4. 4) revenge killing (homicide) is forbidden and 5) spouses must respect one another’s rights. pp. vol. 191 For the full text please. 5. MughÊth. Many social problems. and the Prophet having realized the seriousness of the matter ordered the husband to divorce the woman. 259-260. 6. Al-SÊrah al-NabawÊyyah (Beirut: DÉr IÍyÉ’ al-TurÉth al-‘ArabÊ. to another slave.w. (Beirut: DÉr alMa‘rifah. kitÉb al-hibÉt.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues turned down the request on the ground that it was a discrimination against other children of the companion. 1997).190 The last sermon of the Prophet (s. 1997).191 Historically. 6777. to choose between freedom from her husband and continuation of matrimonial relationship. vol. through a special legal provision. vol. 228-229. ØaÍÊÍ [along with the commentary of al-NawwÊ]. Sunan (Beirut: DÉr al-Kutub al-‘IlmÊyyah. she opted for freedom. 189 AbË DÉ’Ëd. 1996). 190 ‘AlÊ b. 4153-4163. Muhammad Ibn al-AthÊr. 2) a trust must be returned to its rightful owner. 3) usury based finance system is injustice hence it is to be abolished in its totality.w.a.a. indeed. Once a newly married women expressed her desire to the Prophet (s.w. If parents take notice of their children’s rights. which was honored by law. Usd al-GhÉbah FÊ Ma‘rifat al-ØaÍÉbah (Beirut: DÉr al-Ma‘rifah. wife and husband are always mindful of 188 Muslim.) had already established in the Arab land a society featuring the above-mentioned provision of human rights. kitÉb alÏalÉq. before her freedom from bondage. pp.189 Islam honors individual freedom as long as it does not hurt others. 1997) vol. ÍadÊth no. 106 . Its salient features are: 1) human life and property are inviolable.188 Individual freedom occupies an important place in human life. 2. The name of the woman is BarÊrah mawlÉt ‘Ó’ishah who was married.

never bear witness falsely. Existence of moral values in an environment keeps social problems away. pp. honesty. injustice to neighbor and exploitation of the weak. keeping promises. Such individuals possess high moral character. avoid conflict.Qur’Énic Concept of Ideal Human Society Israr Ahmad Khan each other’s rights. do not commit sexual offence. they are humble. The higher the moral standards practiced by individuals the stronger the social fabric. 5. safeguarding chastity. 373-374.a. His speech in the Negus’ court sheds light on the two pictures. dishonor to relative. Ja‘far ibn AbÊ ÙÉlib..) had briefed the king Negus about how Islam revolutionized his and his fellow men in Makkah. His natural predisposition towards association with other individuals around him gives birth to a society. and every individual respects others’ rights. 1. and the latter introduced to universally upheld moral principles taught by Islam such as truthfulness. Predominance of High Moral Values Man is not a social animal as claimed by certain quarters. One of the fundamental differences between human and animal is that of morality. vol. do not kill any one unjustly. never get involved 192 Ibn HishÉm. total abstinence from debauchery. 107 . This social bond makes it imperative for him to choose the most appropriate principles of behavior in his interaction with the society. there may hardly be any chaos in the society. perjury and false witnessing etc. trustworthiness. He is a human being endowed with moral dimension. life before Islam and the life after Islam.w.192 The former represented a situation dominated by inhuman behavior such as adultery. Application of inappropriate principles of behavior leads to socio-moral problems. keep away from wasteful spending as well as niggardliness. leader of Muslim immigrants in Abyssinia during the very period of the Last Prophet (s. The Qur’Én at many places sketches the image of individuals it seeks to develop in a society. cit. op.

Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues

in what is frivolous, maintain their dignity, honor their promises and trusts, help others around them, and are always conscious of their responsibilities towards their children and subordinates (17:23-36; 23:1-10; 25:63-74 etc.). The Prophet (s.a.w.) time and again would remind his followers of excellent human conducts. The following exhortation of the Prophet (s.a.w.) speaks volumes of his concern and effort to orientate the people towards an ideal approach and activities. “Keep away from assumption as it represents worst lie; do not unnecessarily probe into others’ life, do not spy on others, do not hate one another, do not play tricks against one another, do not develop jealousy against one another, do not harbor mutual enmity, and become, O servants of Allah, brethren”.193 6. Prosperity and Well-Being Poverty serves more often than not as a breeding ground for problems at both individual and social levels. Theft, robbery, misappropriation in orphan’s property, fraud in monetary transaction etc were common features of Arabian Peninsula before Islam. This situation seems to have been caused by the general poverty in the land. When the people submitted to Islamic values, they witnessed the emergence of a new phenomenon in which the poverty had no chance to creep into life. Distribution of zakÉt-money among the people below the poverty line has been prescribed for the rich (9:60) so as to eradicate poverty and enable the needy to gradually become self-reliant. By declaring trade activities as legal (2:275), the Qur’Én has actually invited rather encouraged people to develop and expand the trade infrastructure leading them to unprecedented prosperity.

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Al-BukhÉrÊ, ØaÍÊÍ, vol. 4, kitÉb al-adab, ÍadÊth no. 6066.

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The Prophet’s (s.a.w.) statement----“the upper hand is better than the lower hand”194----discourages his followers from begging and encourage them to be self-sufficient. Once a man who had turned a professional beggar came to the Prophet (s.a.w.) begging. The Prophet had the beggar’s bowel sold and asked him to purchase an axe with which to cut wood and earn his livelihood by selling the wood in the market. The man acted upon the advice of the Leader (s.a.w.) and very soon became self-reliant.195 Islam takes many steps to prevent prosperity turning into poverty. It prohibits lavish spending as well as niggardliness (25:67). It prescribes a very well defined system of property distribution (4:1114), which ensures non-concentration of wealth into few hands. Prosperity is very much dependent upon, among other things, rotation of wealth and its equitable distribution among the people concerned. Pre-Islamic Arabs, according to their decades old tradition, would bar minor children and female heirs of the deceased from inheriting the property, which would result in the orphans being thrown into the street to turn later on criminals. The law of inheritance as prescribed by Islam ensures no wrong doing to anyone. Many virtuous acts such as feeding the hungry, helping the needy, expiation of certain acts (kaffÉrah), liberating slaves and bonded labors, building mosques, managing educational institutions, and other welfare programs, demand that the people work hard so as to be able to participate in the above-mentioned activities. History stands witness to the fact that during the time of the second caliph, ‘Umar ibn al-KhaÏÏÉb, the subject became so prosperous that there were hardly people who deserved to receive their share in charity. It means the unfortunate section of the society living at the poverty line and below it reached at par with other classes enjoying comfortable life.

194 195

Al-BukhÉrÊ, ØaÍÊÍ, vol. 2, kitÉb al-waÎÉyÉ, ÍadÊth no. 2750. AbË DÉ’Ëd, Sunan, vol. 1, kitÉb al-ZakÉt, ÍadÊth no. 1641.

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7. Men and Women: Equitable Standing Certain problems such as husband-wife conflict, sexism, wife bashing, abuse of female children and increase in divorce arise out of a misconception that woman is inferior to man. Man’s superiority complex compels him to treat woman according to the dictates of his wish and whims hence exploitation of woman. In pre-Islamic Arabia woman was at one extreme of exploitation and in the modern times she is at another extreme of exploitation. In both the cases she is playing in the hands of man as a tool of pleasure, though the modern man names it woman’s liberation. According to Islamic scheme, woman is neither a sex tool nor an object of pleasure for men in the society. It grants her highly honorable social positions of mother, wife, daughter, sister, friend, and co-partner in the life etc just as it places man in the society as father, husband, son, brother, and co-partner. These two different sets of positions are complementary to each other; none can exist in isolation of the other. Family constitutes society in miniature. Man and woman are co-players on the stage of that nucleus theatre of life. Family and society are bound to total failure if both man and woman are not provided equitable opportunities to play their respective role in their different capacities. Man has certain rights and duties; woman has certain rights and duties. These rights and duties have been well defined in the light of their respective positions they hold in the family and society. Man has right to live and enjoy life, to own, sell and buy properties, to develop his own self intellectually and educationally, to contribute towards the growth of the society, to choose and determine profession, and to excel in every field of life including spirituality. Woman has been given the same rights. She is not behind the man in terms of her social, economic, educational, intellectual, political, religious and cultural rights. Man’s rights over woman form the duties of woman and woman’s rights over man form the duties of man. Thus none is superior or inferior to the other. Both are just like two wheels of the life-cart, which cannot be dragged only on the basis of one single wheel.
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An individual’s problems become the problems of the entire society.196 Members of Islamic society form one single fraternity. 4.w. Collectivism Modern philosophy of individualism has undoubtedly given birth to innumerable problems turning human setting into animal grouping where every individual wants to seize the opportunity for himself/ herself at the cost of others. In this approach individual is of prime value and the society is merely a tool to meet individual’s ends. It is due to the influence of this principle that the society today is on the verge of its collapse. 8.) himself draws a picture of that society in these words: “See the believers. The Prophet (s. 111 . they are like one single body in their mutual interaction based on compassion. whose individuals were emotionally and mentally related to one another. love and sympathy. The society Islam has established on the earth and still cherishes to set up is based on collectivism according to which all the individuals share with and care for one another.a. the whole body falls sick with sleeplessness and fever”. 6011. It was this concept. vol. hadÊth no.Qur’Énic Concept of Ideal Human Society Israr Ahmad Khan The Qur’Én’s address ‘O people’ (yÉ ayyuhÉ al-nÉs) comprises both man and woman. The Madinan Islamic society formed by the Prophet (s. kitÉb al-adab. The Qur’Én declares: “All believers form a single brotherhood” (49:10). Islam strikes balance between individuals and the society. nor it permits the society to block the progress of individuals.w. ØaÍÊÍ. which made every individual of that society feel concerned about others. The Qur’Én invites them both to build an ideal human civilization where none is wronged and everyone has easy access to all the opportunities to grow and excel (28:77).a. ‘Ali 196 Al-BukhÉrÊ. The dispute among Ja‘far ibn AbÊ ÙÉlib. when any its organs suffers. It does not allow individuals to exploit the society.) was a well-knit society.

Multi-Culturalism Every society from the time immemorial consists of various elements reflecting multiplicity of color. at times. tolerance. backbiting. the whole society invariably used to rise to help those who were in need. 2. 112 . Communal hatred and intolerance lead to communal 197 Ibid. kitÉb al-ÎulÍ. These negative feelings breed and grow only when the members of a society live in isolation of one another. hadÊth no. 2699. who had been martyred in the battle of uÍud is a spectacular example of collectivism in the society the Prophet had developed. ill will.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues ibn AbÊ ÙÉlib and Zaid ibn ×Érithah over the custodianship of the orphaned daughter of ×amzah ibn ‘Abd al-MuÏÏalib. 9. but the state of their tension and depression is hardly as serious as to lead to total dejection. The spirit of collectivism works as a catalyst overpowering the attitude of hatred. from depression. the social fabric is sure to get ruined. creed and culture. It is because the whole society comes to the rescue of the people concerned. cast. blackmailing. individual problems turn collective problems that are resolved by collective effort. Incidence of suicide is almost non-existent in Muslim society. and respect of each other ensure peace and harmony. jealousy and rivalry. vol. If they behave intolerably and disrespectfully among themselves. It seems the main reason of the absence of this painful problem is the principle of collectivism. These different components are equally responsible for maintaining the integrity of the society. which ultimately serves as a prelude to self-killing.. Their mutual understanding. vengeance. The individuals in a society based on the Qur’Énic principles do suffer from mental tension and. and rarely interact among themselves. 197 It was not an isolated case of compassion and sympathy.

It might be available even with someone or some people within the Muslim community itself (63:1-4).w. nifÉq) against Islam is a qualified trait. For the detail see: Ibn HishÉm. 113 .) life speaks volumes of the nature of relationship the Prophet wanted his followers and the people of the Book to develop. An Individual or a group of people with a faith other than Islam in a Muslim nation. have their right to do so without any fear of persecution at the hands of Muslim government.) and his followers had established very close relationship with the Jews in Madinah. gangsterism. 169-172. revolt against Allah and His law.Qur’Énic Concept of Ideal Human Society Israr Ahmad Khan violence. and this will most certainly enrage Muslims plunging the nation into chaos. Cooperation between Muslims and non-Muslims on certain common program is highly desirable.a. vol. pp. beneficence.a.w. regardless of their ethnic.a. Al-SÊrah al-NabawÊyyah. which is known as Íilf al-fuÌËl. a historical event in Arabia before Islam. Enmity (kufr. Members of an Islamic society do not condemn or revile other religious and cultural entities’ goddesses. The Qur’Én exhorts them not to resort to such confrontational approach because it will hurt the feelings of non-Muslims and they may do tit for tat by using bad words for Allah (6:108). If they want to enter the fold of Islam voluntarily and consciously. agencies or individuals. who prefer to continue with their own belief-system and religious practices.) appreciation of people’s alliance for peace. The Prophet (s. thus putting the societal and national integrity and security at stake. justice and probity (60:8). Relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims is based on kindness. and terrorism.w. The term enemy is applicable to those who. The historical agreement between Muslims and the Jews during the Prophet’s (s. 1. they are most welcome. Islam does not allow its followers to coerce others into accepting its faith and life-principles (2:56). In the said agreement the Muslims and the Jews had been declared in no uncertain terms as 198 It is clear from the Prophet’s (s.198 The title non-Muslim is not synonymous with enemy. shirk. cultural and religious background. reverence. generosity.

he caused havoc to human social fabric. 204-205. it is Allah. property and honor were as sacred and inviolable as others’ including Muslims’. then. Total submission to Allah. the Sustainer. Their life. 114 . It has rather been witnessed that whenever man tried to come up with his own principles for human behavior. full blooming of knowledge etc.199 Conclusion Man has failed to develop values and principles that can ensure his development as individual and society. 1990). according to the accord. 199 Muhammad Sa‘Êd RamaÌÉn Al-BËÏÊ. prescribe principles of human individual and social behavior. If there is anyone who is all-knowing and all-wise. pp. whereas other principles as suggested by man cause disharmony hence all kinds of problems. He alone can. The reason is very simple. Man is devoid of comprehensive knowledge of his existence and problems.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues the constituents of ‘one ummah’. Fiqh al-SÊrah (Damascus: DÉr al-Fikr. dominance of absolute moral values. are all what the Qur’an has prescribed as the basic principles of human societies. the Creator. enjoyed full freedom to practice their own religion. Jews. It is these principles that can ensure harmony in human life. the Provider. and the Controller of the universe from all angles.

Muhammad. Beirut: DÉr Iíya’ al-TurÉth al-‘ArabÊ. Beirut: DÉr al-Kutub al-‘IlmÊyyah. Ibn HishÉm. Ya‘qËb. (1990). Musnad. Damascus: DÉr al-Fikr. Ahmad ibn ×anbal. Muhammad Sa‘Êd RamaÌÉn. Fakhr al-DÊn. Vol. Vol. DÉr IÍyÉ’ alTurÉth al-‘ArabÊ. ØaÍÊÍ [along with the commentary of al-NawwÊ]. Beirut: DÉr IÍyÉ’ al-TurÉth al-‘ArabÊ. 2. Beirut: DÉr IÍyÉ’ al-TurÉth al‘ArabÊ. Usd al-GhÉbah FÊ Ma‘rifat al-ØaÍÉbah. Al-BËÏÊ. Al-SÊrah al-NabawÊyyah. Sunan. Al-FÊrozÉbÉdÊ. Al-TafsÊr al-KabÊr. Al-BukhÉrÊ. Muhammad b. ‘AlÊ b. Fiqh al-SÊrah. Ibn HishÉm. ØaÍÊÍ. 2. Beirut: DÉr IÍyÉ’ al-TurÉth al‘ArabÊ. Al-RÉzÊ. Ibn al-AthÊr. (1997). (1997). Beirut: DÉr al-Ma‘rifah. (1994).Qur’Énic Concept of Ideal Human Society Israr Ahmad Khan References: AbË DÉ’Ëd. (1400AH). AbË ‘Abd Allah MuÍammad ibn ’IsmÉ‘Êl. 115 . Muslim. Beirut: DÉr IÍyÉ’ al-TurÉth al-‘ArabÊ. Beirut: DÉr al-Ma‘rifah. (1996). (1997). Al-QÉmËs al-MuÍÊÏ. Al-SÊrah al-NabawÊyyah.

