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CHAPTER 2 MECHANICAL TESTING OF MATERIALS
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MECHANICAL TESTING OF MATERIALS Terminology ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Tensile Strength Ductility Hardness Toughness Malleability

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TENSILE STRENGTH
♦ Also known as Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) or engineering stress and it is the ratio of the maximum load divided by the original cross-sectional area of the test specimen
Tensile strength Maximum load or force
=

Original cross-sectional area

Unit: N/mm2 or kN/mm2
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DUCTILITY AND HARDNESS
♦ Ductility This is the ability of a material to deform considerably by tension before it fails Hardness A material is considered hard if it has good resistance to abrasion or surface indentation

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TOUGHNESS
♦ Toughness A tough material can withstand considerable bending without fracture Tough materials have good resistance to impact or shock loading

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MALLEABILITY
♦ A material is said to be malleable if it can be deformed to a great deal by compression before it shows sign of cracking (failure)

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THE TENSILE TEST Force Max load B1 Point of Fracture (B) A Y Y: Yield Point A: Limit of Proportionality Elastic Extension Uniform Plastic Extension Necking Extension Revision 1: February 2011 Video 7 ACTUAL STRESS (TRUE STRESS) AT THE POINT OF FRACTURE ♦ Actual stress (true stress) at the point of fracture is based on the actual cross sectional area at the fracture point If the stress is calculated using the area at the point of fracture. the resulting stress-strain graph will follow a path as shown by the dotted line to B1 Applied load (force) at fracture Actual cross sectional area at fracture 8 ♦ Actual stress (at fracture) = Revision 1: February 2011 .

1% proof stress is being used and it is defined as the stress that will produced a permanent extension of 0.e. it will be difficult to assess the yield stress of such an alloy or materials.1% proof stress = Proof force Original cross sectional area 10 ♦ ♦ Revision 1: February 2011 .YOUNG’S MODULUS ♦ In the elastic range the test piece will obey Hooke’s Law which states that stress is proportional to strain (i. the yield stress is being replaced by a value known as the “proof stress” Generally. 0. a 0. In such a situation.g. heat-treated steels and most alloys) do not show a clearly-defined yield point on the elastic portion of the graph which gradually merges into the “plastic section”. stress α strain) Young’s modulus. In such cases. E = Stress Strain YIELD STRESS Yield stress = Yield force Original cross sectional area 9 Revision 1: February 2011 PROOF STRESS ♦ Some metals (e.1% of the gauge length.

A.1% proof stress (Materials For The Engineering Technician – R. Final length – Initial length is known as Initial length strain Revision 1: February 2011 12 .1% of gauge length The determination of 0. Higgins) Revision 1: February 2011 11 PERCENTAGE ELONGATION ♦ This is an indicator of ductility.B Proof force Force O A Extension 0. Final length – Initial length Initial length % elongation = Note: (i) (ii) x 100 [ Final length – Initial length ] is also known as the increase in length.

Revision 1: February 2011 13 Stress How does the shape of the stress-strain curve for brittle metals look like? Strain Stress-strain curve for brittle metals Revision 1: February 2011 14 .PERCENTAGE AREA REDUCTION % Area reduction = Original area – Final area x 100 Original area ♦ This is also another indicator of ductility.

Stress How about the stressstrain curve for ductile metals? Strain Stress-strain curve for ductile metals Revision 1: February 2011 15 STRESS-STRAIN CURVES FOR STIFF AND LESS STIFF METALS Stiffer metals Stress Less stiff metals Strain Stress-strain graphs within the limits of proportionality Revision 1: February 2011 16 .

