Q1. Define foundations & mention their objects Every structure consists of two parts. (1) Foundation and (2) Superstructure.

The lowest artificially prepared parts of the structure which are in direct contact with the ground and which transmit the loads of the structure to the ground are known as Foundation or Su structure. The solid ground on which the foundation rest is called the !foundation ed !or foundation soil and it ultimately ears the load and interacts with the foundations of uildings. Objects of foundations: Foundations are provided for the following purposes 1) To distri ute the total load coming on the structure on large area. 2) To support the structure ") To give enough sta ility to the structures against various distri uting forces such as wind# rain etc. $) To prepare a level surface for concreting and masonry work. To prepare a level surface for concreting and masonry work. The general inspection of site of work serves as a good for determine the type of foundation# to e adopted for the proposed work and in addition# it helps in getting the data w.r.to the following items. i) %ehavior of ground due to variations in depth of water ta le ii) &isposal of storm water at site iii) 'ature of soil y visual e(amination iv) )ovement of ground due to any reason etc Foundations are mainly of two types: (i) shallow and (ii) deep foundations. The two different types are explained below: SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS are used when the soil has sufficient strength within a short depth below the ground level. They need sufficient plan area to transfer the heavy loads to the base soil. These heavy loads are sustained by the reinforced concrete columns or walls (either of bricks or reinforced concrete) of much less areas of cross-section due to high strength h of bricks or reinforced concrete when compared to that of soil. The strength of the soil ex pressed as the safe bearing capacity of the is normally supplied by the geotechnical experts to the structural engineer. !hallow foundations are also designated as footings. The different types of shallow foundations or footings. The shallow foundations need more plan areas due to the low strength of soil compared to that of masonry or reinforced concrete. "owever shallow foundations are selected when the soil has moderately good strength except the raft foundation which is good in poor condition of soil also. DEEP FOUNDATIONS

&ccordingly they are designated as frictional and end bearing piles. "owever for poor condition of soil near to the surface the bearing capacity is very less and foundation needed in such situat ion is the pile foundation %iles are in fact small diameter columns which are driven or cast into the ground by suitable means. 3 .#aft foundations are under the category of shallow foundation as they have comparatively shallow depth th n that of deep foundation. They are normally provided in a group with a pile cap at the top through which the loads of the superstructure are transferred to the piles Q 2. How is bearing capacity of soil determined by dropping a weight? METHOD OF DROPPING A WEIGHT* +n this method# a su stance of known weight is dropped from a known height as shown in 1. These piles support the structure by the skin friction between the pile surface and the surrounding soil and end bearing force if such resistance is available to provide the bearing force.2./ 0(12d .. $t is worth mentioning that the depth of raft foundation is much larger thanthose of other types of shallow foundations.esistance of soil 4 3 cross section area of the su stance . Then the earing capacity of the soil is worked out as follows -ltimate resistance of soil . The depth of impression made y the weight on the soil is noted. %recast piles are driven and cast-in-situ are cast.

. )ead loads being permanent forces action upon the structures may cause considerable settlements or dangerous shear failures.&) )ead loads are in general the most important loads in foundation design particularly for the structures whose footings rest on soft cohesive soils. 2 4 ( f 0here f 3 factor of safety The results o tained y this method are appro(imate and hence# this method is used for minor engineering structures or at places where first method would e impracti le..&) The weight of the structure may be assumed as live loads if they act temporarily or intermittently during service life For example human occupancy some partition walls furniture some stock material and mechanical e'uipment in residential and office buildings are live loads . Explain the loads which are to be taken in to account while designing the foundations of a structure. $t is not simple to set up general rules for all the loads for designing foundation the difficulty to set up general rules for the loads of the considered for designing foundation is due to the differences in local conditions such as earth'uake winds ice pressure etc.. and the special characteristics of structure such as a different type and system of buildings bridges dams etc.ind and snow loads are not considered as live load . The weight of thefoundation itself and the weight of the soil on the footing are also dead loads. -. )ead loads is the weight of the structure and its permanent parts. (. 6".h 5 1eight w 5 weight of su stance Safe earing capacity of soil per unit are / . )*&) +. +ive +. "owever the designer who deals with the study and the design of foundation must be familiar to the loads that may act upon the foundation either transmitted by the superstructure or applied directly on the footing.

