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Y.M. Desai *, S. Punde

Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India

Abstract A simple, nine degrees-of-freedom model has been presented to describe vibrations of an inclined cable by using a generalised ﬁnite element approach. All three translations of a vibrating cable and of the support points have been included in the model for its use over a wide range of cable supported structures. The model has been validated for free as well as forced responses of inclined cables by comparing the results with analytical solutions. Some illustrative examples are considered to demonstrate the applicability of the model for analysing vibrating cables and guyed towers subjected to gusty wind. It has been demonstrated that the model can be utilised to expeditiously predict the dynamic response of cable supported structures.

Keywords: Cable dynamics; Generalised ﬁnite element model; Dynamics of cable supported structures

1. Introduction Steel-alloy cables are used extensively to support long span roofs, communication towers, suspension bridges, offshore structures, etc. Such structures are often more economical than conventional ones, because of the high efﬁciency of steel in simple tension. Various approaches to the analysis of the behaviour of cable supported structures have been previously reviewed extensively [1–4]. Analytical methods [5–7] have been employed in the past mainly for quite simple cable structures. Dean [8], Davenport and Steel [9], and Veletsos and Darbre [10], for example, have presented theoretical formulae for computing equivalent spring constants for uniformly loaded cables. However, all the resulting spring constants invariably assume that one end of a cable is ﬁxed. Consequently, the spring constants cannot be used for all types of cable supported structures. Most numerical schemes [3,11–15], on the other hand, are based on discretisation of the equilibrium expression followed by a solution of algebraic equations. Naturally, many degrees-of-freedom would be required in formulating such discrete models for a reasonable esti-

mate of the dynamic response and thus, such schemes are usually computationally intensive. It is often necessary, especially in the initial design stage where different strategies are contemplated, to perform expeditious analysis for the dynamic loads imposed on cable supported structures. Thus, it is advantageous to have a computational model which can represent the key structural aspects realistically by using a few degrees-of-freedom. Of course, the number of primary unknowns can be reduced by using techniques like substructuring for static analysis [16], and Guyan reduction [17] for a dynamic analysis. However, it is always desirable to formulate the basic model itself in such a way that the response can be obtained accurately with a few degrees-of-freedom. A simple cable model can be formulated by using the transfer matrix method (e.g. Cheng and Perkins [18]) or by formulating a dynamic stiffness matrix [19]. Alternatively, a generalised displacement based model can also be expeditiously used [20] by employing analytical mode shapes for the undamped free vibration of cables (like those presented by Irvine [7] and Triantafyllous and Grinfogel [21]) to obtain accurate results even with a few degrees-of-freedom. Such a model can be easily incorporated into any displacement based ﬁnite element formulation to represent, say, a supporting cable in a multi-level guyed tower or a suspension bridge. Thus, components like a mast or bridge girder can be analysed

