Insulation Coordination

Insulation coordination consists of selecting insulation of various lines and equipment that have to be interconnected into a system for desired operational requirement. The system must be reliable and economical. In high lightning-prone areas or in systems with heavy switching-surge conditions, the selection of insulation levels will be different from areas with little or no lightning and with shorter lines. Normally, insulation systems are designed in a system for no flashovers, or if flashovers cannot be prevented such flashovers should be restricted to places where damage is not done, such as air gaps or in gap-type arresters. The flash-over should not disturb normal system operation and must occur in resalable insulation structures. The over voltages that can cause damage are due to external origin, namely lightning, and operation of the system itself which are at power frequency, earth faults, and switching operations. We will consider here the insulation co-ordination principles based on lightning. These insulation levels are known as Basic Impulse Insulation Levels or BIL. Those based on switching-surge requirements are known as Switching Impulse Levels or SIL. The lightning arrester is the foundation of protection in e.h.v. ranges, which is selected for both lightning and switching-surge duty. It is usually of the magnetic blow-out (current limiting) gap type, or in recent years the gapless ZnO type. Insulation Coordination: “The process of bringing the insulation strengths of electrical equipment and buses into the proper relationship with expected over voltages and with the characteristics of the insulating media and surge protective devices to obtain an acceptable risk of failure.” Insulation coordination means the correlation of the insulation of the various equipments in a power system to the insulation of the protective devices used for the protection of those equipments against over voltages. In a power system various equipments like transformers, circuit breakers, bus supports etc. have different breakdown voltages and hence the volt-time characteristics. In order that all the equipments should be properly protected it is desired that the insulation of the various protective devices must be properly coordinated. The basic concept of insulation coordination is illustrated in Fig. 7.27. Curve A is the volt-time curve of the protective device and B the volt-time curve of the equipment to be protected. Fig. 7.27 shows the desired positions of the volt-time curves of the protecting device and the equipment to be protected. Thus, any insulation having a withstand voltage strength in excess of the insulation strength of curve B is protected by the protective device of curve A.

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it is not 100% reliable. 2 . Basic lightning impulse insulation level (BIL): “The electrical strength of insulation expressed in terms of the crest value of a standard lightning impulse under standard atmospheric conditions.” Necessity of Insulation Coordination:  To ensure the reliability & continuity of service  To minimize the number of failures due to over voltages  To minimize the cost of design. installation and operation Requirements of Protective Devices:  Should not usually flash over for power frequency over voltages  Volt-time characteristics of the device must lie below the withstand voltage of the protected apparatus  Should be capable of discharging high energies in surges & recover insulation strength quickly  Should not allow power frequency follow-on current.    Insulation withstand capacity of any equipment must be higher than the maximum possible over voltage. It also rates timing coordination and nature of o/v. Insulation Coordination defines the overvoltage stress and insulation requirement from equipment to equipment basis.” Basic switching impulse insulation level (BSL): “The electrical strength of insulation expressed in terms of the crest value of a standard switching impulse. Whatever the insulation withstand of a line.

o If flashover occurs on the front of the wave. draw a horizontal line from the peak value of this wave and also draw a vertical line passing through the point where the flashover takes place The intersection of the horizontal and vertical lines gives the point on the V-T curve. Construction of Volt-Time Curve: o Waves of the same shape but of different peak values are applied to the insulation whose volt-time curve is required. this gives another point on the V-T curve.Volt-Time Curve  The breakdown voltage for a particular insulation of flashover voltage for a gap is a function of both the magnitude of voltage and the time of application of the voltage.  Volt-time curve is a graph showing the relation between the crest flashover voltages and the time to flashover for a series of impulse applications of a given wave shape. 3 .   To find the point on the V-T curve. o The third possibility is that the flashover occurs on the tail side of the wave. o The other possibility is that the flashover occurs just at the peak value of the wave. the flashover point gives one point on the volt-time curve.

is not used for power frequency o/v.A.Insulation Coordination for L.A. is maximum temporary o/v (rms) 4 . but used for transient o/v  Rated voltage of L.A(Lightning Arrester)  L.A. plays a major role in insulation coordination  L.

15 =2.75 t0 3.8 times of temporary o/v BIL of L.38 x Vphase For L.5 5 .6 times of temporary o/v  Impulse o/v is taken as 1.:  Temporary o/v is taken as 1pu  Switching o/v is taken as 1.>=Vb >=VT(rms) x √2 x 1.9217 =Protective Ratio(PR) Protective ratio may vary from 2.8 x Margin (LA)BIL (min)= VT(rms) x √2 x 1.A.8 x √3 x Vphase = 1.8x1.A.Temporary over voltage VT(rms) = 0.8 x Margin (LA)BIL (min)/(LA rating)= √2x1.

