3/30/2014

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LEADERSHIP SKILLS
“The future of the leadership is to produce more leaders not followers”
Ralph Nader
“On a journey the leader of a people is their servant”
Muhammad Peace be upon him
Prepared By:
Dr. Ashraf S. Youssef
Tea Break 11:00  – 11:30
Lunch & Prayer Break 13:00 – 14:00
Know your self before you start 11:30 – 13:00
Leadership Style 14:00 – 16:00
Manager Vs Leader 08:30 ‐ 11:00
AGENDA
Empowerment and Succession Planning  16:00 – 17:00
Wrap up 17:00 – 17:30
Manager Vs Leader 08:30 ‐ 11:00
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Supervisors, Managers and Leaders are similar in 
some aspects and different in others. In your 
opinion, what are similarities and differences? 
Should organization focus on leaders or 
managers? Whish more important for 
organization success and why?
Is leadership are acquired skill Why? And 
Why not?
Managing & Leadership Exercise 
Leadership is;
 Always at the top
 Obtainable by title
 A rare skill
 Requires inborn charisma
 The same as management
 An inborn trait
Learning to Lead; Bennis & Gold Smith, 1994
Myths about Leadership
Leadership is;
 Effective leadership is getting people to do 
what you want.
 Leaders must seduce the lead to follow.
 Effective leaders follow specific model of 
ideal leadership.
 Leadership is the exclusive province of 
exceptional people.
 Leaders stir the souls of followers with their 
rousing oratory
More Myths about Leadership
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Manager
Managers are persons appointed positions of 
authority who enable others to do their work 
effectively, who have responsibility for resource 
utilization (People, Materials, Equipment) and who 
are accountable for work results.
Leader
Leadership is one of the roles that a manager needs 
to exercise. By executing the leadership role, 
managers get things done through people. 
A Manager Vs a Leader
Management Vs Leadership
Team 
Goal
Team 
Goal
Controlling
Directing
Organizing
Planning
Coaching
Rewarding
Recognition
Motivation
Team 
Building
Management Leadership
Planner
Organizer
Coordinator
Performance Coach
Day to day problem solver
Day to day boundary spanner
Get the work of organization 
done through others
Say “Go!”
Visionary
Challenger
Inspirer
Developer of people
Modeler & articulator of 
company values
Causes people to want to 
follow
Says “Let’s GO!”
Some Differences
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Management Leadership
Efficiency
Routine
System / People
Specialists
Problem Solving
Training
Left Brain
Effectiveness
Change / Crises
People / System
Generalist
Creativity
Development
Right Brain
More Differences
Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere
Logic
Reasoning
Language
Numbers (Data)
Analysis
Linearity
Rhythm
Music
Imagination
Images
Color
Smell
Feelings
Shape
Shape Recognition
Creativity
The Human brain
Tea Break 11:00 – 11:30
3/30/2014
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Know your self before you start 11:30 – 13:00
As a process, Leadership is the use of 
non coercive influence to direct and 
coordinate the activities of group 
members to meet a goal
As a property, Leadership is a set of 
characteristics attributed to those who 
are precived to use such influence 
successfully. 
Leadership: Definition 
Leadership is;  
a cluster of knowledge, skills and attitude.
a competency
Leadership: Definition 
Values
Knowledge
Skills
Attitude
Ethics
Discipline
Respect
Courtesy
Values
Takes a year to 
be developed
Observed & 
Learned
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Practices of Exemplary Leaders
Inspire a 
Vision
Model the 
