)

Soil Compaction

, a r t h d a m s ,a n d m a n y o t h e r e n g i n e e r o f h i g h w a ye m b a n k m c n t se ln the construction to increasethcir unit weights. Commust be compacted ing structurcs,loose soils which increasethe bearing caol'soils. charactcristics the strength paction incrcases the amount also dccreases Compaction ovcr them. pacity of [oundationsconstructed o f s l o p e so f e m t h e s t a b i l i t y i n c r c a s c s s t r u c t u r c s a n d s e t t l e m c n to f of undesirablc rollers, and virubber-tired rollcrs, rollers. shccpsfoot bankments. Smootl.r-wl'rccl Vibratory rollers for soil compaction. in thc ficld bratory rollers arc generally used are also used Vibroflot devices sclils. ol'granular arc uscclmostly for the densification in of soil Compaction depth. to a considerzrblc frtr compacting granular soil deposits the in dctail discusscs some This chapter this manner is known as vihntflotutioz. p r i n c i p l e so f ' s o i l c o m p a c t i o ni n t h e l a b o r a t o r ya n d i n t h e f i c l d .

5.1

Compaction-

General Principles

Compaction, in gencral, is the dcnsificationol'soil by removal of air, which requires mechanicalenergy.Thc degreeo1compactionof a soil is measuredin terms of its dry unit weight. When water is addcd to the soil during compaction, it acts as a softening agent on the soil particles.The soil particlcs slip over each other and move into as the a denselypacked position.The dry unit weight after compaction first increases : 0, w c o n t e n t a t a m o i s t u r e ( S e e N o t e t h a t F i g u r e 5 . 1 . ) i n c r e a s e s . m o i s t u r ec o n t e n t (7,,), ot weight (7) to the dry unit is equal the moist unit weight
7 : |t(r-.tt: 7l

When the moisturc content is gradually increasedand the same compactiveeffort is usedfor compaction,the weight of the soil solidsin a unit volume graduallyincreases. F o r e x a m p l e .a t w : t ' 1 , f :7: However, the dry unit weight at this moisture content is given by
f ,tr,,,, 1: 1 a 1 , ,' , , tr 17,1

100

5.2 Standard Proctor Test

101

"{z
J ,:!

.:
'5

> .: 7 l
. l = l F I l t l - l
l t l

> l

>-l

Moisturc contentr, Figure 5. I principle s of compaction B e y o n da c e r t a i nm o i s t u r cc o n t c n t w : w t ( F i g u r e- 5 . 1 )a , ny incrcasc in thc moisture c o n t c n t t e n d s t o r c d u c e t h e d r y u n i t w e i g h t .T h i s p h e n o m e n o n o c c u r sb c c a u s ct h c w a t e r t a k e su p t h c s p a c e s .l-hc t h a t w o u l d h a v c b c e n o c c u p i e db y t h c s o l i c lp a r t i c l c s . m o i s t u r ec o n t e n t a t w h i c h t h e m a x i m u m d r y u n i t w e i g h t i s a t t a i n e di s g e n c r a l l yr e ferred to as the opfimum moisturc content. T h e l a b o r a t o r yt e s t g e n e r a l l yu s c c lt o o b t a i n t h e m a x i m u r r dry unit weightof compaction and thc optimum moisturc content is called the Proctor t'ctntput'tipn test (Proctor, 1933).The procedurefor conclucting this typc of test is describecl in the lbllowingsection.

5.2

Standard Proctor Test
In the Proctor test,the soil is compactedin a mold that hasa volune o1'944 cmr (.1i ft.). T h e d i a m e t e ro f t h e m o l d i s 1 0 1 . 6 m m ( a i n . ) . D u r i n g t h e l a b o r a t o r yt e s t ,t h e m o l d is attached to a baseplateat the bottom and to an extensionat the tqp (Figure 5.2a). The soil is mixed with varying amounts of water and then compacted in three equal layers by a hammer (Figure 5.2b) that delivers2,5blows to each layer.The hammer has a massof 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) and has a drop of 30.5mm ( r2 in.). Figure -5.2c is a pho_ tograph of the laboratory equipment required for conducting proctor a standard test. For each test, the moist unit weight of compaction! can be calculatedas 7,

,' :

*

V,,,,

(-5.1 )

where 14/: weight of the compactedsoil in the mold (,,y : volume of the mold 1944cm3 (rafC)]

t
102
Chapter 5 Soil Compaction
I 1 4 . 3m m diameter (4.5 in.) --*l
I

I

bxtensron

;€=::==:::::-:
t'.' l. I r r .r j

= DroP nm 304.8 (l2in.)

(a)

W e i g h to f harnmer= 2.5 kg - 5.5 lb) (rnass

l.-l
5 0 . 1m 1m (2 in.) (b)

(c)

: (a) mold; (b) hammer (c) photograph of laboProctortest equipment Figure 5.2 Standard ratory equipmentusedfor test

The procedure for the standardProctor test is elaboratedin ASTM Test Designation D-698 (ASTM.s z a Maximum 1.. (5. 120 19. : where G" : specific gravity of soil solids 7. . For a given moisture content w and degree of saturation $ the dry unit weight of compaction can be calculatedas follows: From chapter 3 [Eq.lol sture contcnt t t0 l-5 Moisture content. il E J | l-) l a i .69. the moisture content of the compacted soil is determined in the laboratory.16)]..0 l8. the dry unit weight can be calculated as r u -_ $ 6 t1oo ( s..2) where w ("/") : percentageof moisture content..2) can be plotted againstthe correspondingmoisture contentsto obtain the maximum dry unit weight and the optimum moisture content for the soil. : unit weight of water e : void ratio G'f'' l + e .3 showssuch a plot for a silty-claysoil. (3. The values of 7. w (%) tu Figure 5.1determined from Eq.3 Standard Proctor compaction test results for a silty clay For each test.E o 17. lI d ..for any soil.5 0 r0-5 5 Optimum n.5. With the known moisture content. 1982). Figure 5.2 Standard Proctor Test 5 Zeroair-void curve (G' = 2. 1999)and AASHTo resr DesignationT-99 (AASHTO.

3 also showsthe variation of 7...I i n t o E q . 5.3) t* Glo | I I s I Fgr a given moisture content. (-5.rl or .3 Factors Affecting ComPaction The preceding section showed that moisture content has a strong influence on the degree of compaction achievedby a given soil. such as 57o. Assume severatl w. Grlr.. Determine the specificgravity of soil solids.15"/". the theclreticalmaximum dry unit weight is obequals s . t h c m a x i m u m d r y u n i t w c i g h t a t a g i v e n m o i s t u r ec o n t e n t w i t h z e r o .. 1 8 ) . I-Jse Eq.. where y-. other important factors that affect compaction are soil type and compaction effort (energy per unit volume). valuesof w.trr Id : - (s. 3.. . valucs of y various f or to calculate r.ero-air-void To obtain thc variertion of 7..u"with moisture content and its relative should any location with respectto thc compaction curve.. Know the unit weight of water (7..4) unit weight.w h c n t h e d c g r e eo f s a t u r a t i o n t a i n e dw h c n n o a i r i s i n t h c v o i c ls p a c e l 0 g % . Se : G.with moisturc content. s Thus. H c n c e . use the following proccdure: 1. ( 3 .5 . ( . 2. Under no circumstances part of the compaction curve lie to the right of the zero-air-voidcurve.104 Chapter 5 Soil Compaction a n d . 10"/".. 3 )o a i r v o i d sc a n b e o b t a i n e db y s u b s t i t u t i n g rzu. 4. and so on.t h a t i s .: 7. i / G. The importance of each of these two factors is describedin more detail in the followins two sections.r S . Besidesmoisture content... (s.).: #*: -rT ' w + G.a) Figure 5.f r o m E q .^.

Type A compaction curvesare those that have a singlepeak.(x) l (X) 5 t0 l-5 M o i s t u r cc o n t c n t .4 showstypical compaction curvesobtained lrom lirur soils.5. r . and curve type c is a double-peak curve. Curve type B is a one-and-one-half-peak curve.3 is typical of most clayey soils._.4 sh'ws that for sands.the capillary tensionin the pore water inhibits the tendency of the soil particles to move around and be denselvc'mnacted.-50 Iu. This type of curve is generally found tbr soils that have a liquid limit betweJn 30 and 70. They observed that four types of compaction curves can be found.P ! Siltyclay l7 <rt E z J s s .the dry unit . Note also that the bell-shapedcornpactioncurvc shown in Figure .specilicgrav_ ity of soil solids.F i e u r e 5.that is.i.ni.At lower moisture contents.(x) .l.M D_69u) Effect of Soil Type 'l'he soil type . shapeof the soil grains. ( ? ) 'I'ypical 15 .3 FactorsAffecting Compaction Iu. These curves are shown in Figure 5. . grain-sizedistribution. and then to increaseto a maxinlum value with further increaseof moisture.5. .5.and amount ancl type of clay minerals p. Lee and Suedkamp (1912)studiecl compactioncurvesfbr 35 soil samples. 7 a 20 Figure 5.The laboratory teits were conducted in accordancewith ASTM Test Designation D-691t.zr I il) Highly plastic clay 'a E '| 7 ' 't r' t'r = Poorly gradcdsand 'E r05 I6.u6 Sandy silt t8.-50 r6.4 conrpaction curves li)r lirur soils (AS."r. Figure -5.eighthas a general tendencylirst to decrease as moisture content increases.has a grcat inllu_ c n c e o n t h e m a x i m u m d r y u n i t w e i g h t a n d o p t i m u m m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t . The initial decreaseo1 dry unit weight with increaseof moisture content can be attributed to the capillary tension effect.

Such soils are uncommon.s) (2s)(3) (%p E : In Englishunits.n"r 7 Volume of mold (s. 4 t J 0f t . (.o*.(.However.. tny"r/ \ tuy. \p". which shows four compaction curves for a sandy clay.This fact can be demonstrated with the aid of Figure 5. which varied the energy per unit volume.:os : 594kN-m/m3: 600kN-m/m3 944> l0"mj /L 7Js \J 1 1 ) :5 /J5 t)*r l) t : \ )\ -t :J D375 ft-lb/ft3 : l 2 .n"r/ \ nut.t|' ion curvc Figure 5./ \t.F 106 Chapter 5 Soil Compaction @ o M0isture content.5 Typcsof compacl Compaction curves of types B and C can be found for soils that have a liquid limit lessthan about 30. the number of hammer blows per each layer varied from 20 to 50. Compaction curves of type D do not have a definite peak.The standard Proctor mold and hammer were used to obtain these compaction curves. in SI units.*"In") (...N)to.l b / f t r i r \ 0i If the compaction effort per unit volume of soil is changed. They are termed odd shuped. The number of layers of soil used for compaction was three for all cases.*:i''). the moisture-unit weight curve also changes. 2 c a n b e g i v e na s .)T*:) .r. (iTJ:?) E : or. E - -) r. . Effect of Compaction Effort The compaction energy per unit volume used for the standardProctor test described i n S c c l i o n 5 .Soils with a liquid limit greater than about 70 may exhibit compaction curvesof type C or D.6.

The number of hammer blows for each layer is kept at 25 as in the caseof the standard proctor test.the maximum drv unit weight of compaction is also increased. however. Note. This revised version is sometimesreferred to as the modified Proctor /esl(ASTM Test Designation D-1557 and AASHTO Test Designation T-180). that the degree of compaction is not directly proportional to the compaction eftbrt.) content.00 E i rr< E . Modified Proctor Test With the developmentof heavyrollers and their usein field compaction.= = q \. the same mold is used with a volume of 944 cm3 (1/30 ft3) as in the caseof the standard Proctor test. 22 24 Figure 5. As the compaction effort is increased. However.5. .00 .the standard Proctor test was modified to better represent field conditions. .54 kg (10 lb). the soil is compacted in five layers by a hammer that has a massof 4.2-5 blows/ layer 17. For conducting the modified proctor test. The preceding statementsare true for all soils.(x) 2 0 b l o w s /l a y e r t0 t1 16 It { 2(\ Moisture (.E : ll0 in k 12 E z 3 Ir. 11. As the compaction effort is increascd.).s! ') . 2.4 Modified Proctor Test ttJ 107 19. the optimum moisture content is decreasedto some cxtent.i.6 Effect of compaction cnergy on the compaction of a sancryclay From the preccding observation and Figure 5. The drop of the hammer is 457 mm (1s in.2.85 Sandyclay L i q u i dl i n i t = 3 1 Plastic limit = 26 Line of optlmum 19. we can see that l.6.

