# i Ministry of Higher Education Kabul University Faculty of Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering

Screw Jack Design

Researcher/Designer Ahmad Murtaza Ershad (8173) Course Instructor Professor Abdul Hamid Layan

Project Design, 10 th Semester Kabul, 2010 ii

Screw Jack Design

iii Table of Contents Introduction¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼.1 1. Power Screws¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼..1 2. Screw Jack Design Procedure¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼.3 3. Calculations¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼.5 3.1. Design of the screw and torque calculation¼¼¼¼5 3.2. Design of the nut¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼....7 3.3. Design of the various diameters¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼.8 3.4. Design of the handle¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼..9 3.5. Buckling of the screw¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼10 3.6. Design of the body¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼11 3.7. System efficiency¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼..12 4. Conclusion¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼.13 5. Recommendation¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼...13 Reference¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼...14 Appendix¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼.¼¼..15

1 Introduction The project design course is an essential course for the mechanical e ngineering undergraduate program. In this course, students are asked to design di fferent projects which are either given by the instructor or students select themselves. The firs t project is to design a mechanical screw jack. The course requirement is only to determine the power screw dimensions, the required torque and the efficiency of the system. Students don't have to worry about the manufacturing process of their design. The design pr ocess starts with specifying the amount of load which is going to be raised or lowered which in

t =240 MPa. In this design we assume that is the handle is rotated by two hands which g ive 400 N hand forces for the design of the handle. Frame: Grey cast iron is used which is cheap and has good mach inability. s yield (tension) =100 MPa.5m (500 mm). (2) 6. s yield (compression) = 90 MPa. 3. Nut: In order to reduce a softer material is selected ) is a proper material for wear resistance and reduces (s ultimate = 190 MPa. t =240 MPa.10 when it is lubricated. t=80 MPa ) c. Limiting values for bearing pressure between steel and cast iron i s taken 15. .= 400 MPa. Average coefficient of friction between the material soft steel and cast iron is taken 0. it i s taken 0. (s yield = 400 MPa.05 MPa. But for this specific design. the friction resistance between the screw and nut for the nut. E=207GPa) d. According to agronomists the force of the hand is about 150 to 2 00 N. 4. Screw Jack Handle: Plane carbon steel (30C8 ± IS: 1570-1978) is selected for the handle o f the jack because of the high strength it offers. Phosphor Bronze (Grade 1-IS: 28-1975 nut construction because it acts very well against torque to overcome friction.18 assuming it dry for safe operations . The effective lifting height is chosen to be 0. E=207GPa) b.(1) 5.

1. Core diameter of the screw is determined using allowable stress an d the given load ii.6. Torque will be determined using the mean diameter. Chapter 17. Coefficient of friction. A Text of Mac hine Design. the rest of the diameters and the pitch will be de termined from the table iii. Power screws. Power Screws.(1) Table 17.7. 642 (2) Table 17. (1) ) 05 . Principle stresses due to the shear and compression stresses will be studie d v. p. coefficient of friction and the pitch iv. A Text of Machine Design. Design of the screw Procedure i. 0 5 10 * 400 4 68670 4 2 6 2 mm m MPa N FS P d c c = | | ¹ | \ | = | . Calculations 3. Limiting values for bearing pressure. p. Using the core diameter.646 5 3. The dimensions for the screw is safe if and only if the maximum stresses are less than the allowable stresses 2 4 dc P c p s = ¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼. 33 ( 03305 . Chapter 17.

38 2 7 ) ( 42 = + = = = The torque required to rotate the screw: ( ).¹ | \ | = p s p The next available diameter is 35 mm. tan * 2 * 2 * f a µ p pµ + = | | ¹ | \ | + = me n me n me n mean d P .2 (Normal series) we have mm d d d mm Pitch diameter mm d o c mean outer o 5 . For d c =35 mm. according to the Table 17.