*&#T" %#*!!8#* The partsof the structures below grade all retaining structures and bracing systems are sub<ected to a lateral earth pressure.ind load acts on all exposed surface structures . $t is not uncommon to observe that there are some cases that the earth pressure calculated on the basis of an incompatible condition of strain may causean error in excess of (== percent whichis not negligible in design. $t is recommended that the earth retaining structures of all kind should be designed to withstand an increased active earth pressure (or earth pressure at rest in some cases) if the rotation deflection or movement of the structure are negligible small and a lateral pressure larger than active one is possibility. 6 *&#T"78&9* F. The evaluation of the earth'uake forces is difficult and it re'uires long time observation in the regions concerned .$3) +. The earth pressure acting upon retaining structures may be evaluated by the theory of elasticity (vertical and hori:ontal stresses within a mass of soil due to surface loads) by the theory of plasticity (#ankine) by the wedge theory (1oulomb) or by empirical rules (lateral pressures behind anchored sheet pile walls and bracingsof open cuts). . $t is known that the backfill behind retaining structures is usually built by compacting in layers. $t should be remembered however that the over compaction may considerable increase lateral earth pressure particularly compaction made by heavy e'uipment. The snow load that is going to be included in the design is given in local codes 4. Finally it will be pointed out that the effect of over-compaction cannot be neglected. The wind loads may be neglected in designing the foundation unless caused loads on foundations exceeding one 5third of the load due to dead and live loads combined .&) . !3.#1* *arth'uake force must be included in foundation design in countries where seismic shocks are probable. ./.$0%&1T $t is widely accepted practice not to add the impact effect to the foundation loads if they are nottransmitted directly to the foundation .. +. $t is assumed that in most cases the impact will be absorbed by the inertia of the structure when it reaches the foundation 2. The magnitude of the design wind pressure is given in local codes ..&) !now load should be considered in countries where winters are severe andlong . *arth'uake motion results in lateral forces that may act on the structure in any hori:ontal direction and all structures built in the earth'uake :ones must be designed to resist these lateral forces. *arth pressure theories being well known from soil 0echanics 1ourses are not going to be reviewed here but the influence of the lateral strain of the soil on the magnitude of earth pressure is going to be touched briefly because of its importance.

Aox or caisson type /. . Box Type Aox type machine foundation consists of a hollow concrete block. The mass of the foundation is less than the block type and the natural fre'uency is increased. . 3onrigid or Cexible type Block Type Alock type machine foundations consist of a pedestal resting on a footing. +ateral water pressure on all structures should be considered when they are submerged. The foundation has a large mass and a small natural fre'uency.ater pressure mayact laterally against basement walls and vertically against base slabs. .&?* %#*!!8#* !ea walls breakwaters bridge piers built in the sea and all water front structures are sub<ected lateral wave pressure.&void this harmful situation it is good practice to use only light weight compaction e'uipment near retaining structure . . Aut considering the structures of a building as a whole the hydrostatic lateral pressure is balanced. For that reason heavy e'uipment should not be used within the expected sliding wedge. &ccording to !owers experiments indicated that against a rigid wall the lateral earth pressure due to an over compacted fillmay be several times that due to & loose backfill. & retaining wall basement wall sheet piling wall or cofferdam should be designed against hydrostatic water pressure.(. Wall Type .all type 2.B&31B . Q4.ave action against the large bridge pier may not be very serious but it may bevery trouble some upon cofferdams and caissons during the construction of those piers because of their large area and light weight. >. Framed type 4.&T*# %#*!!8#* &3) A8. (. How are foundations for machines pro ided? !hat are the essentials of a good foundation Foundations for machines are generally of the following types based on their structural shapes as shown in Figure ((. Alock type (rigid foundations) -. . @.