The model has been formulated for a cable with end points at the same elevation. H and q are. The dynamic response of an entire cable used in a structure has been represented with the help of merely 9 degreesof-freedom. 1. respectively for the cable model shown in Fig. y. 2. Because the movements of the end points are considered in the model. In the ﬁgure. the horizontal component of tension. z) of a point at rest are deﬁned as xϭX sec qϩY sin q yϭY cos q zϭZ lϭL sec q hϭH sec q (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Here. Y. the chord length. guyed masts have also been analysed for the free and the forced responses. 1. are labelled x and y. y. the model cannot be applied to the analysis of cable supported structures. to demonstrate applicability of the cable model to cable-supported structures. and by neglecting inertia in the longitudinal direction. respectively x. Because the movements of the end points have been restricted. uy. respectively u.t)ϭu1f1(s)ϩu2f2(s)ϩu(s.t) (6) . The static proﬁle between the end points 1 and 2 has been shown by a dotted curve. the global horizontal and vertical axes are denoted by X and Y. The local co-ordinates (x. ﬁnite element formulation. A simple cable model has been formulated in the present work. viz. w Displacements of a point on the axis of a cable in the inclined x. respectively.272 Nomenclature A Area of cross section of cable E Modulus of elasticity H Horizontal component of tension in cable h Component of tension in cable along its chord l Span of a cable in the horizontal direction L Chord length of a cable Le Length of a cable along its centre line r Mass of a cable per unit volume s Intrinsic co-ordinate along cable axis T Pretension in the cable ux. [20] have developed a simple but efﬁcient model for describing motion of a vibrating cable used in a transmission line. The time dependent movement of the left and right support is denoted by subscripts 1 and 2. Z Co-ordinates along the global axes q Inclination of the chord with respect to the horizontal {F} Force vector for a cable [C] Damping matrix for a cable [K] Stiffness matrix for a cable [M] Mass matrix for a cable more comprehensively with relatively fewer degrees-offreedom. y and z directions. Thus. suspension bridges. it can be easily used with any displacement based. and the inclination of the chord with respect to the horizontal. whereas the axes along the chord of a cable and perpendicular to the chord. z Co-ordinates along the inclined cable axes X. uz Total local displacements along the inclined x. y and z directions. cable stayed bridges etc. Formulation of the model for an inclined cable The model for an inclined cable is presented in Fig. respectively. the dynamic displacement at any point(s) along the curved length of a cable. L. respectively. which can be used effectively to analyse a variety of cable supported structures like guyed towers. three translations at each end and three generalised co-ordinates for representing motion of an intermediate point on a cable. Development of such simple cable models is the focus of the present work. can be described by ux(s. v. The accuracy of the new formulation has been demonstrated by comparing the free and the forced responses of cables with available analytical data. Further. Yu et al. measured from the static conﬁguration.

t)ϭ v(s. and u. The displacements of the axis of the cable u. 3. gm g m 4 g m tan ϭ Ϫ 2 2 2 l 2 LЈϭL (16) where um.t) uz(s. ux. and the f3m. Further.… or the anti-symmetrical modes. y and z directions.t)ϭ ͩ ͪ ͫ ͪ ͬ ͩ ͩ (12) gm gms gms sin Ϫcos 2 Le Le (13) for m=1.273 Fig.t)ϭw1f1(s)ϩw2f2(s)ϩw(s. The m is a positive integer that indicates the number of vibration loops per span of a cable.…. 5. vm and wm are the generalised co-ordinates. Inclined cable model. uy and uz are the total displacements in the local direction of the associated sufﬁx whereas f1(s)=1Ϫ s/Le and f2(s)=s/Le. v and w are the generalised displacements of the axis of the cable in the x. The analytical mode shapes f3m. 2. 6.t) (7) (8) g2 1 1 gms gm mLЈ Ϫtan 1 f3mϭ 2 Ϫ f1Ϫ f4mϪ l Le 2 gm Le 2 gms gms Ϫcos Ϫsin Le Le f4mϭ1Ϫtan Here. 4. 3. Further. v and w can be expressed as u(s. and f4m are given by [7] ͭ ͩ ͩͪ 3 (17) s 3 py cos q Le ϩ Le 8 h ͪ ͫ ͩ ͪ ͩ ͪ ͬͮ 2 s s 2 4 s Ϫ2 ϩ Le Le 3 Le 3 (18) . Le is the total length of the cable. respectively. 1. f4m and f5m are the associated mode shapes. uy(s. s represents the intrinsic coordinate that indicates the distance of a reference cross section from the left end of the cable model measured along the centre of the cable line. The remaining mode shape f5m is assumed to be mps f5mϭsin Le for m=1.… or the symmetrical modes and f3mϭ 1Ϫ ͩ ͪ 2s 2 mps f4mϩ 1Ϫcos Le mp Le ͪ (14) (15) w(s.t)ϭ m m m um(t)f3m(s) (9) (10) (11) m ps f4mϭsin Le vm(t)f4m(s) wm(t)f5m(s) for m=2.t)ϭv1f1(s)ϩv2f2(s)ϩv(s.

