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For a positive integer n. the Smarandache function S(n) is defined as the smallest positive integer such that S(n)! is divisible by n.

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by H. Ibstedt

**For a positive integer n. the Smarandache function S(n) is defined as the smallest positive
**

integer such that S(n)! is divisible by n. Radu [1] noticed that for nearly all values of n up

to 4800 there is always at least one prime number between S(n) and S(n+ 1) including

possibly S(n) and S(n + 1). The exceptions are n=224 for which S(n) =8 and S(n+ 1)= 10 and

n = 2057 for which S( n) = 22 and S( n + 1) =21. Radu conjectured that, except for a finite set

of numbers, there exists at least one prime number between S(n) and S(n+ 1). The

conjecture does not hold if there are infinitely many solutions to the following problem.

**Find consecutive integers n and n + 1 for which two consecutive primes P. . and Pk + 1 exist so that
**

P ... < Min(S(n),S(n+l)) and P"'+l > Max(S(n),S(n+l)).

Consider

= xp/

(1)

_ yp S

r+l

(2)

n+l

and

n

**where Pr and Pr+l are consecutive prime numbers. Subtract (2) form (1).
**

(3)

The greatest common divisor (P/,Pr+1S ) = 1 divides the right hand side of (3) which is the

condition for this diophantine equation to have infinitely many integer solutions. We are

interested in positive integer solutions (x,y) such that the following conditions are met.

S(n + 1) = sPr' i.e S(x) < sPr

S(n)

= sPr+l' i.e

S(y) < sPr+l

(4)

(5)

In addition we require that the interval

sp/ < q < sPr+ls is prime free, i.e. q is not a prime.

(6)

**Euclid's algorithm is used to obtain principal solutions (Xo.Yo) to (3). The general set of
**

solutions to (3) are then given by

(7)

with t an integer.

96

Radu's Conjt:cturc. H. lbstcdt

**These algorithms were implemented for different values of the parameters d =Pr+ L - Pr ' s
**

and t resulted in a very large number of solutions. Table 1 shows the 20 smallest (in respect

of n) solutions found. There is no indication that the set would be finite. A pair of primes

may produce several solutions.

Table 1. The 20 smallest solutions which ocurred for s=2 and d=2.

#

n

S(n)

1

265225

843637

6530355

24652435

206

302

122

926

35558770

1046

40201975

45388758

46297822

67697937

138852445

157906534

171531580

299441785

551787925

1223918824

1276553470

1655870629

1853717287

1994004499

2256222280

142

122

1142

214

1646

1718

1766

2126

2606

3398

3446

3758

3902

3998

4166

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

S(n+l)

P1

202

199

293

113

919

1039

139

113

1129

211

1637

1709

1759

2113

2593

3391

3433

3739

3889

3989

4159

298

118

922

1042

146

118

1138

218

1642

1714

1762

2122

2602

3394

3442

3754

3898

3994

4162

P2

t

211

0

0

-1

0

0

1

-4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

307

127

929

1049

149

127

1151

223

1657

1721

1777

2129

2609

3407

3449

3761

3907

4001

4177

I

Within the limits set by the design of the program the largest prime difference for which a

solution was found is d=42 and the largest exponent which produced solutions is s=4. Some

numerically large examples illustrating the these facts are given in table 2.

Table 2.

S(n)1

n/n+1

d

s

t

pr/Pr+l

S(n+1)

11822936664715339578483018

3225562

11822936664715339578483017

3225646

11157906497858100263738683634

165999

11157906497858100263738683635

166011

17549865213221162413502236227

16599

17549865213221162413502236226

166011

27032997592120525363470705~0391314

669764

270329975921205253634707051822848570391313

669m

97

42

2

-2

1612781

1612823

4

3

0

55333

55337

4

3

-1

55333

55337

2

4

0

167441

167443

Radu's ConJccture. II. Ibstcdt

**To see the relation between these large numbers and the corresponding values of the
**

Smarandache function in table 2 the factorisations of these large numbers are given below:

11822936664715339578483018

11822936664715339578483017

**= 2·3 ·89· 193· 431 . 1612781 2
**

= 509· 3253 . 16128232

'55333 3

16433· 553373

11157906497858100263738683634

11157906497858100263738683635

= 2'7372 '56671

17549865213221162413502236227

17549865213221162413502236226

**= 3· 11 2 '307' 12671 '55333 3
**

= 2·23 . 37 . 71 . 419· 743 -553373

= 3·5· 11 . 19

270329975921205253634707051822848570391314

270329975921205253634707051822848570391313

2

.

= 2'33 '47' 1289·2017' 119983· 167441~

= 37' 23117 . 24517 . 38303 . 167443

4

**It is also interesting to see which are the nearast smaller Pk and nearast bigger Pk + 1 primes
**

to S1 = Min(S(n),S(n+ 1» and S2 = Max(S(n),S(n+ 1» respectively. This is shown in table

3 for the above examples.

Table 3.

P~'H

P"

S1

S.,

3225539

3225562

3225646

3225647

108

165983

165999

166011

166013

30

669763

669764

669772

669787

24

G=P,,+j-Pk

**Conclusion: There are infintely many intervals {Min(S(n),S(n-l»,Max(S(n),S(n-1»} which
**

are prime free.

References:

I. M. Radu, Mathematical Spectn.un, Sheffield Univerisry, UK. VoL 27, No.2, 1994/5, p. 43.

98

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