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The Essential Role of IsnÉd in Preserving Islamic Civilization Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa* Abstract The Qur’Én and ×adÊth serve as sources of Islamic thought and life. International Islamic University Malaysia. They devised a unique system of verifying and thus preserving original sayings and doings of the Last Prophet (s. and Civilization. Muslim ummah has consensus of opinion on this principle. They were aware of the fact the preservation of the originality of ×adÊth was preservation of the second significant source of Islamic thought and life. IRKHS. Likewise. 117 . The Qur’Én is free from any interpolations and modifications. if the reporters are reliable in their character as well as memorization.w. IsnÉd. they reached the conclusion that the veracity of any information rests very much on the veracity of the reporters. But Muslim scholars like always rose to the occasion to ensure the authenticity of ×adÊth literature.) to his followers. Due to some known reasons ×adÊth was targeted to smear its original face. The system they developed for that matter is known in ×adÊth Studies terminology as isnÉd (chain of narrators). it is beyond any doubt as original as delivered by the last Prophet (s.). * Assistant Professor.a. Department of Qur’Én and Sunnah Studies. the report should be acceptable as authentic. they concluded that weak character and fallible memory render the material reported unreliable.a. ×adÊth. After thorough deliberation over and deep investigation into the viability of the isnÉd system. Islamic civilization is based on these two sources. The present paper is devoted to highlight the significance of isnÉd in preserving ×adÊth and thus in preserving Islamic thought and life. Keywords: Islam.w.

therefore notorious for their savagery.a. Muslim scholars. in Arabic is the opposite of the word "Bedouinism" (badawiyyah) which denotes nomadic life. The word "Civilization" (madaniyyah). towns and villages are urban dwellers. and ignorance. and in the end significance of isnÉd. whereas. and also the background in which ×adÊth came under attack.). As for the Qur’Én. The Bedouins are. to escape the invasion on its originality.w.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues Introduction Islamic civilization has its own unique features derived from the Qur’Én and ×adÊth. which refers to civic or urban life. It is quite logical to claim that preservation of Islamic civilization is very much dependent on the preservation of the two sacred sources. discussion on civilization. harshness. right from the time after the demise of the last Prophet (s. They did not remain silent spectators to the onslaught on ×adÊth and did what they were required to do in order to ascertain the authenticity and originality of sayings and doings of the Last Prophet (s. The unique contribution of Muslim scholars to preserve the authenticity of ×adÊth was and still is what is known as isnÉd. despite all the vicissitudes occurred during the last fifteen centuries. Significance of Islamic Civilization In order to understand Islamic civilization it is necessary to have a look what constitutes civilization in general.w. 118 .). People who live in cities.a. it is still as fresh and original today as it was during the time of its revelation. people who lead Bedouin life are those who move from one place to another in search of water and pasture. historical background of onslaught on ×adÊth. remained alert and conscious of the vulnerability of ×adÊth treasure. Therefore the paper will comprise three sections. It seems quite pertinent to discuss what signifies civilization and hence Islamic civilization. to some extent. Any lacuna in dealing with and understanding the sources will lead to misunderstanding and also misrepresenting Islamic thought and life. But ×adÊth as the second source of Islamic civilization failed. They considered it very basis of Islamic thought and life.

w.).w. and when he asked the man whether he was contented. 9. 119 .: Maktabah al-‘UlËm al-Íukum. Al-ÙabrÉnÊ. p. all the prophets raised were urban dwellers. When the Bedouin answered in the negative.a. The Prophet (s.w.a. v.a.w.) also gave him something and asked whether he was satisfied.). then. ImÉm al-ÙabranÊ recorded saying of the Prophet (s. Commentators of the Qur’Én supported this opinion and regarded it as a fact that has no controversy. the Prophet (s. Al-MuÑjam al-KabÊr (N.207.”201 ImÉm AÍmad has recorded another report on the authority of Ibn ‘AbbÉs: ِ َّ‫ه وسل‬ ِ ‫َن أَعرابِيًّا وه‬ ِ َّ َّ ‫َِّب‬ ِ ‫ل‬ ٍ َّ ِ ْ‫ن اب‬ ِ َ‫ع‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ن عَب‬ َ َ‫َل ق‬ َ َ‫يت ق‬ َ ‫ال‬ َ ‫رض‬ َ ْ‫م هبَةً فَأَثَابَهُ عَلَي‬ َ ِّ ِ‫ب للن‬ َ َ ‫ها قَا‬ َ َ َ َ ْ َّ ‫اس أ‬ َ َ َ ْ‫صلى اللهُ عَلَي‬ ِ ‫ه صلَّى اللَّه‬ ِ ُ ‫ال رس‬ ِ ‫ال‬ ِ ‫ال‬ َّ َ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ َ َ‫م ق‬ َ َ‫يت ق‬ َ َ‫َل ق‬ َ َ‫يت ق‬ َ ‫ال‬ ْ َ‫ت أ‬ َ ‫د‬ ْ‫ق‬ ََ‫م ل‬ َ َ‫ال ف‬ َ‫ز‬ َ‫ز‬ ُْ َ ُ َ ‫رض‬ َ ‫رض‬ َ َّ‫ول الل‬ َ َ‫ال ن‬ َ َ‫ال ف‬ َ َ‫ف‬ ْ ََ َُ َ ‫ق‬ ْ‫ع‬ َ َ َ‫ادهُ ق‬ َ َ َ‫ادهُ ق‬ َ ‫علَْيه‬ َ ‫سل‬ ِ َ َ‫ي أَو ث‬ ِ ِ‫َّت‬ ِ ُ‫من ق‬ ِ َِّ ً ‫هب‬ َّ َ ِ ‫صا‬ ‫ي‬ ٍّ ‫قف‬ ٍّ ‫رش‬ َ ْ‫َو أَن‬ ْ ٍّ ‫ر‬ ْ‫ي أ‬ َ ‫ب‬ َ َ‫َل أ‬ َ ْ ‫ة إَل‬ ''A Bedouin presented to the Prophet (s. SËrah YËsuf: 12:109.w. The Bedouins are referred to as the hard-hearted people."200 The reason behind this preference for towns’ people is that they are more knowledgeable and patient in comparison with the Bedouin people.w. the Bedouin’s answer was positive.) a gift. and he who associates with the rulers falls into trouble. he who follows the game becomes heedless.a.) granted him some more. Instead.‫ِت‬ َ َ‫ ق‬،ُ‫عه‬ َّ ‫ع‬ َ ‫د‬ َ ‫الس ْلطَا‬ ُّ ‫ن أَتَى‬ َ‫غ‬ َ‫ج‬ َ ‫الصْي‬ َ َ‫ن ب‬ َ ُِ‫ن افْ ت‬ َ ‫ن‬ َ َ َ‫رف‬ ْ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ َ ‫َّب‬ َ ‫ن ات‬ َ‫و‬ َ ‫دا‬ ْ ‫م‬: َ ‫ال‬ َ ‫اس‬ َ ،‫ل‬ َ ،‫فا‬ َ‫ف‬ “He who lives in the desert becomes hard-hearted. The Prophet (s. 1983). In return the Prophet (s.p. Allah said to the Last Prophet (s. The Bedouin replied in the negative.a.The Essential Role of IsnÉd Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa It is noteworthy that Allah did not raise any Prophet from among them.w. from among the people of the towns.) on the authority of Ibn Abbas: ٍ ‫عَّب‬ ِ‫م‬ ِ ْ‫ن اب‬ ِ‫ع‬ .): "And We have not sent before you any but men.a. whom did We inspire.a. 200 201 . gave him some more and asked whether he was happy.

Islam dawned to bring people from darkness to light. n.). and ThaqÉfÊ lived in cities. v. v. SËrah al-Tawbah: 9:99. Musnad (Cairo: Mu’wassasah Qurtubah. p. All-Wise. Makkah.”202 This is because Qurayish."203 It is quite right that the Qur’Én had excluded a group of them by saying: "But some of the Bedouin Arabs believe in Allah and the Last Day.a. and look on their payments as pious gifts bringing them nearer to Allah and obtaining the prayers of the Messenger. and most fitted to be in ignorance of the command which Allah hath sent down to His Messenger: but Allah is All-Knowing. AbË YaÑlÉ. 120 .w. said: “I almost decided not to accept a gift except from someone from Qurayish. 3. hence their approach was certainly more sophisticated and civilized than that of ill-mannered Bedouins. SËrah al-Tawbah: 9:97. 424. the AnÎÉr or ThaqÉfÊ.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues then. Bedouin life may be likened to darkness and civilized life to light. Ta'if. 4.d.a.. AnÎÉr. 1984).215. This factual generalization was cemented by the Prophet's (s. Madinah and Yemen."204 But what is proved in the verse represents the general characteristic disposition. p. Musnad(DÉmishq: DÉr al-MÉmËn li al-TurÉth.) and his 202 203 204 205 Ahmad. The Qur’Én sought to liberate the people from Bedouin life to civilized one: "The Bedouin Arabs are the worst in unbelief and hypocrisy.w) words: ‫ من بدا جفا‬: ‫مل‬ ‫ قال رسول اهلل صلى اهلل عليه سو‬: ‫عن الرباء قال‬ "He who belongs to the Bedouin is most likely harsh and hard at heart" 205 A Bedouin who was unaware of the rules and regulations of private and public acts bothered least when he openly began urinating in one corner of the mosque regardless of the sanctity of mosque and presence of the people over there including the Prophet (s.

147 ." 206 On the other hand. the leader of the Persian armies... AbË Dawud. Sunan.. 1407AH).The Essential Role of IsnÉd Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa ÎaÍÉbah. and left no room for Allah or the Hereafter in their philosophy or in their cultural and educational system.a. v.w. and Al-TirmidhÊ. ×adÊth No.a. 2.. Sunan.. It is necessary to emphasize here that the civilization that Islam seeks to build is unlike any other civilizations which focus merely on the materialistic aspects of life as well as the bodily and sensuous side of man.. Moreover. .. making worldly affairs their primary concern and the destination of their knowledge. ×adÊth No. 121 .. Islam was and still is aimed at establishing an ideal human civilization on the surface of the earth. Yet when people shouted at the Bedouin...w) stopped them and excused his ignorance and Bedouinism advising his ÎaÍÉbah: "Wait until he finishes his urinating and then spill a bucket of water over the place. ‫سعتها ومن جور األديان إىل عدل اإلسالم‬ "We were sent by Allah to bring out whom He wills from the worship of His slaves to His Worship alone. and lead him to the setting of civilization. and from the injustice of religions to the justice of Islam "207 Undoubtedly. In a dialogue between him and Rustum. TÉrÊkh al-Umam wa al-Rusul wa al-Muluk(BeirËt: DÉr al-kutub al‘ilmiyyah. 401. these civilizations concentrated on the immediate pleasures of life. 380. refined and purified by the Prophet (s.. he showed his sophistication in this manner: ‫ اهلل ابتعثنا واهلل جاء بنا لنخرج من شاء من عبادة العباد إىل عبادة اهلل ومن ضيق الدنيا إىل‬. p. All on the authority of Abu Hurairah. from the straitened world to the vast one... Its objective is to elevate the life of man and set him free from the bondage of Bedouinism. we could see the approach of another Muslim who was oriented. the Prophet (s. 207 Al-Ùabari. for you have been sent to make things easy and not to make them difficult... 206 Reported by Al-BukhÉrÊ in the book of Ablution.).

it has wedded science to faith and has cherished ethical sublimity as much as materialistic development. During the lifetime of the Prophet. to rehearse to them His Signs. and to instruct them in the Book and the wisdom . Truly.w. the Civilization of Islam has united man to Allah and earth to heaven."208 At another place the Qur’Én categorically refers to the process of creating and developing Islamic civilization: "It is He Who has sent amongst the Unlettered a Messenger from among themselves. and manual of life for the entire human being. it is rather a blend of both moral and material values.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues On the contrary. Incidents of forging of information on the authority of the Prophet Muhammad were almost non-existent at the time of the Prophet because the Muslims of his time understood well the consequence of attributing anything falsely to the Prophet. it is the civilization of balance and moderation. Even if someone lied 208 209 SËrah al-Baqarah: 2:143. before. Islamic civilization is not one-sided. Muslims during the life time of the Prophet (s. knowledge. his ÎaÍÉbah used to refer to him directly. when quoting a piece of knowledge or message. Almighty Allah described this ideal civilization in these words: "And so We have appointed you as a just and distinguished nation. SËrah al-JumuÑah: 62:2. It has inspired man to prepare for the life in the Hereafter. to purify them. in manifest error."209 This process of teaching the Qur’Én and the Sunnah created what we might call a civilized consciousness.) undoubtedly witnessed the development of this civilization and had fairly enjoyed it in their daily life. 122 . and no hypocrite would dare to ascribe to the Prophet that which he did not say.although they had been. it has struck a balance between the mind and the heart. The Prophet’s ÎaÍÉbah took the sayings of their Prophet very seriously.a.

They had wholeheartedly respected and obeyed legal injunctions and cultural instructions from the Prophet that would uplift them from darkness to the civilized society. the ummah was united in every matter.a. He told them: ‘The Prophet gave me this garment and authorized me to judge among you in all issues regarding money and soul. were well guided by the Prophet.’ Then the Prophet deputized a man and instructed him: ‘Kill him if you find him alive and burn him if you find him dead. for they had direct recourse to the Prophet (s. just as He raised up Jesus. 1997). during the life time of Prophet Muhammad. as this following incident suggests: Ibn ‘Adi transmitted on the authority of Buraida ibn Hussaib alAslami. Musnad al-Ruyani (BeirËt: DÉr al-kutub al-‘ilmiyyah.a.a. that in the pre-Islamic era a man wanted to marry in the tribe of Bani Laith which had been living a mile away from Madina. 123 .1. but that Allah had raised him up. So he burnt him.The Essential Role of IsnÉd Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa about the Prophet.w). In cases of disagreements among themselves they easily found solution from the Prophet Muhammad (s.75.210 The ÎaÍÉbah.’ The man came to the spot and discovered that he was already dead of snake’s bite.w).’ Then he came to the woman who he wanted to marry. Up to that time.w) death. Some people thought that he had not died. The difference was allayed by Abu Bakr. The people of the tribe sent someone to the Prophet who instantly said: ‘The enemy of Allah has lied. who recited to people the verse: 210 Al-Ruyani. Later he visited them dressed in a fine garment. Early Disagreements Differences in the ummah arose very soon after the death of the Prophet (s. But the tribe did not concede to his will. v.w) himself to resolve any disagreements which occurred. he did not survive long enough. small and big. The first difference occurred at the time of the Prophet's (s. p.a.

124 ."212 Then. ruling that it could not be inherited because of the ÍadÊth. The people of Makkah wanted to take him back to Makkah. The people of Madinah wanted to bury him in Madinah itself. and whoever was worshipping the Lord of Muhammad. 5. then Muhammad died. since it was the destination of his migration and the home of his Helpers (the Ansar). When he passed away.a. and the qiblah. "The Prophets do not leave behind inheritance.w) had assigned it to Fatimah (may Allah be pleased with her) during his lifetime.a." Thus. p." Next. "Whoever was worshipping Muhammad. Al-BidÉyah wa al-NihÉyah (Al-QÉhirah: DÉr al-Fajr li al-TurÉth. they differed regarding where the Prophet (s. He narrated the ÍadÊth. and they shall die. The AnÎÉr wanted to pledge allegiance to Sa`d ibn `Ubadah al-Khazraji. Al. as well as the location of his ancestor Isma`il's grave.`AbbÉs denied this. after the death of Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him).213 The next difference was with regard to leadership. then He is living and does not die. `Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) said that the Prophet (s.w) should be buried. 242.. Ibn KathÊr. The AnÎÉr submitted when they were related the ÍadÊth. while the Quraysh said that leadership must come from the Quraysh. since that had been the place of his birth and appointment to prophethood. it was Abu Bakr who passed judgment. they differed regarding inheritance of the land of Fadak. they buried him in his room in Madinah." Later. 2003). "The leaders are from Quraysh. and which he retained during his lifetime. v. Others thought he should be taken to Jerusalem and buried there next to his forefather Abraham (peace be upon him).Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues "You shall die. 211 212 SËrah al-Zumar : 30. it was Abu Bakr who solved the problem. p. "The Prophets are buried where they die. 213 Ibid. Once more. Once more. 266."211 and told them. This was a piece of land which the Prophet had acquired as a form of booty.

v.. the Mighty. p. such as the inheritance of a grandmother. `Umr also came around to see the truth in Abu Bakr's position. "I will surely fight against those who make a distinction between salah and zakat. 125 . the Liar. and for six years of `UthmÉn's reign. "I have been ordered to fight people until they testify that there is no god but Allah. Abu Bakr was in favor of fighting them until they paid it." Eventually.6. they fought the Romans and the Persians. they have secured their lives and their property from me. may Allah be pleased with him. 214 215 216 Ibid. and [until] they establish Øalat and give zakat." Abu Bakr responded.214 The early Muslims differed also over the course of action against those people who refused to pay Zakat. who all laid claim to Prophethood.a. except in the cause of Islamic justice. Then. `Umr disagreed. Ibid. the Majestic.216 The Great Fitnah After this. but who later returned to Islam in the time of `Umar. p. and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. and at this time were still united in issues of ‘ aqÊdah. and their reckoning is with Allah. He repented. if they do that. citing the ÍadÊth. They differed only in peripheral issues of fiqh.w) death. where he was martyred. Sajah bint al-Harith and Aswad ibn Zayd al-`Ansi. Matters continued in this manner throughout the reigns of Abu Bakr and `Umr. They won these conquests.The Essential Role of IsnÉd Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa `Umr allowed al-`AbbÉs and `Ali to supervise the land." He proposed that these people's lives were sacrosanct because they had said "Ls ilÉha illa Allah. who had apostatized. and of Nahawand. as well as all the rest of the Arabs who apostasized after the Prophet's (s. 311.. and witnessed the battles of Qadisiyyah. the ÎaÍÉbah were busy fighting Tulayhah ibn Khuwaylid al-Asadi.215 After this. Ibid. They also fought Musaylimah. but not to own it. 285.