the dVe from the static conﬁguration takes the form dVeϭ{dq}T[K]{q} (29) where Tkin and Ve are the total kinetic and strain energies. The non-conservative forces are associated with the distributed loads imposed on a cable (e. required in Eq.z) in the above equation indicates the mass density per unit volume of the cable’s material. dVe can be shown to be dVeϭ [AEesdesϩTdes]ds 0 ͵ (28) ͵ t2 t1 d(TkinϪVe)dtϩ dWncdtϭ0 t1 ͵ t2 (20) If the displacement derivatives up to quadratic order are retained and Eqs. usually py pz. (25)–(27) into Eq. (29) and (31) into Eqn. and performing the variation.g. [K]. The equations of motion are found by applying the variational principle [17] {s}ϭ[E]{e}ϩ ͭͮ T A (25) (26) where ⑀s is the Lagrangian strain along s such that ∂x ∂ux ∂y ∂uy ∂z ∂uz 1 esϭ ϩ ϩ ϩ ∂s ∂s ∂s ∂s ∂s ∂s 2 ϩ ͩ ͪͬ ∂uz ∂s 2 Le ͫͩ ͪ ͩ ͪ ∂ux 2 ∂uy ϩ ∂s ∂s 2 (27) By substituting Eqs. t. (21). By substituting Eqs. wy and wz are the intensities of the imposed loads per unit length in the direction of the chord. wind loads) and the viscous damping. (6)–(16). it can be shown that dWncϭ{dq}T{F}Ϫ{dq}T[C]{q ˙} (31) Elements of [M] are given more conveniently in Appendix A. following equation can be obtained. (22). where pz represents the mean static wind load per unit cable length in the z-direction. dVe. perpendicular to the chord and perpendicular to the plane of the cable. These vectors are deﬁned by {e}ϭ{es} where l represents the horizontal distance between supports along the chord and h represents the component of the static tension T along the chord. takes the form Le dWncϭ (wxduxϩwyduyϩwzduz)dsϪ{dq}T[C]{q ˙} 0 ͵ (30) where [C] is the Rayleigh damping matrix. only one mode shape is retained in the formulation for each global variable and the generalised stiffness and mass matrices are developed for the selected values of m. and A and E are the cable’s cross sectional area and Young’s modulus of elasticity. Tkin is obtained from Le 1 Tkinϭ 2 ͵ͫ͵ 0 A r(u ˙2 ˙2 ˙2 x ϩu y ϩu z )dA ds ͬ (21) The r(y. py is the vertical load per unit length of the cable. It may be noted from Eqs. and d indicates the ﬁrst variation. If wx. In the following. (12)–(16) that the modal coupling between um and wm has been neglected because. (6)–(19) into Eq. By considering the variation. (20). Thus. (6)–(16) into Eq. (25)–(27) are substituted into Eq. dWnc. the corresponding variation. respectively. as well as Eqs. (30). respectively. dTkinϭϪ{dq}T[M]{q ¨} Here. respectively. the formulation is applicable to situations where in-plane loading is dominant. The non-dimensional parameter l2 accounts for the geometric and elastic effects and has been observed by Irvine [7] to be of fundamental importance in the static as well as dynamic response of the suspended cable. and an overdot indicates differentiation with respect to time. and by substituting Eqs. {q}Tϭ{u1u2uv1v2vw1w2w} (23) (22) Elements of the resulting 9×9 stiffness matrix. By substituting Eqs.274 l 2 ϭl ͩ ͪͩ AE py cosql hLe h ͪ 2 (19) Here {e} and {s} are the strain and stress vectors. are presented in Appendix A. (24). On the other hand. (28). is obtained from Le dVeϭ ͵͵ 0 A {de}T{s}dAds (24) The elements of the force vector {F} are presented in Appendix A. The ﬁrst variation in the strain energy. (20). Wnc is the work done by the non-conservative forces. the equations of motion are obtained in the local directions for a cable as [M]{q ¨ }ϩ[C]{q ˙ }ϩ[K]{q}ϭ{F} (32) .

