Chapter I

Role of protection
by M.Kaufmann, revised by G.S.H.Jarrett


General considerations

The history of electrical-power technology throughout the world is one of steady and, in recent years, rapid progress, which has made it possible to design and construct economic and reliable power systems capable of satisfying the continuing growth in the demand for electrical energy. In this, power system protection and control play a significant part, and progress in design and development in these fields has necessarily had to keep pace with advances in the design of primary plant, such as generators, transformers, switchgear, overhead lines and underground cables, Indeed, progress in the fields of protection and control is a vital prerequisite for the efficient operation and continuing development of power supply systems as a whole, This work, in three volumes, deals with all the relevant aspects of protection in current British practice for generation, transmission and distribution systems, The subject matter has been divided into a number of discrete chapters covering, as completely as is necessary for the purpose of the work, general principles, design and performance and, by no means of least importance, application. The purpose of the present chapter is to provide the background knowledge necessary to a proper understanding of the aims and the role of protection in a power system. The word 'protection' is used here to describe the whole concept of protecting a power system. The term 'protective gear' (or 'protective equipment') is widely used in that sense: but here that term will be used in the narrower sense of the actual components used in achieving the desired protection. The function of protective equipment is not the preventive one its name would imply, in that it takes action only after a fault has occurred: it is the ambulance at the foot of the cliff rather than the fence at the top. Exceptions to this are the Buchholz protector, a gas-operated device which is capable of detecting the gas accumulation produced by an incipient fault in a power transformer, and the surge arrester which is designed to prevent a dangerous rise of potential, usually between


Role of protection

earth and the conductor or terminal to which it is connected. As commonly used, 'protective gear' refers to relay systems and does not embrace the surge arrester, the arc suppression coil and similar preventive devices.


Role of protection in a power system

We begin with this so that the subject can be seen in its proper perspective. It is fair to say that without discriminative protection it would be impossible to operate a modern power system. The protection is needed to remove as speedily as possible any element of the power system in which a fault has developed. So long as the fault remains connected, the whole system may be in jeopardy from three main effects of the fault, namely: (a) it is likely to cause the individual generators in a power station, or groups of generators in different stations, to lose synchronism and fall out of step with consequent splitting of the system; (b) a risk of damage to the affected plant; and (c) a risk of damage to healthy plant. There is another effect, not necessarily dangerous to the system, but important from the consumers' viewpoint, namely, a risk of synchronous motors in large industrial premises falling out of step and tripping out, with the serious consequences that entails loss of production and interruption of vital processes. It is the function of the protective equipment, in association with the circuit br0akers, to avert these effects. This is wholly true of large h.v. networks, or transmission systems. In the lower-voltage distribution systems, the primary function of protection is to maintain continuity of supply. This, in effect, is achieved incidentally tn transmission systems if the protection operates correctly to avert the effects mentioned above; indeed it must be so, because the ultimate aim is to provide 100 per cent continuity of supply. Obviously this aim cannot be achieved by the protection alone. In addition the power system and the distribution networks must be so designed that there are duplicate or multiple outlets from power sources to load centres (adequate generation may be taken for granted), and at least two sources of supply (feeders) to each distributing station. There are certain conventional ways of ensuring alternative supplies, as we shall see, but if full advantage is to be taken of their provision (always a costly matter) the protection must be highly selective in its functioning. For this tt must possess the quality known as discrimination, by virtue of which it is able to select and to disconnect only the faulty element in the power system, leaving all others in normal operation so far as that may be possible. With a few exceptions the detection and tripping of a faulty circuit is a very simple matter; the art and skill lie in selecting the faulty one, bearing in mind that many circuits - generators, transformers, feeders - are usually affected, and in much the same way by a given fault, This accounts for the multiplicity of relay types and systems in use. Other chapters will explain their intricacies.