.5 mnl Passing ( I in. 7 5r n m ) s i c v c Method B Method C 9.) 5 25 4 4 ' 5N ( 1 0 l b ) '157mm (1t3in. ) 3 25 56 4 4 .) I 1 6 . ) s i e v e 944 crnr ( .4 N (-5-5lb) 3 0 5m m ( 1 2i n . 5 1 i3 24.5 56 .6 mm (4 in. No.-5 N (l0lb) 457 mm (18 in. l ( 4 .000ft-lb/lbr). .4 N (-5. . or lcssby wcight o[ nratcrial is rclaincd on 9. l1t) 101. by ASTM and AASHTO regardingthe volume of the mold and the number of blows are gcnerally those adopted for fine-grainedsoils that pass through the U.7 108 Chapter 5 Soil Compaction The compaction energy for this type of compaction test can be calculated as 2700 kN-m/m3 (56. 4 (4.1.6 mm (4 in.the number of blows per layer.5 3 0 5m m ( 1 2 i n .. 4 sicvc Ljsed if 207u or lcss by wcight ol rnatcrial i s r c l a i n c do n N o . given for Proctor testsadopted the specifications In the precedingdiscussions.7-5 r n m ) s i c v ca n d 2 0 % .5 t ti4 n.there are three suggested reflectthe mold size. ) 3 Lisc Mold volurnc Mold diamctcr Mold hcight Standard Proctor Test Wcight ol' hammer Heightol drop Numberof soil laycrs Number of blows/laycr Modified Proctor Test W e i g h to f hammer Height of drop Numberof soil layers Numbcr of blows/layer 944 crnr ( . 4m m ( 4 .) sieve 20'l" Ljscd if morc tl. and the maximum particle sizein usedfor testing..4 m r n ( 4 .S.) . ltt) 101. The increasein the maximum dry unit weight is accompaniedby a decreasein the optimum moisture content.) 116.However. ) s i e v e 944 crnr ( + ftt) 101.1.-5 r n r n( i i n .) 116. ) 3 25 Passing19 mm ( ] in.) lb) 24.rary (ASTM D-69.) 5 25 44. a soil aggregate anclModificdProctorCompaction ol Standard Table5. Becauseit increasesthe compactivceffort. 4 methods that sicve. 5 m m ( l i n . ) s i c v ea n d l e s s than 30% by wcight of material is rctaincd o n 1 9m m ( I i n .ran by wcight of matcrial i s r e t a i n c do n 9 .) sicvc Ljscd il'more than 207" by wcight ol'material is r c t a i n c do n N o .6 mm (4 in.5 1itn 24. under each test designation.4 m m ( 4 .4 N (5. .7 Sunrn.S and D-1557) TcstSpecifications Description PhvsicalData lor rhc'l'ests Matcrial Method A Passing No.A summary of thc test methods is givenin Table 5.5 tb) 3 0 5 m n r ( 1 2i n . the modifieclProctor test resultsin an increasein the maximum dry unit weight of the soil.) n4 .1 .) . 5N ( l 0 l b ) 457 mm (18 in.

73 Moisture conrent.8 142.88 3.r = 0.9 98. w = 187o.9 16 1 kN/mr G. Solution FromEq. .86 4r)) 3.e8 3.4 111.: (0.3 r 99.0 30 I 30 1 l0 I4 16 18 20 "y=WV oto = ylll + [w (%)i100]] .5-4 Modified Proctor Test 109 Example 5.-" .4 116.(5. Tzo'': --JU.for the compacted soil.6 93.w [bltfy' 108.1 For a compacted soil. Determine the dry unit weight of thecompacted soil.9 115.9) Example 5.4).ure content.9)(17.91..81 .l $ 3.=*:17. u/ (V"l ih .63 3.2 The laboratorytestresults of a standard Proctortestaregivenin thefollowingtable: Volume of mold (fr3l Weight of moist soil in mold 0b) Moisture content.+ . l0 .72.105. 100 2.16.8 120.L 30 I fuo:.+ I 9.V (ft3l I I Weight of sgi!W Moist unit weight.u.98 3.86 4.tkN/m3 t. andya : 0.y ilb) 3.6 119.97rn .tts 16 18 Determine the maximumdry unit weightof compactionand the optimum moist.9 Dry unit weight.76 to/"I 10 IL truTrtdl.G" : 2.72 Hence.oz 10 t2 14 + * 3. Solution The following table can be prepared: Volume of mold.63 3.

Works of Seed and Chan (1959) have shown similar results for compacted kaolin clay.5 Structure of Compacted ClaY Soil o1 compaction on thc structure of cliry soils. in a more random particle orientation and a lower dry unit weight. the diffuse double the repulsion between thc clay layers arounclthc particles cxpand.4"/".r. it will posscss r e p r csentcd a s o p t i m u m . The parlicles are closer and the soil has a higher unit weight of compaction. The plot of 74versus : and that the optimum moistureconimum dry unit weight (7ar-""1) 106lb/ft3 I tent is 14. w (%) From the plot.. .' is shownin Figure5.9 showsthe variation in the degree of particle orientation with molding water content for compacted Boston blue clay. higher compactive effort yields a more parallel orientation to the clay particles.the interparticle rcpulsion is rcduced. B to C expands from content tinued increasein moisture the particlesand between of repulsion increase continued This expansionresultsin a less dispersedstrucor a more and particlc orientation of thus a still greater degrce water dilutes the the bccause added decrcases weight ture.4 with point E in Figure -5.7 Moisture content. results o[ structure type flocculent structure. t . However. the clry unit per volume. 5. which increases a higher dry unit weight.This the dilTuscclouble layers of ions surrounding the clay particles cannot be fully dehence.and the Lambe ( l95u) studied the cfTect If clay is compactcd with zrmoisture in Figure 5.This reduccd repulsion rcsults velopecl.7.') contcnt. Whcn the moisturc content of compaction is increascd. which gives a more dispersedstructure.E lt. we seethat the maxr."n l0 16 14 t2 'r'({. unit concentration of soil solids At a given moisture content.l = .8 Figure 5. o f t h c contcnl on the dry sidc content. Moisture llt 20 Figure 5.110 Chapter5 Soil ComPaction . illustratecl resultsol his study arc ur by point A. A conand flocculation of degree particlesand givesa lowcr the double laycrs more. moisture low at because.as shtlwn by point B./.11.This phenomenon can be seenby comparing point.1D loo E o 9 5 90 .

00 5 l0 t2 14 16 l8 t4.14 20 22 24 Molding moisturecontent(7c) Figure 5. 0 0^ E' t06 J z l/. .: tr = 9 8 94 Higher compactionenergy Lower compactionenergy 15.9 Orientationagainst moisturecontentfor Bostonblue clay (after Lambe. l95tj) t00 c a Parallel o r -50 25 o l0 ll4 t2 t4 l8 24 ll0 1 7 . On .d t{)2 .! E E U High compactive effort Low compactive effort M o l d i n g w a t e rc o n t e n t Figure 5'8 Effect of compaction on structurc of clay soils (re<Jrawn after Lambc.1958) 111 . il6 .

C'arroll.Austin.*x"\ nrller (courtesy of DavidA.70 Srnooth-whcclrollcr (coultesy ol'Davicl A.112 Chapter 5 I t- Figure 5.Texas) rubber-tircd Figure 5. Texas) . Carroll. 11 Pneumatic 112 .Austin.

ch pro. .w h e er l o l l e r s( o r s m < t o t h . r r u r " a n c lk n e a d i n ga c t i o n . l2) arc drunrs with a large number .The four most common types of rollers are l. Pncumtrtic r u b b c r .w h c cr l t l l l c r s . Theserollers . 4.6 Field Compaction Compaction Equipment Most of the compaction in thc field is done with rollers..arc_norsuirablc lirr producing high un'it weights of compac_ t i o n w h e n u s e cc l t nt h i c k e r l a v e r s .... 1 1a ) re bcttcr in many respects than t h c s r n o o t h . . Shcepsli*rt r.5.t i r c dr o l l c r s Sheepsfootrollers Vibratory rollers S m o o t h . g5 cm2( j + to l3 i'2).5 .d r u m rollers) P n e u m a t i cr u b b e r . The arca . Carrolr...Pncunralic rollers can be used lirr sanclyancl ... c-'ompaction i s a c h i c v e cb ry a cornbinaticln o | p r . T'hc contact pressure lircs are closcly spacecl undcr the tircscanritns| er o n t 6 ( X ) t o 7 ( X ) k N / m r ( t l .6 Field Compaction 113 5.iy"y soil compaction..:l:.w h e cr l o l l e r s( F i g u r e. S m o o t h ..:- .f projections. 'fhcse .l ' h c l i r r m c r a r e h e a v i l yk r a d c dw i t h s e v e r a l rowsof tires. Texas) . They. 3.I'our to six in a row. T h e s er o l l e r sp r o v i d e 1 g 0 % coverase undcrthe whecls.rn 2-5 t.icctionmay rilnsc ll-...t i r e cr l trlle r s ( F i g u r c .Austin. 2.. a n l ltx tc h le y p r o d u c e a b o u t T 0 to lJ0'Z'covcrage.l'c. 5 .t. 1 0a ) r e s u i t a b l cf o r p r o o f r o l l i n gs u b g r a d e s and f o r l i n i s h i n go p e r a t i o no f f i l l sw i t h s a n d ya n c lc l a y e ys o i l s . Figure 5' 72 Sheepstoot roiler (courtesy of David A.llcrs (F-igurc.5.5 o) l b / i r r 2 ) . w i t h g r o u n dc o n t a c tp r e s s u r e a s s h i g h a s3 1 0t g 3 u 0k N / m 2 (4-5to -5-5 lb/inr)..

and the area over which the pressure is applied. it remains approxicertain point with the number of roller passes. The lifts were kept at 2. the intensity of pressure applied by the compacting equipment. other factors must be consideredto achievethe desiredunit weight of compaction in the lield.14 shows the growth curves for a silty clay soil. 13 Principles are most effective in compacting clayey soils. The dry unit weight of a soil at a given moisture content increasesto a Beyond this point. or sheepsfootrollers tors can be attachecl effectsto the soil.- (hr of vibratory rollers Figure 5. at any given depth. Factors Affecting Field Compaction ln addition to soil type and moisture content. The contact pressure under the projections can range from 1400to 7000kN/m2 (200 to 1000Ib/in2). During compaction. the dry unit weight of soil is also affected by the number of roller passes. Compaction at the top and middle of a lift is done at a later stage. the dry unit weight of compaction increaseswith the number of roller passes. These factors are important becausethe pressure applied at the surface decreaseswith depth. The weight of the roller used for this compaction was 55.During compaction in the field.19m (a7 in).Vibrating platesare also gang-mountedon machines. the initial passescompact the lower portion of a lift.44 m (8 ft). These factors include the thickness of lift. the rate of increase in unit . bratory Handheld vibrating plates can be used for effective compaction of granular These soilsover a limited area.about 10 to 15 roller passesyield the maximum dry unit weight economically attainable.However. The vibration rollers. Vibration was produced by mounting an eccentric weight on a single rotating shaft within the drum cylinder. plates can be used in lessrestricted areas.6kN (12.pneumatic rubber-tired. mately constant. In most cases.13demonstratesthe principles of vivibratory provide to is produced by rotating off-center weights. Figure 5. Vibrato smooth-wheel.15a shows the variation in the unit weight of compaction with depth for a poorly graded dune sand for which compaction was achieved by a vibratory drum roller. which results in a decreasein the degree of soil compaction.114 Chapter 5 Soil ComPaction Ofl'-center rotating weight *H'* * OfI'-center rotating weight -Vibratof * .5kip). Figure 5. and the drum diameter was 1.Figure 5. Note that. Vibratory rollers are extremely efficient in compacting granular soils.