A (m2) Modulus of elasticity. No such iterations are required in the displacement based formulation as the compatibility conditions are satisﬁed automatically. E (MPa) Pretension.15 0. Eq. 3.548 Example 3 9.025×10Ϫ5 1. however. whereas the mode shapes for the mast are shown in Fig. with fair accuracy. Data pertaining to the guys have been presented under the third column of Table 1 whereas the mast properties are tabulated under the second column of Table 3. (32) and the results can be assembled. i.65×105 30. Example 1 9. Thus. A total of four mast elements has been used for modelling the behaviour of the mast.00 0.795 Example 2 2. the standard co-ordinate transformation can be applied to Eq. and obtained the solution for the guyed tower by enforcing the compatibility conditions in an iterative manner. (These results. Such observations have also been reported by Irvine [7]. (The guy movements are not shown in the ﬁgure for clarity. The resulting expressions have been assembled along with the contribution from the mast members to form the global equations. Results have been presented for the ﬁrst three predominantly mast modes.65×105 18. each cluster consisting of three guys radiating out symmetrically in plan.000×10Ϫ4 1. 2(a). The mast is modelled by using a conventional two-node space frame element.025×10Ϫ5 1. The results are compared with the available analytical and numerical results. The time periods obtained from the free response analysis are compared with those obtained by Irvine [7] in Table 4.) It can be observed that the results are in close agreement with those presented by Irvine [7]. It can be seen that the frequencies are in close agreement with the analytical solutions.0 m points of the cable (l) Difference in elevation between the = 36. (32) has been applied to each guy in its local co-ordinate system and the co-ordinate transformation has been applied. have not been produced here for brevity. A conventional eigenvalue solver has been utilised to compute natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes whereas the fourth order Runge–Kutta algorithm has been employed to integrate ensuing equations of motion. who employed an analytical solution to each cluster of guys and analysed the tower and the guys separately.00 2. rA (kg/m) Results for the ﬁrst ﬁve natural frequencies are compared with the analytical solutions in Table 2 for the free vibrations in the vertical y-direction and the lateral (outof-plane) z-direction. However. The displacements at the end points are restrained for comparing the results with available analytical expressions by Irvine [7].0 m end points Table 1 Cable properties utilised in the illustrative examples Property Cross sectional area. The code has been successfully applied to analyse vibration of cables.795 . Horizontal distance between end = 21. Free vibrations of a guyed tower The cable model is applied in this example to compute the free response of a guyed tower as shown in Fig. On the other hand. The data tabulated under the second column of Table 1 have been used in the computation. T (kN) Mass per unit length. Higher values of m (up to 4) were also used in the separate anlyses. with 12 degreesof-freedom. by using the simple model for each guy (assuming single loop vibration.) Hence. Free vibrations of an inclined cable The cable model is employed to compute natural frequencies of an inclined cable in this example.e.1. it can be tentatively concluded that the natural frequencies of the guyed mast can be expeditiously estimated.2. Numerical examples The formulation presented in the previous section has been coded in FORTRAN 77 and implemented on a personal computer for ready use. On the other hand. m=1). the cable model has been applied to each of the guys in the structure by considering single loop oscillation (m=1). the natural frequencies of the ﬁrst three predominatly mast modes were found to be insensitive to the assumed number of vibration loops per guy. Free vibrations of a guyed tower are also analysed to demonstrate the applicability of the cable model to a variety of cable supported structures. The following additional data have been considered. the cable model can be used effectively for free vibration response of not only horizontal but also inclined cables. The tower is supported by four clusters of guys. excellent agreement with the analytical results was obtained for the free vibrations of horizontal cables (q=0) over a wide range of parameters. 3.50×105 30. Example 1. Example 2.275 These equations can be directly utilised to analyse a single cable. to formulate the global equations. 3. The code can be used to analyse free as well as forced response analyses. along with the matrices stemming from other structural elements of a cable supported structure. The applicability of the simpliﬁed model is further illustrated by analysing a three-dimensional guyed mast with guys at different elevations for a gusty wind. 3. Also.