2. 1. 1. Arrangement (c) is.2. In the more complex form of Fig. (b) and (c). In its simplest form (Fig. provides a satisfactory duplicate supply.t~. Arrangement ii I.. 1. and especially distribution systems.1A Radialsystem (c) ring systems (d) combinations of (a).a form suited to a transmission system .2.1 System layout Turning now to the matter of system layout. 1. power systems. unless there is a source of generation at each end (Fig.~ m m "• / Radial system Ring system Fig. 1. discriminative protection is needed to limit the extent of the dislocation of supply. in effect.. a logical extension of the idea of two parallel feeders.. with particular reference to the implications it has for protection. 1. can in general be arranged as: (a) radial feeders (b) parallel feeders Fig.Role of protection 3 1.2.1D with interconnecting (tie)lines and multiple power sources . When the ring is open the system reverts to one of two radial feeders.1B Typical applications of parallel feeders (b).1B.1C) it provides a duplicate supply to every substation.more sophisticated forms of protection are needed than would be acceptable for the simple ring .2 System and substation layout 1. provided that the ring is closed.2.2. Arrangement (a) does not satisfy the requirements of a duplicate supply.1A): nevertheless. two applications of which are shown in Fig.2.

(b) and (c). with which can be grouped switching stations. are to be fulfiUed. as already defined. p. In this form can be discerned also combinations of (a). and to which supplies are taken from generating stations and transformed in voltage. .2 Substation layout (electrical) This topic is relevant to the subject inasmuch as the electrical connections of a substation can affect the protection.2.2. albeit in minor and rather subtle ways. Fig. if necessary.1D Interconnected power system 1.4 Role of protection system if the aims of the protection. 1.2. for distribution. 1. are points in a power system where transmission lines or distribution feeders are marshalled for purposes of controlling load flow and general switching for maintenance purposes. Substations.1C Ring main system Fig.

2. 1. This occurs in the mesh-type substation (Fig.Role of protection 5 Although substations differ greatly in size. on to busbars (see Fig. 1.2t3).2A). Herein lies one of the ways in which protection is affected. location and function.switch mesh substation showng positions o f c. but the circuit breakers and ( A and B: line protection C and D: transformer protection Fig. like other elements. In this there are no busbars in the conventional sense. the feature they all have in common is the marshalling of all the associated circuits.2B Four.2A Typical busbar-type substation YY /L• Y / / The busbars are.2.2. cost and complexity according to voltage.2. 1. or switches. Their protection can be automatically provided by that of the individual circuits assembled at the substation. they have some degree of fault liability and must be protected. through circuit-breakers. construction. Fill.r. 1. next to the generators.¢ for circuit protection . the most important part of a system.

2. their interconnections and the \ \ NZ / \ Fig.6 Role of protection the connections between them form a 'ring' busbar.2C Four-switch mesh substation showing the arrangement of mesh-corner protection . that is the side of each circuit breaker remote from the tapping. Each circuit is tapped off this ring between two circuit breakers. If the current transformers are disposed in or near these circuit breakers on the outside. then both circuit breakers. 1.

In some types. 1. the transformer bushings and the outgoing feeder circuits.2A) which may be of the metal-clad type or of the 'open-type'. each by a circulating-current differential system of protection. also.3 Current transformer location In the conventional 'busbar' station (Fig. although not detectable by the busbar protection even if such is provided. At 275 kV and 400 kV. as shown in Fig. With this arrangement. and this requirement is usually met as far as faults between phases are concerned and very often faults between one or more phases and earth. The ideal is to locate current transformers on both sides of the circuit breaker. but in these cases there are disadvantages in that the cost is much greater and the overlapped zone is much larger. This ideal is easily attainable in SF6 and open-type bulk-oil installations. notably the outdoor open-type substation. the busbars cannot be embraced by the circuit protection.3. If the circuit side of the circuit breaker is chosen. In other types.v. bushings. the feeder protection is supplied from current transformers in the feeder circuits and the transformer protection (insofar as the h.1 System earthing Neutral-earthing methods It was mentioned earlier that there were a few exceptions to the thesis that fault detection and tripping were intrinsically a simple matter. such as metal-clad. Fault detection invariably relies on the presence of a significant amount of fault current. supplied from current transformers associated with the mesh circuit breakers.2. however.Role of protection 7 tapped circuit are all protected by any protective device connected to those current transformers. if the busbar side is chosen. which are busbar faults. the circuit breaker is included within the circuit protection. . indoor or outdoor. complications enter concerned with the method to be adopted to clear faults that occur between the current transformer and the circuit breaker. 1.2. there is usually no alternative to location on the circuit side. it is of course detected by the circuit protection but. the circuit breaker is left unprotected unless additional protection is provided exclusively for the busbars. 1. current transformers are concerned) from current transformers in the transformer h. there is a choice of current transformer location. although it trips its own circuit breaker the fault remains on its busbar side. and to allocate those on the circuit side to the busbar protection and those on the busbar side to the circuit protection. In this way the circuit breaker is in the zone overlapped by both. 1. It can be done in airblast and low-oil installations also.v.2.2C. In this latter case.3 1. it is now usual for the busbars (mesh-corner connections) of four-switch mesh-type substations to be separately protected.

