The University of Alabama Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering

Water Resources Engineering Laboratory Flow Over a Broad Crested Weir Author Humberto Avila(PhD)

FLOW OVER A BROAD CRESTED WEIR Modified by Redahegn(Redi) Sileshi January, 2009 1. Outcomes • • 2. • • • • 3. Conduct various civil engineering experiments related to the course, analyze and evaluate the results with regard to real application. Write a well organized work report with good verbal, graphical content.

Objectives: Understand the flow patterns over a broad-crested weir. Use the equation that quantifies the discharge over a broad-crested weir and be familiar with the equation by taking various values for the parameters in the equation. Determine the discharge coefficient Cd on a broad-crested weir using the given parameters. Analyze and discuss the results. Theory

Weirs are elevated hydraulic structures used to measure flow and/or control the water elevation at outflows from basins and channels [1]. Broad-crested weirs operate under the theory that critical flow conditions are created above the weir [1]. That means that the depth of water above the weir is equivalent to the critical depth (yc). Critical condition is obtained when the relationship between the inertial forces and the gravitational forces of the flow is equal to 1.0; therefore, the velocity of the flow, V, is equal to the velocity of the wave (or celerity), c = is known as Froude number (F). F=1 when the flow is critical.

gy ;. This relationship

F=

V gy

(1)

where, V= average velocity of the flow (m/s) y = depth of water (m). y becomes yc if critical flow is present. g = Gravity (m/s2) Figure 1 shows the profile on a broad-crested weir.

1

h1 = Upstream head relative to the top of the broad-crested weir (m). Construction and Environmental Engineering Water Resources Engineering Laboratory Flow Over a Broad Crested Weir Author Humberto Avila(PhD) EGL V2/2g h1 yc yo P Air cavity Broad Crested Weir H HT FLOW Figure 1: Profile on a broad-crested weir with rounded entrance transition [2] The following equation represents the actual flow rate over a broad-crested weir. H T = yo + Vo= average upstream velocity (m/s).08< h1/L <0. 1985) [1]. Cv .705 ⋅ b ⋅ H 3 / 2 (2) where. Vo =Q/Ao P = Broad-crested weir height (m) In real application it is more convenient to use h1 in the equation instead of H. where L is the length of the weir (m). Therefore.705 ⋅ b ⋅ h1 3/ 2 (3) Finally. Experimental Procedure The experiment has the following procedure: The broad-crested weir will be installed in the flume. H = h1 + Vo . which has to be leveled.The University of Alabama Department of Civil. Q = Actual flowrate (m3/s) Cd = Discharge Coefficient g = Gravity (m/s2) b = Breadth of weir (m). (French. b = 0. Q = Cd ⎛2 ⎞ g ⋅ b⎜ H ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ 3/ 2 = C d ⋅ 1.076 m (3 in) yo = upstream water depth (m) yc = critical depth (m). H = Total energy head (m) of upstream flow measured relative to the weir-crest elevation. Q = Cd Cv ⎛2 ⎞ g ⋅ b⎜ h1 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ 3/ 2 = C d ⋅ C v ⋅ 1. 2 . 2g Vo 2g 2 2 HT = Total energy head (m) of upstream flow measured relative to the base of the flume (m). the equation 2 is affected by a coefficient of velocity. 4.[4].33. In this case is the depth relative to the top of the weir. a proper operation of a broad-crested weir is achieved when flow conditions are restricted to an operation range of 0.

Analysis and discussion of the results Does your result for h1/L is within the operational range explained above. Experimental data Trial Volume (L) Time (sec) Flowrate (L/s) Flowrate 3 (m /s) Upstream head (mm) Critical depth (mm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5.5 L/s (approximately) and determine both the upstream water depth and the depth on the weir (critical depth). Calculate Cv for each trial using the equation 3.The University of Alabama Department of Civil. Set the initial flowrate at 0. Calculate the relationship h1/L for each trial. h1. What is the pattern of the water as it passes over the weir? Does the magnitude of the flow rate affect the coefficient velocity Cv? if you say yes/no give your own explanation for your answer. Give your own Comment on the Froude numbers calculated at the broad crested weir. This vernier will measure yc. Calculate the Froude number for each trial using the yc (depth on the weir-crest elevation) and the equation 1. Comment on the results makes your own engineering guess if your result does exist in the limit. The other vernier is located in the center of the broad-crested weir and the zero is set up with the top of the weir surface. 6.2 L/s and repeat the measures until it get to 2.1 L/s. Analyze the results. Use the following tables as guide to record the experimental data. Calculate Cd for each trial using the equation 2. Does Cd increase or decrease with increasing flow rate? if you say yes/no give your own explanation for your answer. Increase the flowrate by increments of 0. and H for each trial. Determine the accurate flowrate using the volumetric indicator and the stop watch. Construction and Environmental Engineering Water Resources Engineering Laboratory Flow Over a Broad Crested Weir Author Humberto Avila(PhD) One vernier is located upstream of the weir and the zero is set up with the base of the flume. 3 . This means that (8) runs are required. Does the magnitude of the flow rate affect the discharge coefficient Cd? if you say yes/no give your own explanation for your answer. Calculations Calculate Vo. This vernier will measure yo. Make sure that you are taking precise flowrate measurement when you do volumetric indicator and the stop watch.

Instruction Manual for C4 Multi Purpose Teaching Flume. Thesis. Water Resources Engineering. The University of Alabama. Would you expect the length of the weir crest to affect the discharge coefficient Cd and the operation of the weir? Explain. Hydraulic Design Handbook. 2005. Sources should also be included. The University of Alabama. examples about in which cases the hydraulic structure is used. Construction and Environmental Engineering Water Resources Engineering Laboratory Flow Over a Broad Crested Weir Author Humberto Avila(PhD) Does Cv increase or decrease with increasing flow rate? if you say yes/no give your own explanation for your answer. [3] Mays. [4] Armfield. Content of the report submit a formal report before/by next class. 8. The report should cover the following: Introduction and objectives Theory: definition and/or description of the hydraulic structure. 2006-2007. [5] Humberto Avila. explanation of the Froude number and its types of flow conditions.A. D. 1999. McGraw Hill. Water Resources Engineering laboratory files for Open Channel Hydraulic Experiments . Prentice Hall. An Instruction Manual of Open Channel Hydraulic Experiments for Water Resources Engineering.The University of Alabama Department of Civil. [2] Sutley. equations and explanation of the variables. New York. 2006. Experimental procedure Experimental data Calculations: Explain in detail the procedure and include the Excel tables. Larry. 7. 4 . Analysis and discussion of results References References used for this guide [1] Chin. 2nd edition. David.