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Thermosets
Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Thermosets are Polymers which do not melt when heated. Thermosets molecules are cross-linked by strong covalent intermolecular bonds, orming one giant molecule. !ross-linking is irreversible there ore thermosets can not be reprocessed "re-melt#. !ross-linking is achieved in curing process initiated by heat, chemical agents or radiation. $e ore curing processing thermoset materials are stored in partially polymeri%ed condition. &ulcani%ation "cross-linking, curing# results in sharp increase o strength, elasticity and stability o thermosets. Thermosets are stronger and sti er than Thermoplastics. 'ti ness o thermosets is even higher than some metals "aluminum#. Thermosets also have higher thermal, chemical and creep resistance than thermoplastics. Thermoset materials may contain iller materials in orm o powder or ibers, providing improvement o speci ic material properties "strength, sti ness, (odulus o )lasticity, thermal resistance, lubricity#. !ommon iller materials are glass in various orms, metal powders, *raphite or molybdenum disul ide powder. Thermoset groups:
• • • • •

Epoxies (EP) Unsaturated Polyesters (UP) Phenolics (PF) Amino Resins Urea Formaldehyde (UF)

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siu.edu/bohr/mse234/class.mit.pd http://courses.eng.edu/adms5sta s/akkus/$0622335notes/polymers.htm http://bioe.y ")P# Thermoset -nsaturated Polyester "-P# Thermoset Phenolics "P.pd http://www.# Thermoset /lkyds "/(!# iscuss the article and ask !uestions in our Materials Forum Related internal links • • • • • • • • • • • • Polymer structure Polymer materials "0ntroduction# )lastomers Thermoplastics 'hore "1urometer# hardness test (ethods o polymers abrication &ulcani%ation o rubber Plastics welding /dhesives Paints 0on e.edu/courseli/meA>>/.change resins Plastics recycling Related external links http://www.ca/es32+/)'32+a52339/.ca/7woodadam/*!89+3+/0mportant:23polymers.ppt 2 .ppt http://www.concordia..encs.uwo.$$A$-=3=B-4@$9.pd http://ocw.ectures/'p2339/lecture+423:23Polymer.A+>2>=@.:23composites.eng.41=>/3/3=5polymer5+595 .edu/<?/rdonlyres/(echanical-)ngineering/2-33@'pring233=/>)$++A.# Thermoset -rea .:23Polymer: 23Processing.• • Melamine Formaldehyde (MF) Alkyds (AMC) Properties and applications of some thermosets • • • • • • Thermoset )po.pd http://users.ecture:23<otes/!hap:23+=-+>:23:23Polymers.ormaldehyde "(.# Thermoset (elamine .utoledo.washington.edu/sta 2/derunt%/0T23@/!hapter:23+@:23(anu acturing:23with :23Plastics.ormaldehyde "-.virginia.engr.

+> C+3D kg/mD B+.# Thermoset (elamine .y adhesive Two component ast curing epo. adhesive.+@ $T-Cin/"hrC tJCE. protective coating.# Thermoset /lkyds "/(!# Related external links A . coating or wear resistant industrial loors. /pplications: electrical molding.# Thermoset -rea . encapsulation. rocket motors components "rein orced with glass.cellent toughnessL • *ood dielectrical propertiesL • . Related internal links • • • • • • • • 'ingle component high strength epo.to Polymers Thermoset Epoxy (EP) "submitted by the website administration# Thermoset Epoxy (EP) Property "alue in metric unit "alue in U# unit ensity +.cellent corrosion resistanceL • ). • 8igh strengthL • ).29 $T-/"lbCE.+B H/"mCI# +.@ lb/ tD Modulus of elasticity 2+ *Pa A3=3 ksi Tensile stren$th +=3 (Pa 23333 psi Elon$ation = : = : Flexural yield stren$th 2=3 (Pa A>333 psi Compressi%estren$th 22> (Pa A2333 psi -9 Thermal expansion (&' (C) A+C+3 E!FG +BC+3-9 in/"inC E. pipe ittings.# Thermal conducti%ity 3.ilament-wound#.cellent dimension stabilityL • ).y adhesive Two component toughened epo.y adhesive Thermoset -nsaturated Polyester "-P# Thermoset Phenolics "P.ormaldehyde "-.# #pecific heat capacity ++33 K/"kgCI# 3.ow shrinkageL • *ood adhesion. sinks.ormaldehyde "(. electrical circuits "rein orced with glass iber#.# Maximum )ork temperature 233 E! =33 E.