2006). The peace and hormonal life that enjoyed by the Muslim suddenly shaken in this year.w) pointed out one of his ÎaÍÉbah. p. Such disorder is something prophesied by the Prophet Muhammad (s. Sunan. Muhammad ibn ÙalÍa. do not take it off you until you meet me”. ‘Abdullah ibn Zubayr (may Allah be pleased with them) guarded the house and some of them were wounded in a fight with the rebels 217 218 Al-TirmidhÊ. due to severe challenges and later created national turmoil and deviation in the society. 126 .a. ‫ ذكر رس ول اهلل صلى اهلل عليه و سلم فتنة فقال يقتل فيها هذا مظلوما لعثْان‬: ‫عن ابن عْر قال‬ ImÉm al-TirmidhÊ reported on the authority of Ibn ‘Umr that the Messenger of Allah mentioned about a mischief and he had said about ‘Uthman: “This one will be wrongfully killed”.217 ‫ أن النِب صلى اهلل عليه و سلم قال يا عثْان إنه لعل اهلل يقْصك قْيصا فإن أرادوك‬: ‫عن عائشة‬ ‫على خلعه فال ختلعه هلم‬ In another report ImÉm al-TirmidhÊ reported in regard to such prophecy that the Prophet (s.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues They. 628.w) said: “Perhaps Allah will robe you in a garment. will directly involve in this tribulation.a. They with full confident disseminated the knowledge to the people. p. v. Sunan (BeirËt: DÉr al-kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah. namely ‘UthmÉn ibn ‘AffÉn. 5. through which they established noble society. 5. v. 36 H was the dark year for the history of Islamic civilization.w) when he had said “Tribulation will come from there” and he pointed towards the East. A number of ÎaÍÉbah including Hasan. Al-TirmidhÊ. he was prevented from coming out of his house and eventually the water supply was cut off.218 A siege began of ‘UthmÉn’s house. In another occasion the Prophet (s.a. Hussayn. 630. One could clearly determine the location of the emergence of this tribulation. so if the hypocrites wish to strip it off you. for about three decades had enjoyed the values Islamic civilization taught by the Prophet.

Ibn KathÊr. ‘UthmÉn said: “I ask those who believe they owe me obedience to hold back their hands and their weapons… I have no need of any defense” ‫قال عثْان يوم الدار إن رسول اله صلى اهلل عليه و سلم قد عهد إيل عهدا فأنا صابر عليه‬ He also said: The Prophet (s. They told me. but both refused. `Ali 219 220 Al-TirmidhÊ. v. 183. p. ‘UthmÉn was martyred at the aged of 82 in the month of Dhul ×ijjah in 35 H. v. ‘Be patient.220 At this point. Madina was in the grip of the rebels with Ghāfiqi ibn Ḥarb Akki in charge. 631. the rebels came to murder him. Eventually the bayÑah was given to ‘Alī.w) made a covenant with me and I will be patient with it. Then he called for a Qur’Én and he spread it open before him”. May Allah have mercy upon his soul. 5.219 Ahmed ibn ×anbal narrated that during the siege ‘UthmÉn said: ‫إين رأيت رسول اهلل صلى اهلل عليه و سلم يف املنام وأبا بكر وعْر وأهنم قالوا يل اصرب فأنك تفطر‬ ‫عندنا القابلة مث دعا مبصحف فنشره بني يديه فقتل وهو بني يديه‬ “I saw the Messenger of Allah. Al–‘Arabi. you will breakfast with us tomorrow’. and rejected repeated offers of assistance from various ÎaÍÉbah (including Abu Hurayrah and Zayd ibn Thabit). He was buried three days after his martyrdom.w) in a dream. ‘UthmÉn was reading the Qur’Én and his blood dropped on the verse: ‘So Allah is sufficient for you against them’.a. Sunan. 7. p. (s. Consequence of UthmÉn’s Assassination The consequences of ‘Uthmān’s martyrdom and disputes among the Muslims were far reaching. At the time. mentions that after the assassination.The Essential Role of IsnÉd Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa ‘UthmÉn requested that those who were defending him should leave. and I saw AbË Bakr and ‘Umar.a. The ÎaÍÉbah disagreed over what should be the fate of his murderers. They offered the Caliph to Tạlhạ and then Zubair. 127 . Al-BidÉyah wa al-NihÉyah.

the Battle of the Camel and the Battle of Siffin were fought resulting in the deaths of tens of thousands of Muslims. since law and order and stability have a higher priority. Others. Some people at the time condemned one or both groups. Ali's) permission was not needed. Several prominent Sahabah were on both sides.221 In brief. We have given authority to his representative. The IbÉdiyyah is one of these sects. and ‘Uthman. Hence the first sect of Islam – the Khawarij emerged as a result of the killing of ‘Uthmān. each accusing the others of kufr. For example. and pronouncing him and Mu’āwiyah to be kuffar. chose to remain neutral. Two battles.e. such as `Abdullah ibn `Umar. (meaning).Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues (may Allah be pleased with him) was of the opinion that the Caliphate should be reestablished before bringing the murderers to justice. 128 . and people differed in their decision towards them also. Hence another consequence of ‘Uthman’s assassination was that the military conquests that were continuing unabated during the time of Abu Bakr. and that the current Caliph's (i. "Whoever is killed unjustly. Mu`awiyah (may Allah be pleased with him) thought that the people who had committed such a heinous crime as murdering the Caliph should be brought to justice immediately. ‘Uthmān’s murderers turned against ‘Alī. and that `Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) had also committed kufr by agreeing to an arbitration. because Allah has said. Abu Musa al-Ash`arÊ and `Amr ibn al-`As were then appointed as arbitrators between ‘Alī and Mu’āwiyah. Talhah and Zubayr were initially on the side of Mu`awiyah. and they were fighting on the basis of the resulting disagreement. although Ali was correct. and so we do not criticize either of them. and remnants of them can be found to this day in Oman and North Africa. They were a strictly religious group who believed that any sin was kufr. almost grind to a halt during the Caliphate of ‘Ali. most of the Caliphate of ‘Ali was taken up with the civil war that began due to the assassination of Uthman." Both of them were qualified mujtahids. They eventually fragmented into around twenty sects. `A'ishah. 221 The Khawarij believed that Mu`awiyah (may Allah be pleased with him) had committed kufr by fighting against the Caliph. ‘Umar.

intermingle with the foreign culture. After the death of the fourth caliph. to compile ÍadÊth during this period. writers. By innate divergence and mutual hatred in a society is serious disease that would halt. particularly those who were keen to know more about the Prophet (s. alter and distort aspects of the civilization.w) and his tradition. This phenomenon was one of the main factors that caused the pure Islamic knowledge and heritage inherited from the Prophet Muhammad (s.The Essential Role of IsnÉd Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa Islamic civilization at risk Continuous growth of religious and political sects jeopardizes healthy development of the Islamic civilization. it is possible for orally inherited Islamic knowledge and tradition. 120H/737) and Muhammad ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (d.a.a.w). particularly the ÍadÊth of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a. In year 99H ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz. Therefore. Therefore. the need to verify the ÍadÊth rose because various sects appeared among the Muslims who fabricated ÍadÊth. In this regard Imam Malik recorded: YaÍya ibn Sa‘id al-AnÎÉrÊ reported that ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al‘Aziz wrote to some great muÍaddithËn: “Look for what there is of the ÍadÊth of the Prophet and of his sunnah or ÍadÊth of ‘Umar ibn alKhaÏÏÉab or something similar to this and write it down for me for I 129 . a large number of ÍadÊth were not documented during the life time of Prophet Muhammad (s. and researches would carry out their carrier in line with information that had reached them. in order to support their deviant views and heretical philosophies. officially wrote to some great muÍaddithËn throughout the Muslim world.w). when he hold the caliphate post. In addition. we found attempts have been made by the people. many political as well as religious sects began to tremendously grow. asking them to compile all the knowledge of the early generation of Islam. including AbË Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Amr ibn ×azm (d. AlÊ ibn AbÊ ÙÉlib. Unlike the Qur’Én.125H/742). One could easily expect manipulation of the facts and fabrication of information from the leaders as well as followers of various political parties and religious sects. Similarly historian. This is what happen during the mid of the first century of Hijrah.w) to be gone astray due to the wide spread turmoil in the Islamic regions.a.

a. al-MuwaÏÏa’ (Al-QÉhirah: DÉr al-×adÊth.157/774) Al-Awza`i (d.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues fear the dissipation of knowledge and the passing-away of the scholars. 2004).16o/776) Sufyan 222 Fuqaha al- ImÉm MÉlik.159/775) Za’ida ibn Qudama (d.389.” 222 Scholars who carried out the project initiated by ÑUmar ibn Abd al-Aziz were many. in which ÍadÊth were arranged like the books of fiqh: into chapters devoted to the conventional fiqh problems. Those initial collections were greatly appreciated. their contents were generally scattered in nature.w) and events that occurred throughout his life time. Muhammad ibn Ishaq (d. Yet. Fiqh oriented collections. Their editions lacked in careful chapter-sequence. scholars began to introduce several methods of ÍadÊth compilation. p. It also deals with juristic views (fatawa) and customs of the people at that time. They arranged these narrations according to historical events and without mentioning isnÉd in most cases.159/775) Muhammad ibn ‘Abd alRahman (d. in line with their own interest. Ma`mar ibn RÉshid (96153H) Sa`d ibn ‘Aruba (d. very shortly. 151H) Musannaf. The world of Islam flourished with priceless collections in ÍadÊth literature. Therefore. It is worthwhile to mention some of them in the following table: Historians had introduced battles or biography (maghazi or sirah) oriented collections. They mainly look only for narrations dealing with sÊrah or biographical information of the Prophet Muhammad (s. 130 .

it is called pure ÍadÊth collections.w). ÍadÊth were arranged according to various subjects. Potential harm to the ÍadÊth collection could happen by accepting a distorted or forged report attributed to the Prophet (s. 150H) Mufassirun Exegesis or tafsÊr nature of collection MuÍaddith Ën They were mainly interested in collecting only narrations attributed to the Prophet Muhammad (s. Since the integrity of the people during this era is not like that of the people during the time of the Prophet (s. compiled only ÍadÊth having moral values.179/795) Zuhhad Scholars who devoted for righteous (zuhd).w). particularly events that happened during the battles and juristic view derived from the Qur’Én or ÍadÊth were not found in this type of collection. Kitab alZuhd.a. the 131 . of Adullah ibn al-Mubarak Musannaf of ‘Abd alMalik ibn ‘Abd al‘Aziz ibn Juraij (d.a. Historical information.165/781) Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah (107-198 Malik ibn Anas (d.w). and thus. Mere compilation is inadequate approach to preserve the authenticity of the ÍadÊth.161/777) Hammad ibn Salama (d.a.The Essential Role of IsnÉd Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa Thawri (d.

ØaÍÊÍ. (And when that person left) I said.’223 It is on the basis of this ayah that the MuÍaddithËn began to seek out information about narrators in order to verify their narration. the Prophet spoke to him in a very polite manner. lest you harm people in ignorance. 8. and afterwards you become regretful to what you have done. “O ‘Aisha! The worst people are those whom the people desert or leave in order to save themselves from their dirty language or from their transgression. That is why Allah (swt) says: ِ َّ ُّ‫يا أَي‬ ِ ِ ُ‫ة فَتُصبِحوا علَى ما فَعلْت‬ ٍ ‫ِب‬ ِ ‫ك‬ ِ ‫صيبوا قَو‬ ِ ْ َ‫اسق بِنَبإٍ فَتَب يَّ نُوا أ‬ ‫ني‬ ْ ِ‫آمنُوا إ‬ َ ‫م نَادم‬ َ َ ‫ما‬ َ َ ً ْ ُ ُ‫ن ت‬ َ َ ٌ َ‫م ف‬ َ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ين‬ ْ َ َ َ ُ ْ َ‫هال‬ ْ ُ َ‫جاء‬ َ ‫ها الذ‬ ‘O you who believe! If a FÉsiq comes to you with a news. yet you spoke to him in a very polite manner?” The Prophet said.w) used bad language to describe this man.a. The first step in verifying a report is to know the reality of the person reporting a piece of news.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues compilers of ÍadÊth should verify or scrutinize a report. But what about recording and publicizing the defects of such narrators.” But when the man entered. Therefore the reason must be that he 223 224 SËrah al-×ujurÉt: 49:6. Al-BukhÉrÊ. 107. “Admit him. he replied that he one who used bad language is the worst of people yet he (s. verify it. What an evil brother of his people or a son of his people.’224 This ÍadÊth teaches us that in warning the Muslims from a harm it is allowed to backbite because the man Rasulullah was warning about is one man named ‘Uyaynah ibn ×isn who outwardly showed that he was a Muslim thought in reality he was not a Muslim. The Prophet said. This is indicated by the Prophet’s answer to ‘A’isha when she asked him why he used bad language. “O Allah’s Apostle! You had said what you had said. 132 . p. v. Rasulullah wanted to warn the people about this man so he said what an evil man he is. what is the legal justification for doing this? Al-BukhÉrÊ reported on the authority of ‘Aisha that: ‘A man asked permission to enter upon Allah’s Apostle.

e. the great RijÉl scholar.’ Their prime motivation for doing this was fear of Allah and not the fear of the people. disqualifying and qualifying narrators’ study).The Essential Role of IsnÉd Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa wanted to warn the people and not to abuse the man and hence when he met him he was very polite to him. ImÉm ShafiÑÊ (150-206H) after experiencing a severe debate with deviant sect. ImÉm al-QurÏubÊ commenting on this ÍadÊth said: ‘The ÍadÊth contains the permission to backbite the one who publicly shows his Fisq or Fahsh and the like from unjust rulers or those who call to innovation though its allowed to do it in a polite manner as long as long as it does not lead to compromising the DÊn of Allah TaÑÉlÉ.a. that these people should dispute with me is better than the Messenger of Allah (s. on the authenticity khabar ÉÍÉd. It is reported that YaÍya ibn SaÑÊd al-QaÏÏÉn was asked: Do you not fear that those people whose ÍadÊth you have rejected will dispute against you before Allah? He said: no. He said: Ask somebody else.w) disputing with me by saying: Why did you narrate a ÍadÊth which you thought was a lie?’ Scholars attempted to lay down guide lines to compile ÍadÊth. He (my father) is weak (ÌaÑÊf). when we come to narrators of ÍadÊth it is clear that unscrupulous ÍadÊth narrators are not only harmful to Muslims but to Islamic civilization itself and therefore their faults must be recorded so no ÍadÊth will be accepted from them. In collecting this material the Rijal critics spared no one to the extent that the son would criticize his father.’ It is for this reason that people like the great TabiÑÊ ‘Ata ibn al-SÉ`ib and well known SÊrah writer Ibn IsÍÉq were not spared from criticism. about his father. The honest defamation or ÏaÑn was considered part of the DÊn since it was necessary to protect the DÊn. They repeated the question. biography of narrators’ study) and the Ñilm al-jarÍ wa al-taÑdÊl (i. Information regarding the probity and precision of narrators were recorded whether the information was disparaging or confirmed the reliability. It is reported that ‘Some people asked ‘Ali ibn al-MadÊni. The endeavor to verify the reports gave rise to the Ñilm al-rijÉl (i. had 133 .e. Mu’tazilate. Yayha ibn Ma’Ên said: ‘We disparaged people who had already been admitted to Jannah more than a hundred years ago.’ Thus. He fell silent and then lifted his head and said: This (is part) of the DÊn.

