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** Output Tracking Model Matching Disturbance Decoupling
**

Perfect Output Tracking: Consider the problem of reproducing the reference output ¡£¢£¤¦¥¨§ . This roblem tries to ﬁnd pairs of initial states, ©

, and input functions

) ¢ . So from the system’s normal form. ¡ ¢ and we see that the input satisﬁes ¢ ¡¢ ¤¦¥¨§213¤ ) ¢£¤¦¥¨§54¨6¤¦¥¨§§87(9:¤ ) ¢. ¦ ¤¦¥¨§¡¢ ¤¦¥¨§ for all ¥ and !#"%$&"(' . + + ¡ ¢ ¨ . 0 ¢ .¤¦¥¨§54¨6¤¦¥¨§§ . / *+ ¡ ¢ . . . ¤ ¥¨§ deﬁned for all ¥ in a neighborhood of ¥ such that the output ¡¤¦¥¨§¡¢¤¦¥¨§ . Let -.

ON < M ONP < S R RTR < ¢ O O¢P < 6 ¡ We choose OQ R RSR T O¢ 1¤ ) ¨ 4 6U§V7(9:¤ ) 46>§ . ¤¦¥¨§ where Again consider the < system in normal form.

=>¤ ) ¨ 4 6U§ ¢ ]^ ¦ ¤A B_¡ ¢ .

9¤ ) 4¨6U§XW ! ¢ BY1¤ ) 4¨6U§V7Z¡ ¢ B [ ¨ §a` where 4 O4 RTRSR 4 ¢ are real numbers. ^ ^ ^ Deﬁne an error b ¤¦¥¨§ < 6 ¤ ¥¨§=>¤ ) ¢£¤ ¥¨§?4¨6¤ ¥¨§¨§ ¨ ¤¦¥¨§ for !e"f$g"h' (by construction). we Since Od@¡ can rewrite our control as ¢ ¨ ) 4¨6U§V7Z¡¢ ¢ B [ ! b Y B 3 1 ¤ ` .

Note also that we can express .¢ at the output. 9:¤ ) 4¨6U§XW i\j^ Note that if b ¤¦¥¨§2 for all ¥ then the above control reduces to the same control to force perfect tracking ¡.

in the original coordinates as ¢ ¦ ¨ k ¢m n 7D¡¢ ¢ B [ ! B po k m q ` n B_¡¢ .

6 ¤ . klOk m ¢ ¨ n ¤ § W ^ ] 8 \ © < b ¤¦¥¨§¡¤¦¥¨§CBc¡£¢¤ ¥¨§ ¤ ¥¨§ So if the output ¡¤¦¥¨§ is to ) track ¡¢ then the ) ¢£¤ . then the input to enforce perfect tracking is . Once we’ve selected 6 @6¤A§ .§ exactly. # § initial system state must be where ¤ § can be chosen arbitrarily.

¤ ¥¨§ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤¦¥¨§CBD13¤ ) ¢ ¤¦¥¨§54¨6¤¦¥¨§§ 9:¤ ) ¢. and output . Note that the above two equations represent a system ) with input ¢ .¤¦¥¨§54¨6¤¦¥¨§§ < the solutution to where 6¤¦¥¨§ denotes 6¤¦¥¨§E =>¤ ) ¢ ¤¦¥¨§54¨6¤¦¥¨§§ 6¤ §F 6 ¢ yields Using < this control in our equation for ¨ ¢ ¢ ¨ b O¢p¡Jr¡¢ B ¢ B RTRSR B b B b ^ ^ ^ which implies that ¢ ¢ ¨ s b 7 ¢ b 7 ^ RSRTR 7 ^ b ¨ 7 The preceding dynamics correspond to the dynamics describing the “internal” behavior of the system when initial state and input have been chosen to constraint ¡:¤ ¥¨§ to follow ¡ ¢ ¤¦¥¨§ . state 6 .

¤¦¥¨§ . whereas our original system in normal form is a system with input .