: _ .. D. 1 3 Plasticity i n d e x= l 9 rJ t6 24 Number of roller passes 1a l2 r l l Figure 5.83 Figure 5. 0. (o/o) 0. 60 70 |1{) 9Q.t (a) 17. thickness of lift : 2.67c M o i s t u r ec o n t e n t 16e g ti z 15 .) l .00 r. 17(kN/m:. (b) estimationof compaction lift thickness for minimum requiredrelativedensityof 75"/"with five roller passes (ifter D.. 1969) . 1960) t.and D'Appolonia. 5o "ut_r.83 r6..-t j { '0 ) t '4o t4> c l l n Silty clay L i q u i dl i m i t = .1 (lb/fi:.0P 60 -E--U 10 80 90.14 Growth curves for a silty clay * relationship between dry unit weight and number ofpassesof U4. Whitman.y t04 lt'8. (%) ^.5kN (19 kip) three-wheelroller when the soil is compactedin229 mm (9 in) toose layersat different moisture contents(redrawn after Johnson and Sallberg.Appolonia.5 E 'l '{ .ttt.83 l..- ^ t00 Dry unit weight.5 1. Relative density. E ..00 16. D.50 Dry unitweighr.50 0.u Nurnber of rollerpasses t.v € e .r.6 Field Compactian t8 Moisture content= l7 115 l7 = I1.y.) I I I I 2 3 € o E o r r r o r. Relative density.5 2 + 0.5.X l A a Curnpaetitrn lticr 5 roller passes 0.: t.45m (8 ft). .15 (a) Vibratory compaction of a sand-variation of dry unit weightwith number of roller passes.46 (l8 in.

the contractor is instructed to zrchieve In most specifications pacted field dry unit weight of 90 to 9-5%of the maximum dry unit weight determined in the laboratory by eithcr the standard or modificd Proctor test. This is a as bc expressed specificationfor relativc compaction. reach maximum values passes.This procedure is shown in Figure -5. required D. at a depth of about 0. a n d Whitman. (s.2D.5 .7 Specifications for Field Compaction a comfor earthwork. estimating the approximate (D'Appolonia. 7 )w C o m p a r i n gE q s .Lee and Singh (1971) deviseda correlation between R and D. we From Chapter compaction.15ais the variation of dry unit weight with depth for any given number of roller The dry unit weight and hence the relative density. 5 .8) where Ro: 711(nin) 7rl(max) 1 5q \ on the basisof observationof 47 soil samples. 6 a (-5 7) R * Ro 1-D. This decrease occurs becauseof the lack of confining pressure toward the surface. c s e et h a t ) n d ( . thickncssof each lift is easy. Once the relationship between depth and relative density (or dry unit weight) for a given soil with a given number of roller passesis determincd.15b 1 9 6 9 ) ' D ' A P P o l o n i a . ( .5 m (1.Another fact to note from Figure 5.D.5 ft) and gradually decreaseat lesserdepths. for granular soils: R:80+0. spccificationsare sclmetimes Relarelativc compaction. or thc relativc density required terms of the 3.(1-Ro) (s.which cern fi(%)= 7'1(Ii"r'r) x100 7d(rnax * lab) (-s 6) written in For the compaction of granular soils. relative with be confused not tive density should canwrite a:l .10) .. 5.116 Chapter5 Soil ComPaction weight gradually decreasesafter about 15 passes.

r. equipment ivith slightly more than the minimum competctiveeflbrt should bc used. is historically attributed to Seed (1964). the conrracror must ensure that the moisture content r.r1n. To achievcthis.. The most eco_ n o m i c a l c o m p a c t i o nc o n c l i t i o nc a n b c e x p l a i n c dw i t h t h c a i d o f F i g u r e 5 . who was a giant in modern geotechnical engineering.2 givessome of the requirementsto achieve95-to-100% relative com_ paction (basedon standardproctor maximum dry unit weight) by various field com_ paction equipment (U. which is for the maximum compactiveeftbrt.5. The compaction curve B represents this condition. and C arc for thc same soil with verrying compactiveeffort.. 1 6 .16 that the most economicalmoisture content is between w3 and wr."*. for most practical conditions. and w2. Hcnce.4.S.. Let curve . This concept is elaborated on in more detail in Hortz and Kovacs (re81). Howcver. Table 5. Note that || : wt is the optimum moisture content for curve .r1ri"ra1 fort at a moisture c()nten1|| : wt..4 rcprcsent the conditions of ntaximum compactive eifort that can be obt a i n c d f r o n l t h e e x i s t i n ge q u i p m e n t .16. a com_ pacted field unit weight o[ 7.7 Specifications for Field Compaction 117 .76 Mostcconornical contpaction condition The specificatior for field compacticlnbasedon relativc compaction or on rel'l'hc ative density is an cnd-product specificaticln..i16"ray : Ry.. the requirccl can be achievecl with a lower compactiveef7.. As can be seen from cornp.T h e conrperction curvcs A... cannot be achievedby the minimum compactive effbrt. contractor is expectedto achievea rninimurn dry unit wcight regardless o1'thc field procedure ad'pied. 1971).R7.r(ri"ru) ..L e t t h e c o n t r a c t o rb e r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v ca m i n imum clry unit weight of 7. along with Figure 5. . The concept described in the prece<lingparagraph.r1n.u.i11. r'l Figure 5.B.rt. .ction curve c.3t i E o 4r t. Department of Navy..." . falls between w. Now we can see from Figure 5.

l . \ E 6 t .'3 '-? += ''e -! €8 €3 EA1 .A.E F d = * ^ E a !) 7 1 7 =zEelZ ' i .: C ) .5 : 6 .!:2 = o . c-i a v .. = L ' o t .a E .? Z. ..: F = o . |lJ 2 a ) o Q a : - . i+ .i E*z 2 V i ' ^ ^ ^ ( J w . .EFe!^ .'o ! ^ . . a U ' 4 L r ' .: sL = ?? €= VE == iPg 4+'. U : .9r^ azZ. r_ c .= * F 6 o F z t A H i S ! E 9 a " i 6 .. e 9 .i:. : 9 9 . = .=' e (1. i E ! ! FE?T:i:.J >l a -" ^ a O O E 3 t y Z V1 1 a .EE .o . d 9 1 < : . L a a * .j.. !27=. = 6 ' eA ' 2 o : 9 a A o . e : ' Fa i Z d r .=. lt r ! i= -t oF vT ' =l -sOp. . .7 6 O bo t ^ 9 r . c 5F . E -_ 3 a >-g _.q 5 I € F . Fg::ETE=8b. 0 . o 6 .. q c . i5 -s\ i-t r -' r.E F X e E o o o EsrE gEEZ E. ' ! .$o:i:E4-n ii E= E# i g = r . = N z = 2 =+ i : F o ' = : ti.. J - .i U G q b \ E 6 .:I E^I F F EI F .?..i -'.i '=.. 1 Pa._ I ] . E E 9€ FF E I E E E i S 7 _ a = V == l r i _' E .g o-E f.>^ s U f E g o o S FEE E a . a c z!s 6 6 - = t i : : t r : 0 c o a ( J D l q ' a h a 6 O P iEq.zz4=il22*:7i tlE 2 .1 : r+ x.= y."='l E. = =+Z' r!E=izzL | g E ' =7 2 l l .) a i 118 .-.o. 4. -o o o r 9 : J l 9 6 t .a / ' .:. e '. tQc F F >.G o t r o !+ >.E ..i ? .. 6 : ' 0 . X 6 o 3 o > o - eissi ! _ _ :is3: c ?: 'i. 6' '6 'i. 2 | .! o ' ) E j = : .= E o G Q) +"Y &t 'c& 5o . ? . : r 3 " P o .::i+iie::E:=E: & E g s : € ! .g *? :t ? i l i t = : F . .Ei^ obo (! B o o \ o P 3 G th o. g .= Zfig. 2 1 *i. u 6o=2 ro o a .= 5*Z F = : E : ? i E R e EzE 9!€ir.. = q .€8 . . . p f A I Z =t F F .6 .? t r! r. u d _ * N o E * x x J ^ 0 . q." E . a . { = ) i .= F. ) E D > o \ o ^ e T t o q O ho o a ! t E H = g. F .i. eg 6 in. r L : Ei e g o o. E = * : !I a E E 9 : . C iS{.1 =.i f r) \o o ..E= :" iA s 3: E :" o o G O ! . -=-A -Y 2 E o ^ = '=ii P !:S >i>- o + ct o) o o) VtV6e. .zn: .Ft lO'-- o o o E E T I : 2 6 ii.A O . r 9 * E - . 9 = - ! i o -" :Y F : . .= '36 ?2 i ' zEi : !*< ==22 8<. q:Ea€E=asflrB = = _ .0 . .= o s I 3 i : .

..i F o s ! 3 ?.: 119 .a > 9 a d s i Y v ca i ' - t 6 ! E 4J >'. c Y .Y o .d ._ b0_ ! 6 c . 2 I ^ ": crtr L L : b o E ...o 9 B : i iiT6 3 5..9 .. . l i i 9 F b 0 5 n - ^ > .c > Y o -. f iS E t € € : E z a O ! boo o :.Eq e g i ac t o. Eg.9 v|E e ^ o : or) @ k O c B _ b.a Y . i E a € o .o € q Y o .j X Y C - ^ I : o E \ o = L i ^ q d ! E ^ ' F . -o6 ^ d r X -S ! 'o t Eor u.-z t h i t j ^ 5 r E Z {e : X : ' ag + I Ut Y3 -c * ao o J F gc e. a i ? < 6 b E > 5 0 3 € 5 F. ! a . 1 d 6 Z a >. 7 . ! q : ..): a t Y 5 e e > . s€_gEe 9g F f r . o ^ ' .oER^6 >. d e E = ( t vr v di cr 9 s i: .giir ^ F > y!= r j a ^ ! t r -. a . = : i .e =3 0 '9= .Y co H :Eco ai f Fcn s . ^ ^ u o : l x = : ^.t- F^ 4 " t& r z E fi. N N = 6 1 6 v H H ' : ! a ' : : X F = . E d i . ) a x x ^ : : . .LAr)ar E U r o . .s . t r ' t c a t rh I : v S i d . Y ' v : . ..N . : . .-: g$iiigglg gg fi*iiig. 8 9 . 6 c-. y ' E C r ) r .a a 7 . ^ c d€ 'pjjU a I 7^2 .i -?= .9 C.i- ' U X o >6to v z ^ t d - O E - r ^ C i.!\ .)o N c . t . o = v o r Y . o ^ . > 0 - o U l E v E r d ^ a ^ a p - A J 5 .^ 7. _ n trN i o E € ^ l'. . J . E 5 = e : t € F 3 'E . . ! _ E Y 4'43 d a u E. .!i: 8:'a H oo'o E : d i:. . - Z u .'E . : c i q X u p d * ^ i ^ = i = 9 P L * q .i E 9 c g o r I o-tr . ! " .. 5 i = : t r = t 2 J L .* 'i: tr oco 'E u 6 : Z c h E ? L l z l h O d € 7* z^ L ^ 6 N p 9. 3 a .3. :€ n= t .. F r . Y Z Y U 5 0 o E 9 tr_ ^ ^ r|1 a i e E.3 o ) F .*: 6 = 2 > = q .iF 5Fz€5s.- o a F U 6 &'c3 u Z . z*E aD:! U ! oo oo 6 ! O ^ (! O bo bo (d bo 0 t 9 > c..^ t r : l C ' .:v : "' hoi a ^ .-: O : E^ .F + = d E E ! ^ J Ir E a w * : a i8s o * 3 o o . a i: .l) Y Z E':. .r l o . Ylz 9 1 .

