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In this paper we discuss various problems and conjectures
concered the pseudo-Smarandache squarefree function.

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SQUAREFREE FUNCTION

MaohuaLe

Abstract. In this paper we discuss various problems and conjectures

concered the pseudo-Smarandache squarefree function.

Keywords: pseudo-Smarandache squarefree function, difference,

. infinite series, infinite product, diophantine equation

For any positive integer n, the pseudo-Smarandache squarefree

function ZW(n) is defined as the least positive integer m such that mn

is divisible by n. In this paper we shall discuss various problems and

conjectures concered ZW(n).

1. The value of ZW(n)

By the definition of ZW(n), we have ZW(I)=l. For n> 1, we give

a general result as follows.

Theoren 1.1. If n> 1, then ZW(n)=PIP2"'Pk> where PI' P2' "', Pk

are distinct prime divisors of n.

Proof. Let m=ZW(n). Let PI' P2' "', Pk be distinct prime divisors

of n. Since nlmn, we get Pilm for i=l, 2, "', k. It implies that PIP2'"

Pklm and

(1.1)

On the other hand, let r(i) (i=1, 2, "', k) denote the order of Pi

(i=1,2, "', k) in n. Then we have

229

(1.2)

. < logn ._

r(z)_ <n,z-I,2, ... ,k.

logPi

Thus, we see from (1.2) that (PJP2···Pkr is divisible by n. It implies

that

(1.3)

The combination of (1. I) and (1.3) yields m= PJP2···Pk. The theorem

is proved.

2. The difference IZW(n+l)-ZW(n)1

In [3], Russo given the following two conjectures.

Conjecture 2.1. The difference IZW(n+I)-ZW(n)1 is unbounded.

Conjecture 2.2. ZW(n) is not a Lipschitz function.

In this respect, Russo [3] showed that if the Lehmer-Schinzel

conjecture concered Fennat numbers is true (see [2]), then Conjectures

2.1 and 2.2 are true. However, the Lehmer-Schinzel conjecture is not

resolved as yet. We now completely verify the above-mentioned

conjectures as follows.

Theorem 2.1. The difference IZW(n+ 1 )-ZW(n)1 is unbounded.

Proof. Let P be an odd prime. Let n=2

P

-I, and let q be a prime

divisor of n. By a well known result of Birkhoff and Vandiver [I], we

have q=21p+ 1, where I is a positive integer. Therefore, by Theorem 1.1,

we get

(2.1)

On the other hand, apply Theorem 1.1 again, we get

(2.2) ZW(n+ 1 )=ZW(2P)=2.

230

By (2.1) and (2.2), we obtain

(2.3)

Notice that there exist infinitely many odd primes p. Thus, we find

from (2.3) that the difference IZW(n+ 1 )-ZW(I1)1 is unbounded. The

theorem is proved.

As a direct consequence of Theorem 2.1, we obtain the following

corollary.

Corollary 2.1. ZW(n) is not a Lipschitz function.

3. The sum and product of the reciprocal of ZW(n)

Let R be the set of all real numbers. In [3], Russo posed the

following two problems.

Problem 3.1. Evaluate the infinite product

(3.1)

<Xl

p= n ---

11=1 ZW(n)

Problem 3.2. Study the convergence of the infinite series

(3.2)

<Xl 1

S (a) = I ( ())' a E R, a >0.

n=1 ZW n a

We now completely solve the above-mentioned problems as

follows.

Theorem 3.1. p=o.

Proof. By Theorem 1.1, we get ZW(n» 1 for any positive integer

n with n> 1. Thus, by (3.1), we obtain P=O immediately. The theorem

is proved.

Theorem 3.2. For any positive number a, Sea) is divergence.

231

Proof. we get from (3.1) that

(3.3) Sea) = I 1 > 1 .

n=l (ZW(n)Y r=1 (ZW(2

r

)Y

By Theorem 1.1, we have

(3.4) ZW(2r)=2 ,

for any positive integer r. Substitute (3.4) into (3.3), we get

(3.5)

co 1

S(a)=r-=oo.

r=12r

We find from (3.5) that Sea) is divergence. The theorem is proved.

4. Diophantine equations concerning ZW(n)

Let N be the set of all positive integers. In [3], Russo posed the

following problems concerned diophantine equations.

Problem 4.1. Find all solutions n of the equation

(4.1) ZW(n)=ZW(n+l)ZW(n+2), nEN.

Problem 4.2. Solve the equation

(4.2) ZW(n). ZW(n+l)=ZW(n+2), nEN.

Problem 4.3. Solve the equation

(4.3) ZW(n). ZW(n+1)=ZW(n+2). ZW(n+3), nEN.

Problem 4.4. Solve the equation

(4.4) ZW(mn)=mkZW(n), m, n, kEN.

Problem 4.5. Solve the equation

(4.5) (ZW(n)t=k. ZW(kn), k, n E N, k> 1, n> 1.

Problem 4.6. Solve the equation

(4.6) (ZW(n)/+(ZW(n)tl+···+ZW(n)=n, k, n EN, k> 1.

In this respect, Russo [3] showed that (4.1), (4.2) and (4.3) have

232

no solutions n with n 1000, and (4.6) has no solutions (n, k)

satisfying n ~ 1000 and k ~ 5 . We now completely solve the above-

mentioned problems as follows.