:23Polymer:23Processing.cellent rigidityL • 8igh strengthL • 8igh creep strengthL • ).ca/7woodadam/*!89+3+/0mportant:23polymers.edu/sta 2/derunt%/0T23@/!hapter:23+@:23(anu acturing:23with :23Plastics.ecture:23<otes/!hap:23+=-+>:23:23Polymers.+9 C+3D kg/mD B2.pd http://ocw.edu/courseli/meA>>/.t M ..encs. auto body components.htm http://bioe.washington.engr.edu/adms5sta s/akkus/$0622335notes/polymers.pd http://users.cellent dielectrical propertiesL • *ood chemical resistanceL /pplications: iberglass boats.uwo.+B H/"mCI# +.# Maximum )ork temperature +B3 E! A2> E.virginia.eng.pd http://www.edu/bohr/mse234/class. building panels. ans.siu.:23composites.ca/es32+/)'32+a52339/.utoledo.y5ep.$$A$-=3=B-4@$9-A+>2>=@.eng.+@ $T-Cin/"hrC tJCE.# Thermal conducti%ity 3.ppt to Thermosets to Properties o polymers thermoset5epo. ences.41=>/3/3=5polymer5+595 .= lb/ tD Modulus of elasticity +4 *Pa 2B33 ksi Tensile stren$th +43 (Pa 2B333 psi Elon$ation A : A : Flexural yield stren$th A+3 (Pa =>333 psi Compressi%estren$th 2A3 (Pa AA333 psi -9 Thermal expansion (&' (C) A+C+3 E!FG +BC+3-9 in/"inC E. compressor housing.ast modi i Thermoset Unsaturated Polyester (UP) "submitted by the website administration# Thermoset Unsaturated Polyester (UP) Property "alue in metric unit "alue in U# unit ensity +. helmets. • ). bathroom accessories.pd http://courses.ppt http://www.t.concordia.mit.http://www.edu/<?/rdonlyres/(echanical-)ngineering/2-33@'pring233=/>)$++A. Related internal links = .ectures/'p2339/lecture+423:23Polymer.

mit.ppt http://www.siu.t M .ecture:23<otes/!hap:23+=-+>:23:23Polymers.ppt to Thermosets to Properties o polymers thermoset5unsaturated5polyester5up.edu/sta 2/derunt%/0T23@/!hapter:23+@:23(anu acturing:23with :23Plastics.pd http://courses.pd http://www.:23composites.uwo.engr.:23Polymer:23Processing.washington.eng.# Thermoset (elamine .edu/courseli/meA>>/.edu/adms5sta s/akkus/$0622335notes/polymers.encs.41=>/3/3=5polymer5+595 .2@ C+3D kg/mD @3.• • • • • Thermoset )po.pd http://ocw.ca/7woodadam/*!89+3+/0mportant:23polymers.htm http://bioe.3 lb/ tD Modulus of elasticity +A *Pa +@@3 ksi Tensile stren$th >3 (Pa B333 psi Elon$ation + : + : Flexural yield stren$th 92 (Pa 4333 psi Compressi%estren$th +>3 (Pa 22333 psi -9 Thermal expansion (&' (C) =@C+3 E!FG A3C+3-9 in/"inC E..utoledo.pd http://users.y ")P# Thermoset Phenolics "P.t.ectures/'p2339/lecture+423:23Polymer.$$A$-=3=B-4@$9-A+>2>=@.ast modi ied: 233@/3>/+ Thermoset Phenolics (PF) "submitted by the website administration# Thermoset Phenolics (PF) Property "alue in metric unit "alue in U# unit ensity +.edu/bohr/mse234/class. • 8igh hardnessL • $rittleL • ).virginia.eng.# Thermoset -rea .cellent thermal stabilityL • &ery good dielectric properties.ca/es32+/)'32+a52339/.ormaldehyde "(. > .ormaldehyde "-.concordia.# Maximum )ork temperature +23 E! 2>3 E.# Thermoset /lkyds "/(!# Related external links http://www.edu/<?/rdonlyres/(echanical-)ngineering/2-33@'pring233=/>)$++A.