He should be free of making a report on the authority of those whom he met of something he did not learn from them. It was because of this reason that Imam Al-BukhÉrÊ decided to dedicate the rest of his life in compiling a book that would strictly comprise of authentic ÍadÊth. 134 . al-RisÉlah: The transmitter must be of firm faith. and not narrate in his own words the sense of what he had learnt.a. He should report verbatim what he learnt from his teachers. for each of them vouches for the tradition as he received it and verifies it for him to whom he passes it.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues introduced at least five criteria. His report must stand in agreement with what has been reported by those who are recognized to have memories of quality.w)” He sensed a dire need to rid this Holy Literature from all foreign blemishes.225 master of Imam al-BukhÉrÊ.’ It appears that Sheikh IsÍÉq ibn Rahwayh. So none of them should lack the qualifications I have just described. as one could clearly derived from his statement in his well-known work. was the earliest among those who concern to compile only the authentic ÍadÊth. if he reports from it. and should remember his book well. and well-known for his truthfulness in what he reports. and should know well how the change in expression affects the ideas expressed therein. if they also have transmitted these reports. The same qualification must be possessed by transmitters preceding him until the transmitter relates back to the Prophet or to him who carries it back to closest to him. He must possess a retentive memory. In one session of his study circle he had mention: “‫”لو مجعتم خمتصرا يصحح سنة رسول اهلل صلى اهلل عليه وسلم‬ “Would that one of you prepare a concise and sound collection of the sunnah of the Prophet (s. The statement of Imam IsÍÉq ibn Rahwayh hints that ÍadÊth during his time being compiled without any 225 He was leaving in a period where ÍadÊth were being forged and distorted either to please kings and rulers or to corrupt the religion of Islam. He should understand its content.

politic were preserved by the MuÍaddithËn. individual. their ÍadÊth were accepted and those who were innovators their ÍadÊth were neglected. This comprehension could be supported with the statement of Muhammad ibn Sirin (d.110H): “They did not ask about the authority (isnÉd). those who belong to Ahl al-Sunnah. could be found in the following table: Abu `Abdullah Born: 194H. Total number of ÍadÊth that had been preserved by them.” Countless Islamic values dealing with every aspect of life. Number of ÍadÊth: 9082: 2602 Period years :16 Number ÍadÊth : 3033 Number of ÍadÊth : 4800 Number of ÍadÊth: 3956 Duration : 20 years Number of ÍadÊth : 4341:1339 (Unrepeated) 135 .The Essential Role of IsnÉd Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa scrutinization. social. Muhammad ibn Died: 256H Isma`il ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Mughirah alJu`fi Abu Husain Muslim Born : 202H ibn al-Hajjaj alDied : 261H Nisaburi Abu Dawud Sulayman Born : 202H ibn al-Ash`ath al-Azdi Died : 275H al-Sijistani Muhammad ibn `Isa Born : 209H ibn Saura ibn Musa Died : 279H ibn al-Dahhak alTirmidhi Abu `Abdullah Born : 209H Muhammad ibn Yazid Died : 273H al-Rabi` (Ibn Majah) Abu `Abd al-Rahman Born : 215H ibn Shu`aib ibn `Ali Died : 303H ibn Sinan ibn Bahr alKhurasani al-Nasa’i. but when civil war (fitnah) arose they said ‘Name to us your men. particularly by the six famous compilers.

mentioned his conditions of the acceptability of a 'sanad' in written form. later scholars like Al-×azmi and Al-Muqaddasi produced treatises on the subject. these sanctions were effectively determined through personal analysis. namely the “ al-JÉmiÑ alØaÍÊÍ”. Although. ShurËÏ al-A’immah. 136 . They should not have practiced or be practicing 'tadlÊs'. 'TadlÊs' (lit. a large portion of the credit of the uniqueness of “al-Jami' al-ØaÍÊÍ” goes to the dazzling level of measures adopted by Imam Al-BukhÉrÊ in preserving the credibility of his 'sanad'. although met. Principally. betokening small-scaled differences of opinion. deception) means narrating a ÍadÊth with a chain that raises its status higher than it actually deserves. A point worth noticing here is that Imam Al-BukhÉrÊ had never collectively. It is worthwhile to discuss this issue in detail by analyzing the earliest authentic collection. 15-30. or even explicitly for that matter. while narrating. (i) TadlÊs in 'isnÉd' (ii) TadlÊs in 'shuyËkh'.226 Some of those key elements were:  The 'sanad' should be a 'muttaÎil' one. 'TadlÊs in isnÉd' occurs when one narrates a ÍadÊth from a person who he has. All narrators should have known to be sincere Muslims. This practice can be implemented in two key ways. It was briefly mentioned here only to give a fair idea of the measures adopted by them to prevent foreign interference in the text.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues Scrutiny of the validity of texts is not the MuÍaddithËn’s primary interest in their collections. 'TadlÊs in shuyËkh' takes place when one. pp. but not heard from. therefore. Even if he doesn't mention the teacher's name in explicit terms. any indication that gives an impression of having heard from or visited him will still be branded as 'tadlÊs'. 'MuttaÎil' in our context implies to the uninterrupted chain of narration since Imam AlBukhÉrÊ until it reaches a known Companion. mentions his teacher with such ambiguity that conceals or helps to conceal his real identity and thereby switches the mind to another narrator of a   226 Al-Muqaddisi.

Literally meaning 'one who puts into confusion'. According to Imam Al-BukhÉrÊ's conditions. Their main concern was just collecting as many narrations as possible. due to the potential fear of debauchery and vanishing of knowledge. He should have a sound memory and should also be free from all mental disorders and psychological deficiencies even from forgetfulness due to old age or sickness. Every piece of information about the transmitters gathered by the muÍaddithËn in treaties called kutub al-rijal (biographical dictionaries of the transmitters). this quality of his will be rendered void. If his beliefs clash with those of the 'Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-JamÉÑah'. Later scholars of ÍadÊth extensively utilize information in these treaties to validate and invalidate ÍadÊth attributed to the Prophet MuÍammad (s. 227 Ibid.227      Some muÍaddithËn did not strictly follow the criteria of the authentic ÍadÊth.  He should not be a 'mukhtaliÏ'.The Essential Role of IsnÉd Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa higher caliber. Mere possibility of their meeting will not be acceptable enough. He should be possessing of outstanding exactitude and preciseness. If any element of doubt is found in his narrations. a narrator ought to be exempt from these blemishes. 137 . There should be solid evidence of his union with his teacher who he narrates from. However they had provided information and remarks about transmitters upon whom they had relied. as it would be to Imam Muslim. He should have pristine theological beliefs.w).a. his narrations will be subject to further consideration depending on the severity of his deviation. it applies to every deliberate alteration from a narrator that may threat the veracity of the narrative. He should be well-distinguished in having maintained a proper conduct and an honorable record.

IttiÎÉl al-sanad (continuity of the chain of transmitters) 2. p. Muqaddimah (BeirËt: Mu’assat al-RisÉlah. ÑAdÉlah al-ruwÉh (probity or trustworthiness of narrators) 3.228 By identifying when a narrator was born and when died it is possible to ascertain of there was a likelihood that he met the narrator from whom he claims he got the report. One of the key methods establishing continuity was the science of dates of birth and death of transmitters. The absence of Ñillah (hidden defects) IttiÎÉl al-Sanad (continuity of the chain of transmitters) IsnÉd is the backbone of any report. ImÉm al-ShafiÑÊ used to say: ‘The one who looks for a ÍadÊth without IsnÉd is like the one who looks for firewood in the night. 138 . 2004). Umar ibn Musa replied: he is Khalid ibn MiÑdÉn. 231. v. The In the light of data provided in the kutub alrijal scholars of ÍadÊth able to judge whether or not a ÍadÊth had fulfilled the following five criteria of the authentic ÍadÊth.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues Defect of each ÍadÊth in all ÍadÊth collection detected by later ÍadÊth researchers. that have been agreed upon by the early ÍadÊth scholars: 1. Sufyan al-ThawrÊ said: ’when they (the fabricators) used lies we used dates’.’ In other words he is groping in the dark and does not know what he is picking up. When he kept mentioning him ‘AfÊr ibn MiÑdÉn asked him: Who is our pious Shaykh? Give us his name so we can identify him. 1. Look at the following example given by al-KhatÊb al-Baghdadi: Once a man named ‘Umar ibn Musa came to Homs. The absence of shudhËdh (conflict with stronger narrations) 5. ‘AfÊr asked him: which year did you meet him? 228 Ibn al-ØalÉh. ÖabÏ al-RuwÉh (The precision and accuracy of narrators) 4. The people gathered round him in the mosque and so he began speak: ‘We were informed by your pious Shaykh such and such ÍadÊth.

119. 229 Al-Khatib. Al-KifÉyah fÊ ÑIlm al-RiwÉyah (Al-QÉhirah: DÉr al-HudÉ’. 139 . Khalid ibn MiÑdan died in the year 104 AH but you claim that you met him after his death by four years.’229 The weakest link in the chain is what makes or breaks the credibility of a report. For example:     A muÑallaq isnÉd is where one or more transmitters is missing at the beginning of the chain A mursal is when the TabiÑÊ omits the name of the ØÍÉbÊ. 1. The usefulness of cataloging such chains is that it may be possible to fill the gap afterwards if other chains come to light which establish the continuity. So he asked: where did you meet him? He replied: I met him in the battle of Armenia. A muÑÌal chain is where two or more transmitters are missing in one more place A munqaÏiÑ is any break excluding muÑallaq. Let me add he did not just fight in Armenia only but also fought the Byzantines. So the MuÍaddithËn set out the classification of broken chains depending on where they occur and discussion of their value. others like AbË HanÊfah accept it because the omission of the ØÍÉbÊ who is trustworthy is inconsequential whilst others accept it with certain conditions like Imam al-ShÉfiÑÊ. v.The Essential Role of IsnÉd Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa He said: I met him in the year 108 AH. All of these chains are rejected except Mursal about which there is some difference of opinion. So AfÊr said: ‘Fear Allah O Shaykh! and do not lie. p. Some reject it. mursal and muÑÌal. 1986).

. Here we can see that it is not enough not to violate the sharÊÑah but the person must not violate the norms of society in order to be accepted by his peers. someone who constantly changes his opinion would be deemed as performing an action which may be permitted but would lose credibility i. Since one can only go by the overt indications it is stipulated that for someone to be Ñadl he must not be known to be a liar or accused of lying or an open fasiq (i. ÖabÏ al-RuwÉh (The precision and accuracy of narrators) ÖabÏ is the precisian and accuracy of narrators in taking and conveying information. p. someone who openly transgresses the aÍkÉm al-sharÊÑah) and he must be free from dishonorable behavior (khawÉrim al-murË’ah). another disqualification of ÑadÉlah is if the narrator is majhËl al-Ñayn i.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues ÑAdÉlah al-RuwÉh (probity or trustworthiness of narrators) After establishing continuity of the sanad. 1. Thus we can see the concept of ÑadÉlah in narration of ÍadÊth is stricter than the concept of ÑadÉlah when giving testimony before a Qadi.e.e we know his name but do not known his reality. 164. Al-Ramhurmuzi reported form ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Mahdi who said: ‘The MuÍaddithËn are 230 Ibid.e. When he used to say ‘I heard such and such person say…’ I would write it down. v. And finally. One of the qualities of a transmitter who is ÌÉbiÏ is that he must be very alert and cautious lest he records a report from his master in which tadlÊs has occurred.230 Above all he must verify and be meticulous in anything he transmits or receives. Yahya ibn Qattan heard ShuÑbah saying : ‘I used to sit with Qatada (to learn ÍadÊths from him). So. but when he would say ‘such and such person said (without specifying the hearing or samÉÑ from him) I would not write that report down’. 140 . it is necessary to establish the trustworthiness of narrators. Human beings naturally make mistakes but the one who is ÌÉbiÏ should not make too many mistakes. such person would lose his ÑadÉlah.

The Essential Role of IsnÉd Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa three types: The one who is of good memory and meticulous and there is no disagreement about him.p. The absence of Ñillah (Hidden defects) As for the study of Ñilal or hidden defects this is one of the most delicate and difficult work of a ÍadÊth critic. The benefit of this study is that one can detect mistakes and fabrications while at the same time assess the ÌabÏ and ÑadÉlah of transmitters. This is different to the munkar which is the narration of untrustworthy narrator which goes against the report of other trustworthy narrators.’ The way in which ÌabÏ was ascertained is if his reports generally agree with other trustworthy narrators. Whilst in ’UÎËl al-Fiqh it is enough to grasp the intellectual aspects and the key discussions but in the science if Ñilal one needs a breadth of knowledge which can encompass and recall a mass of reports and their asÉnÊd in order to 231 Al-Ramhurmuzi. Al-MuÍaddith al-FÉÎil Bayn al-RÉwÊ wa al-WÉÑÊ (n. The absence of ShudhËdh (conflict with stronger narrations) A ÍadÊth is considered ShÉdhdh when an acceptable transmitter transmits a matn or sanad which contradicts the matn or sanad of more trustworthy narrators. And the one who makes mistakes in the majority of his ÍadÊths and this ÍadÊth is rejected (matrËk). Ibn LahÊÑah started to muddle up his reports after his books got burned and so the muÍadÊthÊn stopped narrating from him father that point. Sometimes it can happen that a good narrator of ÍadÊth loses his retentive abilities later in life in which case it is necessary to identify when a ÍadÊth was received from him. 406. 141 . Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: ‘Anyone who had heard Ibn LahÊÑah long ago is valid (for report). p. The one makes mistakes but most of his haidth are sound and his ÍadÊth is not left.’231 Thus the narrator must have a good retentive ability and not contradict the narrations of more trustworthy narrators.: DÉr alFikr. 1984).

Few have mastered this field due to breath of knowledge required to undertake such an investigation.’ Here YaÑlÉ has made a mistake because it should be Abdullah ibn Dinar and not ‘Amr ibn Dinar who should be in the isnÉd.232 They further introduced a systematic grading of ÍadÊth. p. Ali al-MadÊnÊ and al-DÉrqutni are a few examples of those who became proficient in this branch of Ñilm alÍadÊth. The kind of diamond if examined through measuring one another.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues compare and detect that which is undetectable to the untrained eye . it will be known that it is fake. 107. How was it possible to catch this? This was because all the students of al-Thawri reported the ÍadÊth from Abdullah ibn Dinar and not ‘Amr ibn Dinar and therefore YaÑlÉ must have made the mistake.p. Íasan and ÌaÑÊf. It is the most regular ÍadÊth. it will be known to be glass.: DÉr al-Fikr. The authenticity of a ÍadÊth is known by its coming from reliable narrators and the statement itself must be worthy of being the statement of the Prophet hood. and which is found to be clear from shudhËdh and any hidden defects then the ÍadÊth is classed as ÎaÍÊÍ. and it is the task of the isnÉd critic to detect the fault through a scrutiny of multiple narrations and also rectify the defect where possible. Thus if it differs in redness and purity. 142 . Al-TaqyÊd wa al-ÔÌÉÍ (n. Ibn Hatim al-RÉzÊ sums it up nicely when he says: ‘The goodness of a Dinar is known when it is measured against another. In this regard the muÍaddith is like a detective looking for clues which will allow him to trace a mistake to its source. al-BukhÉrÊ. 388) states: ‘It is the one where its source is known and its reporters are prominent. made up of reporters of trustworthy preservers from similar authorities.Once it has been established that a ÍadÊth has a continuous isnÉd. For example YaÑlÉ ibn ÑUbayd narrated from al-Thawri from ‘Amr ibn Dinar that the Messenger (saw) said: ‘The seller and the buyer have the right to keep or return goods. and most 232 Al-ÑIraqÊ.’ The hidden defects can exist in the matn and sanad. as ÎaÍÊÍ. As for the Íasan Al-Khattabi (d. 1981). If it differs in sparkle and firmness.

ii.e. After this the ÍadÊth were divided according to the manner in which it was transmitted to us. In both categories however the ÍadÊth should be free of any conflict with more reliable narrations (shudhËdh)..The Essential Role of IsnÉd Habeeb Rahman Ibramsa scholars accept it. Whilst the last two are sound and relied upon as evidence ÌaÑÊf on the other hand cannot be adduced as proof. As for the ÌaÑÊf it is the narration which lacks the attributes of ÎaÍÊÍ and Íasan. provided that a similar text is reported through another isnÉd as well. 143 . no prominent person reported from him) but is not totally careless in his reporting. and it is used by the fuqÉha´ generally’. Although people disagreed about the details a basic distinction which everyone accepts is that aÍÉdÊth are either ÉÍÉd or mutawÉtir. one with an isnÉd containing a reporter who is known to be truthful and reliable. but is a degree less in his preservation of ÍadÊth in comparison to the reporters of ÎaÍÊÍ aÍadÊth. ×asan however comes in two varieties: i. one with an isnÉd containing a reporter who is mastËr (i.

They had introduced a unique method to crystallize and scrutinize narrations attributed to the Prophet MuÍammad (s.a. credit always goes to the muÍaddithËn.w. insured the legislative capacity and preserved their Islamic civilization. distortions and fabrications and adopt a methodology to reconcile the differences within certain texts. progress and revive if she adopts the Islamic knowledge and heritage as the basis for her thoughts. Since the early days of Islam they had defended status of ×adÊth as the legislative source besides the Qur’Én. In preserving Islamic civilization. society and state. classify and adopt a grading system for chains of narrators. set out rigorous criteria to asses authenticity. Muslims protected their ideology and culture. 144 .Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues Conclusion The Muslims rose to the challenge when the source of their way of life and civilization were being threatened by destructive activities of ×adÊth fabricators. devise techniques to detect and avert mistakes.). They were able to amass a data base of thousands of narrators. The result was the effective preservation of the ideology and its legislative capacity. Muslim historiography in this regard is a testament to how the Ummah can solve her problems. alterations.

