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Engineering Ceramics

Definition Ceramics are inorganic, non-metallic materials processed or consolidated at high temperatures

Revision 1: April 2011

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Microstructural Features Of A Crystalline Ceramic Grain boundaries where 2 crystals meet Grains (crystals) of the ceramic Pores left by processing (1 to 1000 µm) Microcracks caused by thermal or mechanical stress Particles or grains of a second phase (in alloys) Revision 1: April 2011 3 General Properties Of Ceramics • High hardness. • High brittleness. • . High compressive strength. • Low tensile strength. • Revision 1: April 2011 4 . • High abrasion resistance.This is largely due to the operation of the strong covalent bonds between atoms in their crystal structures Low ductility.Due to the presence of micro-cracks. .

High melting or degradation temperature.General Properties Of Ceramics – cont’ • • • • • • Extremely stiff and rigid. For other temperatures. High resistance to oxidation. Low coefficient of expansion. Low electrical conductivity. High chemical (corrosion) resistance. the following materials are more cost-effective: 22oC – 300oC (Polymers) 22oC – 600oC (Metals / alloys) Revision 1: April 2011 6 . Revision 1: April 2011 5 General Properties Of Ceramics – cont’d • Low density/high specific compressive strength even at elevated temperature (600oC – 1600oC) with little creep.

Comparison Of The Hardness Of Ceramics To Other Materials Revision 1: April 2011 7 Comparison Of Metals With Ceramic Materials Metals Crystal structure Metallic bond Good electrical conductivity Opaque Uniform atoms High tensile strength Low shear strength Ceramics Crystal structure Ionic/covalent bond Poor conductivity Transparent (in thin sections) Different-sized atoms Poor tensile strength High shear strength 8 Revision 1: April 2011 .

Comparison Of Metals With Ceramic Materials – cont’d Metals Good ductility Plastic flow Impact strength Non porous Relatively high weight Moderate hardness High density None Poor impact strength Initial high porosity Lower weight Extreme hardness Initial low density Revision 1: April 2011 Ceramics Poor ductility (brittle) 9 Applications Of Common Ceramics Revision 1: April 2011 10 .

Cross section of assembled automotive spark plug showing position of ceramic insulator (in red) Revision 1: April 2011 11 Typical Machine Applications Of Ceramics Cemented Carbide Knives Alumina Wear Tiles Revision 1: April 2011 12 .

Typical Machine Applications Of Ceramics – cont’d Boron Carbide Abrasive Blasting Nozzle Chromia Wire Guide Revision 1: April 2011 13 Typical Machine Applications Of Ceramics – cont’d Cemented Carbide Die Alumina Web Guide Revision 1: April 2011 14 .

Typical Machine Applications Of Ceramics – cont’d Alumina Shaft Sleeve Cemented Carbide Tool Insert Revision 1: April 2011 15 Typical Machine Applications Of Ceramics – cont’d Chromium Oxide Slurry Pump Liner Revision 1: April 2011 16 .

Metals are temperature.and shock-resistant. Thus. reasonably strong at high temperature. a useful combination of properties (metals and ceramics) is achieved. Ceramics generally have high melting points.Cermets are combinations of metals and one or more ceramic phases. lack strength and rigidity at high temperature. • Cermets have good tensile strength combined with stiffness and rigidity when reinforced with fibres or metal rods as in the case of reinforced concrete. they are relatively brittle: due high proportion of ceramic. However. poor resistance to thermal and mechanical shock. better compressive strength and creep resistance at high temperatures.Properties And Applications Of Cermets • Cermets . Produced by powder metallurgy method. rather brittle. • Revision 1: April 2011 18 . Revision 1: April 2011 17 Properties Of Cermets Cermets have considerable rigidity.

Properties Of Ceramics – cont’d • Cermets have good ductility and toughness at high temperatures but lack strength and creep resistance. Applicable to stainless steel. Good resistance to impact. alloy steel and inconel to raise the working temperature by about 80oC. 20 Chromium (30%) Bonded particles Magnesia Nickel Flame sprayed heat resistant coating Revision 1: April 2011 . Metal content is high (65 to 75%) Revision 1: April 2011 19 Applications Of Cermets Particle Material Flake sliver or copper Alumina (70%) Bond Graphite Structural Type Laminated Characteristic & Use Current brushes –low friction Very suitable for high temperature service.

Cutting tools for materials including masonry. Tensile strength of diamond is about 69 GN/m2 The melting temperature is 4350 oC and is the highest of all the materials. Revision 1: April 2011 22 . 21 Titanium carbide Various alloys containing Mo. Bonded particles Tungsten or titanium Cobalt carbide Bonded particles Revision 1: April 2011 Properties And Applications Of Industrial Diamonds Properties Diamond is the hardest ceramic material (Knoop = 7000) Modulus of elasticity is also the highest of the ceramic materials (E = 1000 GN/m 2) and it is about 5 times that of most steels.70%) Molybdenum boride Bond Iron (30 – 60%) Structural Type Bonded particles Characteristic & Use Turbine blades Nickel Bonded particles Cutting tool for machining titanium. glass and metal forming dies. thermal shockresistance and resistance to oxidation is necessary. Al and Cr.Applications Of Cermets – cont’d Particle Material Alumina (40% . In aircraft engines where refractoriness.

Properties And Applications Of Industrial Diamonds – cont’d • Applications: Cutting Grinding Polishing Lapping Diamond grinding wheel Diamond cutters Lapping process Diamond polishing Revision 1: April 2011 23 Revision 1: April 2011 24 .