way
Enable 
others to 
act
Encourage 
the Heart
Challenge 
the 
Process
The Top 4 Characteristics of Admired Leader
Being honest
— Worthy of trust
— Truthful, ethical, principled
— Have integrity
— Practice what they preach; Model the way (walk the talk)
— Take a stand on important principles
Being forward‐looking
— A sense of direction and a concern for the future
— A vision, a dream, a goal, a personal agenda
— Clarity of purpose / direction
— A well defined orientation towards the future
Being inspiring
— Enthusiastic, energetic and positive about the future
— Inspire followers' confidence in validity of goal
— Display passion for cause
Being competent
— Capable and effective
— Record of achievements
— Functional and technical competence
How do you know yourself
The Myers –Briggs Type Indicators (MBTI)
The purpose of the Myers‐Briggs Type Indicator
®
(MBTI
®
) personality inventory is to make the 
theory of psychological types described by C. G. Jung understandable and useful in people’s 
lives. 
The essence of the theory is that much seemingly random variation in the behavior is actually 
quite orderly and consistent, being due to basic differences in the ways individuals prefer to 
use their perception and judgment.
Favorite world: Do you prefer to focus on the outer world or on your own inner world? This is 
called Extraversion (E) or Introversion (I).
Information: Do you prefer to focus on the basic information you take in or do you prefer to 
interpret and add meaning? This is called Sensing (S) or Intuition (N).
Decisions: When making decisions, do you prefer to first look at logic and consistency or first 
look at the people and special circumstances? This is called Thinking (T) or Feeling (F).
Structure: In dealing with the outside world, do you prefer to get things decided or do you 
prefer to stay open to new information and options? This is called Judging (J) or Perceiving (P). 
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The Leadership Journey
“Leaders are people who are able to express themselves
fully…they know who they are, what their strengthens and
compensate for their weaknesses. They also know what they
want, why they want it, and how to communicate what they
want to others in order to gain compensation and support.
Finally, they know how to achieve their goals. The key to full
self expression is understanding one’s self and the world,
and the key to understanding is learning…from one’s own life
and experience”
Warren Bennis
Lunch & Prayer Break 13:00 – 14:00
Leadership Style 14:00 – 16:00
3/30/2014
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Theories of Leadership (Trait approach)
1940’s but as recent as 1989’s
Leadership requires;
Presence of traits, and
Absence of flaws
Traits (Must be present);
 Drive (achievement, ambitious, energy, 
initiative)
 Leadership motivation (The desire to 
lead)
 Honesty and integrity
 Self confidence
 Cognitive ability
 Knowledge of the business
Flaws (Must be lacking);
 Incentive to others
 Cold, aloof, arrogant
 Untrustworthily
 Overly ambitious
 Inability to delegate
Weaknesses of Trait approach
Lake of consensus
 Every study produces a different set of traits
Relative significance of traits is unclear
Confounds cause and effect
 e.g., self confidence make one a leader vs. being a leader makes one self 
confidence.
Ambiguous meaning
 e.g., what does assertive really mean?
Ignores situational factors
Ignores the needs of the followers
Behavioral Theories
Ohio State 1940’s
Structure Consideration
University of Michigan1960’s
Production orientation Employee orientation
Blake & Mouton (1964)
P
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
 