Department of Qur’Én and Sunnah Studies. writing. Muslim societies had lost their leadership position in world affairs.Exposition on the Principles of IslÉm HaÌÉrÊ Qur’Énic Conception of ‘Knowledge’ Ismail Abdullah* Abstract Islam is civilization seeking to ensure continuous moral and physical growth of individuals and societies. This message is that of knowledge. Muslim scholars * Assoc. Malaysian suggestion of Islam Hadari (Civilizational Islam) seems to be highly desirable. Since the European colonization over third world nations including Muslim nations and the fall of the Ottoman caliphate. political. To remedy the situation. It is this reason that the first revelation comprised message concerning reading. the Qur’Én. economic. and teaching. International Islamic University Malaysia. The objective of this suggestion is to ascertain development of social. The very basis of Islamic civilization is knowledge. This paper is to look into viability of knowledge in Islamic development. Introduction The notion of ‘IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ’ has been seen as a response to the contemporary challenges of the Muslim ´ummah. 145 . and role of knowledge in developing human civilization. value. both in their religious and social life. moral. development. Professor. Keywords: Islam. knowledge. The Qur’Én and ×adÊth lay emphasis on the significance. and spiritual dimensions of Muslim individuals and societies. They are viewed as backward or underdeveloped. cultural and social stability are said to be contributing factors to such conditions. ×adÊth. Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences. Disunity and lack of political.

political and social approaches have been applied to reawaken the Muslim mind.233 233 Hans Wehr. in particular verses which deal with the tools in building civilization: ÑIlm (Knowledge) and ÑAmal (Work) IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ: A Conceptual Analysis IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ is a combination of two words. This paper has chosen one of these principles. ‘mastery of knowledge’ and its importance for civilization development and social enhancement. balanced and comprehensive economic development. ‘IslÉm’ and ‘ÍaÌÉrÊ or civilization’. just and trustworthy government. namely: faith and piety in AllÉh. In literal sense. namely. Many religious. IslÉm as a religion means complete physical. mastery of knowledge. consistent with the tenets of Islam. London: Macdonald &Evans Ltd. to take part or to participate in a meeting. ×aÌÉrÊ is a word that is derived from the Arabic verb ‘ÍaÌara’. in order to regain the leadership position of the Muslim ´ummah in world affairs. good quality of life for all.K.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues and socio-political leaders have made various attempts to revive and restructure the Muslim mind. ‘sedentary in civilized region’. 146 . protection of the rights of minority groups and women. 1974). protection of the environment and a strong defence policy. is interpreted by the Malaysian leadership as an approach that emphasizes development. as opposed to nomadic existence. surrender and obedience to the Almighty Allah.. In its adjective form ÍaÌÉrÊ means ‘civilized person’. p. and focused on enhancing the quality of life. etc. freedom and independence to the people. Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (U. to be ready. IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ. it means to be present. cultural and moral integrity. 183. ‘IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ’ emphasizes mainly on ten Islamic principles of governing and social enhancement. spiritual and intellectual submission. while its noun ‘ÍaÌÉra’ means ‘to be settled’. 3rd edn. ‘IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ’ is one of them. This paper analyzes the Qur’anic-centric approaches of building civilization.

IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ could be regarded as a complete and 234 The Concept of Islam hadari. where Muslims are aware of their affairs and able to manage them. The notion of ‘IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ sees that glorification of the Islamic civilization of the past by some contemporary Muslims through rhetorical speeches is not enough without practical implication of the principles which had been applied by Muslims in the past. back to the fundamentals. cultural and material development in Muslim societies. to characterize someone as a ‘ÍaÌÉrÊ’ is to designate his or her presence in the current situation. Therefore. progressive spirit. (Malaysia: The Department of Islamic Development Malaysia. (Rather) it is an effort to bring the ummah back to basics. 235 Ibid.4-5. as scribed in the Qur’Én and the ÍadÊth that form the foundation of Islamic civilization. p.234 Furthermore. according to their common interests.3. such as mastery of knowledge and cultural development as well as moral integrity. In this sense. IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ contains characteristics of selfconfidence. based on the Islamic teachings and principles. a civilized person is a person who is living in the present time fully aware and conscious of what is taking place at that moment and place. 2004). IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ.Exposition on the Principles of IslÉm HaÌÉrÊ Ismail Abdullah In addition. denotes an advanced state of intellectual.235 This type of culture and civilization is rooted deeply in the pure fundamental origins of the Islamic teachings for both social and scientific developments. consistent with the tenets of Islam and focused on enhancing the quality of life. It is not a new teaching nor is it a new mazhab. IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ: …is not a new religion. and peaceful co-existence with others. IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ in this understanding is a way or method of solving and overcoming certain challenges and shortcomings of contemporary conditions of the Muslim societies: It is an approach that emphasizes development. 147 . marked by progress in the arts and sciences. therefore. as it aims at the betterment of the social conditions of the Muslim ´ummah. Therefore. p.

politically. IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ aims to bring Muslims from being consumers to producers.236 It is true that Muslims in the past were able to advance in their civilization progress and play a leadership position in world affairs. skills and expertise in order to build capacity. trustworthy. an integrated and balanced development that creates a knowledge and pious people who hold to noble values and are honest. Therefore. The ´ummah must be a society that embraces knowledge.237 Today.e. 148 . and prepared to take on global challenges”. social justice and tolerance for other religious 236 237 <http://www.gov.my/portal/> retrieved on 18 Oct. economically.islam. i.. trading and financial system.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues comprehensive portrayal of Islamic teachings with an emphasis on the development of economics and civilization among contemporary Muslims. technological and social infrastructures. The misconception that there exists a difference between so-called secular knowledge and religious knowledge must be corrected. that touch on the need to master science and technology should be studied. Muslim societies are viewed as backward or underdeveloped in various parts of life. the implementation of a dynamic economic. 2011 Ibid. from buyers to sellers and from beggars to donors. Hence. where they become consumers of ideas and commodities of other societies. IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ in this progressive model emphasizes economic and technological developments. it is worthless to praise their action without applying their ideas and principles to practical life. IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ: Aims to achieve this via the mastery of knowledge and the development of the individuals and the nation. IslÉm makes it compulsory for Muslims to embrace knowledge in all fields. Islam demands the mastery of sciences and technology and the enhancement of skills and expertise. Many verses in the Qur’Én. However. with the implication that: Glorious heritage of Islamic civilization in all aspects must be used as reference and become the source of inspiration for society to prosper.

as knowledge is not only a societal demand but religious as well.Exposition on the Principles of IslÉm HaÌÉrÊ Ismail Abdullah communities. Knowledge for ‘IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ’ comprises Divine and Prophetic Wisdom for our guidance. economics and administration.238 In short. Muslim societies should be competitive with other world communities in all fields of knowledge and science. followed by the knowledge from human experience and the intellect.1. asked his followers to seek knowledge even in far distances. as the Prophet of IslÉm s. Illiteracy should be eradicated. Knowledge is sought not only for its intellectual and material benefits but also for the sake of AllÉh whose pleasure we should always aspire to earn. His doctrines and rules in human life. 149 . the: Engagement in the study of knowledge by seeking it or teaching is the most meritorious pursuit.L. knowledge-based lifestyle should be encouraged in all levels of the society. Recognizing the undeniable role of knowledge in the future social and cultural maturity of nation building.) 239 ÑAbd. Ra´Ëf. “Seek knowledge from anywhere even if it is as far as China”. 1991. Malaysia. and “Seeking knowledge is an obligation upon every Muslim”( Ibn MÉjah. but also in understanding God. v. much emphasis however. IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ bears in mind that. human rights and quality of life being among them.81. Though this concept targets a variety of issues. supported by evidence from the human senses and wisdom.24. The Prophet said. Sunan. the vision of Islam hadÉri bears that mobilizing scientific and technological achievements 238 IslÉm made acquiring knowledge an obligation upon every Muslim. K. MuÍammad. p. freedom. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. is given to the enhancement and strengthening of the educational positions of the Muslim ´ummah. Knowledge is for all and everyone in the society. p. the Muslim Mind Foundation and Early Manifestation.a.239 Mastery of Knowledge and Progress of Civilization in the Qur’Én A knowledgeable society in IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ is not merely a society promoting skills in commerce.w.

Rashid: Development in science and technology is essential not only as a tool for development but also important in developing a new culture 240 There can be no little doubt that science and the technology that stems from knowledge have brought a higher standard of living to people in advanced countries.24. mobilizing science and technology 240 in all levels of society (where knowledge will be accessible to everybody in the society) is the only way to achieve a ‘knowledgeable society’. In addition. Knowledge and science will not only play vital roles in transforming the nation into developed and selfdepending in economics and technology. p. but …even the most up-to-date technical and scientific language and philosophy. by applying available tools in the new information and communication technology to maintain economic growth and cultural enhancement. as stated by Abd. so that we are not duped in any way. They should master the secrets of the trade in the new technology so that they are not duped. and economic and political supremacy are closely related to knowledge and science in the Qur’Én. The Prophet Î. In IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ. It is the prospect of rising living standards that makes the acquisition of new scientific knowledge so attractive. but also into cultural supremacy both at the personal and societal levels. 241 Muhammad ‘Uthman El-Muhammady. The knowledge of the tongue of a people does not merely mean language of communication in the ordinary sense. knowledge and technological advances are very much needed.a. has said that a person who knows the language of another people cannot be fooled by them. just as it has enabled developing countries to subsist and flourish.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues throughout the social institutions are indispensable steps in the process of nation building. Rahim Abd.w. 150 .241 It is indispensable to note that civilization progress. Malaysians should prepare themselves so that they can perform their task in today’s challenging global village. Since Malaysia is pushing forward progressive ambitions and striving hard to become a fully developed nation by the end of the first quarter of this century.

when they came to a (lowly) valley of ants. we read in the Qur’Én. At length.Rashid. (paper presented in: International Conference on Values and Attitudes in Science and Technology. and they were all kept in order and ranks.Exposition on the Principles of IslÉm HaÌÉrÊ Ismail Abdullah as well as in modernizing Malaysian society economically. 151 . lest Solomon and his hosts crush you (under foot) without knowing it. get into your habitations. 244 Al-Naml: 27: 15. to the ranks of Thy righteous Servants. and gave him the ways and means of life. whom Allah established power on earth.t) had bestowed everything on them as their state consisted of various Jinn." So he smiled. Who has favored us above many of his servants who believe!"244 In another chapter. In one of his travels on earth. socially and culturally. one of the ants said: "O ye ants. which thou hast bestowed on me and on my parents.w.. and AllÉh (s. Malaysia. And before Solomon were marshaled his hosts.242 With regard to the necessity of knowledge for civilization progress and nation building project.243 Nevertheless. and they were all kept in order and ranks. and that I may work the righteousness that will please Thee: And admit me.( p. the Qur’Én narrates the story of DhË alQarnayn. he went to the people who were threatened by Gog and Magog and were desperately 242 Abd. the story of Prophet DÉwËd and his son SulaymÉn. 27: 17-20. The Role of Education in Transforming Malaysia into Science and Technological Society: Issues and Challenges. Held: 3-6 September 1996.6 243 Al-Naml. amused at her speech. Kuala Lumpur.of Jinn and men and birds. men and birds. Rahim Abd. who had established a powerful state in the holy land of Jerusalem. the reason behind their success as stated by the Qur’Én was due to the knowledge bestowed to both DÉwËd and SulaymÉn: We gave (in the past) knowledge to David and Solomon: And they both said: "Praise be to Allah. and he said: "O my Lord! So order me that I may be grateful for Thy favours. by Thy Grace.

DhË al-Qarnayn. 18: 90-98. asking them to provide the necessary equipments and tools to build a barrier between Gog and Magog and their lands. “Until.245 245 SËrah Al-Kahf. because of his dependence on God. when he had filled up the space between the two steep mountain-sides. (He left them) as they were: We completely understood what was before him. 152 . He gathered blocks of iron and when he had filled up the space between the two steep mountain-sides." Thus were they made powerless to scale it or to dig through it. He said. a people who scarcely understood a word. Then followed he (another) way. until. that I may pour over it." At length. when he had made it (red) as fire. Through the engineering and architectural provisions. "Blow (with your bellows)" Then.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues in need of help. molten lead. He said: "This is a mercy from my Lord: But when the promise of my Lord comes to pass. He will make it into dust. he said: "Bring me. and the promise of my Lord is true”. when he reached (a tract) between two mountains. and his ingenuity in engineering technology and architectural designs. when he came to the rising of the sun. He then started designing and laying out his work plan. told them it was possible to stop such catastrophic incident to happen. They helplessly cried to DhË al-Qarnayn for protection before catastrophic and mischievous conditions spread on their lands by the powerful and illimitable Gog and Magog. he told those people to blow their bellows and when he had made it red as fire he poured over it molten lead. he found it rising on a people for whom We had provided no covering protection against the sun. DhË al-Qarnayn was able to make Gog and Magog powerless and unable to cause destruction and mischievous damages. They said: "O Zul-qarnain! The Gog and Magog (People) do great mischief on earth: shall we then render thee tribute in order that thou mightest erect a barrier between us and them? He said: "(The power) in which my Lord has established me is better (than tribute): Help me therefore with strength (and labour): I will erect a strong barrier between you and them: "Bring me blocks of iron. beneath them. he found.

153 . consist of highly specialized people. The society is a team of national development in general where: The central work force in the knowledge society will. knowledge should be made available to everyone in the team. As Malaysian society has been experiencing economic boom and rapid growth of communication technology sectors in the past few decades. As team spirit is essential for nation building.dk/scripts/artikel. from being a market researcher into general management. and especially to acquire rapidly the specialized knowledge needed for them to move from one kind of work and job to another. p. or from being a nurse in a hospital into hospital administration. e. But generalists in the sense in which we used to talk of them are becoming dilettantes rather than educated people.cifs. mastery of knowledge will be inevitable for both maintaining and developing of such achievements. 246 Mastery of knowledge as a collective intelligence has enormous impact on social stability and economic well-being of the nation. See also: Knowledge Society And Quality Of Life: An Islamic Perspective.Exposition on the Principles of IslÉm HaÌÉrÊ Ismail Abdullah However. It is a self-explaining fact that the diffusion of knowledge will in fact narrow the gap between the social quarters.8. Paper Presented. In fact. What we mean by that term. Society should be informed of the new patterns of contemporary lifestyle and future challenges of life in the technological oriented way of life.g. transmission and distribution of knowledge through acquiring and learning processes are essential for such society to make effective use of it. increasingly. By Muhammad ‘Uthman El Muhammady in the Seminar: 11th Leadership Seminar of the Southeast Asian Center of Environmental and Urban Management 2004 Kuala Lumpur. therefore. On the other hand this development in wider society reflects the so called ‘cultural reproduction’ where the majority of the population 246 http://www. Hence ‘knowledgeable society’ equals collective intelligence and capacity to build collectively a civilized and manageable culture.as. it is a mistake to speak of generalists. will be people who have learned how to acquire additional specialties..

Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues

in developing countries such as Malaysia has great tendency to adapt their attitudes, values and interests just to use such technology.247 IslÉm ÍaÌÉrÊ perceives ‘mastery of knowledge’ as a backbone factor for the civilization progress and future cultural enhancement efforts. Without mastery of knowledge, Malaysian society will not be able to, intensively and properly, utilize and benefit from the modern information and communication technology, while the current attempts of greater social integrations and cultural enhancements will be superficial. Mastery of knowledge is the only guarantor for progressive civilization attitudes such as openness, interaction, assimilation, absorption, revision, and examination, which will prompt creative culture and way of life. Mastery of knowledge is an essential building block for generating: The attitude of society characterized by being descriptive and perspective, with readiness for positive change and involving analysis of the current state of education, scientific research, the media, the publishing industry, culture encompassing religion, intellectual heritage.248 Mastery of knowledge is extremely necessary, especially, in the construction of a viable and progressive society, which in turn requires effective economic, social and political institutions, to overcome the chaotic circumstances and challenging epochs. In addition, by mastering knowledge, people would become actively involved in the process of cultural reproduction, dissemination and technological regeneration of progressive lifestyle.

247 248

Abd. Rahim Abd. Rashid, The Role of Education. P.7. Muhammad ‘Uthman El-Muhammady, p.23.