Among the technical reasons are: (a) The floating potential on the lower voltage (secondary and tertiary) windings is held to a harmless value. it is still useful to earth the neutral point. (c) By controlling the magnitude of the earth-fault current. shown in Fig. the reason being that the value of th( earth-fault current is governed by the method adopted ofearthing the power-systert star (neutral) point. The economic reason applies only at very high voltages where. 1. in which a resistor is interposed between the star-point . 1.' (b) Resistance-earthing. (b) Arcing faults to earth do not set up dangerously high voltages on the healthy phases. (d) A useful amount of earth-fault current is available On most cases) to operate normal protection. the voltage-to-earth of any sound phase does not exceed 80 per cent of the voltage between phases of the system. This is almost universal at 100 kV and above.1A Neutral Earthing methods These reasons sufficiently explain the methods commonly used in neutral earthing. by directly (solidly) earthing the neutral point of a transformer.8 Role of protection The exceptions concern earth-faults alone.3. There are several reasons both technical and economic for 'earthing the neutral' of a power system. apart from satisfying the requirements of the Electricity Regulations.1A.3. which are: (a) Solid-earthing (already mentioned) in which the only impedance between the neutral and earth is that represented by the earthing conductor itself and the resistance between the earth-plate (or rods) and earth. inductive interference between power and communication circuits can be controlled. An internationally accepted definition of a solidly earthed system is 'an effectively-earthed' system which is defined as one 'in which. it is permissible to grade the thickness of the winding insulation downwards towards the neutral point. Even when the ground resistance itself is high. Solid ~ctance T Resistance Fig. during a phase-to-earth fault.

1. . the value of the capacitance to earth of two phases with the third phase connected solidly to earth. ' ± n J B(E) I1% I Y~ I ~ R ~ %A R + Icy l CR rj .~ ~ R - Y "~ V Ol i. Fig. lp (. Arc-suppression (Petersen) cot earthing.7.lp I "l"c "e" s J-C =I" .~7////7///H .. In this way the reactive component of the capacitive current flowing in the connection to earth formed by the fault is neutralized by the coil current._L. shown on blue phase. Reactance-earthing (also non-effective).. "T'.. _.. = Distributed phase-to-earth capacitance o f the system network / N ~ Icy NOTE: The conditions s h o w n are those existing with the switch 'S' open.rv-r~. in which a reactor is used instead of a resistor.1B Principle o f the arc-suppression coil with supplementary eerthing resistance .4TDI 91Lr. ~//I. I I I I I T I I i B __ ~ System network I I / / / [ / ~'-- 6.~I • ~ t. or to control inductive interference. is sustained for longer than the setting o f time-lag relay. ICR and I c y being the total distributed phase-to-earth capacitance currents in phases R and Y respectively. more or less exactly. .I S 4fJ ('lose ^rc suppression coil . the converse of effective earthing. " I I I I '0 I [ [ I e .3. which flows in the same path but is displaced in phase by 180 ° from the capacitive current (see Fig. .r-~ 1. I I I lI ? I I earthing IL • n l ! ~• l I I / v resistor "" 1 JE .Role of protection 9 (c) (d) and earth. J .1B).=i 1 1 1I/ . in which a reactor is used but its reactance is adjusted to match.3.I .. The switch 'S' closes if the earth fault. The reactance 0ike the resistance of the resistor) is chosen to suit the requirements of the protection.T. The coilreactance is adjustable in relatively coarse steps.0. This is also known as 'non-effective' earthing. which is the predominant requirement. 1.. to allow for variations in system zero-sequence capacitance Supply generator or transformer N .