Procedures (by calculations): A hardened steel ball is pressed into the surface of a test piece by a suitable standard load The diameter of the impression measured by some form of calibrated microscope The Brinell Number is then calculated using the following formula (next slide): Revision 1: February 2011 18 .HARDNESS TESTS HARDNESS TESTS Brinell Test Vickers Pyramid Test Rockwell Test Revision 1: February 2011 17 BRINELL TEST ♦ ♦ Can be found by calculations or by referring to charts.

a different table is used. For different values of the load P. Revision 1: February 2011 20 .BRINELL TEST (cont’d) Load (P) Area of curved surface H = Area of curved surface = ½(π) D(D – [D2 – d2]½) where: D = ball diameter (mm) d = diameter of impression (mm) Revision 1: February 2011 19 BRINELL TEST (cont’d) ♦ Procedures (referring to charts) This is an alternative method to reduce the tedious calculations. the Brinell Hardness Number (BHN) can be found by referring to tables that relate BHN to d. Once the diameter of the impression is known.

a situation will arise when the work table of the machine is supporting the load instead of the test piece material.CONDITIONS FOR BRINELL TEST Not less than 3D h Not less than 8h Test piece ♦ The depth of the impression should not be too great relative to the thickness of the test piece. Revision 1: February 2011 21 CONDITIONS FOR BRINELL TEST – cont’d Recommendations: The thickness of the test piece should be about eight (8) times the depth of the impression.e. The edge may collapse thus giving an erroneous reading. 3D where D is the ball diameter). Revision 1: February 2011 22 . Reason: If the point of indentation is less than 3D. the edge may not have enough material to support the load when it is applied. Reason: If the impression is too deep. ♦ The point of indentation from any edge of the test piece should not be less than three (3) times the diameter of the indentor (i.

OTHER PROBLEMS ♦ For cold-rolled metal plates. the ball would be supported by the softer metal of the interior. the following procedures are to be followed: (i) Slice across the component . When the steel ball indentor is indenting the surface skin. polish and etch to expose the extent of the hardened case. This is because in the latter case. strips or case-hardened steels Revision 1: February 2011 24 . strips or casehardened steels. the hardness number will be higher than if a large ball is used. the surface skin is harder than the interior layer. Revision 1: February 2011 23 ♦ ♦ Hardness taken along this line Depth of hardening Method of determining the hardness for cold-rolled metal plates. To overcome this problem. (ii) Take measurements across the section using the smallest ball.

Revision 1: February 2011 25 TEST LOADS FOR BRINELL TEST ♦ In order to select an appropriate load. the ratio P/D2 is used.BALL SIZES FOR BRINELL TEST 3 sizes 1 mm 5 mm 10 mm Appropriate ball size has to be chosen to suit the thickness of the test piece. The ratios are shown in the table below: Materials Steel Copper alloys Aluminium Lead & tin alloys Revision 1: February 2011 P/D2 30 10 5 1 26 .

Higgins) Revision 1: February 2011 28 . After the minor load is applied. Revision 1: February 2011 27 ROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST Light Load Full Load The Rockwell Test (Materials For The Engineering Technician – R.A. The time period is automatically controlled. the scale is set to zero “0”. ♦ The hardness number is read directly from the dial and it is done when the test piece is under light load.ROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST ♦ Two loads will be used: (i) Minor load (light) (ii) Major load (full) ♦ The minor load is applied first to take up the system slack. ♦ The major load is then applied for a certain time.

♦ Operator need not be skilled so long as he/she is able to read the hardness number off the scale. ♦ Test piece does not need any preparation. Revision 1: February 2011 29 SCALES SCALE A B C TYPE OF INDENTER Diamond cone 1/16 in. ♦ The impression is very small and therefore will not damage the surface of the work piece. ♦ Test can be done very quickly.ADVANTAGES OF ROCKWELL TEST ♦ Hardness number can be read off directly from the machine dial. hardened steel ball Diamond cone (120 o angle) LOAD (kgf) 60 100 150 Revision 1: February 2011 30 .

scales B and C are commonly used. Measurement of diagonals is made by means of a microscope ruler which has variable slits built-into the eye-piece. The contact time between the indenter and the work piece is about 15 seconds. Timing is automatically controlled. This test is also known as the Diamond Pyramid Hardness Test . Scale B is for the testing of other materials including normalised steels and non-ferrous alloys. Revision 1: February 2011 32 ♦ ♦ ♦ . Of these scales. the lengths of the diagonals are measured and the average of the diagonals is calculated. ♦ ♦ Revision 1: February 2011 31 VICKERS HARDNESS TEST ♦ ♦ It uses a square-based diamond indenter. The hardness number can be obtained by calculations or by referring to charts. Scale A is seldom used.SCALES – cont’d ♦ ♦ Scale C is used for testing hardened steels and very hard materials. In this test.