¤¦¥¨§ . so we now consider tracking to ¡ ¢ when we aren’t free to specify the internal state. In this case we seek . ) ¢ and output . setting 6 to a speciﬁed value is impossible. Asymptotic Output Tracking: In practice. So the preceding system is like an inverse to our original system. state 6 .

Asymptotic Model Matching: Sometimes the reference outut is the output of a reference model which is deriven by some input t . ^ b So the error function satisﬁes a linear differential equation of order ' whose coefﬁcents can be arbitrarily chosen to force asymptotic output tracking. < a linea model. As an eaxmple consider v w v ( 7 x t v ¡£¢P y . So we can pose the problem of ﬁnding a feedback control that causes ¡cGu¡¢ for any t and any initial condition. We call this asymptotic model matching. ¤ ¥¨§ that forces ¡¤¦¥¨§HGI¡¢£¤¦¥¨§ as ¥JGLK . This is the problem of asymptotic tracking.

To solve the asymptotic model matching problem we might try the same input as before. ! o B k ¢m n 7D¡¢ ¢ .

Then for our linear system ¢ N y#xf2y#wzxf RTRSR |y#w xf which implies that ] ¡ ¢ y w v ¦ # ¤ ¥¨§ ¤ } " $"}' B ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ~ y w v # ¤ ¥¨§87%y#w x t If we rewerite the state euations choosing the same coordinates used for the normal form. we see that © n © ¥ ¥ ¥ k m © n 7 kl n © 7 k n . k l k ¢mL n ¢ ¨ ¦ zo k m B [ q ` n Bc¡ ¢ iV^ where we replace ¡¢ with outputs of our model so that ] ¡¢ ¤¦¥¨§F y#w v ¤ ¥¨§87%y#w x t 7 RSRTR N{ ¨ 7#y#wYx t ¤¦¥¨§87(y#x t ¤¦¥¨§ But this requires differentiating the input t which in practice makes the system very sensitive to noise on the input signal t . But what if we suppose our model has a relative degree larger or equal to ' (relatice degree of the original system).

.

k m n N A similar situation happens for the oter normal states N through O¢ . So we get< ONP Q < RSRTR RSRSR O¢ ¢£¤¦¥¨§ < For ¢ ’s state equation we get ¢ ¢ k ¢ m n 7 k l k mLn .

k k ¢mL n . ¢ ¢ ¢ ! B k m n 7%y#w v ¤¦¥¨§j7(y#w x t . The remaining equabecause we required 6 tions for will have t in them. So our system in < normal form is < N ONP OQ ! § Replacing this into our control yields.

Disturbance Decoupling Problem: Consider a system of the form < ¤ © §V7D:¤ © § .¢ for any t driving our special reference model. klOk ¢mL nD ¢ ¦ ¦ v o k m B [ q ` n By#w ] ^ By this construction we can guarantee ¡_G¡.

7 8¤ © § t C © ¡ n ¤© § where t is a disturbance. We want to examine conditions under which there exists a feedback law. < RSRTR ¢ < M ¢< 6 ¡ RTRSR ¢ 1¤ ) ¨ 4 6U§V7(9:¤ ) 4 6>§ .

) ) =>¤ ¨ 4 6U§V7%¤ 4 6U§ t Suppose we use the following state feedback law. 13¤ ) 46U§ .

< N N Q < S R RTR ¢ < M ¢< 6 RTRSR ¢ =>¤ ) 4¨6U§V7%¤ ) 46U§ t . B 9:¤ ) 46>§ 7 9:¤ ) 4 6U§ < Then these equations become.

¤ © §87Z¤ © §a that results in a closed loop system whose output ¡ is independent (i..e. decoupled) from the disturbance t . Let the system have relative degree ' at © and suppose the vector ﬁeld j¤ © § is such that k3k m n ¤ § © for all "($"%' B ! and all © near © . . This problem is called the disturbance decoupling problem. k k m n So the condition is sufﬁcient for disturbance decoupling. in which we easily see that t is decoupled from the output ¡ . It is also suppose to be possible to show that this condition is necessary too. We’ll look ath the normal form of the system.

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