i Ministry of Higher Education Kabul University Faculty of Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering

Screw Jack Design

Researcher/Designer Ahmad Murtaza Ershad (8173) Course Instructor Professor Abdul Hamid Layan

Project Design, 10 th Semester Kabul, 2010 ii

Screw Jack Design

iii Table of Contents Introduction¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼.1 1. Power Screws¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼..1 2. Screw Jack Design Procedure¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼.3 3. Calculations¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼.5 3.1. Design of the screw and torque calculation¼¼¼¼5 3.2. Design of the nut¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼....7 3.3. Design of the various diameters¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼.8 3.4. Design of the handle¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼..9 3.5. Buckling of the screw¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼10 3.6. Design of the body¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼11 3.7. System efficiency¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼..12 4. Conclusion¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼.13 5. Recommendation¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼...13 Reference¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼...14 Appendix¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼.¼¼..15

1 Introduction The project design course is an essential course for the mechanical e ngineering undergraduate program. In this course, students are asked to design di fferent projects which are either given by the instructor or students select themselves. The firs t project is to design a mechanical screw jack. The course requirement is only to determine the power screw dimensions, the required torque and the efficiency of the system. Students don't have to worry about the manufacturing process of their design. The design pr ocess starts with specifying the amount of load which is going to be raised or lowered which in

They find use in machines such as universa l tensile testing machines. adjustable floor posts. 2. lead is equal to pitch. A screw thread is formed by cutting a continuou s helical groove around the cylinder. alloy steel. micrometers. It is also called translational screw. There a re two kinds of power screws. There are important terms and figures that need to be understood before designin g power screws: 1. Pitch: is the distance from a point on one thread to the corresp onding thread on the next adjacent thread. The majority of screws are tightened by clockwise rotation. Bronze a nd plastic nuts are popular for higher duty applications and they provide low coefficients of friction for minimizing drive torques. some important data is gather ed for the design process like the height of the lift. Power screws are typically made from carbon steel.our case it is determined by the instructor. For single thread screw. aircraft flap extender s. plastic. trench braces. Power Screws Power screws are used to convert rotary motion in to translational mo tion. etc. automotive jacks. measured parallel to the axial plane. machine tools. factor of safety. These grooves are cut either left hand or right hand. a left-hand-threaded screw would be an appropriate choice. 2 mean r lead p . which is termed a ri ght-hand thread. vises. or steel mating nuts. 1. anticlockwise forces are applied to the screw (which would work to un do a right-hand thread). the actual calculation is started and different parts of the power screw are des igned. hydraulic and mechanical power screws. F or example. A fter this. Helix Angle: is related to the lead and the mean radius by the equation below . Lead: is the distance the screw would advance relative to the nut in one rota tion. and C-clamps. Screws with left-hand threads are used in exceptional cases. A special case is screw jack which raises or lowers the load by applying a small force in the horizontal plane. linear actuators. 3. or stainless ste el and they are usually used with bronze. Next. It is a good experience for us to learn how to consider efficiency and cost effect iveness in our real projects once we graduate.

3. d. 4. Screw Jack Design Procedure 2. b. c. It has limited use of power transmission Figure 2: Square thread Figure 3: Acme threads Figure 4: Buttress thread 3 2. It is the most strong thread of all d. b. b. Square threads: Is used for power transmission in either direction Results in maximum efficiency and minimum It is employed in screw jacks and clamps Acme threads: It is a modification of square thread Efficiency is lower than square threads The slope increases the area for shear It is easily manufactured Buttress Thread: It is used when large forces act along the screw axis in one direction only. c. 2. 2.a 2 t n = Figure 1: Common screw assembly ©1997-2005 Roton Products. a. There are 3 types of screw threads used in power screws: 1. a. Books Websites Stationary Calculator .1. Design Tools 1. a. Inc. 3. It has higher efficiency like square threads and ease of cutting like acme threads c.