BIL of Transformer = TPR x BIL of L. L.A. Now.75 LA may operate for impulse overvoltages that means equipment insulation level is increased generally which is most costly. Insulation Coordination for Transformer Insulation of Transformer is kept slightly greater than L. with the arrester terminals open.If PR is less than 2. Fig.A. The lightning current passing through the arrester material is calculated as follows: Consider a travelling wave of voltage Vw.75. crest. TPR : Transformer Protection Ratio Discharge current through L. 6 . which is accompanied by a current wave I on a line with surge impedance Z.11.A. 9. may operates at temporary overvoltages. They strike an arrester whose duty is to hold the voltage across it constant at the protective level V. by using Thevenin's theorem. If PR is higher than 2.A. The Thevenin's impedance looking through the open arrester terminals is equal to the surge impedance Z of the line. the incident travelling wave will give a voltage 2Vp due to total reflection.

with the arrester connected. it is assumed that Vp stays fairly constant at all current values discharged by the arrester.33 kA. Also. Under these conditions. (a) Iw = Vw/Z= 3000/300 = 10 kiloamperes. Solution.33 kA.6 ohms. take Vw= 3000 kV. (b) the current through the arrester. the current through it will be Ia= (2Vw– V)/ Z The maximum value the travelling-wave voltage Vp can reach is the flashover voltage of the line insulation. Calculate and discuss (a) the current flowing in the line before reaching the arrester. The line surge impedance is Z = 300 ohms. Example :For a 750 kV line. the arrester resistance is Ra= Vp/Ia= 1700 kV/14.Therefore. and (c) the value of arrester resistance for this condition and verify the reflection and refraction coefficients giving rise to the voltage and current conditions. 7 . travelling on the line and V =1700kV. crest.33 × 300 = – 1300 kV. (c)The reflected current in the line is + 4. This gives rise to a reflected voltage of – 4. (b) Ia=(2Vw -V)/2Z= (6000 – 1700)/300 = 14.33 kA=118. (120 is taken ohms).

S. A transformer is connected by a length of 20 meters of line to an arrester. The arrester voltage is 1700 kV. the arrester must be located adjacent to the equipment which is usually a large transformer or shunt reactor.Example: For the above example . 8 . Solution.25. arrester rating is Va= 0. surge impedance Zc=350 Ω. The rate of rise of voltage is 700 kV/microsecond. Example .(A line without earth wires). This can be taken as approximately 500 kV/ms for lines with overhead ground wiresand 1000 kV/ms when a line conductor is hit. if an 80% arrester is used. (l/150) kV Where l = length of line in meters and dVw /dt = steepness of wave front in kV/ms of the incoming wave. L.8 × 750 = 600 kV (R. however.A. ∆V= (700) × (20/150) = 93 kV. calculate the protective ratio Np= Vp/V. If not. This results in a slightly higher voltage across the equipment due to repeated reflections. Voltage Across Equipment Protected by Arrester In the ideal case. also find maximum possible separation between Transformer & L. for proper co-ordination. Solution. Calculate the voltage across the transformer. is put 30 m from transformer and transformer protection ratio is 1. Check whether the transformer insulation is properly co-ordinated with the arrester or not. Transformer voltage = 1700+93 kV=1793 kV. The excess voltage experienced is given by an empirical equation and depends on the line length and the rate of rise of the voltage. Lightning current equals to 10 kA at an arrester with peak time of 1 μs. thus: ∆V= (dVw/dt).). of protection ratio 3.A. Very important Numerical: For 400 kV line having effectively grounded system with L. there may be a length of the line between the two extending to 20 to 40 meters. For rated line-to-line voltage of 750 kV. The high inductance of a transformer or reactor represents nearly an open-circuit to a surge. impulse crest.M. Protective ratio Np= 1700/600 = 2. . In practice.A.83.

A.25*1008 kV=1260kV Excess voltage experienced in protected device ∆V=(dv/dt)*(l/150)=(di/dt)*Zc*(l/150)=700kV Vb =Va + ∆V=1008 kV+700 kV=1708kV Here BIL of transformer is less than the voltage experienced by it Vb= 1708 kV that’s why it is not properly co-ordinated. =1.8*1. Also for safe operation distance should be less than 10.8 m for safe operation. 9 . Va =PR x LA rating=3*336 kV=1008kV BIL of Transformer =TPR x BIL of L.Solution: Temporary o/v=400*0.A. Now boundary condition for proper co-ordination is BIL of transformer= voltage experienced by it Vb=1260 kV Va +(dv/dt)*(l/150)=1260 1008+(di/dt)*Zc*(l/150)=1260 (di/dt)*Zc*(l/150)=252 10*350*(l/150)=252 Therefore l=10.8 m is the maximum possible separation between L.A and transformer for proper co-ordination.05=336kV=LA rating BIL of L.

A.263 For 20 kA lightning current discharge current of L. has the following specification: Residual voltage Option1 Option2 At discharging current 0f 10 kA 300 kV 300 kV At discharging current 0f 20 kA 360 kV 320 kV Residual voltage: voltage across LA when discharging current flows i. withstand capacity = kIx= 163.727 * 38. L.263 k=163. the proposed L.263=429.A.Example: In 132 kV transmission line having Zc= 400Ω.A.263= 458.727 Therefore V=163. Compute BIL withstand voltage if maximum current that could strike at the arrester is 20 kA and 50 kA Compute the lightning maximum permissible over voltage if the maximum residual voltage of a arrester is to be limited to that of 20 kA discharge current.727 I0. x=0.727 * 500. ii. Solution: Arrester current I= For lightning arrester: Residual voltage V= For option 1: 300= k10x 360= k20x Solving we get.366 kV For 50 kA discharge current Va=163.05 kV 10 . effectively grounded system.10.

512 kV.BIL of LA= 163. for 50 kA Va= 371.263= 547.987 k Do same for option 2[ ans: for 20kA.22 kV] (ii)I= Option 1: 20= V=4180 kV Option 2: V=4160 kV 11 .727 * 98.8550. Va=340.