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Exposition on the Principles of IslÉm HaÌÉrÊ

Ismail Abdullah

Knowledge in the Qur’Én Knowledge249 is expressed in the Qur’Én as both, Ñilm and maÑrifah, i.e., science and knowledge. In their general usage, the two terms are synonymous and have overlapping connotations, such as: to know reality of certain things, state or fact of knowing, awareness or understanding gained through experience and or study. However, in their technical implications there are some subtle differences between them; while the term maÑrifah indicates knowledge about remnants of certain things without knowing its essence. ÑIlm, on the other hand, contains knowledge of the substance as well as the remnants; therefore, conceptually Ñilm is wider than maÑrifah.250 The other difference is that, maÑrifah proceeds from ignorance to knowledge while this condition is not necessary with Ñilm. Hence, Ñilm is applicable to God while maÑrifah is not.251

249

Synonyms of the word ‘Ilm include; knowledge, information, learning, erudition, lore, scholarship. Knowledge is the broadest. "Science is organized knowledge.” Information often implies a collection of facts and data: "A man's judgment cannot be better than the information on which he has based it. Learning usually refers to knowledge gained by schooling and studying: "Learning ... must be sought for with ardor and attended to with diligence". Erudition implies profound, often specialized knowledge: "Some have criticized his poetry as elitist, unnecessarily impervious to readers who do not share his erudition". Lore is usually applied to knowledge gained through tradition or anecdote about a particular subject: “Many American folktales concern the lore of frontier life”. Scholarship is the mastery of a particular area of learning reflected in a scholar's work. See: The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. 250 Al-RÉghib al-AÎfahÉnÊ, al-MufradÉt fi GharÊb al-Qur’Én: Bierut, Lebanon. n.d. Al-AÎfahÉnÊ further explains the term by giving certain examples as he says, “When somebody wants to say that someone knows God, he should use the word maÑrifah instead of Ñilm, for instance instead of saying: ‫ فالن يعلم هللا‬he should say, ‫فالن يعرف هللا‬ ”. 251 ÙahÉwunÊ defines the term maÑrifah as “to comprehend certain thing with the use of senses, absolute knowledge whether it pertains to conception or confirmation, and lastly as comprehending the simple matter whether it pertains to the concept of essence (taÎawwur al-mÉhiyyah) and to confirm its conditions. (al-ÙahÉwunÊ,

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Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues

Subsequently, Ñilm has a much wider connotation than ma‘rifah which falls short of expressing all the aspects of 'ilm. MaÑrifah might always denote information about something, while 'ilm is an allembracing term covering theory, action and education. Though these subtle differences exist between these two terms, the general implication remains he same, which is a “group of issues and common principles about a certain branch of knowledge, such as sciences of theology, sciences of cosmology and medicine, etc”. Both Ñilm and maÑrifah indicate the “state or fact of knowing, familiarity, awareness, or understanding gained through experience or study. It is the sum or range of what has been perceived, discovered, or learned, or specific information about something.”252 Scope of Knowledge and its Importance in the Qur’Én: Unlike modern Western theories of knowledge that confine knowledge to either experimental or intuitive methods while denying revelation as a source of knowledge, Qur’Énic method of knowledge has been inclusive and all encompassing. The Qur’Én considers ‘aql (intellect), ÍawÉs (senses) and waÍy (revelation) as the main sources of human knowledge, as each of these three elements has its own criteria and field. ÑIlm or maÑrifah covers all kinds of knowledge regardless of its source and nature, i.e., from Ñaql or revelation, or whether it is comprehensive or partial knowledge. The Qur’Énic concept of knowledge is not limited to certain aspects of the cosmos or human life; rather it covers the whole aspects of the cosmos. Cosmological or natural sciences, human sciences and religious knowledge as well as aspects of life are covered in the Qur’Én. The theory of knowledge in

MuÍammad ÑAlÊ, MawsËÑÉt KashÉf IÎÏilÉÍÉt al-FunËn wa al-ÑUlËm: Beirut, Maktabat Lebanon Nashirun, 1st ed. 1996. Also, in his book al-TaÑrÊfÉt, al-JurjÉnÊ defines the terms Ñilm and maÑrifah as “to comprehend something as it appears and to know something with the use of almaÑrifah is proceeding from ignorance to awareness and knowledge.” (al -JurjÉnÊ, ÑAlÊ b. MuÍammad b. ÑAlÊ, KitÉb at-TaÑrÊfÉt: Beirut, DÉr al-Rayan li al-TurÉth.) 252 Al-RÉghib al-AÎfahÉnÊ, p.290-291.

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Theory of knowledge in IslÉm does not distinguish between ‘holy and profane’. aim and nature of knowledge. and ask forgiveness for thy fault. the Qur’Én insists that knowledge is from God. as the distinction between ‘science’ and ‘religion’ has no theological grounds in the Muslims’ mind. it covers a wide spectrum of fields of knowledge. is a religious duty commanded by God and regarded by Him as fulfillment of His Will. The religious order is done through the knowledge and devotion. and to live properly in this universe. nature.Exposition on the Principles of IslÉm HaÌÉrÊ Ismail Abdullah the Islamic perspective is not just a theory of epistemology. AllÉh says in the Qur’Én: “Know. 253 Knowledge should be acquired. therefore. The Qur’Én sees knowledge as an essential tool of guiding mankind into the right path. 157 . It regards learning as a form of worship. math. stored and persuade without classifying it into profane and religious. and this cannot be achieved unless through the physical 253 SËrah MuÍammad. and for the men and women who believe: for Allah knows how ye move about and how ye dwell in your homes”. and ‘secular and religious’. that there is no God but Allah. rather. of the purpose of creation. such as knowledge of divinity. therefore. This might seem true. to know the unity of God and His sovereignty. Education. Consequently. logical and other parts of human knowledge. ImÉm al-GhazÉlÊ affirms that IslÉm values religious teachings in jeopardy if they are not substantiated with deep knowledge of the natural sciences: In fact the religious order can only be achieved through worldly order. With regard to the source. 47: 19. to God and for God. 'science' and 'religion' are not meant to be fundamentally incompatible with each other. The Qur’Én does not recognize any enmity between knowledge and religion. complementary to each other. as knowledge and religion are inseparable entities in the eyes of the Qur’Én. it is noticeably demonstrated in these verses that. rather.

(like one who does not)? Say: "Are those equal. food. The religion cannot be put into order unless through fulfillment the security and the basic needs. who takes heed of the Hereafter. vol.w.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues fitness. and for the men and women who believe: for Allah knows how ye move about and how ye dwell in your homes. 256 SËrah Al-MujÉdalah: 58: 11. 255 In another verse of the Qur’Én. it is affirmed that those who have knowledge will be placed in a higher position and rank above everyone else: “O ye who believe! When ye are told to make room in the assemblies. and ask forgiveness for thy fault.17-19. that there is no God but AllÉh. sustaining life.w. where knowledge comes before action. and security. However.1. knowledge is placed before action. dressing.t commanded his Prophet s. AllÉh s. 1980). p. to know before pronouncing even the words of tawÍÊd (maintaining the unity of God) or ÔmÉn (faith).a. (spread out and) make room: (ample) room will Allah provide for you. the Qur’Én indicates that those who possess knowledge are not equal to those who do not: Is one who worships devoutly during the hour of the night prostrating himself or standing (in adoration). purchasing power which suffices people to fulfill the housing. And when ye are told to rise up. to (suitable) ranks (and degrees). those who know and those who 254 AbË ×amÊd al-GhazÉlÊ. Know. those of you who believe and who have been granted (mystic) Knowledge.256 In another verse. And Allah is wellacquainted with all ye do. therefore. 255 SËrah Muhamad: 47: 19. DÉr al-Fikr. rise up Allah will rise up. 158 .254 The necessity of Ñamal (action) is overwhelmingly emphasized in the Qur’Én. IÍyÉ´ ÑUlËm al-DÊn(Beirut. and who places his hope in the Mercy of his Lord .

Seventy percent of the Qur’Énic verses draw attention to the importance of seeking knowledge. the Qur´Én also discusses the tools of acquiring knowledge. (they are): continuing charity.” (ImÉm Muslim. the Qur’Én also affirms that an individual or nation that does not respectively possess knowledge and scholars will live in illusion and sink in darkness. p. some useful knowledge. but also as a highly valued noble ingredient of human life that has an everlasting result.. SËrah Al-IsrÉ´: 17: 72.2. Momentous intention 257 258 SËrah Al-Zumar: 39: 9. 58: 11. except for three virtues. 260 SËrah Al-Zumar. Sahih.1255. and the prayers of righteous child. ÑIlm is not only viewed as a rewarding building block in the Qur’Én.261 While covering on knowledge and its pursuance. Allah will raise up to (suitable) ranks (and degrees) those of you who believe and who have been granted knowledge. 159 .260 And “. But those who were blind in this world.258 The Qur’Én and Civilization Devices of Knowledge One of the most important central themes of the Qur’Én is knowledge. will be blind in the hereafter.259 Numerous verses in the Qur’Én call for quest of knowledge while praising those who possess knowledge by putting them in a higher position above all. 259 The Prophet said: “When the son of Ódam dies. and most astray from the Path. 261 SËrah Al-MujÉdalah. vol. the recording of his deeds stop. Allah says in the Qur’Én: Say: Are those equal..Exposition on the Principles of IslÉm HaÌÉrÊ Ismail Abdullah do not know? It is those who are endued with understanding that receive admonition. those who know and those who do not know? It is those who are endued with understanding that remember Allah's Message”. 39: 9. 257 In various verses.

Richards. although the level of sophistication of these tools may differ from one society to another.w. How to Read a Page (1959). 160 . and instrumental skill for procuring data from the environment to the human mind.w.t has chosen the term ‘read’ to be the first word of His revelation to the human 262 Allah says in the Qur’Én: “Read! In the name of your Lord who created . J. I.a. Teaching Reading (1958). A. H. each of which lasts for about a quarter of a second.” (96:1-5) 263 See G. writing. M. from one generation to another in the process of learning. across the written line. The first five verses of revelation to the Prophet s. 263 Regardless of the various divergences among scholars on the nature of ‘reading’. How to Read a Book (rev. A. The Challenge of Reading Failure (1968). Diack. while the origin of knowledge was underlined. Taught the human that which he knew not. so that a skilled reader may take in more than three words per fixation when reading easy material. Van Doren. Wilson.Created the human from something which clings. In each fixation more than one word is perceived and interpreted. Reading is a process of mental interpretation. Robeck and J. Hildreth. ed. J. M. known as fixations.262 It is a self-explaining fact that. contained learning techniques such as the ability to write and store information. these tools comprise commonly shared substantial rudiments of conveying knowledge and information to the human mind. written symbols is an essential factor in educational progress. pen. 1972). It is interesting that AllÉh chooses to begin His revelation with something related to the tools and procedures of knowledge acquisition such as reading.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues is drawn towards the fundamental tools and procedures of knowledge acquisition. Reading and the Psychology of Perception (1960). G. C. M. writing and reading. it is interesting to note that AllÉh s. Cox. R. Becoming a Better Reader (1960). Read! And your Lord is Most Bountiful He who taught (the use of) the Pen. Learning to Read: The Great Debate (1967). Adler and C. Chall. teaching and knowledge storage. Physiological and psychological studies suggest that the process of reading is based on a succession of quick eye movements. Psychology of Reading (1974). Cuomo. S.

in the knowledge output. Cambridge University Press. neither written material nor other object in front of him. Van den Broek. The function of ‘pen’ in the educational process is obvious. Books break the shackles of time.w.e. diagnose. etc. simply because as the human character is both reactive and proactive.Exposition on the Principles of IslÉm HaÌÉrÊ Ismail Abdullah being. who never knew one another. problem solving. Knill. p. Cognitive theory contends that solutions to problems take the form of algorithms–rules that are not necessarily understood but promise a solution. i. process. Pick. pen. ed. J. “Read in the name of your Lord” but there was nothing to read. and language.t.265 the internal mental processes such as memory. 161 . solutions may be found through insight. concerning themselves with the mental processes which mediate between stimulus and response. P. and solve problems. and D.w was commanded to read. In these verses the Prophet s. citizens of distant epochs.264 ‘Teaching’ as an act. or heuristics–rules that are understood but that do not always guarantee solutions.. L. Cosmos: New York. Sanford. Cognition: Conceptual and Methodological Issues 1992. that is not the end of the learning process. A. As no human being is born a knowledgeable person. C. responsively. it was well known that the Prophet s. one of them might be.. In other instances. people like to give feedback. 2000. a sudden awareness of relationships. Finally. to draw our attention to the importance of ‘reading’ as an imperative skill for knowledge input. however. Besides this.a. Cognition and Cognitive Psychology 1986. Reading might help the person in the knowledge storage stage. Another vital educational instrument mentioned in these verses is ‘Qalam. the Qur’Én explicitly states that Allah is the One Who teaches and gives the ability of learning to mankind. proof that humans can work magic. especially.123. from these verses we might observe a clear indication of another crucial educational instrument which is the ‘cognitive mind’. or art of imparting knowledge and skill through effort and endeavor is impressively emphasized in these verses. Perhaps for many reasons known to AllÉh s. through writing which is conceivably: The greatest of human inventions.a. binding together people. H.w was al264 265 Carl Sagan. Cognitive psychologists are interested in how people understand.

Created man. In view of the Qur’Én. Process of Learning 2. (SËrah al-ÑAlaq. Who created. Here. Work is demanded for both social and religious considerations. 1-5. it is understood that the Qur’Én was signaling to the importance of mental capacity as a storage of learned information as well as to recall what has been stored. are equally applicable to all manifestations of ‘work’. i. Tools of comprehension. The Arabic term ÑAmal. out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood: Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful. an unlettered person who cannot read or write. work is very important to the extent that it is not only an honorable act but also an 266 Proclaim! (or read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher. and all its ramifications..) 162 . Fruits of learning and saving nature of man storage Teachin g Learnin g Pen Reading Allah is the source of knowledge Allah created man Knowledg e Human mind as storage of knowledge ÑAmal (work/action) and its Importance in the Qur’Én ÑAmal (work) in the Qur’Én covers a wide spectrum of topics ranging from devotional religious practices to professional and political activities.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues Ummi. Verse. The first Qur’Énic verse (Iqra´ or Read) contains the main educational devices as follows:266 1. nevertheless. He Who taught (the use of) the pen. input and output 3. Taught man that which he knew not. Source of knowledge and the 4.e. it should be guided by knowledge.

2: 29. whether male or female.267 And who is better in speech (work.89-92.272 267 See: Essays on Islamic Provisional Ethics. 269 SËrah Al-NaÍl. Roslizawati M. p. 163 . 271 Thus.t) and at the same time fulfils the good work.268 Furthermore.t) promised in the Qur’Én that if anyone engages in good deeds and maintains faith in AllÉh. so walk in the paths thereof and eat of His providence. 41: 33. Karim A. The Qur’Én says that if the person calls for AllÉh (s. ed: Dr. Terebessy. go ahead and plant it”. 16: 97. Reported by ImÉm al -BukhÉrÊ.270 Allah says in the Qur’Én that He has created everything on earth for people to utilize for their interest and benefits: It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on earth. and said: Lo! I am of those who surrender unto Him. “If the last hour strikes and finds you holding a nursling in your hand. then He turned to the heaven and made them into seven firmaments. man is required to work since the day he was born to the day he dies. A. Pub: Kaci Trading Sdn. deed) than him who prayed unto his Lord and doeth right. 2004.Exposition on the Principles of IslÉm HaÌÉrÊ Ismail Abdullah act of worship. him verily We shall quicken with good life. people must go and work to seek his sustenance on earth. there is none nobler than him. and We shall pay them a recompense in proportion to the best of what they used to do.478.Hersi Mahmed Hellole.w. IslÉm sees work as a basic element of human life. And of all things He hath perfect knowledge. he will enjoy a good life here and in the hereafter. AllÉh (s. Hadeeth no. 270 It was narrated from the Prophet. Kuala Lumpur. And unto Him will be the resurrection (of the dead). Whosoever doeth right . which covers not only this worldly life but also in the hereafter. 268 SËrah FuÎÎilat. Ramsy.269 Therefore. He it is who hath made the earth subservient unto you. 271 SËrah Al-Baqarah.w. and is a believer.

and has promised that work will indeed earn merit for the worker. he said: It is better for anyone of you to carry a bundle of wood on his back. He affirms that no one will receive anything more than what he/she has worked and earned for himself. Towards Islamic Labor and Unionism (Cairo. p. 67: 15.277 272 273 SËrah Al-Mulk. and sell it than to beg of someone whether he may give or refuse to give him. material as well as ethical and spiritual. 283 277 Reported by ImÉm al-BukhÉrÊ and ImÉm Muslim.).273 AllÉh (s.2072 276 Reported by ImÉm al-BukhÉrÊ and ImÉm Muslim.w) said: That which proceeds from the work of your hand. the hand which shows the effect of hard work is worthy of being kissed.275 Answering the question of what is the best sustenance that some may have. 36: 54. and ye shall but be repaid the meads of your past Deeds.a. Hadeeth no.w) said: No one eats a better food than what he has attained through his manual work.w) indicated that whoever returns home at the end of the day exhausted from his application and effort by his hand. the Prophet (s. on that Day.1471 164 . Hadeeth no.t) has described the true believers as those: Who establish IslÉm on earth and reconstruct the world around them so as to make it a place of plenty and peace for all. SËrah YÉ SÊn. Hadeeth no. In addition. the Prophet (s.11. 274 Ismail al-Faruqi and Gamal al-Banna.a.w. as well as every legitimate sale.d. Then.w. AllÉh (s. n.a.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues IslÉm regards “work” as inclusive of all human endeavors on earth.276 On another occasion.t) has commanded all humans to work and to produce. not a soul will be wronged in the least. 275 Reported by ImÉm al-BukhÉrÊ.274 The Messenger of AllÉh (s.

and His Messenger. there can be no turning it back. as Allah (s. God’s grace is not confined to the Muslims on worldly affairs in this life but is extended to those who work: Of the bounties of thy Lord We bestow freely on all. 165 . 17: 20 280 SËrah Al-Tawbah. before and behind him: They guard him by command of Allah.t) will never change the condition of one group or society until they change their situation and improve their life. 9: 105.279 Finally. besides Him. 13: 11. SËrah Al-IsrÉ´. For each (such person) there are (angels) in succession.These as well as those: The bounties of thy Lord are not closed (to anyone).w. Verily never will Allah change the condition of a people until they change it themselves (with their own souls). the Qur’Én urges its followers to continuously work hard without feeling laziness since survival on earth depends on strenuous work: And say: "Work (righteousness): Soon will Allah observe your work.Exposition on the Principles of IslÉm HaÌÉrÊ Ismail Abdullah Work according to the Qur’Én is the bona fide basis of personal and social changes.278 According to the Qur’Én. for the sake of the development of civilization. God will support those who work regardless of their faith and ethnicity. any to protect. nor will they find. But when (once) Allah willeth a people's punishment. and the Believers: Soon will ye be brought back to the knower of what is hidden and what is open: then will He show you the truth of all that ye did.280 278 279 SËrah Al-RaÑd.