996 m=5 Present study 3.000 m=2 Present study 1.000 2. The cable and the mast data have been respectively presented under columns 4 and 3 of Tables 1 and 3.3. Table 4 Time periods for the ﬁrst three modes of the guyed mast of Example 2 Example 2 1.018 1.34 s Irvine [7] 0.43 s Mode 3 Present study 0. Izz (m4) Mass per unit length (kg/m) The guyed mast in Examples 2 and 3. it is indeed expeditious to represent the cables by a simple model .1×105 1.43 s Mode 2 Present study 0.500×10Ϫ3 1. Table 3 Mast properties utilised in the illustrative examples Property Area.000 Irvine [7] 4.21 s Thus.999 m=3 Present study 1.893×10Ϫ3 2. 3.481 Mode 1 Irvine [7] 0. The tower has been previously analysed by Iannuzzi and Spinelli [22]. A (m2) Modulus of elasticity.1×105 1.134×10Ϫ4 35.34 s Irvine [7] 0. The following additional data have been used.3.000 4.162 Example 3 1. E (MPa) Moment of inertia.22 s Present study 0. Mast Shear modulus (G) Face area exposed to wind (AD) = = 8.1. for investigating free vibrations of the main structural components.000 Irvine [7] 5.997 1.000 4.000 Present study 5. Example 3.000 Irvine [7] 3.00×1010 N/m2 0. 2.000 2.997 m=4 Present study 3.994 Irvine [7] 2.276 Table 2 The normalised natural frequencies (w/p) in the y and z-direction Direction m =1 Irvine [7] y z 1.017 0.500×10Ϫ3 61. Response of a guyed tower subjected to wind in the x-direction The guyed tower shown in Fig. Iyy (m4) Moment of inertia.1869 m2/m .992 Fig. 2(b) is analysed in this example for the effects of gusty wind.000 3.190×10Ϫ4 1.994 3. 3.800×10Ϫ3 2.000 5.

Guy cables Drag coefﬁcient (CD) = 2. 4. in an expeditious manner. 4. 4. 9 degrees-of-freedom model of a vibrating cable has been developed for expeditiously analysing free as well as forced responses of cable supported structures. and the cable model has been used for each guy (with m=1). 3. The peak response of the guyed mast of Fig. Thus. The effect of gusty wind has been simulated by using the single wind history as per the details given by Iannuzzi and Spinelli [22]. who used multiple time history and a number of ﬁnite elements for representing cable behaviour.80 = 1. The ﬁrst three fundamental modes of the mast in Example 2.20 The undamped forced response analysis has been performed in the present work by employing three space frame elements to discretise the mast. which are shown by different dashed and dotted lines (IS-1 through IS-4) in Fig.2. .277 Fig. it can be concluded. that the cable model can be used to predict the response of a cable supported structure reasonably well.3. on the basis of the results. The cable model has been validated by comparing free and forced vibration Fig. It is observed that that the results obtained by using the simple model developed in the present study compare well with those obtained by performing detailed time consuming ﬁnite element analyses. Analytical mode-shapes are used in the formulation for improved results. 2(b) in the xdirection for wind along the x-direction. The response of the structure has been observed to be predominantly in the direction of wind (referred to as the x direction) and has been compared with the available responses from Iannuzzi and Spinelli [22]. The peak response of the guyed tower is compared with that obtained by Iannuzzi and Spinelli [22]. Conclusions A simple but realistic. Drag coefﬁcient (CD) 3.