(s yield . Different parts of the assembly such as the screw. bending and axial load. Problem Statement A mechanical power screw that can raise or lower 7 tons or 68. 2. Carbon steel is chosen due t o the strength issues. and etc. Material is selected as following: 4 a. In order to prevent friction cast iron or bronze is pre ferred for the design of the nut. the nut and the handle will be designed in an efficient and cost effective manner. material selection crit eria.4.3. This steel is also used for the handle of the screw jack. There are common materials used in the design of screw jacks like steel for th e screw and cast iron. Mild steel or hard steel is considere d for different screw designs. 2. A higher factor of safety is considered due to the consequences of the failure. Factor of safety for the assembly is taken 5 due to the nature of the design. Design Objective · State the problem and clarify what is expected from the design · Specify design considerations such as factor of safety. bronze or plastic for the nuts. Cup and frame are made of Grey cast iro n which is cheap and has good mach inability. Laptop 6. · To study effects of stresses on the power screw parts o Direct tensile or compressive stress due to axial load o Torsional shear stress in the minimum cross section of the screw b y the twisting moment o Shear stress at the threads of the screw at the room diameter and at the threads of the nut at the outside diameter due to axial loading o Bearing pressure at the thread surfaces of the screw and nut · To determine the torque required to raise or lower the given load · To determine the efficiency of the power screw · To determine the dimensions of the different parts of the screw 2.5. Actually the factor of safety is taken 1. Design Considerations 1. Printer 2.670 K N of load is intended to be designed. Screw: Plane carbon steel (30C8 ± IS: 1570-1978) is selected because screw is always under Torsional. Selection of Material for the screw and nut is of great importanc e.2.5 to 2 in static loading of ductile mat erial.

t =240 MPa. In this design we assume that is the handle is rotated by two hands which g ive 400 N hand forces for the design of the handle. Frame: Grey cast iron is used which is cheap and has good mach inability. s yield (tension) =100 MPa.5m (500 mm). (2) 6. s yield (compression) = 90 MPa. 3. Nut: In order to reduce a softer material is selected ) is a proper material for wear resistance and reduces (s ultimate = 190 MPa. t =240 MPa.10 when it is lubricated. t=80 MPa ) c. Limiting values for bearing pressure between steel and cast iron i s taken 15. .= 400 MPa. Average coefficient of friction between the material soft steel and cast iron is taken 0. it i s taken 0. (s yield = 400 MPa.05 MPa. But for this specific design. the friction resistance between the screw and nut for the nut. E=207GPa) d. According to agronomists the force of the hand is about 150 to 2 00 N. 4. Screw Jack Handle: Plane carbon steel (30C8 ± IS: 1570-1978) is selected for the handle o f the jack because of the high strength it offers. Phosphor Bronze (Grade 1-IS: 28-1975 nut construction because it acts very well against torque to overcome friction.18 assuming it dry for safe operations . The effective lifting height is chosen to be 0. E=207GPa) b.(1) 5.

1. Core diameter of the screw is determined using allowable stress an d the given load ii.6. Torque will be determined using the mean diameter. Chapter 17. Coefficient of friction. A Text of Mac hine Design. the rest of the diameters and the pitch will be de termined from the table iii. Power screws. Power Screws.(1) Table 17.7. 642 (2) Table 17. (1) ) 05 . Principle stresses due to the shear and compression stresses will be studie d v. p. coefficient of friction and the pitch iv. A Text of Machine Design. Design of the screw Procedure i. 0 5 10 * 400 4 68670 4 2 6 2 mm m MPa N FS P d c c = | | ¹ | \ | = | . Calculations 3. Limiting values for bearing pressure. p. Using the core diameter.646 5 3. The dimensions for the screw is safe if and only if the maximum stresses are less than the allowable stresses 2 4 dc P c p s = ¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼. 33 ( 03305 . Chapter 17.