VICKERS HARDNESS TEST – cont’d ♦ Obtaining the hardness number by calculations Use the following formula: H = Load (P) Surface area of indentation 2P sin(136o/2) d2 ♦ = where P = Load (kgf) d = arithmetic mean of the diagonals (mm) Revision 1: February 2011 33 VICKERS HARDNESS TEST – cont’d ♦ By referring to charts: Upon obtaining the average of the diagonals. Revision 1: February 2011 34 . Care must be taken to ensure that the correct table is used as different loadings will have different tables. reference is made to tables to obtain the Vickers Hardness Number.

A. Higgins) (i) The diamond indenter (ii) The angle between opposite faces of the diamond (iii) The appearance of the impression in the eyepiece Revision 1: February 2011 35 VICKERS HARDNESS TEST – cont’d ♦ Advantages (i) The impression made by the indentor is small and therefore does not damage the surface of the work piece. For hard materials (above an index of 500) the hardness values are more accurate than those obtained by using the Brinell Test.VICKERS HARDNESS TEST – cont’d a a (i) (ii) 136o (iii) IMPRESSION The Vickers Pyramid Hardness Test (Materials For The Engineering Technician – R. The reason is that the diamond indentor does not deformed under high load whereas a hardened steel ball does. The accuracy of the results will not vary with the depth of the impression. (ii) Impressions made are geometrically similar and within limits. Revision 1: February 2011 36 .

The striking energy is absorbed when the striker hits the test piece and as the striker swings past. Revision 1: February 2011 37 IZOD TEST ♦ The striker will strike the test piece after being released from a fixed height. it carries with it a drag pointer which is left at the highest point of swing. there are two types of impact tests: (i) Izod Impact Test (ii) Charpy Impact Test The differences between these two tests are: • In the Izod Test. ♦ The test piece is held vertically and clamped in position (one side only). lesser energy will be absorbed. Revision 1: February 2011 38 . • The striker height at the start is at fixed position whereas in the Charpy Test. Generally. the striker position is higher. the test piece is placed horizontally and supported on both ends. the test piece is held vertical in a clamp whereas in Charpy Test. more energy is used up to break the specimen. ♦ If a material is tough. ♦ If the material is brittle.IMPACT TESTS ♦ ♦ Impact tests are used to determine the toughness of materials.

IZOD TEST (TEST SPECIMEN) 28 mm 28 mm 28 mm 10 mm 130 mm 10 mm 22.25 mm) 28 mm 22 mm Front View Revision 1: February 2011 39 CHARPY TEST ♦ ♦ Test piece is placed horizontally and simply supported on both ends.5o 2 mm Root radius (0. Impact energy can be varied: (i) 150J (ii) 300J Revision 1: February 2011 40 .5o 22.

CHARPY TEST (TEST SPECIMEN) 30 mm 30 mm 10 mm SQ 60 mm A 20 mm PLAN VIEW 20 mm Note: B The ends.8 m Revision 1: February 2011 42 . are only supported but not clamped Revision 1: February 2011 41 EQUIPMENT 1. A & B.

Hence. material is tough Lesser energy is used to break the test piece.SUMMARY Difference in striker height Remarks More energy is used up to fracture the test piece. Hence. material is brittle. they will finally fail even though the stress level is well below the tensile strength of the metal ♦ ♦ Creep occurs in 3 stages: (i) Primary creep (ii) Secondary creep (iii) Tertiary creep Revision 1: February 2011 44 . Large Small Revision 1: February 2011 43 CREEP ♦ This is a phenomenon of slow and continuous extension of a material under a steady load over a long period of time When materials are stressed over a long period of time.

Revision 1: February 2011 46 ♦ .CREEP – cont’d ♦ Limiting stress is the maximum stress a metal can withstand. without showing any measurable extension What is limit ing stress? Revision 1: February 2011 45 CREEP TEST – cont’d ♦ ♦ The test pieces used are similar in shape to those used in tensile test. The test piece is placed in a thermostatically-controlled furnace the temperature of which can be accurately controlled over a long period of time. The test piece is statically stressed and a sensitive extensometer is used to measure the small extension at suitable intervals. at any given temperature.