120 Chapter 5 Soil Comqaction 5. Figure 5. R u b b e r b a l l o o nm e t h o d 3. t h c c o n e .a n d t h e s a n df i l l i n g t h e j a r i s d e t e r m i n e d( W ' ) . l n t h e f i e l d .8 Determination of Field Unit Weight of Compaction When the compaction work is progressingin the field. Srnd conc mcthoL 2 . Nuclear method Following is a bricf description of each of thesemethods. knowing whether the specified unit weight has been achievedis useful.T h e c o m b i n e d i t s t o p ( F i g u r c . The standard proceduresfor determining the field unit weight of compaction include l. u)e/") l(x) (s. 1 small holc is excavatedin the area where the soil has been compacted. n t o i s t u tc c ( ) t t l c n t . 17 Glass jar filled with Ottawa sand with sand cone attached .5 .lf the weight o1'themoist soil excavatedfnrm the hole (Wr) ir determined and the moisture contcnt of thc cxcavatcdsoil is known. h c i a r i s f i l l e d w i t h u n i f o r m d r y O t t a w a s a n d . 1 7 )T w c i g h t o l ' t h c i a r . Sand Cone Method (ASTM Designation D-I556) The sand conc device consistsof a glassor plasticjar with a metal cone attached at .11) whcrc tr. the dry wcight of thc soil can be obtained as W3l + W.

' \ C..lar '... (b) a test in progress in the field . vill\c Mctrl plrrle '/ \ Hut" fiiled with C)ttawa sand (a) (b) Figure 5....8 Determination of Fietd IJnit Weight of Compaction I.. 18 Field unit weight determined by sand cone method: (a) schematiccliagram...rnc * t'"t ..5..i.. . ' */' Ottawa sand .

12) . ratory. : weight of sand to fill the hole and cone. The density meters operate either in drilled holes or from the ground ruriu. W. The dry unit weight of compaction made in the field can then be determined as follows: Dry weight of the soil excavatedfrom the hole f.The dry unit weight of thc compacted soil can be determined by using Eq.Wq where W. Nuclear Method Nuclear density meters are often used for determining the compacted dry unit weight of soil.18).t w1 (-s. . fiom which the volume can be read clirectly. the volume of the hole is determined by introducing into it a rubber balloon filled with water from a calibrated vessel. (5. the combined weight of the jar.19showsa calibratedvessclthat would be used with a rubber balloon. the cone with the sand-filled jar attached to it is inverted and placed over the hole (Figure 5. After that.W.". The dry unit weight of compacted soilian be determined by subtracting the weight of water from the moist unit weight of soil.1a).Chapter 5 Soil ComPaction After excavation of the hole. ' 7ri(sand) - (s.Figure 5..: weight of sand to fill the cone only : dry unit weight of Ottawa sand used 7ri(sancl) are determined from the calibration done in the laboand 7.However. and the remaining sand in the jar is determined (lVa)' so Ws: Wt .20 shows a photograph of a nuclear density meter. Figure 5.13) where I42.Sand is allowed to flow out of the jar to fill the hole and the cone. a test hole is made and the moist weight of soil removed from the hole and its moisture content are determined. the cone.14) Volume of the hole Rubber Balloon Method (ASTM Designation D-2167) The procedure for the rubber balloon method is similar to that for the sand cone metltod. The instrument measuresthe weight of wet soil per unit volume and the weight of water present in a unit volume of soil. The volume of the excavatedhole can then be determined as tv/ - ( s.1(sanct) The values of I4z.

Texas) 123 .20 Nucleardensitymeter (courtesy of David A.19 Calibrated vesselused with rubber balloon (not shown) (courtesyof John Hester.Figure 5. Carroll. Austin. Itlinois) Figure 5. Carterville.

In the field.0014426 j (2084.45 : 18."--_ 100 t0. Calibrateddry densityof Ottawasand : 1570 r Calibratedmassof Ottawasandto filIthe cone : 0'545kg o Massof jar + cone* sand(beforeuse): 7.: 2084.80 1.56kN/m3 1+. td v 1 + ^ w (o/"\ 2A.7.59kg r Massof jar + cone + sand(after use) : 4'78kg . : : Massof sandusedto fill the hole and cone 7.265kg Volume of the hole(Y) : of Ottawa sand density Dry kg .78kg 2'81kg = Massof sandusedto fill the hole : 2'81kg 0'545kg 2'265kg 2.z 100 .4)(e.2'265 .5 t6.0014426 m3 1570kg/m' soil : Moist densityof comPacted Massof moist soil Volume of hole 0.= 0. Dry unit weightof compaction field in the b.9 8 o 1l t2 1"4 performedon Followingare the resultsof a field unit weight determinationtest method: the samesoil by meansof the sand-cone kg/m3 . Massof moist soil from hole = 3.59kg 4.4 Moist unit weight of compactedsoil Hence.52 18.81 ) : 2O. RelativecomPaction Solution a.007kg r Moisture contentof moist soil : 10'2% Determine in the field a.45 18.124 Chapter 5 Soil ComPaction silt aregivenin the followingtable: for a clayey testresults Laboratorycompaction Moisture content(%) b Dry unit weight {kN/m3) 14.45kN/m3 1000 ke/ml ? 92''^.9 18.

The results of the laboratory compaction test are plotted in Figure 5.decertificat i o n .fbr agriculture. however. and Scmrau (1973) conductedseverallaboratory teststo observe the effect of organic content on the compactioncharacteristics of soil.r) 18. the optimum moisture content for a given compactive effort increases with an increasein organic content. the maximum unconfined compressionstrength (see Chapter l0) obtained from a compacted soil (with a given compactive effort) decreaseswith increasing organic content of a soil. organic soils are desirablein many circumstances (e.21 Plot of laboratorycompaction testresults b. (5.rrri"r.Likewise.shreddedwastetires mixed with inorganic soil. : 19 kN/m3.M o r e r c c e n t l y . Conversely.g. m i t i g a t i o n . the maximum dry unit weight of compaction decreases rapidly. Organic Soil Franklin. This trend is shown in Figure 5.in certain economic circumstanccs.7.22 shows the effect of organic content on the maximum dry unit weight.paper mill sludge.g. we see that 7rl(max) _ . From the plot.Figure 5. slightly organic soils are uscclfor compaction.23. copper slag..9 Compaction of Organic Soil and Waste Materials The presenceof organic matcrials in a soil reducesits strength.5.9 Compaction of Organic Soil and Waste Materials 125 z > *' ('/c) Figure 5. In the test program. various natural soils and soil mixtures were tested. Thus. and so forth) in various landfill operations. From thesefacts. In fact. Following is a discussionof thc compaction characteristics of somc of these materials.a n d u r b a n p l a n n i n g ) .56 -: 97'70/" lg"o .21. the highcosts o f w a s t ed i s p g s a l have sparked an intercst in the possibleuse of waste materials (e. In many cascs.. Orozco.soils with it high organic content are gcnerally discardedas fill material. .6).bottom ash obtained from coal burning. from Eq.rr"" 5.we can seethat soilswith organiccontentshigher than about 10% are undesirable for compaction work.Such use of wastematerials is one of the major thrusts of prescnt-dayenvironmcntal geotechnology. When the organic content exceeds8 to 10%.

? o

qn z t l E il Oven-dried c x t . 1973) .: E t l ! Air-dried -- € tr = R o 'i = E n > o Mixture-oven-dried .22 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 (o/o) content Organic 2 5 3 0 Figure 5.126 Chapter 5 Soil Compaction 105 to 100 l5 o . and Semrau. Orozco. Orozco. Nalurrl silmple oven-dried a Mixture-air-dried l t t0.23 Yariatton of optimum moisture content with organic content (after Franklin. and Semrau.22 Yariation of maximum dry unit weight with organic content (after Franklin. 1973) ^ 3 0 t o o '6 t< E r o 'a o t 5 l0 "0 5 20 15 l0 (70) content Organic 25 Figure 5.

1sg6. chane y.9 Compaction of OrganicSoitand Waste Materials 127 Soiland Organic Materiat Mixtures Lancasteret al. J' Towre. and R. (1996)conductedseveralmodified Proctor teststo determinethe effect of organiccontent on the maximum dry unit weight urrJ opti-u. used with permis_ sion of the author.. proceedings. 7'hird Internationar syrnposium on Environmentar Geotechnrroly. J. 8 . R' waco.Lirce: Aftei"The gffect of organic clontent on Soil compaction.:l I lll O Redwoodbark 1 R i c eh u l l s O Sludge 11 ': ! r l.moisture contentof soil and organicmaterialmixtures. Towre. Figures 5. Source: After "The Effect of organic content on Soil compaction. 159.E u 20 10 60 80 t(x) Organic content (o/o) Figure 5..The soils iested. rn proceedings. tn iii)a nternatronat Symposium on Environmentar Geotechnology. tsv. Used with pJrmission of the author. chaney.5.soil and organic material mixtures. and R. st. Lancaster. .onrirt"d of a poorly gradedsandy soil (Sp-SM)mixed with either shredded redwoodbark. waco.24 Yariatictn .24 and5. p. tioo. R.f maximum^dry unit weight of compaction with organic content _ soil and organic material mixtures. shredded rice hulls. 1t s 'c o a 11 )t I = 'I 6 'E t r ' rr rU l+ I2 Organic content (7o) Figure 5'25 Yatiation of optimum moisture content with organic content .p.or municipal sewage sludge.25 showthe variations of z . by J' Lancaster." by J.

h c p h y s i c a lp r o p c r t i e so l ' t h e s es l u d g e s t h c s c a r e s h o w n i n F i g u r c .i z ! / c c a 0 -50 "'utn. Ihe maximum dry unit weight dethe optimum creascdwith organic content in all cases(seeFigure 5. K.can be comhave both pactecland uscd for landfill. redwith shredded mixed for soil content with organic incrcased moisture content How5. with organic content.r. respectively. for several thc standarclProctor compaction charactcristics s h o wn a r e .768-775. A summary of some shown to bc cnvironnrcntallysal'cl'or r-rse have bccr-r 'l'able -5.25). the optimum moisture content ever. constant remained practically Paper Mill Sludge Paper mill sludge. ol'thcsc tcst rcsults is giver.'r"lt"' 2s0 300 Figure 5.4. . Copyright O 1996American Societyof Civil Engineers.u.'lln.26 Yariatt<tnof dry unit weight of compaction with moisture content for paper mill sludge. 2 6T in Tlblc -s.Conversely.Used by permission.22."n.despite a high watcr content and low sttlid contents.23. The statcsof Wisconsin and Massachusctts ( 1 9 9 6 )p r o v i d e d u s c c lp a p e r m i l l s l u c l g ct o c a p l a n d { i l l s .2-5).. for soil anclmunicipal sewurgc (sec Figure 5. Source: From "Geotechnical Properties of Paper Mill Sludgesfor Use in Landfill Covers.Journal o. F." by H. Moo-Young. 5 ..Y o u n g a n d Z i m m i e and paper mill sludges. As in Figure 5.rin r a o o S l u t l g cA S l u t l g c1 3 S l u t l g cl ) Sludgc I.128 Chapter 5 Soil ComPaction maximum dry unit weight of compaction and optimum moisture content. 7996.24). Figure wooclor rice hulls sludge mixtures. T.1 Bottom Ash from Coal Burning and Copper SIag Labgratory standard Proctor tcst rcsults for bottont ash f'ront coal-burning power plants ancl I'rtrcopper slag arc also availablc in thc litcraturc.f Geotechnical Engineering. . These waste products as lantllill.M o o . in Figure pattern shown the similar to (see 5. 122 (9). Zimmie.p.