and double phase-to-earth (phase-phase-earth). Faults sometimes occur simultaneously at separate points on the system and on different phases (cross-country faults).4 1. it can be protected by a sensitive non-discriminative fault detector. the secondary winding of which is loaded by a resistor such that the maximum stator earth-fault current is limited to between 10 and 15 amps.3. A typical value of resistor directly connected between the stator star-point and earth is one that limits the current to a maximum of 300 A. system. adjustable up to 30 s. but the principal ones are common to all kinds of plant. 1. 1. Earthing through a combination of arc suppression coil and resistor. in most cases. after a delay. or may even take the form of a broken conductor without earthconnection. Sometimes they are accompanied by a broken conductor.1 Faults Faults and other abnormalities Power systems are subject to many kinds of faults. for a fault at full phase-to-neutral voltage. an alternative method now frequently applied to the larger machines (500 MW and above) is to earth the stator star-point through the primary winding of a single-phase transformer.2 Special cases of resistanee-earthing A value commonly used for earthing-resistors is one that limits the earth-fault current. a much higher value of resistance is permissible. provided that precautions are taken to ensure that it does not respond to any third harmonic currents normally present in the neutral earth-connection. the coil is automatically shunted by a resistor of low value which permits adequate earth-fault current to flow to operate orthodox discriminative protection. 1. As it is not desired that the fault should remain indefinitely on the system. This serves the purposes already enumerated.lB.v. However. and indeed desirable in the interest of avoiding damage to the iron-core of the generator stator in the event of an earth-fault.4. In certain cases. The principal types are: threephase with and without earth connection.10 Role of protection (e) resulting from the switching out of circuits. phase-toearth (single-phase).3. The resistor and its associated circuit-breaker are seen in Fig. to a value equal to the rated current of the transformer winding whose neutral it earths. in particular that of the generator star-point in a generatortransformer combined unit. in which a persistent earth-fault on one phase is 'suppressed' by the coil. All of these appertain to lines and feeders. phase-to-phase (two-phase). Because the generator winding and its associated transformer lowervoltage winding form a separately earthed electrical circuit only magnetically linked with the h. .

that is. or between phase conductors and earth or any earthed screens surrounding the conductors. so called because it defines an operation of protection which results in the tripping of circuit breakers without an accompanying fault on the primary system. ice and snow loading. mechanical damage. lightning. faulty or incorrect connection. for example incorrect settings. as already indicated. 1. abnormal loading: in machines. The accurate electrical analysis of possible fault conditions is vital to the correct design and application of protection and this subject is accordingly treated in some detail in Chapter 3.Role of protection 11 Generators. transformers and motors are subject in addition to short-circuits between turns of the same winding. until it results either in an excess current or in a reduction of the impedance between conductors.4. aircraft. Another kind of fault is the 'non-system' fault. (b) any operation in error of a circuit breaker or isolator. a reduction is not regarded as a fault until it is detectable. A system fault. flashover in air caused by overvoltage. open-circuit conductors. although it reduces the insulation strength of the affected phase. or. abnormal loading. does not become a fault until it causes a flashover across the string.2 Nature and causes of faults The nature of a fault is simply defined as any abnormal condition which causes a reduction in the basic insulation strength between phase conductors.phase system (with which we are mainly concerned). to a value below that of the lowest load impedance normal to the circuit. In practice. and by salt deposited by wind-borne sea-spray in coastal areas. punctured or broken insulators. accidental contact with earth or earthed screens. which in turn produces excess current or other detectable abnormality: for example. or is the result of. All incidents arising from these causes are so-called 'primary' or 'system' faults. cables and transformers-failure of solid insulation because of moisture. all of the faults listed represent unbalanced conditions in a three. Thus a high degree_of pollution on an insulator string. a fault (covering both 'system' and 'nonsystem' faults) is arbitrarily defined as: (a) any abnormal event causing or requiring the automatic tripping of a circuit breaker. Such non-system faults may be the result of defects in the protection. Pollution is commonly caused by deposited soot or cement dust in industrial areas. or between conductors and earth. failure of primary electrical equipment and which requires the disconnection of the affected equipment from the system by the . or they may result from human error in testing or maintenance work. abnormal current in an arc-suppression coil. fog. Other causes of faults are: on overhead lines-birds. is defined as any fault or system abnormality which involves. For the purposes of statistical analysis. With the exception of the three-phase short-circuit with or without earth connection.