On the other hand. the implications of Islam ÍadÉri’s progressive aspirations would not be pertinent. It is a striking reality that without proper appendage of necessary knowledge. According to Qur’Énic verses. deserves to reap the result of his or her work. marked by progress in the arts and sciences. Allah (s. Knowledge as a collective intelligence of the human race has an enormous impact on social stability and economic well-being of the human life. and material development in Muslim societies. the Qur’Én sturdily accentuates the inevitability of Ñamal and ÑIlm in human life and civilization progress. there could be neither civilizational progress nor human development in any sagacity without proper equipment of knowledge and tireless and continuous hardwork. 166 . based on Islamic teachings and principles. skills. knowledge emerges as an indispensable element in such condition. everyone. Without proper knowledge.w. hence.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues Conclusion Since the concept Islamic civilization denotes an advanced state of intellectual. it should be given precedence. cultural. whether in groups or individually.t) will never change people unless they work and change the conditions of their life. values and awareness the attainments of the targets set could not be possible.

11th Leadership Seminar of the Southeast Asian Center of Environmental and Urban Management 2004 Kuala Lumpur. Department of Islamic Development Malaysia.Translation & Commentry.).L. USA. Muhammad ‘Uthman El-Muhammady. The Holy Qur’an: Text. (n. (1991). Kuala Lumpur. DÉr al-RayyÉn li at-TurÉth. The Muslim Mind Foundation and Early Manifestation. al-×alabi. DÉr al-Ma’rifah. (1996). (1984). YazÊd. IÍyÉ´ ÑUlËm al-DÊn: Bierut. Houghton Mifflin Company. Abd. International Conference on Values and Attitudes in Science and Technology. Cairo: MuÎÏafa al-BÉbi. Muslim Ibn Al-×ajÉj b. Department of Islamic Development Malaysia Hans Wehr. ØaÍÊÍ Muslim. Maktabat Lebanon Nashirun. Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. (2004). Sunan Ibn MÉjah. ÑAlÊ. Towards Islamic Labor and Unionism. MuÍammad. Ismail al-Faruqi and Gamal al. (1928). The Houghton Mifflin Company. Knowledge Society and Quality of Life: An Islamic Perspective. Macdonald &Evans Ltd. The Role of Education in Transforming Malaysia into Science and Technological Society: Issues and Challenges. Muslim al-Qushayri An-NÊsÉbËri. Cairo. London. KitÉb alTaÑrifÉt: Bierut.. Abdullah Yusuf Ali.d. Ra´Ëf. 3rd ed. al-MufradÉt fÊ GharÊb alQur’Én: Beirut. 1974. ( n. DÉr al-Fikr.Rashid. ÑAlÊ b. (1980).The Concept of Islam hadÉri. Malaysia: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. MawsuÑÉt KashÉf IÎÏilÉÍÉt al-FunËn wa al-Ñ UlËm: Beirut. AbË ×amÊd al-GhazÉlÊ. (1987). MuÍammad ÑAlÊ. Ibn MÉjah MuÍammad b.Exposition on the Principles of IslÉm HaÌÉrÊ Ismail Abdullah References ÑAbd. RiyÉdh: SharikÉt at-ÙibÉ’ah al-ÑArabiyah.d). Al-ÙaÍÉwunÊ. Al-RÉghib al-AÎfahÉnÊ. K. (2000).Banna. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. UK. Al-JurjÉnÊ. (1980). Malaysia. Rahim Abd. Held: 3-6 September 1996. MuÍammad b. Pub: The International Islamic Confederation of Labor. 167 .

my/portal http://www.cifs.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues   http://www.dk/scripts/artikel.gov.islam.as 168 .

JihÉd versus Terrorism Revisiting the Relvant Qur’Énic Verses Ammar Fadzil* Abstract September 11. Justification Introduction Since September 11. JihÉd. but it advocates jihÉd. International Islamic University Malaysia 169 . Keywords: The Qur’Én. Terrorists have emerged from their hiding places threatening the safety of human beings. The reason for that is that the Muslims who have been accused as terrorists always seek justification for their actions and cause from * Associate Professor. and such justifications are refuted by others. jihÉd. This tragedy has been connected to Muslim terrorists. there have a lot of discussions on the subject of war which involves killing and bloodshed. this article deems it timely to revisit the Qur’Énic verses pertaining to the concept of jihÉd which have been used to justify terrorism in order to arrive at a more impartial and better interpretation of these verses. 2001 marked a crucial turning point for the Islamic notion of jihÉd. The September issue of Time Magazine has quoted some verses on jihÉd used by the so-called terrorists as their justification.e. Terrorists have resorted to Qur’Énic injunctions to justify their actions i. 2001. Thus. The main focus in this paper is on the Qur’Énic notion jihÉd. Islam. Terrorism. which might give the idea that terrorism has found its roots and support in the Qur’Én. The fact is the Qur’Én condemns terrorism. of Qur’an and Sunnah Studies. Dept. Many groups have spoken out against terrorism.

It seeks to ensure safety of and peace in life. The Qur’Én narrates story of two sons of Adam and concludes it in this way: “ If anyone killed a person not in retaliation of murder. 6:151). Islam forbids killing one’s own children even though it is for the sake of protecting one’s honour. The objectives of creating human races and languages in different communities are that they should learn to know each other and as a sign of God’s greatness. his recompense is Hell to abide therein…”. 170 . and retribution for murder. Islam urges its members to form a harmonious family and have good relationships not only in the family but also among the members of society. It should be born in mind that it is not individuals but legal state authority to use the permission for execution. it would be as if he killed all mankind …” (5:32). It is now crystal clear from this approach of the Qur’Én that killing humans and bloodshed without just and genuine reason are not merely detrimental to the social fabric but also a morally unlawful act. the Qur’Én allows killing humans under certain conditions: “And kill not anyone whom Allah has forbidden except for a just cause” (5:32. It is manipulation rather than interpretation of the Qur’Én to use its verses to support a cause leading to chaos and bloodshed in society. It can be derived from here that any severe transgressions against an established Islamic state could also be a valid reason for killing the culprits. Islam forbids killing and regards it as one of the greatest sins: 4:93 reads: “And whoever kills a believer intentionally. or to spread mischief in the land. The Qur’Én has mentioned highway robbery as another condition for killing humans (5:33). Even though killing is essentially prohibited. adultery. The Prophetic ÍadÊth refers to three conditions: apostasy. Killing in Islam Islam fundamentally respects the human right to life.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues Qur’Énic verses. The Qur’Én seeks to establish peace and justice on the earth.

education. it refers to the obligation incumbent on all Muslims. the verses must be divided into two phases of revelation: Makkan and Madinan.) mission at Mecca before the hijrah (migration) to Madina and the latter denotes the period of the Prophet’s (s. The former refers to the period of the Prophet’s (s. significance and relevance.w.JihÉd versus Terrorism Ammar Fadzil Meaning of JihÉd JihÉd is “to strive or struggle”. This is due to the fact that jihÉd is a part of Islamic legislation.a. verily your Lord for those who emigrated after they had been put to trials and thereafter strove hard and fought 171 . There are four verses on jihÉd revealed in Makkan phase of the Qur’Énic revelation: 1) “Then. as individuals and as a community. it covers the idea of striving towards strengthening the relationship between man and God. the word jihÉd from Islamic perspective is not confined only to this meaning. it is from the root jahada which means to strive or struggle. 23). In its most general meaning. social and political.) mission in Medina after the hijrah to Medina. Rather. to exert themselves to realize God’s will. and so on (Esposito. Literally. Qur’Énic Verses on JihÉd Covering the whole Qur’Énic framework on jihÉd is beyond the scope of this article. It denotes the idea of enduring difficulties in order to arrive at an objective (Kolan. 23). 1998. 93). This includes the will and endeavour to change the status of one’s life from any angle such as economical. any effort made to achieve good aims and results is considered jihÉd.a. p. and to extend the Islamic community through preaching. to lead virtuous lives. Technically. Based on this meaning. p.w. This can be done with the removal of any barrier that might come between man’s relations with God (Kolan. This division is important to discover the process of legislation and the development of the concept of jihÉd. To understand the concept of jihÉd. The focus will be on some specific issues. 2002. p. The chronology of revelation of the Qur’Énic verses on jihÉd can offer a better understanding of the concept.

It rather means to face enemies by preaching the message of Islam and countering their false beliefs with good. 4) “As for those who strive hard (jÉhadË) in Us [Our cause]. They were few in number and lacked 172 .” (29:69). but strive against them (wa jÉhidhum) with the utmost endeavor with it.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues (jÉhadË) [for the cause of Allah] and were patient. The hijrah made by Makkan Muslims to Ethiopia may be considered a kind of jihÉd. 58). First. 2) “So obey not the disbelievers. All the above quoted verses describe proclaiming the Islamic message and enduring persecution at the hands of enemies as jihÉd. Second. JihÉd in the Makkan period can not have any implication of armed war. strong arguments. We will surely guide them to Our paths and verily Allah is with the good doers. The verse29:69 gives the most general meaning of jihÉd as it includes all efforts that strengthen man’s relations with God by striving to do all religious duties and thus any barrier that obstructs these duties should be cast aside. these verses were revealed to describe the situation Muslims faced at Makkah at that time. This is parallel with another Makkan verse asking the Prophet to proclaim openly the message of Islam: “Therefore proclaim openly that which you are commanded and turn away from polytheists” (15:94). Sayyid QuÏb views that jihÉd in the verses 29. These verses are Makkan and reflect Muslims situation of jihÉd at that time at Makkah. verily your Lord afterward is Oft Forgiving Most Merciful” (16:110). Verily Allah stands not in need of any of the universe” (29:6). This is due to two reasons. p. 1997. these verses came down to explain to Muslims the general idea of jihÉd and its comprehensive implication in life.6 and 69 means jihÉd against the soul and to prevent tribulation (fitnah) (Husin.” (25:52). 3) 29:6“and whosoever strives (jÉhada) he strives only for himself. It is to be reiterated that none of the above-mentioned verses refers to jihÉd in the sense of armed jihÉd (fighting).

and by the sword (cited in alBËÏÊ.” Ibn Rushd. by the hand. 1999. 72).JihÉd versus Terrorism Ammar Fadzil control. 160). It requires Muslims to sacrifice willingly their wealth and life for the cause of jihÉd in which they are destined to receive a great reward in return. The Madinan verses refer. their focus was on propagating Islam and defending their faith by patiently enduring enemies’ persecution. The Madinan verses always stress that jihÉd must be in the way of God (fÊ sable AllÉh). a strong effort to reconvert him from Islam” (Rahman 1989. we find that the verses related to jihÉd are numerous. As Rahman puts it. (the Qur’an: 9:40) 173 . p. When we move to the Madinan phase.” Al -BahËtÊ states in his KashshÉf al-QinÉc that jihÉad is “to make proclamation of Islamic call and removing the ambiguities. by the tongue. men. p. The proclamation of Islamic message as a type of jihÉd is very wide. or in the case of the parents of a son who had embraced Islam. p. and to develop things that are needed by the society regarding their life and religious affairs. to the obligation of jihÉd in self-defence (2:190). physical and spiritual because the matters of life are depending on all these things. 1997. women. for example. 63). They expand the type of jihÉd of the soul and tongue to the other two types: by the hand and by the sword. In the way of God is the criterion for the reward of jihÉd (Husin. defending those who are oppressed. begins the discussion on jihÉd in his Muqaddimah Ibn Rushd by stating that jihÉd is divided into four types: by the soul. jihÉd in Makkan phase was “merely a strong-willed resistance to the pressure of fitna (tribulation) and retaliation in case of violence. It not only means to proclaim Islam to the non-believers but it also shows that jihÉd covers all efforts that are related to the uplifting the name of Islam. Based on Ibn Rushd’s classification. The Madinan verses also refer to the purpose of jihÉd as raising the name of the religion. to enjoin the right and to forbid the wrong. Islamic books on fiqh define jihÉd as firstly “to call people to Islam. 47). jihÉd in Meccan period could be divided into two: by the soul and by the tongue. and children who cry for help (4:75) (Haleem.

p. views that these differences of the types of jihÉd were according to the political demands. there were Madinan verses asking Muslims to proclaim the message to others including the disbelievers which require them to do it gently and without coercion. to understand exactly the concept of jihÉd. When the 174 .” AbË ×ayyÉn. However. one must be able to look at and study the verses from several angles such as the level of the implication of the verses (dalÉlah). 26. Kolan. 2:256. for example. (AbË ×ayyÉn. The verses on armed fighting were revealed only in Madinah. 1:73) What should be stressed here is that armed fighting in the Qur’Én is not only discussed under the term qitÉl but also under the term jihÉd. Thus. the relation is between the specific and the general. The legislation on jihÉd is unlike the legislation on the prohibition of usury and drinking wine. 26). one must not base one’s understanding on the literal aspect or meaning of the verses. These verses were revealed regarding particular incidents. Verses on jihÉd with different implications are not aimed to illustrate the gradual process of jihÉd as understood by some people. i. QitÉl or Armed JihÉd QitÉl verses were revealed only after the Muslims had settled in Madina and Islamic state was established there.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues JihÉd in the Medinan phase expands the meaning of jihÉd from striving to proclaim the Islamic message to the extent of armed fighting. It is because the enforcement of armed jihÉd is for the defense of the state. Rather. “There is no compulsion in religion. the jihÉd. which underwent a gradual process. a Qur’Énic exegete. and not in Makkah where there had not yet been established Islamic state. They rather aim to tell us the types of jihÉd and the ruling for each category (al-Buti. p.e. The Medinan verses on jihÉd have a strong relation with the background of the Muslims’ life at that time at Madinah. The reason is not only to show that qitÉl signifies armed fighting but also to stress that armed fighting (qitÉl) is another type of jihÉd in Islam.. 1993. Our argument is though the verses regarding armed jihÉd were revealed. the background of the verses and one must have a good knowledge of the purposes (maqÉÎid) of legislation.

it was quite relevant and significant for the situation. the verse 2:191 from the Qur’Én was quoted in order to justify their cause to launch attack against non-believers (Times 2004. It was. However. do so and put your trust in God. the Qur’Én gives instructions as to the treatment of prisoners of war and the new relationship with the non-Muslims (Haleem. In an interview with someone from alQaeda.” When the war is over. p. 79). and this was seen by Muslims as a threat to their survival in Madina (al-GhaÌabÉn. p. 115). p. including background of such revelations. Even if they intend to deceive you. this verse was not revealed immediately after the hijrah. This suggests that armed fighting was imposed to defend the state from the threat of its enemies (al-BËÏÊ. They have neglected several elements. they do not need to wait until the state authorities give them permission to do that (al-BËÏÊ. those who claim that such verses give permission to simply kill non-Muslims have overlooked the Qur’Énic framework on this issue. there are many more verses in the Qur’Én that encourage Muslims to fight the disbelievers. advising them to rise against believers. Muslim masses or citizens have right to take arms in their hands against enemies only when the threat goes directly against. This is supported by the fact that the Muslims came to know that the Qurayish sent letter to the disbelievers in Madina. 159). rather. The verse 8:61 reads: “And if they incline to peace. 66). remember that God is sufficient for you. 1998. JihÉd Verses Used by So-Called Terrorists London’s Time Magazine in its September issue devoted few pages to the issue of jihÉd. In fact. p. 44). revealed after the Madinan state had been firmly established. and they have also 175 . 8:39). Another Qur’Énic idea of armed fighting is that once the hostility of the enemy ceases.JihÉd versus Terrorism Ammar Fadzil verse 22:41 came down giving permission to Muslims to fight against the oppressors. Muslim jurists are have unequivocally declared that armed jihÉd against enemies is not an individual responsibility of citizens of a nation but it is certainly the duty of state’s ruler. Many scholars relate the oppression in this verse to the Qurayshite oppression of Muslims before hijrah. the Muslims must stop fighting (2:193. However.