5 l8. the popurar methods are vibroflotation.2 14.1 t26 24. jynamic and brasring. whichis about 2.0 2 1.' involves the use of a vibroflot 5.u5 r.962.88-1.fro.26 Moisture content (%) Organic content (%l Specific gravity of solids.27. Among_these. Moulton. The first vibroffotation device was used in the United Statesabout l0years later.ri Scals.50 200-250 -200 l -50 -200 I -50 -50 4-5 -56 41 35-44 I.1 m (:7 tt) long' (asshown in Figure 5..96 l.3 14. . ancl these techniques are used in the fietd fbr large-scale compaction works.orcleepcom_ pactiol"tof in-placc soils.. ' l h r q u i n . Ill Paso.a n d J o n c s ( ler]3) 5.9-5 1. l L)2.Jtxas I3.10 Special Compaction Tech n iques Severalspccial types of compaction techniques have becn dcvcropecl r.93-1. 2 20.8 8-s t02 72.S o u t h D a k o t a Anrcr-ican Smclter ancl Rclincry Clompany.5.0 I 1. There are openings at the bottom and top of the vib'iating unit for water jets' The vibrating unit is attached to a folrow-up pipe.t3 26.3 14..It was devcloped in Germany in the 1930s.-5 proctorTestResults Table 5'4 standarcr of BottomAsh ancr cioppcrSrag Maximum dry unit weight tb /ft3 Optimum moisture content (%l Bottom ashbituminous coal (WestVirginia) Bottom ash lignitecoal Copper slag Fort Martin Kamntcr K a n a w h aR i v c r Mirchcll Muskingham Willow Island [3ig Stonc Powcr P l a n t .5 13. Selinr.scmethods are provi<lcd in the foirowing ::L:i::tr"' Vibroflotation vibroflotation is a technique for in situ d. G.08 191 1.4 I IJ.5 lt7. and pl'cifle ( I e78) D a s .27 showsthe entire assembly of equipment necessaryfor conducting the field"compaction.i3-l.6 l 16. which enibles the vibrating urit to vibrate horizontally.6 9 l.r.Derairs of the. Plasticity index 129 A B D E -25i) 1. rn.Figure 5.f.4 16.3 Physical properties of SlurJges Shown in Figure 5.27 (arso cailed the vibrating unit).6 22.ensification of thick layersof loose granular soil deposits.and Ruth (1e72) Das.)This vibrating unit has an eccentricweight inside it and can develop a centrifugal force.5 16.10 Special Compaction Techniques Table 5.4 104.4 19.

. addedl'rom the surlace to compensatc lirr the loss of volume causedhy the increasc ol' d e n s i t yo f t h e c o m p a c t e d soil B C y l i n d c ro f c o m p a c t e d nraterial.producedby a s i n g l ev i b r o f l o tc o m p a c t i o n Figure 5. j . Stagel: . Stage2: The water jet creates a quick condition in the soil and it allows the brating unit to sink into the ground.130 Chapter 5 Soil Compaction . -. 1977) The entire vibroflotation compaction process in the field can be divided i four stages(Figure 5.27 Yibrofrotationunit (after Brown. Stage3: Granular material is poured from the top of the hole. This water carries the sranular material down the hole.--Follow-up fir.ffi#fu ee*scr*. " i C y l i n d c ro l c o r n p a c t c d nrateriirl. The water from the lower jet is transferred to the jet at the top of the vibrating unit.28): The jet at the bottom of the Vibroflot is turned on and lowered i the ground.

0I ' t ) z 1 0m 6 n r( 1 6i n .5. Lower follow-up pipe und extensions Diameter 305mm (12 in. Motor type a.5 kN/m (2s0lb/fr) d. 6m m ( { ) .) lJg k N ( 1 0t o n ) 0. -m 5m (0. Note that 23 kw (30-hp) electric units have been used since the latter part of the 1940s.50 lb/ft) *AfterBrown (1977. ) in Itt00rpnr 0 .-5 in) 6 1 0m m ( 2 4i n ) 1800rpm 0 .6.2 k N ( 2 6 0t b ) 3lJmnr ( l. . Vibrating tip Length Diameter Weight Maximummovemcnt when full Centlifugal force b. 6m r / m i n (0-4(n gal/min) 700-10-5 k0 N / m . ) 3. Eccentric: Weight Offset Length Speed c.( 1 0 0 _ 1 .) Weight 3.The 75 kw (100-hp) units were introduced in the earlv 1g70s.5 Types of Vibroflot Units'. 5 0/ i n 2 ) lb l. 3 in.llf'r) 3ttl rnnr( 1. 1m ( 7 . The details of various types of Vibroflot units used in the United States are given in Table 5. 8k N ( 4 ( X n )) lb 1 2 .5 in) l7. ) r 7 . This processcompacts the soil to the desiredunit weight.lJ kN (4(XX) ltr) 7 . 1977) Table5.) Stage4: The vibrating unit is gradually raised in about 0.1 5 0g a l / m i n ) 700-10-5 k0 N / m r( 1 0 0 l 5 0 t b / i n r ) 3 0 5m m ( 1 2i n .76 kN (170lb) 3 2m m ( 1 . 2 5 in) 3 t Xm ) m (15.49 in) 160 k N ( l t 3t o n ) 1.1 .10 Special Compaction Techniques 131 S t a g c3 Figure 5'28 Compaction hy vibroflotation proccss(alter flrown. 6 m r / n i n ( 0 .25.fi6m(6.6-5 kN/m (2.0 .3 m (:l ft) lifts and held vibrating for about 30 seconds at eachlift.5. Pump Operatingflow rate Pressure 75 kW electric and hydraulic 23 kW electric 2 .

This spacingis shown in Figure 5.. The rangc of the grain-sizediscompaction tribution of in situsoil marked Zonc I in Figure 5. of grain-sizedistribution for which compaction by vibroflotation is effective.30is most suitable1'or amounts of finc sand and silt-sizeparby vibroflotation.30 Effective range of grain-size distribution of soil for vibroflotation .H:". n ystern U n i f l e dS o i l C l a s s i l i c a t i o S Grain size (mm) Figure 5. dependingon Compaction by vibroflotation is done in various probe spacings.29.29 Probcspacing The zone of compaction around a singleprobe varieswith the type of Vibroflot useil.132 Chapter 5 Soil Compaction \ / fl::.the rate of probe penctration may be slow and may prove uneconomicai ln the long run. Soils that contain excessive ticles arc difticult to compact. the zone of compaction.the most important of cessluldcnsification ctl' which is the grain-sizeclistributionof the soil and the type of backfill used to fill the holes during the withdrawal period of the Vibroflot..For these soils.:l'.the cylindrical zone of compactionhas a radius of about 2m (:6 ft) for a 23 kW (30-hp) unir.and considcrableeffort is necded to rcach the proper is thc approximate lowcr limit Zone 2 in Figure -5.Soil deposits whose grain-sizedistributions fall in Zone 3 contain appreciableamounts of gravel.The capacity for sucirt situsoil dependson severalfactors.30 relative density of compactictn. This radius can exrcnd ro about 3 m (: l0 ft) for a 75 kw (100-hp) unit." for vibroflotation Figure 5.

5.5and 100 ft). Rating as backfill E. t6) D: 0 . and D'.F o l l o w ing is a backfill rating systemproposed by Brown: Range of S. This proccssconsists primarily of dropping a heavy weight repeatedlyon thc ground at regular intervals. Height of hammer drop 3.The weight of the h a m m e r u s e d v a r i e so v e r a r a n g e o f 8 0 t o 3 6 0 k N ( 1 l Jt o g 0 k i p ) . D. and 10.Brown (Igjll has defined a quantit suitability number for rating backfill as (Y) {35 . 20.-5 ancl 30.17) . 6 1 v w where the units of D and h are fr. .50. the preceding equation takes the form (. T h e s m a l l e rt h c v a l u e . Weightof hammer 2. Spacingof locations at which the hammer is dropped Leonards..u.i 3 r. t h " m o r e d e s i r a b l et h e b a c k f i l lm a t e r i a l . are the diameters (in mm) through which.n where D : significantdepth of densification(m) : dropping weight (metric ton) W11 /. a n d t h e h e i g h t o f the hammcr drop varies betwcen 7.. and the unit of I4zais kip. respectivery.t : height of drop (m) In English units./" of the material Dasses. The stresswaves generated by the hammer drops aid in the dcnsification. * | 6 * 1 orrt.xcellcnt Good Fair Poor L]nsuitablc 0-10 I0-20 20-30 30-. (-5.s0 >-50 Dynamic Compaction D y n a m i c c o m p a c t i o ni s a t e c h n i q u ct h a t h a sg a i n e dp o p u l a r i t yi n t h e U n i t c c lS t a l e s for the densificationof granular soil deposits.-5 m (2.5.10 Special Compaction Techniq The grain-sizedistribution of the backfiil material is an imoorran controls the rate of densification. and Holtz (19u0) suggestedthat the significant depth of influencefor compaction can be approximated by using the equation D:(lSlw.. ( s.ry:LV1r.The desree of compaction achieved a t a g i v e ns i t e d e p e n d so n t h c l b l l o w i n g l h r e e l a c t o r s : 1. cutrer. t S r .1s) where Dsc.

The general soil grain sizessuitable for compaction by blasting are the same as those for compaction by vibroflotation... Exa mp l e5 . (5.71m .the explosivechargesare placed at a clepthof about two-thirds of the thicknessof the soil layer desiredto be compacted.36 mm t Dzl'= 0'52mm :1. Dso Determine the suitability number S". influencefor compaction. desired to achieve the necessary usually are density of:rbout 80% and up to a depth of about 20 m (60 ft) over a large arca can easily be achievedby using this process.1 Ratins: Excellent Example5. in meters.42mm .s2)'z (0. What would be its rating as a backfill material? Solution From Eq.. Blasting is a technique that has been used successfully 1970)for the densificationof granular soils.j .16)..5 weight of hammer : For a dynamiccompactiontest we are giventhe followi -ng: : depth D of 15 metric tons and height of drop 12 m' Determine t$ significant .15). Thrce to five successful up to a relative Compaction compaction. SN *1 1 ' ' ' V| m * r . D : G){wrt: (l){rsXra : 6.)t (Dri' (D. (4.+ .4 Followingare the detailsfor the backfillmaterialusedin a vibroflotationproject: ' Dn: 0. The latcral spacingof the detonations chargesvariesfrom about 3 to 10 m (10 to 30 ft). (5.Usually.36)'z = 6. Solution From Eq. The process involves the detonation of explosive charges such as 60% dynamite at a certain depth below the ground surfacein saturatedsoil...)' t '1 '\ l m (t.442 (0.134 Chapter 5 Soil Compaction Blasting in many projects (Mitchell.

