Performance Evaluation of Series Hybrid and Pure Electric Vehicles Using Lead-Acid Batteries and Supercapacitors

INFANTE, William F. KHAN, Aldrin F. LIBATIQUE, Nathaniel Joseph C. TANGONAN, Gregory L UY, Sherdon Nino Y.

The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines

Outline
• Trends • Approach • Results
▫ Use of Supercapacitors ▫ Parameter Space ▫ Regular Route

• Summary • Ongoing Research
▫ Traffic Simulations ▫ Accidents
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

2

Trends: World Energy Demand

Source: Chevron (2010): Rise in Energy Demand in different Sectors
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

3

Trends: Rise of Electric Vehicles

Source: US Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (and U.S. Bureau of Labor and Statistics)
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

4

Trends: Dual-Source System

Supercapacitors

Pb-Acid

Controller

Vehicle Motor

The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines

Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

5

Trends: Ragone Plot of Devices
103
Fuel Cells

Specific Energy [Whr/kg]

Combustion Engines Li-Ion

102
Ni-Cd

10 10

1

Pb-Acid Flywheels

0

Supercapacitors

10-1
Capacitors

10-2 1 10

102

103

104

Specific Power [W/kg]
Source: Ragone Plot of Common Storage Devices (Flynn, 2004)
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

6

Approach: Overview
Part 1: Vehicle Simulation
Input: Drive Cycle Performance Simulation
(MATLAB QSS)

Output: Efficiency Graphs

The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines

Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

7

Approach: Overview
Focus Input: Drive Cycle Performance Simulation Generic Pure EV Output: Efficiency Graphs

Effect of using supercapacitors

Jeepney Driving Cycle

Battery and Supercapacitor Pure EV with supercapacitors Performance

Extended Jeepney Fuel Consumption SHEV Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Extended Jeepney SHEV Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Assumed Regular Driving Cycle

Generic SHEV

Parameter Space Exploration

Battery and Initial SHEV Supercapacitor Experiments with with supercapacitors Performance Extended Jeepney Regular Route Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

Approach: Overview
Focus Input: Drive Cycle Performance Simulation Generic Pure EV Output: Efficiency Graphs

Effect of using supercapacitors

Jeepney Driving Cycle

Battery and Supercapacitor Pure EV with supercapacitors Performance

Extended Jeepney Fuel Consumption SHEV Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Extended Jeepney SHEV Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Assumed Regular Driving Cycle

Generic SHEV

Parameter Space Exploration

Battery and Initial SHEV Supercapacitor Experiments with with supercapacitors Performance Extended Jeepney Regular Route Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

Approach: Overview
Focus Input: Drive Cycle Performance Simulation Generic Pure EV Output: Efficiency Graphs

Effect of using supercapacitors

Jeepney Driving Cycle

Battery and Supercapacitor Pure EV with supercapacitors Performance

Extended Jeepney Fuel Consumption SHEV Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Extended Jeepney SHEV Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Assumed Regular Driving Cycle

Generic SHEV

Parameter Space Exploration

Battery and Initial SHEV Supercapacitor Experiments with with supercapacitors Performance Extended Jeepney Regular Route Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

Approach: Overview
Focus Input: Drive Cycle Performance Simulation Generic Pure EV Output: Efficiency Graphs

Effect of using supercapacitors

Jeepney Driving Cycle

Battery and Supercapacitor Pure EV with supercapacitors Performance

Extended Jeepney Fuel Consumption SHEV Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Extended Jeepney SHEV Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Assumed Regular Driving Cycle

Generic SHEV

Parameter Space Exploration

Battery and Initial SHEV Supercapacitor Experiments with with supercapacitors Performance Extended Jeepney Regular Route Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

Approach: Jeepney Driving Cycle*
Speed (m/s)
12 8 4 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Time (s)

*Source: UP National Center for Transportation Studies (Philippines)
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

12

Approach: Driving Cycles
12 8 4 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Jeepney Driving Cycle*

Speed (m/s)

12 8 4 0 0 12 8 4 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Regular Route