CREEP TEST – cont’d ♦ A set of curves is obtained for different static forces at the same temperature. the limiting creep stress is obtained. Revision 1: February 2011 47 CREEP TEST EQUIPMENT Specimen Furnace Loading weights Dial indicator Creep Tester Revision 1: February 2011 48 . the difficulty is in determining the stress which will produce measurable extension. However. ♦ From these curves. The detection of such extension is dependent upon the sensitivity of the extensometer.

Revision 1: February 2011 50 ♦ . or are applied and removed a great number of times.CREEP – 3 STAGES III STRAIN te m pe ra tu re II Tertiary creep an d/ o rh ig h Secondary creep (constant strain) Hi gh st re s s Low stress and/or low temperature I TIME Variation of creep rate with time and temperature Revision 1: February 2011 49 FATIGUE ♦ When a metal component is subjected to loads which vary continuously between limits. This type of failure is known as fatigue and it is due to cyclic loading. failure may occur suddenly although the component would not fail under the action of even larger static loads.

(ii) Final fracture (crystalline part) • This part is coarse and crystalline indicating that the final fracture of the remaining cross-sectional area is unable to withstand the load. Revision 1: February 2011 51 FATIGUE – cont’d Initial crack zone (smooth shiny appearance) Crack growth zone (burnished. ridged appearance) Final fracture (crystalline appearance) Appearance of a fractured surface due to fatigue (Materials For Engineering Technician – R.A. Higgins) Revision 1: February 2011 52 . It shows ripple-liked marks radiating from the centre to the crack formation.FATIGUE – cont’d ♦ The surface of a component failed by fatigue consists of three parts: (i) Initial crack zone (smooth and shining) (ii) Cracked growth zone (burnished part) • This is smooth and burnished.

numerous test pieces will be tested each at different values of W until failure occurs Revision 1: February 2011 53 FATIGUE TEST – cont’d ♦ From the results obtained. The other end carries a vertical load )W). When the test piece rotates through 180 o. This test is widely used because of its simplicity and ability to give consistent results Some non-ferrous metals do not show a welldefined fatigue limit Revision 1: February 2011 54 ♦ ♦ . the force W acting at a point falls to zero and then increases to W in the opposite direction (ii) (iii) In order to find the fatigue limit. The curve becomes a horizontal at a stress which will endure for an infinite number of reversals. The stress is termed the fatigue limit or the endurance limit. an S-N curve is plotted with stress versus the number of reversals.FATIGUE TEST ♦ Procedures (i) The test piece is held in a chuck at one end and it is rotated by an electric motor.

undercuts.g. bad tool marks) Corrosion Stress concentration Revision 1: February 2011 55 FATIGUE TEST EQUIPMENT W Chuck Fibres under compression Loading System Revolutions Counter Fibres under tension A simple fatigue-testing machine Video Revision 1: February 2011 56 .FATIGUE ♦ Fatigue can be caused by: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Bad design (e.g. sudden change in sections) Presence of high-frequency vibrations Surface finish (e. sharp corners.

A.S-N CURVE Stress (s) Machine components made from this metal will not be subject to fatigue failure if the design stress is in this stress range Fatigue limit Number of reversals (N) (millions) A typical S-N curve obtained from a series of tests (Materials for Engineering Technician – R. Higgins) Revision 1: February 2011 57 IDEALISED S-N CURVES Idealised S-N curves for ferrous & non-ferrous metals (Materials for Engineering Technician – R. Higgins) Revision 1: February 2011 58 .A.

S-N curves and idealised S-N curves for ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Equipment for fatigue test. and some calculations.S UM R MA Y Tensile test. Rockwell and Vickers). creep test and impact test Types of hardness tests (Brinell. Stiff materials and their force-extension diagrams Definitions of mechanical properties Mechanical Testing Of Materials Fatigue. Indenter sizes and calculation of test load for Brinell Test. Creep and Impact Tests. forceextension curve. Revision 1: February 2011 59 Till We Meet Again Next Week Revision 1: February 2011 60 .