Repeat Problem 5.5 3. Prohlems 5.The fill material may be end-dumped.72.67 4. The relationshipsof dry unit weight (7.62.2 5. It is important to realize that the compaction of clayey soils achieved by rollers in the field is essentially the kneading type. affectsphysical properties such as hydraulic conductivity.nn* calculate the variation of dry unir weighr (kN/m3) of i ioil 1c.side-tlumped. This dift'erence.calculatethe zero-air-voidunit weight for a soil in lb/ft3 at w : 5"/" . and strength.3 5. static compaction and kneading compaction can also be used.l-) 8.o-t 14.6 16. in the laboratory.4 10. If the material is too wet. .4 Given G. The resultsof a standard proctor test are given below.02 -r. noi the same. 8y".4. proctor compaction test resultsobtained in the laboratory are used primarily to determine whether the roller compaction in the field is sufficient. Determine the maximum dry unit weight of compaction and the optimum mois- .the final selectionof the borrow site dependson such factors as the soil type and the cost of excavationand haulins.o-_ paction may be different.11 Summary and GeneralComments Laboratory standard and modified Proctor compaction tests described in this chapter are essentially for impact or dynamic compaction of soil. 10"/".1 5. : i.72. 7.1) and moisture con_ tent (rv) obtained by dynamic and kneading compaction ur. and 100"/o. it may be cut and turned to aerate and dry before being spread in lifts for compaction.2 1L-.es1 at w : 10"/" and 20"/" for degree of saturation (S) : g0% 90yo.compressibility.plot a graph of (kN/m3) againstw.Problems 135 5. if G" :2. : 2. and 15% . For most fill operations. Vorume or Proctormold (ft3) T?:::frt in the mold flb) Moisture content (/"1 l/30 U30 l/30 t/30 t/30 5.or bottsm-4umpetl atthe site in piles. Fill materials for compaction are generally brought to the site by trucks and wagons. Determine the maximum dry unit weight of compaction and the optimum moisture content.8 5. the clesired amount of water is added by sprinkling irrigation. in turn.1 with G" : 2.If it is too dry. The results of a standard Proctor test are given in the following table.6 For the soil describedin Problem 5.26 4.The siructuresof compacted cohesivesoil at a similar dry unit weight obtained by dynamic and kneading . 12"/".) 4. however. determine the void ratio and the degree of saturation at optimum moisture content.

Four borrow pits are available void ratios of as dcscribed in the following tablc. how many c-ubic 103.9 10.2 5.3 943.1 17.4 19.2 0.In the field.This soil is to be excavated ancltransported to a constructionsite for use in a compactedfill. Borrowpit A B C D Void ratio 0. Make the necessary to be the same at G.11 The maximum and minimum dry unit weights of a sand were determined in the laboratory to be 16. Also.The specihcgravity of soil solids is2.[3tt 1. which lists the respective proposed conto the soil the soil and the cost pcr cubic meter for moving the pit from which the to select calculations struction site.6 kN/m3.4 21.95 0. respectively.[t l -5.Chapter 5 Soil Compaction ture content. Determine the relative compaction' weight The in sl/& moisture content of a soil is 18% and the moist unit weight is 105 fb/ft3.7 5. determine the moisture content required to achieve95% of 7a(-o*).1 t 3.6 moisture content : 10.5 kN/m3 and 14.9 A field unit weight detcrmination test for the soil describedin Problem 5.000 produce soil from the excavationsitc are nceded to fill? How many 20-ton truckloads are nceded to transport the excavatedsoil? A proposed embankment fill requires 5000 m3 of compactedsoil.3 943. If the specicall for the soil to be compactedto a minimum dry unit weight of ficzrtions yards of lb/ftr at thc samc moisture content of 18%.3 943.3 943.3 943.10 The maximum and minimum dry unit weightsof a sand were determined in the laboratory to be 104 lb/fc and 93 lb/ft3.t35 9.3 943. The void ratio of the compactedllll is specifiedas 0.86 t. if the relative density of compaction of the same sand is7O"/".what are its relative compaction (%) and dry unit weight (kN/m3)? .68 1.83 1.27"and moist unit vielded the following datzr: : 16.87 1.1kN/ml. Assume thc soil should be bought to minimize the cost. respectively.7'7 1.-5 yd' of compacted 10. all pits.u5 1.what would be the relative compaction in the field if the relative density is 78Y"? 5. Massof Volume of Proctormold (cm3) wet soil in the mold (kS) Moisture content t%l 943.3 1.15.75 Cost{$/m3} 9 6 7 l0 5.71 1.7.3 943.6 t2.

Themaximum ancl minimum dry unit weights of the sand are 103lb/ft3 and ss tblrc. C a l i b r a t e dd r y d c n s i r y o l O t t a w a s a n d : 1 6 6 7k g / m 3 o calibrated mass. D s .52 I u. . .nrnr-s (1999).14 The backfill matcrial fbr a vibrollotation project has the following grain sizes: . : 1 .References 197 5'12 The relative compaction of a sand in the field is 94o/o.33I ks . . Mass of jar * cone + sand (before use) : 5. S1u. .rATroN o. 0 9m m D1. 3m m Determine the suitability number. AASHTO Materials.6 16. WestConshohocken.f ottawa sanclto fill the cone : 0. for each 5. Dry unit weight b.99 kg .45 1u. 6I m m References Av'r<rcaN Assocranr.15 Repeat Prcblem -5. Relative density of compaction c. determine a.l 9 m m .tively. : 0. vor 04.For the field condition. : 0 . t : 0 .. M a s so f j a r * c o n e + s a n d ( a l t e r u s e ) .. Dry unit weight of compaction in the fielcl b. : 0 .pr. AveRrceN S. pa.C. D z . D. Relative compaction in the field 5. D r . Washington. . : 0 .raLs (1gg2).by. part II."rp". Mass of moist soil from hole : 3.13 Laboratory compaction test resultson a crayeysilt are given in the fblrowing table: Moisture content (%) Dry unit weight (kN/m3) u 9 ll t2 t4 6 r4.14 using the followins values: D .2 .25 mm D 1 .0g.rN op Srane Hrcrrwev aNo TRaNspoR. l r 7 kg .9 Following arc the resurtsof a field unit weight determination test on the s a m es o i l w i t h t h e s a n dc o n e m c t h o d : . Moist unit weight at a moisture content of l0% 5..9 I fi. t i 1k g . 1 Im m .cre'v poR TesrrNcro"o irot. Determine a. ASTM standards.80 t7. M o i s l u r cc o n t c n to l m o i s t soil _ | I.

98. M. lJ4. A.. ( 1933). (1972).7 ' 7 5 . "Geotechnical Properties of Paper Mill Sludges for Use in Landfill Covers.. ASCE.C' . R.A. and SrrEornvp. tal Geotechnology. (1980). J. 245 -248. Rolla' 342-348' Dns. National Academy of Sciences."Compaction of Slightly Organic and Fountlatkns Division.S..99.G. .Pren' to Geotechnical D. SEep.1.ineering.263-284. W.D.J. chunicsantl FoundutionsDivision. l-9. ASCE. (1996)." Journal of Geotechnical Eng.. SMI ' 73-110' Moa.San Diego. T. W. (1960). and Structures. No."Design and Constructionof Rolled Earth Dams.s.r-rER.as. CE 271. (19'72)."Factors That lnfluence Field Compaction of Soil. anrJ Hots'2. W. ASCE.." EngineeringNews Recor d.R. 103.An IntroductioLt H<'tut7.C. R. M.ineering. JogNsctN. Sgr-rr.. and Pnelnl-r." Proceedings. Tenerrrr. y..r'nn.J.5th Annual UMR-DNR Conference and Exposition on Energy. A.lournal of the Soil Mechanics and Divisiort.IoNes..5.97. MoUu|oN. WHrrnaRN. Division. F. (1971). F. No. V. LnHreE. 372 -31 6.. Washington. BerkeleY. A.r." Journul of the Soil MeMrr.U. Ler. K. (1978).. Englewood Cliffs. (19'7'7). B. ASCE. 96' No.ASCE.. SMl. and Ru rs. (1964). Cr.95. "Relative Density and Rclativc Compaction. otechnical Material. DepanrMENT oF Nevv (1971)."Jorrrna 541-5-57.A. Vol."NAVFAC DM-7. B.ASCE. ASCE. GT12' 1437-57' Engineering technical D'AppoloNra.N o . Bulletin No. E . "Dynamic compaction of LpcrNa.C. No. A." No. and ZIMMIE. F.. W. N. T. National Research Council. A. Fn. R.-YogNc." Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Founrlations Division.D.35-44..nos. and Snr-LeERc. Seepageand Earth Dam Design. A. Vol.272. and. R. A. Vol." Journal of the soil Mechanicsand FoundutionsDivision. D. L."The Structure of Compacted Clay.No... Washington.. "Design Manual-Soil Mechanics. Washington. SM7.." . 106' of the Geotechnical Eng. K. K.s.. D. Vol." Journal of the GeoBRowN. E. (1981). (1970). Government Printing Office. J. SM4' 311-325. Y ol. Engineering... D.Foundations. l-.138 Chapter 5 Soil ComPaction "Vibroflotation Compaction of Cohesionless Soils.. R.c. ( 1958). L. (1996). l6-54-1 to 1654-34' Foundatiotrs J.. University of Missouri. B.rNrr-rN. 348-35 1. "Bottom Ash: An Engineering MateSEnrs. Towlu." Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division. and K6vRcs. and D'AppoloNte. Orrozco. 1049-1052. "ln-Place Treatmcnt of Foundation Soils. 286-289.rrEr.. W. E." Highway ResearchBoard. Vrl.R. W.. University of California." Proceeding. GTl. "Effective Use of Bottom Ash as a GeDa. (1983).38l. and Snunau." Highway ResearchReatrd No. ASCE. p. (1969). rial. J. No. ( 1973)."Geotechnical Propertiesof a Copper Slag. SM7' t oJ the SoitMechanics Soils. D.. H. 9 . D. J. Vol. 3. R. R. an6 SrNc. 1 2 2 . R.Lecture Notes."Characteristicsof Irregularly Shaped Compaction curves 6f Soils. and cHnNev. Vol. Vol. 152-161' LpE." Trunsportation ResearchRecord No.lt. Wac. ASCE."Sand Compaction with Vibratory Rollers. K. 941. T. Division. No. Vol. K. H. D.r./gurnal Granular Soils. 7 6 8 . R. tice-Hall. SM2.. U. J."The Effect of organic conLnN<. pnocrcrn..o. 3rd lnternational Symposiumon Environmcntent on Soil Compaction.

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qn z t l E il Oven-dried c x t . 1973) .: E t l ! Air-dried -- € tr = R o 'i = E n > o Mixture-oven-dried .22 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 (o/o) content Organic 2 5 3 0 Figure 5.126 Chapter 5 Soil Compaction 105 to 100 l5 o . and Semrau. Orozco. Orozco. Nalurrl silmple oven-dried a Mixture-air-dried l t t0.23 Yariatton of optimum moisture content with organic content (after Franklin. and Semrau.22 Yariation of maximum dry unit weight with organic content (after Franklin. 1973) ^ 3 0 t o o '6 t< E r o 'a o t 5 l0 "0 5 20 15 l0 (70) content Organic 25 Figure 5.