any incident in which one or more of the circuit breakers required to trip fails to do so is also classed as an incorrect operation. similarly. the fault being classed as a system fault if the alarm is genuine and as a non-system fault if it is not. .4. to provide a means of assessing the protection performance achieved on an annual basis.~ / A ~ where A F = total number of system faults in year under consideration = number of system faults incorrectly cleared non-system fault performance index = 100 (C-E)/C% where C E -. being defined as follows: discriminative system-fault performance index = lOO ( A . However. such information being of particular value to those responsible for the design and application of protection.3 Fault statistics It is an important part of the protection management function that records should be kept of all protection operations. Any incident in which one or more circuit breakers are tripped in addition to those which control the faulted circuit is classed as an incorrect operation. however. A non-system fault is formally defmed as any incorrect circuit-breaker operation resulting from a cause other than a system-fault condition. one for system-fault performance and the other for non-system-fault performance. as are faults resulting from manual or automatic reclosure on to persistent system faults. the fault clearance is still considered correct if the requisite circuit breakers are tripped by back-up protection and even if the wrong relay or protective system operates to bring about the tripping of the correct circuit breakers. Simultaneous system faults in different protective-gear zones are counted as separate incidents. Such assessment requires the adoption of suitable yardsticks by which performance can be measured and compared. the manual operation of a circuit-breaker on receipt of a voltage-transformer Buchholz alarm in order to disconnect the voltage transformer from the system is classed as a fault since such disconnection is obligatory. incorrect circuit-breaker operations due to incorrect manual operation from a control point. both correct and incorrect.t2 Role of protection tripping of the associated circuit number of circuit breakers installed on the power system under consideration = number of non-system-fault circuit-breaker operations attributable to protection in the year under consideration A system fault is counted as correctly cleared if it results in the disconnection of the faulted item of plant or equipment from the system without the tripping of any circuit breakers other than those whose tripping is essential to the clearance of the fault from the system. 1. This definition excludes. Thus. the two principal indices.

2% 10 514 98.3B Distribution of system faults on the UK electricity system over a typical five-year period Type of plant or equipment concerned Overhead line and cable circuits Transformers and reactors Generators and generator transformers Busbars and switchgear Other plant (motors. compensators.Role of protection Table 1. etc.9% and a non-system-fault performance index of 98.6% 9 737 97-6% 429 95. over the five-yearperiod.4.) Year 1 435 91 89 50 7 2 460 100 75 32 11 3 293 102 66 31 13 4 269 49 65 33 13 5 174 32 51 27 11 . again for the five consecutive years of the same five-year period.8% 505 95.2% 9 252 98.3A provides system-fault and non-system-fault performance information for five consecutive years of a typical five-year period for the UK electricity system.9% 9 252 98-6% 295 92.3B provides an indication of the distribution of system faults over the different types of plant and equipment concerned.3A 13 System and non-system fault performance indices for the UK electricity system over a typical five-year period Year Statistic 1 2 3 4 5 Total number of system faults Discriminative systemfault performance index 672 94. Table 1. on average.6% 9 784 97.2%.6% Total number of circuit breakers installed Non-system fault performance index Table 1. a discriminative system-fault performance index of 94. It will be noted that. the information relates to the 400 kV and 275 kV systems together with some lower voltage circuits. approximately 70% of system faults occurred on overheadline and cable circuits.4.4. It will be noted that the gtven figures indicate average values of 516 system faults per year.3% 678 96.4. Table 1.