Current methods for analysing dynamic cable response — 1979 to the present. Moreover.5.7 for i=2. [K].8 and [l3 l6 l9]ϭ ͫ ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂s ∂s ∂s ͬ (A3) . A. and [K].s =f1. Buragohain DN.8 for i=3. Force vector {F} The elements of the force vector are obtained as Le Appendix A.6.kϭ1.2. ∂x p.sdsϩeh 0 ͵ Le ͵ͩ ͪ 0 ∂s 2 (f )2ds. 0 ͵ ͵ ͵ 0 (A6) (A1) F6ϭ wyf4ds 0 Le where the indices n and p are n=i p=j for i=1. involving ﬁnite element discretisation of cables.3 0 Le ͵ (A5) Fi+3ϭ wyfids for iϭ1. Consistent mass matrix [M] The non-zero elements of the symmetrical mass matrix [M] are Le Fiϭ wxfids for iϭ1. ∂fp i .j. It has been demonstrated that the model can predict the responses of cable supported structures reasonably well even with fewer degrees-of-freedom.s gj. Webster RL. p= +2 for i=3.s =fp. Stiffness matrix [K] The non-zero elements of the symmetrical stiffness matrix [K] are given below.6. are summarised below for the 9 degrees-of-freedom model of a cable.7.6.9 ∂s 3 for j=3. Comp Struct 1988.2. ͵ ͵ 0 (A7) Fi+6ϭ wzfids for iϭ1.s =f1. i. A.s (A2) References [1] Migliore HJ. and vector {F} for a cable Elements of structural matrices [M]. e=1 for i=j=3.s =f2.278 responses with available analytical results.4.5.5. The applicability of the model to cable supported structures has been illustrated successfully by analysing free and forced responses of three-dimensional guyed towers.29:1001–9. j = +2 3 Here.9. Shah AH. Popplewell N.3. as well as the load vector {F}. Geometric non-linear static analysis of cable supported structures. 6. Kij ϭAE lilj gi.4. Le All the integrations appearing in the above equations have been performed numerically.s =f2.…9 where li=1 for i=1. Webster RL.4.7 for j=2. i.2.s fp.3.sgj.11:3–16.s =fp. Shock Vibr Dig 1979. [2] Migliore HJ.2 0 Le M3(k−1)+i.s = for i=1.2 for j=1. gi. [3] Desai YM.jϭ1. 9 and e=0 for all other values of i and j.9 (A4) Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the constructive comments made by the reviewers.9 for j=1.8 for j=3.2.2 Le (A8) F9ϭ wzf5ds (A9) A. compared to more elaborate analyses.2.6.1.14:19–24. Elements of [M]. Current methods for analysing dynamic cable response. Shock Vibr Dig 1982.2 n=k+2 for i=3 p=k+2 for j=3.3(k−1)+j ϭrA fnfpds.

[15] Peyrot AH. [16] Raman NV. Comp Struct 1995. Steels GN. [21] Triantafyllous MS. Shah AH.28:93–104. [17] Clough RW.91(2):43–70. Natural vibrations of suspended cables. Knudson WC. Comp Struct 1988. . Static and dynamic analysis of guy cables. ASCE 1961. Dynamics of single guy cable. Static and dynamic behaviour of mechanical components associated with electrical transmission lines — III: Part A: theoretical perspective.54:1197–211. [22] Iannuzzi A.59:923–8. A curved element for the analysis of cable structures. New York: Dover Publications. Three-degree of freedom model for galloping. Dynamic stiffness of parabolic cables. 1992. ASME 1992.104(2):343–7. Closed-form vibration analysis of sagged cable/mass suspensions. J Eng Mech.112(1):139–48. [20] Yu P. [6] Irvine HM. Free vibrations of inclined cables.87(1):87–98.102(6):1286–8. J Struct Div. [13] Kahla N.117(12):2815–29. Russell JJ. Popplewell N. ASCE 1978.14:325–33. Shreedhara VV.6:267–71. Dynamic stiffness matrix of sagging cable. Artiﬁcial wind generation and structural response. J Struct Div. Popplewell N. ASCE 1986.279 [4] Desai YM. Goulois AM.31:699–715. 1993. Dynamic behaviour of massive guy cables. Equilibrium and natural frequencies of cable structures (a nonlinear ﬁnite element approach). Shah AH. Desai YM. [9] Davenport AG.21:3–8. Penzien J. [10] Veletsos AS. [8] Dean DL.119(1):2402–25. J Struct Div. Analysis of cable structures. Comp Struct 1975. Perkins NC.113(12):2382–98. J Eng Mech. Large displacement analysis of guyed tower. [18] Cheng SP. J Struct Div. Vibration of hanging cables. Inc. [5] Irvine HM. Surya Kumar GV.11(3):367–401. Darbre GR. Chen JK. Comp Struct 1981. [11] Henghold WM. ASCE 1991. J Struct Div. [7] Irvine HM. ASCE 1965. Int J Earthquake Eng Struct Dynamics 1983. J Appl Mech. Natural frequencies and modes of inclined cables. J Struct Div. Spinelli P. ASCE 1993.10:805–13. [19] Starossek U. [14] Kamran AK. Cable structures. Comp Struct 1979. Shock Vibr Dig 1989. ASCE 1987. New York: McGraw-Hill. [12] Jayraman HB. ASCE 1976. Grinfogel L. Comp Struct 1989. Dynamics of structures.

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