And fight not with them at al-Masjid al-×aram unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you. 63). These verses come in the context of combating those who bar Muslims from reaching the sacred Mosque at Makkah to perform the pilgrimage (Haleem. The first verse of the group asks Muslims to fight those who fight them. then kill them. Verily. The Qur’Én says: “Allah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion nor drove you out of your homes. the 176 . The most important thing that needs to be addressed here is the reason for this command? Was it for mere disbelief ( kufr) or hostility (ÍirÉbah)? Careful analysis will show that the reason for this command in all the verses regarding armed jihÉd was hostility on the part of enemies. and al-fitnah is worse than killing. There are two statements in the Qur’an (2:191-193 & 9:5-6) that command Muslims to fight the disbelievers. 64). The verses 2:190-193 read: And fight in the way of Allah. Truly Allah likes not the transgressors. The existence of the verses asking Muslims to do good towards non-Muslims who do not commit any hostility against them serve as ample evidence that advice for armed struggle is exclusively for a situation warranting for that. those who fight you. And kill them wherever you find them. but transgress not the limits. Most Merciful. Here it is obvious that the reason (cillah) for this armed jihÉd is the enemies’ hostility. and turn them out from where they have turned you out. Interpretation of any verse in the Qur’Én out of context makes no sense (Haleem. It is true that these verses call upon believers to fight non-believers but to interpret them as general permission to kill any non-believers is not interpretation of the Qur’an. But if they cease.Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues ignored other verses forbidding Muslims from doing injustice to nonMuslims. And fight them until there is no more fitnah and worship is for Allah alone. then Allah is Oft-forgiving. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers. These verses are also referred to by some as the ‘sword verse’. Allah loves those who deal with equity” (60:8). But if they cease. Furthermore. let there be no transgression except against the wrong-doers.

that is because they are men who know not. Therefore. The army men were advised to fight only the combatants. religious people engaged in worship – nor destroy crops or animals. then leave them their way free. it were the disbelievers who initiated the act of killing and Muslims only reacted in order to defend themselves and to stop the disbelievers. this verse should be understood in the light of the previous verse which states that the reason for armed jihÉd is only to end the transgression. which. (2) “God does not love the transgressor”. pp. If someone limits his reading to only 177 . The verses 9:5-6 reads: Then when the Sacred Months have passed. 63-64). gave clear instructions not to attack civilians – women. The verse 2:193. The prohibition is regularly reinforced by the statements of the Qur’Én: (1) “Do not transgress”. and none else. Verily Allah is Oft-Forgiving. p. Thus wars and weapons of destruction that destroy civilians and their towns are ruled out by the Qur’Én and by the word of the Prophet. then kill the polytheists whenever you find them and capture them and besiege them and lie in wait for them in each and every ambush. when they sent out an army. which asks Muslims to fight their enemies until there is no fitnah (tribulation) is unconditional (muÏlaq) which in Islamic jurisprudence should be understood in the light of the qualified (muqayyad) (Husin. Transgression has been interpreted by Qur’Énic exegetes as ‘initiating fighting. as al-BËÏÊ suggests. signifies the idea that one group is responding to another group in which the latter is the one who initiates the act of killing. surprising the enemy without first inviting them to make peace. fighting those with whom a treaty has been concluded. But if they repent and perform the prayer and give the alms giving. 172). destroying crops or killing those who should be protected (Haleem. The verses also signify the protection of civilians. In this case. Most Merciful. The Prophet and his successors. Many people read these verses in isolation of each other and the result is misinterpretation. And if anyone of the polytheists seek your protection then grant him protection so that he may hear the word of Allah and then escort him to where he can be secure.JihÉd versus Terrorism Ammar Fadzil Qur’Én uses the word qitÉl.

p. the Qur’Én instructs Muslims to give permission to disbelievers to enter the Muslims’ territories to listen to the Qur’Énic teachings? It shows that the genuine basis for armed fighting is hostility and not mere disbelief (al-BËÏÊ. then. The phrase ‘kill the polytheists’ is singled out by some Western scholars to represent the Islamic attitude to war. 178 .Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues the first of the two verses. he might conclude that the reason for this armed jihÉd against the disbelievers is mere disbelief. p. The reason for this fighting was due to Quraysh’s hostilities against Muslims after the former had practically broken the treaty with Muslims. 56). This is spectacular example of decontextualization of a small part of a sentence. “And if anyone of the polytheists seek your protection then grant him protection”. If the reason for armed jihÉd is mere disbelief. even some Muslims take this view and allege that this verse has abrogated other verses on war. (Haleem. The Qur’Én is consistent with its regulations on war and thus the immediate verse of 9:5-6 exempts the polytheists who do not break their agreements and who keep peace with the Muslims (9:7) (Haleem. why. Logic demands that the first verse should be read along with what follows it. 65). 65). Thus Muslims were given permission to fight only those who caused hostilities against them.

Terrorism is to kill people unjustly in a situation of peace. and their relation with God in order to have a better understanding and practice of the concept of jihÉd. under certain conditions. The Qur’Én does not condone this kind of act of bloodshed. The purpose of jihÉd in the Qur’Én is to promote religion to others but this must be done in a proper manner and does not contradict the Qur’Énic basis of dacwah: “there is no compulsion in embracing Islam”.JihÉd versus Terrorism Ammar Fadzil Conclusion Islam is against killing and views it as a great sin. However. When there is a need to carry out armed jihÉd. Fighting in the battlefield is jihÉd but not terrorism. Muslims must fully understand their function and purpose. Its purpose is to defend Muslim countries from enemies’ hostility. 179 . jihÉd is wider than armed fighting. The nature and types of jihÉd depend on the situation and the needs of the Muslim ummah. Nevertheless. JihÉd in the sense of armed fighting (qitÉl) and is related to strict conditions. It rather means any endeavour made to improve one’s relations with God. it is deemed necessary. killing cannot be avoided and this is generally associated with punishment and jihÉd.

London: I. University of Edinburgh. Tauris Publishers. AbË ×ayyÉn.miti. Beirut: Mu’assat al-RisÉla. MuÍammad SacÊd RamaÌÉn. (2002). Utusan Malaysia. Damascus: DÉr al-Fikr. MuÍammad. Beirut: DÉr alKutub al-cIlmiyya. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Book Trust. Fazlur. Al-QarÉÌÉwÊ. al-JihÉd fÊ al-IslÉm. Muhammad. . Understanding the Qur’an: Themes and Styles. unpublished Ph. Amir. (1993). 2003. Dars al-Nakba al-ThÉniya. The Concept of JihÉd According to Sayyid QuÏb In His FÊ ÚilÉl al-Qur’Én. (1997). (1997). Oxford University Press.my/temubualpm.inq7. Thesis. Major Themes of the Qur’Én.gov.   http://www. YËsuf. 24th September. Istanbul: DÉr al-NÊllil-ÙibÉca wa al-Nashr.D. John L.B. (1989). (1998). IclÉ’ KalimÉt AllÉh Aw alJihÉd. Kolan.net/opi/2003/may/01/opi_bocunanan-1. MuÍammad FatÍ AllÉh. Al-BaÍr al-MuÍÊÏ. (2000). 2004.htm www. Abdel Haleem. 16th October. (1999).Interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah: Reflection on Some Issues References: * This article originally was a paper presented at the IAHR TOKYO 2005 under the sponsorship of the International Islamic University Malaysia. Al-BËÏÊ. Esposito. Berita Harian. Islam The Straight Path.htmlAllah Ibn 180 . Husin. Rahman.

84. 78 Abu Zayd. 148 Amr Ibn Dinar. 156 165 Al-Dahhak. 140 Bumiputra. 165 Ali Ibn Abi Talib. 22 Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq. 29. 148 Abdullah Ibn Zubayr. 62. 93 Abu Al-Minhal. 15. 163 Al-Razi. 16 Al-Kutub Al-Sittah. 144 Al. 147 Abu Jahl. 144. 59. 7. 6. 142 Busra. 92 Al-Numan Ibn Bashir. 161 Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. 39 Al-Ramhurmuzi. 28. 3. 106 Al-Tarikh. 93 Al-Shaykh Al-Sayis’. 179 Abdullah Bin Umar. 26. 57. 41. 15. 18. 43. 92 Badawiyyah. 165 Al-Fajur. 51 Abd Allah Ibn Masud. 17 Bedouinism. 176. 165 Anas Ibn Malik. 148 Bazaars.Bara’ Bin Azib. 165 Al-Ummi. 130 Al-Imam Abu Al-Saud.Abbas. 142 Banu Makhzum. 139. 7. 75 Cur Deus Homo. 85 Byzantine Empire. 26 Al-Haqiqah. 143. 27. 11. 165 Al-Salaf Al-Salih. 148 Al. 41. 147 Abraz Al-Maalim. 60. 75. 27 Arkoun. 144 Ansari. 63 Aswad Ibn Zayd Al-Ansi. 145 Audah. 97. 151. 78 Balca. 154. 44. 59 Al-Harra. 81 Abu Mas’ud. 14 Banu Nazir. 145. 98 Ansar. 138. 23 Abu Huraira.INDEX Al-Madrasat Al-Aqliyyah. 97. 98 Ali Al-Madini. 14. 62 Adalah Al-Ruwah. 149 Abu Bakr Ibn Muhammad Ibn Amr Ibn Hazm. 79 Bayah. 42 Buraida Ibn Hussaib Al-Aslami. 163 Abdul Rahim Abd. 24. 22 Al-Baghdadi.A124 14. 161 Al-Bukhari. 31. 28 Al-Qurtubi. 147. 59 Amr Ibn Al-As. 137. 9. 78. 11. 25. 43. 137 Badr. 60. 160 Adam. 73 Afir Ibn Midan. 59 Al-Thawri. 150 Abu Darda. 188 Al-Wahy. 26 Abd Al-Rahman Ibn Al-Mahdi. 14 Abu Sufyan. Rashid. 164 Aishah. 81 Bani Laith. 15 Al-Darqutni. 44. 97 181 . 110.

14 Hassan Hanafi. 94. 61 Hawas. 102 Hans-Georg. 14 Ibn Hajar.Razi. 10 Imam Al-Tabari. 99.INDEX Historians. 160. 41 Ibn Kathir. 151 Homs. 144 Fadl. 50 Harb. 103. 46 Hadara. 67 Ibn Umar. 7. 106. 62 Fuqaha. 2. 7 Imam Shafii. 177 Gospels. 22. 138 Imam Al-Bukhari+A26 Imam Al-Ghazali. 29. 100 Hanifiyyah. 146 Imam Az-Zuhri. 43. 111 Fazlurrahman. 142 Ibn Al-Arabi. 50 Gog And Magog. 137 Imam Al-Tirmidhi. 42 Fakhr Al-Din Al. 69 Hudhaifah. 67 Harith Bin Umayr. 11. 146 Huyyay Ibn Akhtab. 8 Imam Al-Tabrani. 137. 44. 59. 76 Dawud. 163 Damdam Bin Amr Al-Ghifari. 104 Imam Ahmad. 80 Fatimah. 22. 13 Dawah. 123 Ijma. 177 Dead Sea Scrolls. 97. 46 Dhu Al-Qarnayn. 113 182 . 52. 33. 93 Ijtihad. 40 Ibn Lahiah. 68 Hasan. 122. 177 Fadak. 85 Hasan Al-Basri. 130 Hanafi School. 138 Ibn Adi. 176. 98. 170 Hakim Ibn Hizam. 182 Hirabah. 93. 104. 58 Hamzah Ibn Abd Al-Muttalib. 184 Imam Al-Qurtubi. 160. 107 Hussayn. 161 Hudaybiah. 84 Fasad. 146 Hashim Ibn Abd Manaf. 73 Fath Mubin. 151 Gadamer. 155 Dabt Al-Ruwah. 101. 94. 154 Imam Al-Sha’rawi. 102 Illah. 78 Dato’ Saifuddin Abdullah. 164 Ibn Qaiyyim. 45. 37 Ihsan. 91. 164 Illalladhina. 9 Hamza. 99 Imam Malik. 25. 18 Imam Ibn Hajar. 12 Imam Muslim. 33 Hudud. 38 Hammam. 105. 106 Ibn Ashur. 55. 79 Ibn Abbas.

163 Qisas. 62 Khadijah Bint Al-Khuwailid. 102 Ittisal Al-Sanad.INDEX Mufassirun. 55. 161 Khalid Ibn Walid. 148 Mulamasa. 150 Muhammad Ibn Sirin. 44. 61. 163 Muhammad Ibn Shihab Al-Zuhri. 162 Mursal. 148. 14 183 . 162 Musa Al-Ashari. 152 Muhaddithun. 132 Nisab. 7 Kierkegaard. 94 Mujtahids. 79. 7 Nahawand. 80. 149 Mudal. 14. 52 Proslogion. 60. 71 Khalid Ibn Midan. 56. 37 Jafar Ibn Abi Talib. 160 Iyad Ibn Himar. Abd Allah. 136. 45. 35 Jabir B. 37. 155 Muallaq. 145 Nasr Hamid. 144 Qureish. 11 Munabadha. 2 Marifah. 91 Mujahid Ibn Jabr. 147 Muhammad Said Ashmawi. 79 Nifaq. 100 Maqasid Al-Shari’ah. 127 Kenneth Cragg. 157. 158 Nafi. 163 Mazhab. 3 Khalid Ibn Al-Walid. 156 Muhammad Ibn Talha. 152. 180 Matruk. 150. 151 Maliki School. 153. 169 Isnad. 51 Qatada. 38 Kaffarah. 59. 81 Mu’tazilate. 161. 33. 66 Jihad. 63 Islam Hadari. 58. 13. 17 Jabir. 198 Jundub. Edward Gibbon Opines. 162 Mudd. 67 Qiyas. 47. 59 Quraysh. 40 Maghazi. 160 Istiqamah. 11 Munqati. 156. 160. 167 Muhaddithun. 51 Madaniyyah. 162 Muawiyah. 55 Rahman. 63 Paul Tillich. 137 Madyan. 18 Paul Ricoeur. 103 Qital. 148 Musaylimah. 57. 145 Muttasil. 135. 125. 17. 79 Khawarij. 54. 104 Muhammad Shahrur. 53. 149 Khiyar Majlis. 130 Jahd Aymānihim.. 171 Mr. 62 Nazir. 78. 8 Mujtahid.

30. 127 Umar Ibn Musa. 102 Tertulian. 92 Sariqah. 161 Umur Al-Ghaibiyyah. 81. 18. 94. 101. 158. 104. 85 Tadlis. 150. 96. 79. 148 St. 19 Shafii School. 10. 21. 177 Sunnat Al-Tadafu. 61 Sheikh Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh. 24 Tulayhah Ibn Khuwaylid Al-Asadi. 92 Tabuk. 165 Yayha Ibn Ma’in. 147 Uyaynah Ibn Hisn. Amir Al-Juhani. 120. 21. 152 Religio-Economic. 97. 155 Yahya Ibn Said Al-Qattan Yala. 2. 18. 138 Tijarah. 103. 42 Taqwa. 105. 102. 35. 106 Safwan. 83. 103 Sadiq. 2. 160. 94 Uqba B. 24. 162 Shadaqah. 30. 130 Zakah. 166 Shurahbil Bin Amr. 22 Zaid Ibn Harithah. 55 Riba. 42 Trade. Paul. 147. 37 Ricoeur. 79 Salman Ibn Fahd Al-Audah. 138 Talhah. 210 Schleiermacher. 20. 72 Ta’wil. 99 Umar B. 161 Sulayman. 57. 201. 18. 45 Rudolf Bultmann. 106 Sayyid Qutb. 51 Sadaqa Allah Al-Azim. 27. 36. 91. 23. 31 Riba.INDEX Tan Sri Syed Mokhtar Syah Syed. 145 Uhud Uhud. 91. 153 Yahya Ibn Qattan. 78. 145 Sallam Bin Abi Al-Haqiq. 145. 36 Traffic. 163 Taif. 85 Shurut. 148 Uthman. 148 184 . 130 Ukl. 35 Zayd Ibn Thabit. 40. 99 Usul Al-Tafasir. 100 Shahrur. 163 Yahya Ibn Said Al-Ansari. 54 Uthman.Arqam. 165. 147 Zubayr. 9. 49 Shabi. 59 Sadiq Al-Bilid. 33 Sajah Bint Al-Harith. 51 Thaqafi. 114 Shariah. 176. 19. 98. 156 Shudhudh. 93 Siffin. 58. 146. 103. 139. 33 Tashri. 46 Sufyan Al-Thawri. 97. 50. 103. 154 Zaid Ibn Al. Governor. 105. 31 Tarif Abi Tamimah. 148 Zuhhad. 7 Uraina. 20. Khattab. 32.

INDEX 185 .