38 2 7 ) ( 42 = + = = = The torque required to rotate the screw: ( ).¹ | \ | = p s p The next available diameter is 35 mm. tan * 2 * 2 * f a µ p pµ + = | | ¹ | \ | + = me n me n me n mean d P .2 (Normal series) we have mm d d d mm Pitch diameter mm d o c mean outer o 5 . For d c =35 mm. according to the Table 17.

(2. 3) l= Lead=Pitch for single thread µ = Coefficient of friction f a. 0 0385 .T l d d l d P T ¼¼¼¼. 0 * 68670 p p Now.= | ¹ | \ | + = 320 007 . 0 2 0385 . 0 4 68670 2 = = p s 2 16 dc T . it is time to study principle stresses due to the combined stresses (compre ssion and Torsional) and see if they are in limit for safe dimensions. 0 0385 .. = angles of helix and friction respectively 6 m N T mm mm mm mm mm N T .( 4 2 dc P c p s = ( ) MPa mm N c 02 . 0 * 18 .. 59 0385 . ) 1 .. 0 * 18 . 0 007 .

28 ( 4 02 . 11 ) 57 . 59 2 1 2 02 . 59 2 2 2 max mm N MPa MPa MPa MPa . 59 2 2 2 max mm N MPa MPa MPa MPa = + + = s Tension ) / ( 56 . 70 ) 57 . 28 ( 4 02 . 59 2 1 2 02 . 28 0385 . 0 16 320 2 = = p t Principle stresses 2 2 max 2 2 max 4 2 1 4 2 1 2 t s t t s s s + = + ¡ = c c c ¼¼¼¼¼¼ (4.p t = ¼ (3) ( ) MPa mm m N 57 . 5) ) / ( 5 .

these shear stresses are compared with the allowable stres .= + . Number of threads in engagement is found ii. 28 ( 4 02 . (6) FS yield allowable t t = ¼ ¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼ (7) MPa MPa allowable 48 5 240 = = t MPa MPa allowable 80 5 400 = = s 7 Criteria for safe design against principle stresses max max s s t t > >  llow ble  llow ble The design is therefore safe. Height of the nut is determined iii. 59 2 1 2 2 2 max mm N MPa MPa MPa = + = t FS yield allowable s s = ¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼. 41 ) 57 . 3.2. iv. For safe design. ) / ( 06 .= s Comp. Shear stress produced at the threads of the screw at the core diameter and at threads of the nut at the major diameter is studied. Design of the nut Procedure i..

10 ) 0385 . 0 ( ) 042 . ( )n d d P . (8) P b = Bearing pressure n= Number of threads d o = Outer diameter d c = Core diameter ( ) [ ] 8 . The height of the nut is found from following equation: mm H mm H p n H 84 7 * 12 * = = = ¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼..ses ( )n d d P P c o b 2 2 4 = p ¼ ¼¼¼¼¼¼¼. To check whether crushing is expected or not. (10) The nut threads are subjected to crushing and shear. 0 4 68670 05 . 15 2 2 = = n n m m N MPa p We take the number of threads n=12.

0 ( ) 042 . 0 * 68670 2 / . * * * MPa bronze MPa m m N pitch t t n d P yield nut nut nut o nut . 0 4 68670 2 2 MPa bronze MPa m m N cy crushing crushing crushing = = << s s s p s From the above result.c o crushing 2 2 4 = p s ¼¼¼¼¼¼¼ (11) 8 ( ) [ ] ) 90 ( 53 .<< = = = = . crushing is not expected because crushing stress is much smaller than the bronze yield stress at compression. 12 0035 . 0 * 12 * 042 . 13 12 ) 035 . ) 80 ( 39 .

... ... 4 1 6 2 2 1 .. Design of the various diameters Inner diameter of the nut collar (D1) ( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) [ ] ) 78 ( 078 .<< = = = = t t t p t p t ¼¼¼. (13) The screws are safe against the shear produced by the axial loading..t t t p t p t ¼¼¼¼¼ (12) From the result above.. 3......( .. 0 4 68670 ) 14 . * * * MPa bronze MPa m m N pitch t t n d P yield screw screw screw c screw .. 13 0035 . 0 * 12 * 0385 ......... ) 240 ( 52 ... 0 * 68670 2 / .3... 0 5 10 * 100 042 . the nut threads are safe against shear stress.. ..