ca/7woodadam/*!89+3+/0mportant:23polymers.# Thermoset /lkyds "/(!# Related external links http://www. automotive parts.engr.edu/courseli/meA>>/.edu/adms5sta s/akkus/$0622335notes/polymers.ppt http://www. welding tongs.pd http://users.eng.ca/es32+/)'32+a52339/.# Thermoset (elamine . switchboards..encs.@ lb/ tD 4 *Pa +A33 ksi 9> (Pa 4>33 psi 3.htm http://bioe.ectures/'p2339/lecture+423:23Polymer.mit.t.41=>/3/3=5polymer5+595 .ppt to Thermosets to Properties o polymers thermoset5phenolics5p . bottle caps.siu.:23composites.pd http://courses.concordia.@ : 3.$$A$-=3=B-4@$9-A+>2>=@. lamps holders.edu/bohr/mse234/class.ecture:23<otes/!hap:23+=-+>:23:23Polymers.>> C+3D kg/mD 49.utoledo.eng.@ : +33 (Pa +=333 psi 2=3 (Pa A>333 psi 9 .y ")P# Thermoset -nsaturated Polyester "-P# Thermoset -rea .uwo.pd http://www.washington.edu/<?/rdonlyres/(echanical-)ngineering/2-33@'pring233=/>)$++A. Related internal links • • • • • Thermoset )po.virginia.ormaldehyde "(.pd http://ocw.:23Polymer:23Processing. handles on kitchen utensils " illed with mineral ibers#. motor housings.ast modi ie Thermoset Urea Formaldehyde (UF) "submitted by the website administration# Thermoset Urea Formaldehyde (UF) Property ensity (cellulose filled) Modulus of elasticity Tensile stren$th Elon$ation Flexural yield stren$th Compressi%estren$th "alue in metric unit "alue in U# unit +./pplications: wiring devices. ashtrays.ormaldehyde "-.t M .edu/sta 2/derunt%/0T23@/!hapter:23+@:23(anu acturing:23with :23Plastics. plugs and switches.

edu/<?/rdonlyres/(echanical-)ngineering/2-33@'pring233=/>)$++A.# +B3 E.edu/adms5sta s/akkus/$0622335notes/polymers.ppt to Thermosets to Properties o polymers thermoset5urea5 ormaldehyde5u ..eng. decorative laminates.ectures/'p2339/lecture+423:23Polymer.eng.pd http://ocw.$$A$-=3=B-4@$9-A+>2>=@.pd http://courses.edu/courseli/meA>>/.siu.ca/7woodadam/*!89+3+/0mportant:23polymers. /pplications: dinnerware.t.mit.virginia. +9C+3-9 in/"inC E.ca/es32+/)'32+a52339/.t M .utoledo.41=>/3/3=5polymer5+595 .:23Polymer:23Processing.tures. adhesives.engr.y ")P# Thermoset -nsaturated Polyester "-P# Thermoset Phenolics "P. heavy duty electrical eNuipment.pd http://users. lighting i.washington.edu/bohr/mse234/class.concordia.:23composites.ormaldehyde "(.pd http://www.encs.# Thermoset (elamine .edu/sta 2/derunt%/0T23@/!hapter:23+@:23(anu acturing:23with :23Plastics.uwo.Thermal expansion (&' (C) 24C+3-9 E!FG Maximum )ork temperature @3 E! • 8igh hardness "higher than phenolics#L • $rittleL • 8igh toughnessL • 'cratch resistantL • 6paNue.ecture:23<otes/!hap:23+=-+>:23:23Polymers.ast mo Thermoset Melamine Formaldehyde (MF) "submitted by the website administration# Thermoset B .# Thermoset /lkyds "/(!# Related external links http://www.ppt http://www. Related internal links • • • • • Thermoset )po. protective coatings.htm http://bioe.