(2. 3) l= Lead=Pitch for single thread µ = Coefficient of friction f a. 0 0385 .T l d d l d P T ¼¼¼¼. 0 * 68670 p p Now.= | ¹ | \ | + = 320 007 . 0 2 0385 . 0 4 68670 2 = = p s 2 16 dc T . it is time to study principle stresses due to the combined stresses (compre ssion and Torsional) and see if they are in limit for safe dimensions. 0 0385 .. = angles of helix and friction respectively 6 m N T mm mm mm mm mm N T .( 4 2 dc P c p s = ( ) MPa mm N c 02 . 0 * 18 .. 59 0385 . ) 1 .. 0 * 18 . 0 007 .

28 ( 4 02 . 11 ) 57 . 59 2 1 2 02 . 59 2 2 2 max mm N MPa MPa MPa MPa . 59 2 2 2 max mm N MPa MPa MPa MPa = + + = s Tension ) / ( 56 . 70 ) 57 . 28 ( 4 02 . 59 2 1 2 02 . 28 0385 . 0 16 320 2 = = p t Principle stresses 2 2 max 2 2 max 4 2 1 4 2 1 2 t s t t s s s + = + ¡ = c c c ¼¼¼¼¼¼ (4.p t = ¼ (3) ( ) MPa mm m N 57 . 5) ) / ( 5 .

these shear stresses are compared with the allowable stres .= + . Number of threads in engagement is found ii. 28 ( 4 02 . (6) FS yield allowable t t = ¼ ¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼ (7) MPa MPa allowable 48 5 240 = = t MPa MPa allowable 80 5 400 = = s 7 Criteria for safe design against principle stresses max max s s t t > >  llow ble  llow ble The design is therefore safe. Height of the nut is determined iii. 59 2 1 2 2 2 max mm N MPa MPa MPa = + = t FS yield allowable s s = ¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼. 41 ) 57 . 3.2. iv. For safe design. ) / ( 06 .= s Comp. Shear stress produced at the threads of the screw at the core diameter and at threads of the nut at the major diameter is studied. Design of the nut Procedure i..

10 ) 0385 . 0 ( ) 042 . ( )n d d P . (8) P b = Bearing pressure n= Number of threads d o = Outer diameter d c = Core diameter ( ) [ ] 8 . The height of the nut is found from following equation: mm H mm H p n H 84 7 * 12 * = = = ¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼..ses ( )n d d P P c o b 2 2 4 = p ¼ ¼¼¼¼¼¼¼. To check whether crushing is expected or not. (10) The nut threads are subjected to crushing and shear. 0 4 68670 05 . 15 2 2 = = n n m m N MPa p We take the number of threads n=12.

0 ( ) 042 . 0 * 68670 2 / . * * * MPa bronze MPa m m N pitch t t n d P yield nut nut nut o nut . 0 4 68670 2 2 MPa bronze MPa m m N cy crushing crushing crushing = = << s s s p s From the above result.c o crushing 2 2 4 = p s ¼¼¼¼¼¼¼ (11) 8 ( ) [ ] ) 90 ( 53 .<< = = = = . crushing is not expected because crushing stress is much smaller than the bronze yield stress at compression. 12 0035 . 0 * 12 * 042 . 13 12 ) 035 . ) 80 ( 39 .

... ... 4 1 6 2 2 1 .. Design of the various diameters Inner diameter of the nut collar (D1) ( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) [ ] ) 78 ( 078 .<< = = = = t t t p t p t ¼¼¼. (13) The screws are safe against the shear produced by the axial loading..t t t p t p t ¼¼¼¼¼ (12) From the result above.. 3......( .. 0 4 68670 ) 14 . * * * MPa bronze MPa m m N pitch t t n d P yield screw screw screw c screw .. 13 0035 . 0 * 12 * 0385 ......... ) 240 ( 52 ... 0 * 68670 2 / .3... 0 5 10 * 100 042 . the nut threads are safe against shear stress.. ..