.... ...= p s p Thickness of the nut collar (t 1 ) ) 5 ... 0 5 10 * 80 078 ...( ........... .2 2 1 mm m D Pa m D N d D P t o = .. 0 5 10 * 90 078 . 17 ( 0175 .. ...( .......= ....... ... 0 4 68670 ) 15 ...... .... 4 2 6 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 mm m D Pa m D N D D P c = ...= p s p Outer diameter of the nut collar (D2) 9 ( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) [ ] ) 104 ( 104 ............. 0 68670 ) 16 .= .......

1 3 3 mm m m D d D o = = = Diameter of pin which fits the cup (D 4 ) ) 8 .... 0 4 / 0714 ............( ..... * hand total handle handle hand total Force T Lenght Lenght Force T = = Where.. . ...( ....... ..... * 7 .... 2 1 T T Ttotal + = ¼¼¼¼¼¼ (20) ...... 1 ) 17 . 17 ( 0178 .... Design of the handle ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 19 .... 0 * 7 ................6 1 1 1 mm m Pa m N t t D P = = = p t p Diameter of head at the top of screwed rod (D3) ) 4 ..... ..... 71 ( 0714 ..... 0 042 ...4..........( ... ... 0 ) 18 ... 4 / 4 3 4 mm m D D D = = = 3.... .

0 ( ) 2 / 0714 . T1=320 N-m as calculated earlier T2=torque required to overcome friction at the top of the screw = 2 4 2 3 3 4 3 3 2 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 3 2 R R R R P T µ ¼¼¼¼¼¼. 0 ( 68670 * 18 . 0 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 m N T . 310 ) 2 / 0178 . 0 ( ) 2 / 0178 . (21) R3=radius of head R4=radius of pin m m m N 10 N T m m T = = 2 . 0 ( ) 2 / 0714 .T1=torque required to rotate the screw.

+ . Diameter of handle MPa MPa FS m N m N M Lenght Force M D moment bending M t b handle hand b 80 5 400 628 57 . 630 2 . 630 ) ( ) ( ) ( = = = Note: If the length of handle is too large.= 2 .= . 1 * 400 * ) ( 32 ) ( ) ( ) ( 3 = = = . 310 320 m N m N Lenght Force T Lenght handle hand total handle 57 . 1 400 2 . an alternative is to pl ace the handle centrally and apply the force.= = .m N m N T total total .

3 32 * 628 32 * ) ( 32 ) ( 3 6 3 3 mm m Pa m N M D D moment bending M b b = = = = ps s p 3. ( ) .= 2 2 / 4 1 * k L E C . When it is short. Buckling of the screw Buckling is studied when the load is compressive and the unsupported length betw een the screw and the nut is long. then it is assumed a column and buckling issue doesn't rise.5. 0 10 * 80 * 14 .= = s s s p ¼¼¼ (22) ) 43 ( 043 . If the critical load is more than the load we have then our de sign is safe and there is no chance of buckling.

in case of one end fix and one end free its value is 0. (23) 11 Ac= Cross-sectional area of the screw core Y s =Yield strength of the screw material L= effective length of the screw (L = screw lift height + ½(height of nut)) C= end fixity coefficient. 0 ) 084 . 0 035 . 961 035 . 0 * 4 106 * 400 1 106 * 400 * 6 10 * 625 .25 k=least radius of gyration.25dc ( ) ( ) m m d k m m L m m dc A C C 00875 . 961 / 4 1 * 9 2 2 2 2 = .. 0 10 * 625 . 0 4 4 2 6 2 2 = = = = + = = = = p p ( ) kN P m m Pa Pa Pa m P k L E C A P critical critical Y Y C critical 6 . 3 * 25 . 0 25 . 0 * 25 . it is usually taken 0. 379 ) 00875 ..A P Y Y C critical p s s ¼. 0 542 . 0 ( 10 * 207 * 14 .. 0 ( 2 / 1 5 . 0 / 542 .