1sg6. chane y.9 Compaction of OrganicSoitand Waste Materials 127 Soiland Organic Materiat Mixtures Lancasteret al. J' Towre. and R. (1996)conductedseveralmodified Proctor teststo determinethe effect of organiccontent on the maximum dry unit weight urrJ opti-u. used with permis_ sion of the author.. proceedings. 7'hird Internationar syrnposium on Environmentar Geotechnrroly. J. 8 . R' waco.Lirce: Aftei"The gffect of organic clontent on Soil compaction.:l I lll O Redwoodbark 1 R i c eh u l l s O Sludge 11 ': ! r l.moisture contentof soil and organicmaterialmixtures. Towre. Figures 5. Source: After "The Effect of organic content on Soil compaction. 159.E u 20 10 60 80 t(x) Organic content (o/o) Figure 5..The soils iested. rn proceedings. tn iii)a nternatronat Symposium on Environmentar Geotechnology. tsv. Used with pJrmission of the author. chaney.5.soil and organic material mixtures. and R. st. Lancaster. .onrirt"d of a poorly gradedsandy soil (Sp-SM)mixed with either shredded redwoodbark. waco.24 Yariatictn .24 and5. p. tioo. R.f maximum^dry unit weight of compaction with organic content _ soil and organic material mixtures. shredded rice hulls. 1t s 'c o a 11 )t I = 'I 6 'E t r ' rr rU l+ I2 Organic content (7o) Figure 5'25 Yatiation of optimum moisture content with organic content .p.or municipal sewage sludge.25 showthe variations of z . by J' Lancaster." by J.

h c p h y s i c a lp r o p c r t i e so l ' t h e s es l u d g e s t h c s c a r e s h o w n i n F i g u r c .i z ! / c c a 0 -50 "'utn. Ihe maximum dry unit weight dethe optimum creascdwith organic content in all cases(seeFigure 5. K.can be comhave both pactecland uscd for landfill. redwith shredded mixed for soil content with organic incrcased moisture content How5. with organic content.r. respectively. for several thc standarclProctor compaction charactcristics s h o wn a r e .768-775. A summary of some shown to bc cnvironnrcntallysal'cl'or r-rse have bccr-r 'l'able -5.25). the optimum moisture content ever. constant remained practically Paper Mill Sludge Paper mill sludge. ol'thcsc tcst rcsults is giver.'r"lt"' 2s0 300 Figure 5.4. . Copyright O 1996American Societyof Civil Engineers.u.'lln.26 Yariatt<tnof dry unit weight of compaction with moisture content for paper mill sludge. 2 6T in Tlblc -s.Conversely.Used by permission.22."n.despite a high watcr content and low sttlid contents.23. The statcsof Wisconsin and Massachusctts ( 1 9 9 6 )p r o v i d e d u s c c lp a p e r m i l l s l u c l g ct o c a p l a n d { i l l s .2-5).. for soil anclmunicipal sewurgc (sec Figure 5. Source: From "Geotechnical Properties of Paper Mill Sludgesfor Use in Landfill Covers.Journal o. F." by H. Moo-Young. 5 ..Y o u n g a n d Z i m m i e and paper mill sludges. As in Figure 5.rin r a o o S l u t l g cA S l u t l g c1 3 S l u t l g cl ) Sludgc I.128 Chapter 5 Soil ComPaction maximum dry unit weight of compaction and optimum moisture content. 7996.24). Figure wooclor rice hulls sludge mixtures. T.1 Bottom Ash from Coal Burning and Copper SIag Labgratory standard Proctor tcst rcsults for bottont ash f'ront coal-burning power plants ancl I'rtrcopper slag arc also availablc in thc litcraturc.f Geotechnical Engineering. . These waste products as lantllill.M o o . in Figure pattern shown the similar to (see 5. 122 (9). Zimmie.p.

5 l8. the popurar methods are vibroflotation.2 14.1 t26 24. jynamic and brasring. whichis about 2.0 2 1.' involves the use of a vibroflot 5.u5 r.962.88-1.fro.26 Moisture content (%) Organic content (%l Specific gravity of solids.27. Among_these. Moulton. The first vibroffotation device was used in the United Statesabout l0years later.ri Scals.50 200-250 -200 l -50 -200 I -50 -50 4-5 -56 41 35-44 I.1 m (:7 tt) long' (asshown in Figure 5..96 l.3 14. . ancl these techniques are used in the fietd fbr large-scale compaction works.orcleepcom_ pactiol"tof in-placc soils.. ' l h r q u i n . Ill Paso.a n d J o n c s ( ler]3) 5.9-5 1. l L)2.Jtxas I3.10 Special Compaction Tech n iques Severalspccial types of compaction techniques have becn dcvcropecl r.93-1. 2 20.8 8-s t02 72.S o u t h D a k o t a Anrcr-ican Smclter ancl Rclincry Clompany.5.0 I 1. There are openings at the bottom and top of the vib'iating unit for water jets' The vibrating unit is attached to a folrow-up pipe.t3 26.3 14..It was devcloped in Germany in the 1930s.-5 proctorTestResults Table 5'4 standarcr of BottomAsh ancr cioppcrSrag Maximum dry unit weight tb /ft3 Optimum moisture content (%l Bottom ashbituminous coal (WestVirginia) Bottom ash lignitecoal Copper slag Fort Martin Kamntcr K a n a w h aR i v c r Mirchcll Muskingham Willow Island [3ig Stonc Powcr P l a n t .5 13. Selinr.scmethods are provi<lcd in the foirowing ::L:i::tr"' Vibroflotation vibroflotation is a technique for in situ d. G.08 191 1.4 I IJ.5 lt7. and pl'cifle ( I e78) D a s .27 showsthe entire assembly of equipment necessaryfor conducting the field"compaction.i3-l.6 l 16. which enibles the vibrating urit to vibrate horizontally.6 9 l.r.Derairs of the. Plasticity index 129 A B D E -25i) 1. rn.Figure 5.f.4 16.3 Physical properties of SlurJges Shown in Figure 5.27 (arso cailed the vibrating unit).6 22.ensification of thick layersof loose granular soil deposits.and Ruth (1e72) Das.)This vibrating unit has an eccentricweight inside it and can develop a centrifugal force.5 16.10 Special Compaction Techniques Table 5.4 104.4 19.

. addedl'rom the surlace to compensatc lirr the loss of volume causedhy the increasc ol' d e n s i t yo f t h e c o m p a c t e d soil B C y l i n d c ro f c o m p a c t e d nraterial.producedby a s i n g l ev i b r o f l o tc o m p a c t i o n Figure 5. j . Stagel: . Stage2: The water jet creates a quick condition in the soil and it allows the brating unit to sink into the ground.130 Chapter 5 Soil Compaction . -. 1977) The entire vibroflotation compaction process in the field can be divided i four stages(Figure 5.27 Yibrofrotationunit (after Brown. Stage3: Granular material is poured from the top of the hole. This water carries the sranular material down the hole.--Follow-up fir.ffi#fu ee*scr*. " i C y l i n d c ro l c o r n p a c t c d nrateriirl. The water from the lower jet is transferred to the jet at the top of the vibrating unit.28): The jet at the bottom of the Vibroflot is turned on and lowered i the ground.

0I ' t ) z 1 0m 6 n r( 1 6i n .5. Lower follow-up pipe und extensions Diameter 305mm (12 in. Motor type a.5 kN/m (2s0lb/fr) d. 6m m ( { ) .) lJg k N ( 1 0t o n ) 0. -m 5m (0. Note that 23 kw (30-hp) electric units have been used since the latter part of the 1940s.50 lb/ft) *AfterBrown (1977. ) in Itt00rpnr 0 .-5 in) 6 1 0m m ( 2 4i n ) 1800rpm 0 .6.2 k N ( 2 6 0t b ) 3lJmnr ( l. . Vibrating tip Length Diameter Weight Maximummovemcnt when full Centlifugal force b. 6m r / m i n (0-4(n gal/min) 700-10-5 k0 N / m . ) 3. Eccentric: Weight Offset Length Speed c.( 1 0 0 _ 1 .) Weight 3.The 75 kw (100-hp) units were introduced in the earlv 1g70s.5 Types of Vibroflot Units'. 5 0/ i n 2 ) lb l. 3 in.llf'r) 3ttl rnnr( 1. 1m ( 7 . The details of various types of Vibroflot units used in the United States are given in Table 5. 8k N ( 4 ( X n )) lb 1 2 .5 in) l7. ) r 7 . This processcompacts the soil to the desiredunit weight.lJ kN (4(XX) ltr) 7 . 1977) Table5.) Stage4: The vibrating unit is gradually raised in about 0.1 5 0g a l / m i n ) 700-10-5 k0 N / m r( 1 0 0 l 5 0 t b / i n r ) 3 0 5m m ( 1 2i n .76 kN (170lb) 3 2m m ( 1 . 2 5 in) 3 t Xm ) m (15.49 in) 160 k N ( l t 3t o n ) 1.1 .10 Special Compaction Techniques 131 S t a g c3 Figure 5'28 Compaction hy vibroflotation proccss(alter flrown. 6 m r / n i n ( 0 .25.fi6m(6.6-5 kN/m (2.0 .3 m (:l ft) lifts and held vibrating for about 30 seconds at eachlift.5. Pump Operatingflow rate Pressure 75 kW electric and hydraulic 23 kW electric 2 .

This spacingis shown in Figure 5.. The rangc of the grain-sizediscompaction tribution of in situsoil marked Zonc I in Figure 5. of grain-sizedistribution for which compaction by vibroflotation is effective.30is most suitable1'or amounts of finc sand and silt-sizeparby vibroflotation.30 Effective range of grain-size distribution of soil for vibroflotation .H:". n ystern U n i f l e dS o i l C l a s s i l i c a t i o S Grain size (mm) Figure 5. dependingon Compaction by vibroflotation is done in various probe spacings.29.29 Probcspacing The zone of compaction around a singleprobe varieswith the type of Vibroflot useil.132 Chapter 5 Soil Compaction \ / fl::.the rate of probe penctration may be slow and may prove uneconomicai ln the long run. Soils that contain excessive ticles arc difticult to compact. the zone of compaction.the most important of cessluldcnsification ctl' which is the grain-sizeclistributionof the soil and the type of backfill used to fill the holes during the withdrawal period of the Vibroflot..For these soils.:l'.the cylindrical zone of compactionhas a radius of about 2m (:6 ft) for a 23 kW (30-hp) unir.and considcrableeffort is necded to rcach the proper is thc approximate lowcr limit Zone 2 in Figure -5.Soil deposits whose grain-sizedistributions fall in Zone 3 contain appreciableamounts of gravel.The capacity for sucirt situsoil dependson severalfactors.30 relative density of compactictn. This radius can exrcnd ro about 3 m (: l0 ft) for a 75 kw (100-hp) unit." for vibroflotation Figure 5.

5.5and 100 ft). Rating as backfill E. t6) D: 0 . and D'.F o l l o w ing is a backfill rating systemproposed by Brown: Range of S. This proccssconsists primarily of dropping a heavy weight repeatedlyon thc ground at regular intervals. Height of hammer drop 3.The weight of the h a m m e r u s e d v a r i e so v e r a r a n g e o f 8 0 t o 3 6 0 k N ( 1 l Jt o g 0 k i p ) . D. and 10.Brown (Igjll has defined a quantit suitability number for rating backfill as (Y) {35 . 20.-5 ancl 30.17) . 6 1 v w where the units of D and h are fr. .50. the preceding equation takes the form (. T h e s m a l l e rt h c v a l u e . Weightof hammer 2. Spacingof locations at which the hammer is dropped Leonards..u.i 3 r. t h " m o r e d e s i r a b l et h e b a c k f i l lm a t e r i a l . are the diameters (in mm) through which.n where D : significantdepth of densification(m) : dropping weight (metric ton) W11 /. a n d t h e h e i g h t o f the hammcr drop varies betwcen 7.. and the unit of I4zais kip. respectivery.t : height of drop (m) In English units./" of the material Dasses. The stresswaves generated by the hammer drops aid in the dcnsification. * | 6 * 1 orrt.xcellcnt Good Fair Poor L]nsuitablc 0-10 I0-20 20-30 30-. (-5.s0 >-50 Dynamic Compaction D y n a m i c c o m p a c t i o ni s a t e c h n i q u ct h a t h a sg a i n e dp o p u l a r i t yi n t h e U n i t c c lS t a l e s for the densificationof granular soil deposits.-5 m (2.5.10 Special Compaction Techniq The grain-sizedistribution of the backfiil material is an imoorran controls the rate of densification. and Holtz (19u0) suggestedthat the significant depth of influencefor compaction can be approximated by using the equation D:(lSlw.. ( s.ry:LV1r.The desree of compaction achieved a t a g i v e ns i t e d e p e n d so n t h c l b l l o w i n g l h r e e l a c t o r s : 1. cutrer. t S r .1s) where Dsc.