Multi-agent Simulation
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Time (s)
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

13

Approach: Overview
Focus Input: Drive Cycle Performance Simulation Generic Pure EV Output: Efficiency Graphs

Effect of using supercapacitors

Jeepney Driving Cycle

Battery and Supercapacitor Pure EV with supercapacitors Performance

Extended Jeepney Fuel Consumption SHEV Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Extended Jeepney SHEV Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Assumed Regular Driving Cycle

Generic SHEV

Parameter Space Exploration

Battery and Initial SHEV Supercapacitor Experiments with with supercapacitors Performance Extended Jeepney Regular Route Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

Approach: Overview
Focus Input: Drive Cycle Performance Simulation Generic Pure EV Output: Efficiency Graphs

Effect of using supercapacitors

Jeepney Driving Cycle

Battery and Supercapacitor Pure EV with supercapacitors Performance

Extended Jeepney Fuel Consumption SHEV Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Extended Jeepney SHEV Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Assumed Regular Driving Cycle

Generic SHEV

Parameter Space Exploration

Battery and Initial SHEV Supercapacitor Experiments with with supercapacitors Performance Extended Jeepney Regular Route Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

Approach: PEV with supercapacitors

w_wheel v v dw_wheel dv dv T_wheel

w_wheel

w_trans

w_gear dw_gear T_gear P_EM P_SC U_SC

dw_wheel dw_trans T_wheel T_trans

i

Vehicle

TransmissionEM

Electric Motor

Supercapacitor

P_BT

Q_BT

x_tot

x_tot

V_BT

Driving Cycle

Pb-Acid Battery

Display: Battery Voltage

The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines

Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

16

Approach: Overview
Focus Input: Drive Cycle Performance Simulation Generic Pure EV Output: Efficiency Graphs

Effect of using supercapacitors

Jeepney Driving Cycle

Battery and Supercapacitor Pure EV with supercapacitors Performance

Extended Jeepney Fuel Consumption SHEV Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Extended Jeepney SHEV Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Assumed Regular Driving Cycle

Generic SHEV

Parameter Space Exploration

Battery and Initial SHEV Supercapacitor Experiments with with supercapacitors Performance Extended Jeepney Regular Route Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

Approach: SHEV with supercapacitors
w_wheel v v dv dv dw_wheel T_wheel dw_wheel T_wheel dw_trans T_trans dw_gear T_gear P_EM P_SC U_SC w_wheel w_trans w_gear

Vehicle
i

Transmission -EG
w_wheel w_trans dw_trans T_trans dw_wheel T_wheel

Electric Motor
w_gear

Supercapacitor
P_BT Q_BT

x_tot

P_EG T_gear x_tot V_BT

Driving Cycle
w_ctrl Q_BT dw_ctrl T_ctrl

Transmission -CE-EG

Electric Generator
w_gear dw_gear T_gear P_CE P_fuel

Pb-Acid Electric Power Battery Balance
liter/100 km

x_tot

Battery Controller

Combustion Engine

Tank

Display: Fuel Consumption

The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines

Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

18

Approach: Overview
Focus Input: Drive Cycle Performance Simulation Generic Pure EV Output: Efficiency Graphs

Effect of using supercapacitors

Jeepney Driving Cycle

Battery and Supercapacitor Pure EV with supercapacitors Performance

Extended Jeepney Fuel Consumption SHEV Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Extended Jeepney SHEV Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Assumed Regular Driving Cycle

Generic SHEV

Parameter Space Exploration

Battery and Initial SHEV Supercapacitor Experiments with with supercapacitors Performance Extended Jeepney Regular Route Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

Approach: Overview
Focus Input: Drive Cycle Performance Simulation Generic Pure EV Output: Efficiency Graphs

Effect of using supercapacitors

Jeepney Driving Cycle

Battery and Supercapacitor Pure EV with supercapacitors Performance

Extended Jeepney Fuel Consumption SHEV Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Extended Jeepney SHEV Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Assumed Regular Driving Cycle