... 0 25 .. 0 * 25 ..670kN.. 2 25 . 2 2 6 mm m m D D = = = ¼(27) Inside diameter at the bottom (D . 0 * 25 .... (24) Diameter of the body at the top (D 5 ) ) 156 ( 156 .. Design of the body Height of the head ) 86 ( 086 ..6.. 10 ( 0105 ... 0 * 2 * 2 mm m m h D h = = = .. 0 042 ...= . 0 104 . 0 104 .. 1 2 5 mm m m D D = = = .. 0 043 .(25) Thickness of the body (t 3 ) ) 5 . 1 5 ..= p s s There is no chance of buckling because the critical load is much greater than th e design load which is 68. 0 3 mm m m d t o = = = ¼ (26) Inside diameter at the bottom (D 6 ) ) 234 ( 234 .. 0 * 5 . 3..

76 2 0385 . 1 6 7 mm m m D D = = = ¼ (28) Thickness of the base (t 2 ) 12 ) 35 ( 035 . 0 * 0385 . Lift Height + height of the nut+150mm = 500mm+84mm+150mm =734mm 3. 409 ( 4095 . 0 * 68670 2 ) tan( p a 1 . 630 54 . 12 % ) ( 121 . (29) . 76 ) ( = = = = ¼. System Efficiency total O T T Efficiency = ) (h ¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼ (30) T O =Torque required to rotate the screw with no friction m N m m m N T d P T O mean O .= = = 54 . 0 0175 . 0 234 . 0 * 75 . 0 * 2 1 2 2 mm m m t t Height if the body = Max.7 ) ) 5 . 1 75 . 0 * 007 . 0 2 .7.

24 % 100 % * ) 2 .= = h h E¢¢iciency m N m N Efficiency If the screw friction and collar is friction is neglected. 3 tan( = + = h h 13 4. . This project was the first machine element I designed. the effici ency of the system is calculated as below: ) tan( ) tan( ) £ ( ) £ ( f a a h + = = P P P Effort P Effort Actual o Ideal 02 . 3 tan( ) 3 . Conclusion 1. 10 3 .

2. 3. it should also be available in the mark et. I found the chance to apply my knowledge of previou s courses like Mechanics of material.2. etc.3 degrees. For the design of screw jacks. 2 nd . Dimensions should be realistic. As a future design engineer. and durable. Recommendation 1. ©1997-2005 Roton Products. Inc. Dan (2007). 5. 2. 4. and then sent for manufacturi ng. 4.A Brief History of Screw Threads. Application Engineering. The system should be tested fist for strength. the designer should make sure the mater ial is cost effective. Steinhoff. 3. I learned to notice the importance o f material selection and cost criteria in the design procedure. Through this experience. The efficiency (%12) or (%24 in case of friction negligence) is v ery reasonable for a helix angle of 3. Design of Machine Elements. a higher factor of safety is recommended sue to the nature of the application.Bhandari. In the meantime. 5. When designing the system. Kinematics. 14 Reference 1. This screw is a self locking jack which requires effort to lower the load.

S. Chapter 17. Power Screws. Power Screws. Rudolph (2004). IIT Kharagpur 6. Alfred. 145-153 5.. Lesson 2.http://en. A Textbook of Machine Design 7.. Hollowenko.Eggert.Module 6..Hall. McGraw Hill 4.Power Screws. Scahuam's Theory and Problems of Machine Design. Version 2 ME. McGraw Hill Publications. Laughlin. pp.org/wiki/screws 15 . 224-232 3. Pp. Power Screws and Threaded Fasteners.Edition. R. Herman (1961 ). G.wikipedia. Allen.

A Typical Screw Jack A Typical Screw Jack A Typical Screw Jack A Typical Screw J ack (Courtesy of Version 2 ME. IIT Kharagpur) .