Theorem 4.1. The equation (4.1) has no solutions n.

Proof. Let n be a solution of (4.1). Further let p be a prime

divisor of n+ 1. By Theorem 1.1, we get pIZW(n+ 1). Therefore, by

(4.1), we getpIZW(n). It implies thatp is also a prime divisor of n.

However, since gcd (n, n+l)=I, it is impossible. The theorem is

proved.

By the same method as in the proof of Theorem 4.1, we can prove

the following theorem without any difficult.

Theorem 4.2. The equation (4.2) has no solutions n.

Theorem 4.3. The equation (4.3) has no solutions n.

Proof. Let n be a solution of(4.3). Further let PI,P2, .•. ,Pk and ql'

q2, "', qt be distinct prime divisors of n(n+1) and (n+2)(n+3)

respectively. We may assume that

(4.7) PI<P2< ... <Pt, ql <q2< ···<qt.

Since gcd (n, n+1)=gcd (n+2, n+3)=1, by Theorem 1.1, we get

ZW(n). ZW(n+l)=P1P2"'Pk

(4.8) ZW(n+2). ZW(n+3)=qIQ2···q,

Substitute (4.8) into (4.3), we obtain

(4.9) PIP2···Pk=QIQ2···Q,.

By (4.7) and (4.9), we get k=t and

(4.10) Pi=Qi' i=I, 2, ···,k.

Since gcd (n+l, n+2)=I, if21n andpj (1 0 ~ k is a prime divisor

of n+l, then from (4.10) we see that Pj is an odd prime with p)n+3.

233

Since gcd (n+ 1, n+3)=1 if21 n, it is impossible.

Similarly, if 2 I nand qj is a prime divisor of n+2, then

qj is an odd prime with q)n. However, since (n, n+2)=1 if 2 I n, it is

impossible. Thus, (4.3) has no solutions n. The theorem is proved.

Theorem 4.4. The equation (4.4) has infinitely many solutions (m.

n, k). Moreover, every solution (m, n, k) of (4.4) can be expressed as

(4.11) m=PIP2···Pn n=t, k=1,

where PI' P2' •. ', Pr are distinct primes, t is a positive integer with gcd

(m, t)=1.

Proof. Let (m, n, k) be a solution of (4.4). Further let d=gcd (m,

n). By Theorem 1.1, we get from (4.4) that

(4.12) ZW(mn) = zw(;.n)= Zw(; }ZW(n) = m·ZW(n).

Since ZW(n):;t:O, we obtain from (4.12) that

( 4.13)

ZW(; )=m"

Furthermore, since we see from (4.13) that k=d=1 and

m=pIP2···Pn where PI' P2' ... , Pr are distinct primes. Thus, the solution

(m, n, k) can be expressed as (4.11). The theorem is proved.

Theorem 4.5. The equation (4.5) has infinitely many solutions (n,

k). Moreover, every solution (n, k) of(4.5) can be expressed as

(4.14) n=2

r

, k=2, rEN.

Proof. Let (n, k) be a solution of (4.5). Further let d=gcd (n, k).

By Theorem 1.1, we get from (4.5) that

(4.15) ZW(nk) = kZW( n. = = (ZW(n»)'.

234

Since ZW(n):;i:O and k> 1, by (4.15), we obtain

(4.16) kZW(=) = (ZW(n»H.

Since n> 1, we find from (4.16) that k and n have the same prime

divisors.

Let PI' Pb "', PI be distinct prime divisors of n. Then we have

ZW(n)=ptP2'''PI' Since we get from (4.16) that

(4.17) e =(p,p, ... p,)'-'.

Since k> 1, by (4.17), we obtain t=1 and either

(4.18) k=3, PI=3,

or

( 4.19)

Recall that k and n have the same prime divisors. If (4. 18) holds, then

ZW(k/d)=ZW(I )=1 and (4,16) is impossible. If (4. 19) holds, then the

solution (n, k) can be expressed as (4.14). Thus, the Theorem IS

proved.

Theorem 4.6. The equation (4.6) has no solutions (n, k).

Proof. Let (n, k) be a solution of (4.6). Further let m=ZW(n), and let PI'

P2' "', P, be distinct prime divisors of n. By Theorem 1.1, we have

(4.20) n = ... p;' ,ZW(n) = PIP2 ."P"

where ai' a

2

, "', a

l

are positive integers. Substitute (4.20) into (4.6),

we get

(4 21) I ( )

k-I a -I a2-1 a-I

. + PIP2 .. ·Pr + ... + PIP2· .. Pr = PI' P2 ···P,' .

Since gcd (1, PtP2"'pt)=I, we fmd from (4.21) that a

l

=a

2

=···=a

t

=1. It

235

implies that k= 1, a contradiction. Thus, (4.6) has no solutions (n, k).

The theorem is proved.

References

[1] Birkhoff, G. D. and Vandiver, H. S., On the integral divisor of d'-

b

n

, Ann. of Math. (2), 1904,5:173-180.

[2] Ribenboim, P., The book of prime numbers records, New York,

Springer-Verleg, 1989.

[3] Russo, F., A set of new Smarandache functions, sequences and

conjectures in number theory, Lupton, American Reserch Press,

2000.

Department of Mathematics

Zhanjiang Normal College

Zhanjiang, Guangdong

P. R. CHINA

236

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