Generic SHEV

Parameter Space Exploration

Battery and Initial SHEV Supercapacitor Experiments with with supercapacitors Performance Extended Jeepney Regular Route Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

Results: Battery Performance
Generic Pure EV
Pure EV with Supercapacitors

The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines

Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

21

Results: Supercapacitor Performance

The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines

Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

22

Results: SHEV Fuel Consumption
Fuel Consumption (L/100 km) 30 25 20 15

10
5 0 0 1000 2000 3000 Time (sec) 4000 5000 6000

SHEV no supercapacitors

SHEV with supercapacitors

The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines

Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

23

Approach: Overview
Focus Input: Drive Cycle Performance Simulation Generic Pure EV Output: Efficiency Graphs

Effect of using supercapacitors

Jeepney Driving Cycle

Battery and Supercapacitor Pure EV with supercapacitors Performance

Extended Jeepney Fuel Consumption SHEV Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Extended Jeepney SHEV Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Assumed Regular Driving Cycle

Generic SHEV

Parameter Space Exploration

Battery and Initial SHEV Supercapacitor Experiments with with supercapacitors Performance Extended Jeepney Regular Route Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

Results: Battery Parameter Space
30
Fuel Consumption (L/100 km)

25 20 15 10 5 0
0 5000 10000 15000

TIme (s)
20 Ah 60 Ah
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines

30 Ah 70 Ah

40 Ah 80 Ah

50 Ah 90 Ah 25

Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

Approach: Overview
Focus Input: Drive Cycle Performance Simulation Generic Pure EV Output: Efficiency Graphs

Effect of using supercapacitors

Jeepney Driving Cycle

Battery and Supercapacitor Pure EV with supercapacitors Performance

Extended Jeepney Fuel Consumption SHEV Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Extended Jeepney SHEV Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Assumed Regular Driving Cycle

Generic SHEV

Parameter Space Exploration

Battery and Initial SHEV Supercapacitor Experiments with with supercapacitors Performance Extended Jeepney Regular Route Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

Results: Fuel Consumption
Fuel Consumption (L/100 km) 10
8 6 4

2
0 0 3000 6000 9000 Time (s) 12000 15000

Jeepney Driving Cycle Regular Route Driving Cycle

The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines

Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

27

Approach: Overview
Focus Input: Drive Cycle Performance Simulation Generic Pure EV Output: Efficiency Graphs

Effect of using supercapacitors

Jeepney Driving Cycle

Battery and Supercapacitor Pure EV with supercapacitors Performance

Extended Jeepney Fuel Consumption SHEV Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Extended Jeepney SHEV Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle with supercapacitors Assumed Regular Driving Cycle

Generic SHEV

Parameter Space Exploration

Battery and Initial SHEV Supercapacitor Experiments with with supercapacitors Performance Extended Jeepney Regular Route Fuel Consumption Driving Cycle
The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

Summary

▫ Supercapacitors reduce the strain in the batteries. ▫ Fuel consumption is improved when supercapacitors are used.

The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines

Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

29

Ongoing Research
Part 3: Linking Simulations
Input: Traffic Policies Multi-Agent Simulation
(NetLogo)

Drive Cycle

Performance Simulation
(MATLAB QSS)

Output: Efficiency Graphs

The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines

Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

30

Ongoing Research
Speed (m/s) 10 5 0 0 500 1000 1500 Time (sec) 2000 2500

Speed (m/s)

10 5 0

0

500

1000 1500 Time (sec)

2000

2500

The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines

Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

31

Ongoing Research

The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines

Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

32

Ongoing Research

The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines

Performance Evaluation of E-vehicles William F. Infante, Ateneo de Manila University

33

Performance Evaluation of Series Hybrid and Pure Electric Vehicles Using Lead-Acid Batteries and Supercapacitors
INFANTE, William F. KHAN, Aldrin F. LIBATIQUE, Nathaniel Joseph C. TANGONAN, Gregory L UY, Sherdon Nino Y.

The 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference: Sustainable Development through Humanitarian Technology (TENCON 2012), November 19-22, Philippines