.... ...= p s p Thickness of the nut collar (t 1 ) ) 5 ... 0 5 10 * 80 078 ...( ........... .2 2 1 mm m D Pa m D N d D P t o = .. 0 5 10 * 90 078 . 17 ( 0175 .. ...( .......= ....... ... 0 4 68670 ) 15 ...... .... 4 2 6 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 mm m D Pa m D N D D P c = ...= p s p Outer diameter of the nut collar (D2) 9 ( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) [ ] ) 104 ( 104 ............. 0 68670 ) 16 .= .......

1 3 3 mm m m D d D o = = = Diameter of pin which fits the cup (D 4 ) ) 8 .... 0 4 / 0714 ............( ..... * hand total handle handle hand total Force T Lenght Lenght Force T = = Where.. . ...( ....... ..... * 7 .... 2 1 T T Ttotal + = ¼¼¼¼¼¼ (20) ...... 1 ) 17 . 17 ( 0178 .... Design of the handle ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 19 .... 0 * 7 ................6 1 1 1 mm m Pa m N t t D P = = = p t p Diameter of head at the top of screwed rod (D3) ) 4 ..... ..... 71 ( 0714 ..... 0 042 ...4..........( ... ... 0 ) 18 ... 4 / 4 3 4 mm m D D D = = = 3.... .

0 ( ) 2 / 0714 . T1=320 N-m as calculated earlier T2=torque required to overcome friction at the top of the screw = 2 4 2 3 3 4 3 3 2 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 3 2 R R R R P T µ ¼¼¼¼¼¼. 0 ( 68670 * 18 . 0 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 m N T . 310 ) 2 / 0178 . 0 ( ) 2 / 0178 . (21) R3=radius of head R4=radius of pin m m m N 10 N T m m T = = 2 . 0 ( ) 2 / 0714 .T1=torque required to rotate the screw.

+ . Diameter of handle MPa MPa FS m N m N M Lenght Force M D moment bending M t b handle hand b 80 5 400 628 57 . 630 2 . 630 ) ( ) ( ) ( = = = Note: If the length of handle is too large.= 2 .= . 1 * 400 * ) ( 32 ) ( ) ( ) ( 3 = = = . 310 320 m N m N Lenght Force T Lenght handle hand total handle 57 . 1 400 2 . an alternative is to pl ace the handle centrally and apply the force.= = .m N m N T total total .

3 32 * 628 32 * ) ( 32 ) ( 3 6 3 3 mm m Pa m N M D D moment bending M b b = = = = ps s p 3. ( ) .= 2 2 / 4 1 * k L E C . When it is short. Buckling of the screw Buckling is studied when the load is compressive and the unsupported length betw een the screw and the nut is long. then it is assumed a column and buckling issue doesn't rise.5. 0 10 * 80 * 14 .= = s s s p ¼¼¼ (22) ) 43 ( 043 . If the critical load is more than the load we have then our de sign is safe and there is no chance of buckling.

in case of one end fix and one end free its value is 0. (23) 11 Ac= Cross-sectional area of the screw core Y s =Yield strength of the screw material L= effective length of the screw (L = screw lift height + ½(height of nut)) C= end fixity coefficient. 0 ) 084 . 0 035 . 961 035 . 0 * 4 106 * 400 1 106 * 400 * 6 10 * 625 .25 k=least radius of gyration.25dc ( ) ( ) m m d k m m L m m dc A C C 00875 . 961 / 4 1 * 9 2 2 2 2 = .. 0 10 * 625 . 0 4 4 2 6 2 2 = = = = + = = = = p p ( ) kN P m m Pa Pa Pa m P k L E C A P critical critical Y Y C critical 6 . 3 * 25 . 0 25 . 0 * 25 . it is usually taken 0. 379 ) 00875 ..A P Y Y C critical p s s ¼. 0 542 . 0 ( 10 * 207 * 14 .. 0 ( 2 / 1 5 . 0 / 542 .