The general soil grain sizessuitable for compaction by blasting are the same as those for compaction by vibroflotation... Exa mp l e5 . (5.71m .the explosivechargesare placed at a clepthof about two-thirds of the thicknessof the soil layer desiredto be compacted.36 mm t Dzl'= 0'52mm :1. Dso Determine the suitability number S". influencefor compaction. desired to achieve the necessary usually are density of:rbout 80% and up to a depth of about 20 m (60 ft) over a large arca can easily be achievedby using this process.1 Ratins: Excellent Example5. in meters.42mm .s2)'z (0. What would be its rating as a backfill material? Solution From Eq.. Blasting is a technique that has been used successfully 1970)for the densificationof granular soils.j .16)..5 weight of hammer : For a dynamiccompactiontest we are giventhe followi -ng: : depth D of 15 metric tons and height of drop 12 m' Determine t$ significant .15). Thrce to five successful up to a relative Compaction compaction. SN *1 1 ' ' ' V| m * r . D : G){wrt: (l){rsXra : 6.)t (Dri' (D. (4.+ .4 Followingare the detailsfor the backfillmaterialusedin a vibroflotationproject: ' Dn: 0. The latcral spacingof the detonations chargesvariesfrom about 3 to 10 m (10 to 30 ft). (5.Usually.36)'z = 6. Solution From Eq. The process involves the detonation of explosive charges such as 60% dynamite at a certain depth below the ground surfacein saturatedsoil...)' t '1 '\ l m (t.442 (0.134 Chapter 5 Soil Compaction Blasting in many projects (Mitchell.

Repeat Problem 5.5 3. Prohlems 5.The fill material may be end-dumped.72.67 4. The relationshipsof dry unit weight (7.62.2 5. It is important to realize that the compaction of clayey soils achieved by rollers in the field is essentially the kneading type. affectsphysical properties such as hydraulic conductivity.nn* calculate the variation of dry unir weighr (kN/m3) of i ioil 1c.side-tlumped. This dift'erence.calculatethe zero-air-voidunit weight for a soil in lb/ft3 at w : 5"/" . and strength.3 5. static compaction and kneading compaction can also be used.l-) 8.o-t 14.6 16. in the laboratory.4 10. If the material is too wet. .4 Given G. The resultsof a standard proctor test are given below.02 -r. noi the same. 8y".4. proctor compaction test resultsobtained in the laboratory are used primarily to determine whether the roller compaction in the field is sufficient. Determine the maximum dry unit weight of compaction and the optimum mois- .the final selectionof the borrow site dependson such factors as the soil type and the cost of excavationand haulins.o-_ paction may be different.11 Summary and GeneralComments Laboratory standard and modified Proctor compaction tests described in this chapter are essentially for impact or dynamic compaction of soil. 10"/".1 5. : i.72. 7.1) and moisture con_ tent (rv) obtained by dynamic and kneading compaction ur. and 100"/o. it may be cut and turned to aerate and dry before being spread in lifts for compaction.2 1L-.es1 at w : 10"/" and 20"/" for degree of saturation (S) : g0% 90yo.compressibility.plot a graph of (kN/m3) againstw.Problems 135 5. if G" :2. : 2. and 15% . For most fill operations. Vorume or Proctormold (ft3) T?:::frt in the mold flb) Moisture content (/"1 l/30 U30 l/30 t/30 t/30 5.or bottsm-4umpetl atthe site in piles. Fill materials for compaction are generally brought to the site by trucks and wagons. Determine the maximum dry unit weight of compaction and the optimum moisture content.8 5. the clesired amount of water is added by sprinkling irrigation. in turn.1 with G" : 2.If it is too dry. The results of a standard Proctor test are given in the following table.6 For the soil describedin Problem 5.26 4.The siructuresof compacted cohesivesoil at a similar dry unit weight obtained by dynamic and kneading . 12"/".) 4. however. determine the void ratio and the degree of saturation at optimum moisture content.

Four borrow pits are available void ratios of as dcscribed in the following tablc. how many c-ubic 103.9 10.2 5.3 943.1 17.4 19.2 0.In the field.This soil is to be excavated ancltransported to a constructionsite for use in a compactedfill. Borrowpit A B C D Void ratio 0. Make the necessary to be the same at G.11 The maximum and minimum dry unit weights of a sand were determined in the laboratory to be 16. Also.The specihcgravity of soil solids is2.[3tt 1. which lists the respective proposed conto the soil the soil and the cost pcr cubic meter for moving the pit from which the to select calculations struction site.6 kN/m3.4 21.95 0. respectively.[t l -5.Chapter 5 Soil Compaction ture content. Determine the relative compaction' weight The in sl/& moisture content of a soil is 18% and the moist unit weight is 105 fb/ft3.7 5. determine the moisture content required to achieve95% of 7a(-o*).1 t 3.6 moisture content : 10.5 kN/m3 and 14.9 A field unit weight detcrmination test for the soil describedin Problem 5.000 produce soil from the excavationsitc are nceded to fill? How many 20-ton truckloads are nceded to transport the excavatedsoil? A proposed embankment fill requires 5000 m3 of compactedsoil.3 943. If the specicall for the soil to be compactedto a minimum dry unit weight of ficzrtions yards of lb/ftr at thc samc moisture content of 18%.3 943.3 943.3 943.10 The maximum and minimum dry unit weightsof a sand were determined in the laboratory to be 104 lb/fc and 93 lb/ft3.t35 9.3 943. The void ratio of the compactedllll is specifiedas 0.86 t. if the relative density of compaction of the same sand is7O"/".what are its relative compaction (%) and dry unit weight (kN/m3)? .68 1.83 1.27"and moist unit vielded the following datzr: : 16.87 1.1kN/ml. Assume thc soil should be bought to minimize the cost. respectively.7'7 1.-5 yd' of compacted 10. all pits.u5 1.what would be the relative compaction in the field if the relative density is 78Y"? 5. Massof Volume of Proctormold (cm3) wet soil in the mold (kS) Moisture content t%l 943.3 1.15.75 Cost{$/m3} 9 6 7 l0 5.71 1.7.3 943.6 t2.

Themaximum ancl minimum dry unit weights of the sand are 103lb/ft3 and ss tblrc. C a l i b r a t e dd r y d c n s i r y o l O t t a w a s a n d : 1 6 6 7k g / m 3 o calibrated mass. D s .52 I u. . .nrnr-s (1999).14 The backfill matcrial fbr a vibrollotation project has the following grain sizes: . : 1 .References 197 5'12 The relative compaction of a sand in the field is 94o/o.33I ks . . Mass of jar * cone + sand (before use) : 5. S1u. .rATroN o. 0 9m m D1. 3m m Determine the suitability number. AASHTO Materials.6 16. WestConshohocken.f ottawa sanclto fill the cone : 0. for each 5. Dry unit weight b.99 kg .45 1u. 6I m m References Av'r<rcaN Assocranr.15 Repeat Prcblem -5. Relative density of compaction c. determine a.l 9 m m .tively. : 0. vor 04.For the field condition. : 0 . t : 0 .. M a s so f j a r * c o n e + s a n d ( a l t e r u s e ) .. Dry unit weight of compaction in the fielcl b. : 0 .pr. AveRrceN S. pa.C. D z . D. Relative compaction in the field 5. D r . Washington. . : 0 .raLs (1gg2).by. part II."rp". Mass of moist soil from hole : 3.13 Laboratory compaction test resultson a crayeysilt are given in the fblrowing table: Moisture content (%) Dry unit weight (kN/m3) u 9 ll t2 t4 6 r4.14 using the followins values: D .2 .25 mm D 1 .0g.rN op Srane Hrcrrwev aNo TRaNspoR. l r 7 kg .9 Following arc the resurtsof a field unit weight determination test on the s a m es o i l w i t h t h e s a n dc o n e m c t h o d : . Moist unit weight at a moisture content of l0% 5..9 I fi. t i 1k g . 1 Im m .cre'v poR TesrrNcro"o irot. Determine a. ASTM standards.80 t7. M o i s l u r cc o n t c n to l m o i s t soil _ | I.

98. M. lJ4. A.. ( 1933). (1972).7 ' 7 5 . "Geotechnical Properties of Paper Mill Sludges for Use in Landfill Covers.. ASCE.C' . R.A. and SrrEornvp. tal Geotechnology. (1980). J. 245 -248. Rolla' 342-348' Dns. National Academy of Sciences."Compaction of Slightly Organic and Fountlatkns Division.S..99.G. .Pren' to Geotechnical D. SEep.1.ineering.263-284. W.D.J. chunicsantl FoundutionsDivision. l-9. ASCE. (1996)." Journal of Geotechnical Eng.. SMI ' 73-110' Moa.San Diego. T. W. (1960). and Structures. No."Design and Constructionof Rolled Earth Dams.s.r-rER.as. CE 271. (19'72)."Factors That lnfluence Field Compaction of Soil. anrJ Hots'2. W. ASCE.." EngineeringNews Recor d.R. 103.An IntroductioLt H<'tut7.C. R. M.ineering. JogNsctN. Sgr-rr.. and Pnelnl-r." Proceedings. Tenerrrr. y..r'nn.J.5th Annual UMR-DNR Conference and Exposition on Energy. A.lournal of the Soil Mechanics and Divisiort.IoNes..5.97. MoUu|oN. WHrrnaRN. Division. F. (1971). F. No. V. LnHreE. 372 -31 6.. Washington. BerkeleY. A.r." Journul of the Soil MeMrr.U. Ler. K. (1978).. Englewood Cliffs. (19'7'7). B. ASCE. 96' No.ASCE.. SMl. and Ru rs. (1964). Cr.95. "Relative Density and Rclativc Compaction. otechnical Material. DepanrMENT oF Nevv (1971)."Jorrrna 541-5-57.A. Vol."NAVFAC DM-7. B.ASCE. ASCE. GT12' 1437-57' Engineering technical D'AppoloNra.N o . Bulletin No. E . "Dynamic compaction of LpcrNa.C. No. A." No. and ZIMMIE. F.. W. N. T. National Research Council. A. Fn. R.-YogNc." Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Founrlations Division.D.35-44..nos. and Snr-LeERc. Seepageand Earth Dam Design. A. Vol.272. and. R. A. Vol." Journal of the soil Mechanicsand FoundutionsDivision. D. L."The Structure of Compacted Clay.No... Washington.. "Design Manual-Soil Mechanics. Washington. SM7.." . 106' of the Geotechnical Eng. K. K.s.. D. Vol." Journal of the GeoBRowN. E. (1981). (1970). Government Printing Office. J. SM4' 311-325. Y ol. Engineering... D.Foundations. l-.138 Chapter 5 Soil ComPaction "Vibroflotation Compaction of Cohesionless Soils.. R.c. ( 1958). L. (1996). l6-54-1 to 1654-34' Foundatiotrs J.. University of Missouri. B.rNrr-rN. 348-35 1. "Bottom Ash: An Engineering MateSEnrs. Towlu." Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division. and K6vRcs. and D'AppoloNte. Orrozco. 1049-1052. "ln-Place Treatmcnt of Foundation Soils. 286-289.rrEr.. W. E." Highway ResearchBoard. Vrl.R. W.. University of California." Proceeding. GTl. "Effective Use of Bottom Ash as a GeDa. (1983).38l. and Snunau." Highway ResearchReatrd No. ASCE. p. (1969). rial. J. No. ( 1973)."Geotechnical Propertiesof a Copper Slag. SM7' t oJ the SoitMechanics Soils. D.. H. 9 . D. J. Vol. 3. R. R. an6 SrNc. 1 2 2 . R.Lecture Notes."Characteristicsof Irregularly Shaped Compaction curves 6f Soils. and cHnNev. Vol. Vol. 152-161' LpE." Trunsportation ResearchRecord No.lt. Wac. ASCE."Sand Compaction with Vibratory Rollers. K. 941. T. Division. No. Vol. K. H. D.r./gurnal Granular Soils. 7 6 8 . R. tice-Hall. SM2.. U. J."The Effect of organic conLnN<. pnocrcrn..o. 3rd lnternational Symposiumon Environmcntent on Soil Compaction.

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