3C Causes of failure or maloperation of protection during system and non-system faults on the UK electricity system over a typical five-year period Year Cause of failure or maloperation Failures or maloperations which might have been prevented by maintenance Testing Incorrect installation Physical interference Electrical interference Mechanical shock or vibration Intrinsic design or comp orient fault Incorrect setting Mechanical failure Nature of system fault Other causes .Total 1 2 3 4 5 20 12 23 17 15 14 19 9 6 11 40 186 36 10 25 23 11 4 21 12 6 2 41 191 16 13 12 23 12 4 14 11 7 7 36 155 12 20 10 14 10 3 10 15 2 6 28 130 25 6 7 13 15 2 16 3 6 2 21 116 . within the limitations of resources. however. the presence of foreign particles. having regard to the need.. and these factors receive particular attention in more detailed analysis of protection performance statistics. The importance of effective maintenance is emphasised in the Table.4. Such analysis plays an important role in helping to identify and rectify particular deficiencies and limitations with consequent benefit to the achievement of the desired aim of maximum possible reliability and security of the protection and of the power system which it protects.3C provides an analysis of the causes of failure or maloperation of protection under system and non-system fault conditions. again for the five consecutive years of the same five-year period. No less important than maintenance. is the need to ensure correct design.14 Roleof protection Table 1. maximum reliability and correct application of protection. the sticking of contacts and Insulation failure.4. to reduce preventable protection failures and maloperations to an absolute minimum. corrosion. Table 1. The failures and maloperations which might have been prevented by timely maintenance include those resulting from such causes as loss of calibration or adjustment.

Many discriminative systems of the latter kind in. from the moment that a detectable fault occurs. so that it responds only to a specific type of fault condition. The same is true of instability. all of which respond to a given abnormal condition.5 Basic terms used in protection 15 Although the meaning of most of the terms used is self-evident. and hence stability. or on that of nullifying the effects of the entering current (or power) by those of the current (or power) leaving the zone. Again discrimination is of two kinds. It is the quality where a relay or protective system is enabled to pick out and cause to be disconnected only the faulty element. whether load .Role of protection 1. than it is under transient conditions. In short. in the main. which helps to assure stability in the onerous transient period of the fault current duration. have already been defined. tion. Their discrimination is not absolute. Non-unit systems on the other hand can respond to faults anywhere on the power system to which they are applied. and this applies both to unit and to non-unit systems. Thus failure to balance or to nullify properly produces instability if the fault is outside the protected zone. under steady state conditions.01 s for a power system of 50 Hz. it is a quality that only unit systems can possess because they are required to remain inoperative under all conditions associated with faults outside their own zone. Strictly speaking. Bias makes use of the 'through-current'. but stability is associated only with unit systems. sometimes called selectivity. Unit systems. They are able to detect and respond to an abnormal condition occurring only with the zone or the element they are specifically intended to protect. The term stability is often used to describe the quality of a protective system by virtue of which it remains inoperative under specified conditions usually associated with high values of fault current. It is for this reason that many unit systems incorporate a bias feature. some. these are the nonunit systems. In this context a transient condition is roughly the first half-cycle that is 0. in one it refers to the ability of a device to discriminate as to the type of fault. that is the current flowing into and out of the zone. both kinds of system possess the quality of discrimination. such as the different classes of fault. and operation if it is within it. it will help in understanding the chapters that follow to define some of the more basic ones. these are the unit systems. Others are said to have dependent (or relative)discrimination. in the other it refers to the ability of the device to discriminate as to the location of the fault. In the wide range of discriminative systems to be dealt with in succeeding chapters some are said to have absolute discrimination. they respond positively and are able to discriminate only because their responses are co-ordinated. corporate devices of the first-mentioned kind. Thus they cannot be said to remain stable under any fault conditions. operate either on the principle of balancing the currents entering and leaving the protected zone. The fundamental quality that all protection must possess is that of discrimina. being dependent on the correlated or co-ordinated responses of a number of (generally) similar systems. It is a much easier matter to achieve good balance.