ectures/'p2339/lecture+423:23Polymer.engr.washington. lighting i.edu/bohr/mse234/class.ppt http://www.mit.htm http://bioe. dinnerware.$$A$-=3=B-4@$9-A+>2>=@.# Maximum )ork temperature +>3 E! A33 E.pd http://www.edu/<?/rdonlyres/(echanical-)ngineering/2-33@'pring233=/>)$++A.virginia.edu/sta 2/derunt%/0T23@/!hapter:23+@:23(anu acturing:23with :23Plastics.edu/adms5sta s/akkus/$0622335notes/polymers.# Thermoset -rea .pd http://courses..y ")P# Thermoset -nsaturated Polyester "-P# Thermoset Phenolics "P. heavy duty electrical eNuipment.eng.41=>/3/3=5polymer5+595 .@ lb/ tD Modulus of elasticity +2 *Pa +@33 ksi Tensile stren$th 9> (Pa 4>33 psi Elon$ation 3.encs.eng.:23Polymer:23Processing.ormaldehyde "-.>> C+3D kg/mD 49.Melamine Formaldehyde (MF) Property "alue in metric unit "alue in U# unit ensity (cellulose filled) +. /pplications: table tops.9 : Flexural yield stren$th +=3 (Pa 23333 psi Compressi%estren$th 2=3 (Pa A>333 psi -9 Thermal expansion (&' (C) 24C+3 E!FG +9C+3-9 in/"inC E.ppt to Thermosets to Properties o polymers @ .siu. adhesives.:23composites. Related internal links • • • • • Thermoset )po.ca/7woodadam/*!89+3+/0mportant:23polymers.uwo. protective coatings.9 : 3.ecture:23<otes/!hap:23+=-+>:23:23Polymers.pd http://users.# Thermoset /lkyds "/(!# Related external links http://www.tures.edu/courseli/meA>>/.pd http://ocw.concordia.ca/es32+/)'32+a52339/. • &ery high hardness "higher than phenolics#L • $rittleL • 8igh toughnessL • 'cratch resistantL • 6paNue.utoledo. decorative laminates.

ormaldehyde "(.utoledo.washington.edu/courseli/meA>>/.# Thermoset -rea .eng.pd http://users.# Related external links http://www.htm http://bioe.# Thermoset (elamine .$$A$-=3=B-4@$9-A+>2>=@.edu/bohr/mse234/class.y ")P# Thermoset -nsaturated Polyester "-P# Thermoset Phenolics "P.ca/7woodadam/*!89+3+/0mportant:23polymers.:23Polymer:23Processing.siu.ectures/'p2339/lecture+423:23Polymer.pd http://courses.eng.encs.concordia.uwo.mit.41=>/3/3=5polymer5+595 . /pplications: circuit breakers.engr.ppt 4 .ormaldehyde "-.edu/<?/rdonlyres/(echanical-)ngineering/2-33@'pring233=/>)$++A. switch gears. Related internal links • • • • • Thermoset )po.virginia.ecture:23<otes/!hap:23+=-+>:23:23Polymers.pd http://www.edu/adms5sta s/akkus/$0622335notes/polymers. • *ood rigidityL • 8igh toughnessL • *ood color stabilityL • *ood dimensional stabilityL • *ood dielectric properties.ppt http://www.edu/sta 2/derunt%/0T23@/!hapter:23+@:23(anu acturing:23with :23Plastics.:23composites.Thermoset Alkyds (AMC) "submitted by the website administration# Thermoset Alkyds (AMC) Property "alue in metric unit "alue in U# unit Modulus of elasticity +2 *Pa +@33 ksi Tensile stren$th => (Pa 9>33 psi Flexural yield stren$th 43 (Pa +A333 psi Compressi%estren$th +B3 (Pa 2>333 psi -9 Thermal expansion (&' (C) A9C+3 E!FG 23C+3-9 in/"inC E.pd http://ocw. colored parts.# Maximum )ork temperature +43 E! AB> E.ca/es32+/)'32+a52339/..

a +3 .t.to Thermosets to Properties o polymers thermoset5alkyds5amc.t M .