... 0 25 .. 0 * 25 ..670kN.. 2 25 . 2 2 6 mm m m D D = = = ¼(27) Inside diameter at the bottom (D . 0 * 25 .... (24) Diameter of the body at the top (D 5 ) ) 156 ( 156 .. Design of the body Height of the head ) 86 ( 086 ..6.. 10 ( 0105 ... 0 * 2 * 2 mm m m h D h = = = .. 0 042 ...= . 0 104 . 0 104 .. 1 2 5 mm m m D D = = = .. 0 043 .(25) Thickness of the body (t 3 ) ) 5 . 1 5 ..= p s s There is no chance of buckling because the critical load is much greater than th e design load which is 68. 0 3 mm m m d t o = = = ¼ (26) Inside diameter at the bottom (D 6 ) ) 234 ( 234 .. 0 * 5 . 3..

76 2 0385 . 1 6 7 mm m m D D = = = ¼ (28) Thickness of the base (t 2 ) 12 ) 35 ( 035 . 0 * 0385 . Lift Height + height of the nut+150mm = 500mm+84mm+150mm =734mm 3. 409 ( 4095 . 0 * 68670 2 ) tan( p a 1 . 630 54 . 12 % ) ( 121 . (29) . 76 ) ( = = = = ¼. System Efficiency total O T T Efficiency = ) (h ¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼ (30) T O =Torque required to rotate the screw with no friction m N m m m N T d P T O mean O .= = = 54 . 0 0175 . 0 234 . 0 * 75 . 0 * 2 1 2 2 mm m m t t Height if the body = Max.7 ) ) 5 . 1 75 . 0 * 007 . 0 2 .7.

24 % 100 % * ) 2 .= = h h E¢¢iciency m N m N Efficiency If the screw friction and collar is friction is neglected. 3 tan( = + = h h 13 4. . This project was the first machine element I designed. the effici ency of the system is calculated as below: ) tan( ) tan( ) £ ( ) £ ( f a a h + = = P P P Effort P Effort Actual o Ideal 02 . 3 tan( ) 3 . Conclusion 1. 10 3 .

2. 3. it should also be available in the mark et. I found the chance to apply my knowledge of previou s courses like Mechanics of material.2. etc.3 degrees. For the design of screw jacks. 2 nd . Dimensions should be realistic. As a future design engineer. and durable. Recommendation 1. ©1997-2005 Roton Products. Inc. Dan (2007). 5. 2. 4. and then sent for manufacturi ng. 4.A Brief History of Screw Threads. Application Engineering. The system should be tested fist for strength. the designer should make sure the mater ial is cost effective. Steinhoff. 3. I learned to notice the importance o f material selection and cost criteria in the design procedure. Through this experience. The efficiency (%12) or (%24 in case of friction negligence) is v ery reasonable for a helix angle of 3. Design of Machine Elements. a higher factor of safety is recommended sue to the nature of the application.Bhandari. In the meantime. 5. When designing the system. Kinematics. 14 Reference 1. This screw is a self locking jack which requires effort to lower the load.

S. Chapter 17. Power Screws. Power Screws. Rudolph (2004). IIT Kharagpur 6. Alfred. 145-153 5.. Lesson 2.http://en. A Textbook of Machine Design 7.. Hollowenko.Eggert.Module 6..Hall. McGraw Hill 4.Power Screws. Scahuam's Theory and Problems of Machine Design. Version 2 ME. McGraw Hill Publications. Laughlin. pp.org/wiki/screws 15 . 224-232 3. Pp. Power Screws and Threaded Fasteners.Edition. R. Herman (1961 ). G.wikipedia. Allen.

A Typical Screw Jack A Typical Screw Jack A Typical Screw Jack A Typical Screw J ack (Courtesy of Version 2 ME. IIT Kharagpur) .