$t is economical for larger pro<ects. The com ined center of gravity (?@) of machine and foundation and the center of contact area (with the soil) should lie on the same vertical line as far as possi le. $t is economical for smaller pro<ects. . . The machine is supported on the frame. should e lower than the natural fre7uency of the system# on# that is An . $.aidyanathan# 189<: =ameswara . $n frame type machine foundation vertical and hori:ontal member is made by different materials. Foundation lock should e structurally ade7uate to carry the loads.: Srinivasulu and . The machine rests on the top slab. 4ccordingly# wherever possi le# the operating fre7uency A B.$t consists of a pair of walls having a top slab.1 ?ommon types of machine foundations. Frame Type Frame type consists of vertical columns having a hori:ontal frame at their tops.$D'%&)$ Some of the important re7uirements of a machine3foundation3soil system ()FS) can e listed as follows (.ao# 188>)* 1. "##"$%&'(# )* ' +))D *).Figure 11.all type machine foundation is made by homogeneous material in case of both hori:ontal and vertical member.esonance should not occur. 2."8$ Foundation &esign ". Settlements should e within permissi le limits.ichart# 1all and 0oods# 189.

A 2 An should e more than 2 9. The cracks thus formed are sometimes (4 to -= cm wide and -. 2. The bed of foundation trench should be made firm or hard by ramming it well. The #. This tendency of soil is on account of the presence of fine clay particles. 6. . m. A 2 An should e less than . /. Q 5. if water is liable to to find an access to the foundations the limit of loading should be restricted to 2 @== kgD s'r. $t swells excessively when wet and shrinksexcessively when dry resulting terrible cracks in soil without any warning. $f the depth of the black cotton soil at a given site is only ( to (. .n this layer either stone or sand bed should be provided to the desire height to place the foundation concrete bed block upon it.4 m the entire black cotton soil above the hard bed may be completely removed and the foundation may be laid on the hard bed below. . 4. To limit the load on the soil to 4.4 m.*B <. $n case of flat roof #.i.4 to 2 m deep. To provide reinforced concrete ties or bands all around the main walls of the building. These can be achieved by making wider trenches for foundation and filling spaces on the either side of the foundation masonry with sand or moorum.1. m. -.1 slab it self acts as a tie and as such no extra band needed to be provide near the roof in such cases. "ence it is necessary to prevent the direct contact of black cotton soil with masonry work below ground level.1 tiesor bands which may be (= cm to (4 cm deep should be placed at plinth level lintel level and eaves level.What are the precautions to be taken to grant safety to foundations an black cotton soil? Foundations on Black Cotton Soil The property of volumetric changes with the change of atmospheric conditions makes black cotton soil dangerous to be founded buildings.4 tonnesD s'r.1. The amplitudes of displacement or velocity or acceleration of the )FS should e within permissi le limits. Safety P ecautions The following precautions are generally adopted while building structures on black cotton soil: (.n the rammed bed a /= cm layer of good hard moorum should be spread in layers of (4 cm each layer being well watered and rammed before laying the next layer. 1racks are formed due to movement of the ground on account of alternate swelling and shrinkage. The minimum depth of foundation should be at least (. $t has a great affinity to water. The swelling of soil in direct contact with the foundation material causes maximum damage. +f the operating fre7uency happens to e more than the natural fre7uency# then i. To take the foundation to such depths where the cracks cease to extend.

$n important structures raft foundation should be provided soas to float the building on the bed below the depth 'uite independent of the surrounding soil. @. The width of trench for main walls or load bearing walls of a building should be dug 2= cm wider than the width of foundation. This is necessary to ensure provision of at least -= cm wide layer of coarse sand on either side of foundation masonrythereby separating the sub-structure from having direct contact with black cotton soil. (-. >. (=. the foundation should preferably be taken at least (4 cm below the depth at which cracks in soil cease to occur. For less important structures like compound walls etc.. The masonry for the walls should start at least (4 cm below the general ground level. ((. !hat are the essential parts of a well point system? .. 1onstruction in black cotton soil should be undertaken during dry season. $n case of ordinary buildings the foundation should be taken at least /= cm deeper than the depth where the crack stop. Q -.