This refers to the level of fault current at which operation occurs. or as a percentage of the rated current of the current transformers. Thus faults that occur between the current transformers and circuit breaker. for the same purpose. for a unit system. to exert a restraining effect or a counter torque on the moving member of the relay. Another property which. have. or by back-up protection.6 Necessity for back-up protection There are two reasons for applying back-up protection to the elements of a power system. for a non-unit system.6A.6B in which the back-up protection at A acts as back-up for a fault at X. a 3. that is one with a reduced VA consumption and a given current setting.6A. 1. in Fig. 1. but that of a unit system is. is sensitivity.6B and 1. The second is to cover those parts of a protected circuit (or element) which are not covered by the main protection by reason of the location of the current or the voltage transformers. in other words. 1. notably differential systems for transformer protection. or at least with the minimum of dislocation of supply or of circuits. thus a 1. To show that the confusion has more than a verbal significance it may be mentioned that the sensitivity of a system is often improved by using a more sensitive relay. and. along with stability and operating time. of harmonic currents present in the primary current when a transformer is switched on to the system. 1.6A) not cleared for any reason by the 'main protection' . are outside the zone of the circuit protection and can be dealt with either by the busbar protection (which is usual in the transmission system.0 VA relay is more sensitive than. 1. is expressed as the apparent power in voltamperes required to cause its operation. the zone lying between the current transformers and the point or points on the protected circuit beyond which the system is unable to detect the presence of a fault.0 VA relay. 1. not cleared for any reason by the circuit breaker at C. In other words the sensitivity of a relay is not reduced by reducing the current setting. serves to elasslfy a unit protective system. a harmonic-bias which makes use. This is exemplified in Fig. To understand this function of back-up protection it is necessary to explain that with every protective installation there is associated a 'protected zone' which is def'med.6C illustrate this. it is the fault setting and is usually expressed either in amperes referred to the primary circuit. as distinct from a system. The sensitivity of a relay. but less so in the distribution systems). Figs. One is the obvious one of 'backing-up' the main protection to ensure that in the event of its failure the fault will be cleared with complete discrimination. but it may well be worsened by reducing the current setting and maintaining the VA. say. The term is apt to be confused with a property of the relays used in both unit and non-unit systems. or a fault at Y. Some systems.16 Roleof protection current or through-fault current. This is known as load-bias. A fault between A and B (Fig. in addition to load-bias. for example. as the zone lying between the two or several sets of current transformers which together with the relays constitute the protective system. The latter in performing that function would be acting as 'remote back-up'.

but the 'reach' of the back-up protection is more limited in the latter case.up protection.6C Application o f a non-unit system o f protection (distance protection with the voltage transformer on the fine side o f the isolator) and the standby protection zone o f the normally shorted standby protection These functions of local and remote back-up do not necessarily require protection additional to the main protection. Unit systems. on the other hand. 1 . This is true of both graded-time and distance protection.6B Protected and back-up zones o f a non-unit system o f protection (distance protection) S t a n d b y p r o t e c t i o n zone~ir. This does . . . ~ Be . . . If the latter is of the non-unit type. 1. . it possesses an inherent back-up feature. 6 A Protected zone o f • unit system o f protection Fig. do not possess a back-up feature and must therefore be supplemented by additional protection of a non-unit type. In this instance the latter would be acting as 'local back-up'. .Role of protection 17 must also be cleared at A (assuming for simplicity a single infeed) by back..--# /-. k p m="l - - - Line Voltage t r a n s f o r m e r I. Fig. 1. A = Main p r o t e c t i o n relay B = S t a n d b y p r o t e c t i o n relay Fig.

It should be noted.1. In the distribution systems. Up to a point the decision is fairy easy. with segregated connecting leads and separate fuses for the d. General The cost of protection can be likened to a premium for insurance against damage to plant. The term 'back-up protection' is not synonymous with 'standby protection'. 1. back-up protection should be independent of the main protection. or there may be only one equipment selectable to any one of several circuits. trip coils. trip circuits) to achieve the same objective. or the use of some measure of duplication of vital components (e. there is an economic limit to the amount that can be spent on such insurance. As in other spheres. to ensure that the risks in question are suitably covered by adequate back-up protection. the importance of achieving acceptable main-protection performance and of minimising dependence on slower and possibly less discriminative back-up protection now commonly requires the provision of two sets of main protection. The latter term is appropriately used to describe protection that is normally out-ofservice with the intention that it should be made operational when the main protection has to be taken out of commission for maintenance or for investigation. however.c.g. in distribution systems it may be sufficient to apply it only at strategic points in the system. circuit. Beyond that point the economic aspect takes in such questions as the speed at which faults shall be . and it is a difficult matter to decide what is the right amount. tripping relays and. Often there are current transformers provided for instrumentation and these can be designed to supply in addition overcurrent back-up relays. relays. in some cases. that such standby protection is now rarely used.7. the risks attending the use of common components are generally less serious. for example on feeder circuits. in general. As far as possible. or it may be transportable and taken to any site where it is needed for the purpose mentioned. with as few common components as possible.7 Economic considerations 1. and that point is reached when the requirement that all faulty equipment must be removed by automatic protection is met. it being more appropriate. batteries. At such higher transmission voltages it is also now common practice. but it is prudent to segregate the current circuits. In the transmission system only the tripping battery and the voltage transformer are common to both. each has its own set of current transformers.18 Role of protection not mean that every circuit must necessarily have independent back-up. to employ circuitbreaker-fail protection designed to ensure satisfactory fault clearance in the event of failure of a circuit breaker to trip in response to a trip signal. Standby protection may therefore take the form of fLxed equipment allocated to each set of main protection. but in the transmission system it is essential to apply it to all circuit breakers. At the higher transmission voltages of 400 kV and 275 kV. and loss of supply and of consumer goodwill. particularly at 400 kV.