o
r
i
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n
Employee 
orientation
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The Leadership grid (1964)
Created primarily as a consulting tool to apply the Ohio state findings.
The leadership grid evaluate leadership behavior along two dimensions;
A. Concern of production
B. Concern of people
This approach suggests that effective leadership styles include high level of both 
behaviors.
C
o
n
c
e
r
n
 
o
f
 
p
e
o
p
l
e
Concern of Production
9 1:9 9:9
8
7
6
5 5:5
4
3
2
1 1:1 9:1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
9:9 Team Management
1:9 Country Club 
Management
5:5 Middle of the road 
Management
9:1 Task Management
1:1 Impoverished 
Management
Situational Leadership (1964 ‐ 1993)
“there is no single all purpose leadership style. Successful leaders are those who 
can adapt their behavior to meet the demands of their own unique situation”
Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard
Hersey and Blanchard model of leadership identifies combinations of leadership 
presumed to work best with different levels of individual development and 
organizational maturity on the part of followers.
Competence
Task
Knowledge
Skills
Commitment
Motivation
Confidence
Maturity
Situation’s Maturity Level
Maturity Levels and Leadership Styles
Directive
 One Way 
Communication
 Task Oriented
Supportive
 Two Way 
Communications
 Relationship Oriented
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Situational Leadership & Leadership Styles
Situational Leadership
 A leader must analyze each situation and choose the appropriate 
action to accomplish the mission.
 What must I do in this situation to best lead my people
Leadership Styles
 It’s a pattern of behavior you use when you are trying to influence 
the behaviors of others as perceived by them,
 It involves problem solving and decision making processes
The Six Leadership Styles
Commanding Visionary Affinitive Democratic Pacesetting Coaching
The leader’s 
modus operandi
Demands
immediate 
compliance
Mobilizes people 
towards a vision
Creates harmony 
and builds 
emotional bonds
Forges consensus 
through 
participation
Sets high 
standards for
performance
Develops people 
for the future 
the style in a 
phrase
Do what I tell you  Come with me People come first What do you 
think
Do I do now  Try this 
Underlying
emotional 
intelligence
competencies 
Drive to achieve 
initiative, self‐
control
Self‐confidence 
empathy, change 
catalyst
Empathy building 
relationships, 
communication 
Collaboration 
team leadership, 
communication
Conscientious 
drive to achieve 
initiative
Developing other, 
empathy self 
awareness  
When the style
works best
In a crisis, to kick
start a 
turnaround, or
with problem
employees
When changes
require a new 
vision, or when a 
clear direction in 
needed
To heal rifts in a 
team or to 
motivate people 
during stressful 
circumstances 
To build buy‐in or
consensus, or to 
get input from
valuable 
employees
To get quick
results froma 
highly motivated 
and competent
team
To help employee 
improve 
performance or
develop long‐
term strengths
Overall impact on
climate
Highly negative 

Most strongly 
positive
+++
Positive 
+
Positive 
+
Highly negative

Positive 
+
Types of Leaders
 Leader by the position achieved
 Leader by personality, charisma 
 Leader by moral example
 Leader by power held
 Intellectual leader
 Leader because of ability to accomplish things
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What does it all mean?
 Leaders need to provide their people with what 
they can’t do for themselves at the present 
moment.
 The effectiveness of a leader is based on the 
accuracy of the match between style and 
development level.
What happens if we have a mismatch 
of style with development level?
Emotional Intelligence (EI)
Emotional Intelligence;
 A group of five skills that enable the best leaders to 
maximize their own and their followers’ 
performance.
 When senior managers at one company had a 
critical mass of EI capabilities, their divisions 
outperformed yearly earnings goals by 20%.
 The 5 skills are; 
 Self‐awareness, 
 Self‐regulation, 
 Motivation, 
 Empathy and 
 Social skills.  HBR 1998.
Empowerment and Succession Planning 16:00 – 17:00
3/30/2014
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From autocracy to empowerment
L
L
L
L
Involved 
Autocratic 
Participative 
Empowering 
What empowerment is 
 Providing employees the power, the skills, the supervision, the 
organization structure, the confidence, and the motivation to 
function at their optimal potential.
 It is a state both parties reach‐ not an activity one does to 
another!!!
What empowerment is not 
 Turning the company over to the employees
 Less supervision of employees
 Doing away with all organization structures
 Tricking employees into working harder
 A rehash of:
Quality circles 
Participative management
Job enrichment
Flattening organizational structures 
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Empowering works will not 
 Result in less work 
 Make anyone’s job easier
 Solve all of the problems at work 
 Eliminate the need for managers and supervisors 
 End all conflicts 
 Make everyone happy 
Empowering workers might 
 Increase employee satisfaction
 Raise productivity (30% average)
 Strengthen commitment to the job & the organization
 Increase individual effort toward organizational goals 
 Heighten employee motivation 
 Improve quality 
Henri Fayol (1841_1925)
 Among the very first writers to recognize in his classic fourteen points of monument 
that, “management has a responsibility to ensure the stability of tenure of employee. 
If that need is ignored, key positions will be filled by ill‐prepared people”
Jack Welch, CEO, General Electric, 1991
 “from now on, choosing my successor is the most important decision I’ll make. It 
occupies a considerable amount of thought almost everyday”.
Wayne Calloway, Chairman, PepsiCo
 “I’ll bet most of the companies that are in life‐or‐death battles got into that kind of 
trouble because they didn’t pay attention to developing their leaders”
The Role of Succession Planning In Leadership
3/30/2014
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THANK YOU
wish you a great success
“When travelling in a journey, even if there are only three
of you, make one a leader”
Muhammad Peace be upon him