up protection can be much simpler and often inherent in the main protection. pilot wires are not unduly expensive if laid with the cables and can be considered to enable unit systems to be used when speedy clearance is needed. In consequence. Back.3 Transmission systems In this domain. and the reduced importance that this naturally gives to these components. are much more costly than non-unit systems. but that it comes second in order of priority. for example. A high degree of reliability is desirable. This equipment is very comprehensive. 1.2 Distribution systems In these. 1. the emphasis must of necessity be on technical rather than economic considerations. It will be convenient to discuss their implications separately for the two cases. fully discriminative. even elaborate. It has importance. Metal-clad construction reduces the risk of interphase faults. The necessity for highly reliable.Role of protection 19 cleared. pilot circuits. can be provided. High-speed clearance and the exigencies of auto-reclosing usually necessitate the use of a unit system which. Safety requirements are neither more nor less important than they are in distribution systems. as in cables outgoing from the larger bulksupply points. and the degree of reliability demanded from the protection. in cable systems where the fault current is high. and various imponderables such as the degree of risk that may be taken in leaving out some fault conditions. transformers and feeders. the economic factor comes near to overriding the technical mainly on account of the very large number of switching and distribution points. the degree of security inherent in the system itself. Fuses can often be used instead of circuit breakers and protective equipment. All these considerations are economic. Speed of fault clearance is not as important a factor as it is in the transmission system where system stability is involved. as compared with the transmission system.7. with the possible exception of those based on the use of rented P. the availability of or the relative ease with which auxiliary pilot channels. Because the cable runs are relatively short. but they are more than adequately satisfied as a by-product of the provision of equipment to meet the fundamental need defined above. but they have different weightings when applied to distribution and transmission systems. however. This is not to say that the economic aspect can be ignored. high-speed protection is absolute in the context of 275 kV and 400 kV transmission systems.7. but the elaboration is . the protection may be the barest minimum consistent with safety requirements as laid down in the appropriate statutory regulations.O. but the consequences of a mal-operation or a failure to operate are in general less serious than those of a like kind in transmission systems.

v. to employ appropriate duplication of protective measures. 1. The need for thoroughly sound. for example. Good protection must be based on sound engineering principles. and even more by the high costs incurred when. The elaboration results from the already stated need. 1975) Developments in power system protection (IEE Conf. Publ. as in busbar protection for example. 1975) . particulady at the higher transmission voltages. as well as being a factor in all sound engineering. line outages compel the running of low merit generating plant. and from the provision of other facilities such as circuit-breaker-fail protection. from appropriate use of equipment redundancy in the interests of protection security. for example by the provision of two sets of fully discriminative protection for feeder circuits. comprehensive and reliable protection is therefore paramount.8 Bibliography Books The protective gear handbook by F E Wellman (Pitman) Protective relays application guMe (GEC Measurements.20 Role of protection amply justified by the very high capital costs of the elements it protects. 125. power system. The economic factor enters in determining what is practicable. and this implies that the element of risk to security of supply is reduced to the lowest practicable level. It has already been said that without discriminative protection it would be impossible to opexate a large modem h.