NGEE ANN POLYTECHNIC Diploma in Aerospace Technology System Dynamics & Control EXPERIMENT (SDCEXP-1): POSITION & SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR SYSTEMS OBJECTIVE: To enable the student to understand the following concepts: (a) Open loop and closed-loop control of position and speed (b) Velocity feedback in position control (c) ffects of increasing system gain (d) ffects of load changes on a speed control system EQUIPMENT: !er"o Demonstrator !D #$$ %!-& $' (eedback )ontrol !ystem *and-held tachometer (optional) ++' ,Ohm resistor block INTRODUCTION: &n -osition )ontrol. the ob/ecti"e is to maintain (control) the physical position (linear or angular) of the mechanism0 (or e1ample. an electric motor could be used to change the position of a rudder of an airplane. to operate a lift. to alter the launch angle of a missile or to position a robotic arm0 &n !peed )ontrol systems. the controlled "ariable is speed (again. either linear or angular)0 They are used in continuous processes such as sheet material rewinder systems. synchronisation of shaft rotation in printing and hot rolling mills. and in applications such as missile guidance systems. automatic piloting systems. lifts and o"erhead hoist control0 )ontrol can be achie"ed either in open or closed loop0 &n an Open 2oop control system. no mechanism for implementing feedback e1ists0 *ence if the actual position de"iates from the desired position. no automatic correcti"e action will take place0 &n a )losed 2oop control system. the system is error actuated0 This means that the system3s actuator output depends on the difference between the actual controlled "alue (feedback) to the desired "alue (setpoint)0 4ith closed loop control. the system can automatically compensate for changes in the load0 At higher loads. more energy will be supplied to maintain the controlled "ariable at the setpoint0 Due to system inertia. a position control system with only position feedback. may e1hibit an undesirable oscillatory output0 This is because the output position tends to o"ershoot its desired position0 Oscillations can be 5dampened3 out if the system is able to re"erse its tor6ue before the position error reaches 7ero0 This can be achie"ed by adding to the position error signal another signal. which would counter-act the error signal when re6uired. but diminish when the error has been reduced to 7ero0 The "elocity signal is normally used as the counteracting signal0 Velocity feedback. when applied to a closed-loop position control system will ha"e a dampening effect on oscillations in the position "ariable0

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POSITION CONTROL PROCEDURE / OBSERVATION: PROCEDURE/OBSERVATION : A . #' . switch on the power supply to the motor and the ser"o panel0 Do not acti"ate the paper roller0 $0 Try to ad/ust the &@-AT potentiometer until the OAT-AT (motor shaft9aileron position ) is in the middle position0 &s this possible B 4hyB CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC C CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC C CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC C !D) 8--#-+9: .SDC PART 1.OPEN LOOP POSITION CONTROL #0 )onnect the wires from the ser"o panel to the motor (paper roller) according to their respecti"e color codes0 +0 Disconnect the yellow lead (.) from the position feedback potentiometer0 <0 -lug in =e.> only0 Do not plug in ="el0 ?0 2ift up the pen-holder.

CLOSED LOOP POSITION CONTROL /ITH VELOCITY FEEDBAC0 &n this part of the e1periment.&@-AT to the system by 6uickly turning the &@-AT potentiometer to 5?3 position 0 P .'#! $%+-! on the paper roll0 !top the paper roller and "1! &*! +!#2#&.& &*! +!#). an additional feedback signal called &elocity 'eedback is added0 (t has the effect of increasing the damping in the system.' &*! +!#).Ω resistor as the ="el to pro"ide for "elocity feedback0 +0 Turn the &@-AT potentiometer to 5'3 position and switch on the power supply0 <0 2ower the pen-holder and switch on the paper roller0 &nput a !T .'#! $%+-! *!+!.+(!(3 P !"#! $%& "'( )"#&! &*! +!#). !D) 8--#-<9: .) from the -osition (eedback potentiometer0 [Notice that the motor shaft/aileron is now oscillating. stick the response cur"e at the space pro"ided0 P !"#! $%& "'( )"#&! &*! +!#). #0 -lug in $0D . stop the paper roller and lift up the pen-holder0 $0 Tear out the response cur"e.'#! $%+-! *!+!.+ -" %!# .&@-AT to the system by 6uickly turning the potentiometer from ' to ?0 -lot the response cur"e on the paper roll0 ?0 !witch off the power supply.CLOSED LOOP POSITION CONTROL #0 4ithout switching off the power supply. connect the . Hence do not lea!e the system running for more than "# seconds continuously$ Switch off the power after each step is completed% +0 !et the input potentiometer to position 5'30 Vary the &@-AT signal (desired "alue) by changing the position potentiometer (from ' to ? and ' to -?)0 @otice that the motor shaft9aileron follows the changes in the input this time0 <0 2ower the pen-holder and switch on the paper roller0 Apply a !T . C . Continuous oscillations can wear out the feedback potentiometer.SDC B .ellow lead (.'#! +!$.

Ohms0 =epeat step (<) of this section0 @ote the change in the speed of response0 &s the speed of response faster or slowerB P !"#! )"#&! &*! +!#).Ohms and repeat step (<)0 @ote the change in speed of response as compared to the plots taken in the pre"ious two steps0 &s the response faster or slowerB P !"#! )"#&! &*! +!#). D . $0 Decrease the "elocity feedback by changing the "alue of the ="el resistor to lOO .'#! $%+-! *!+!.'#! $%+-! *!+!.Ω resistor into the ="el (for "elocity feedback)0 +0 !et the &@-AT potentiometer to 5'3 position0 <0 &ncrease the gain by changing the "alue of the )e resistor to #. the error signal is amplified before reaching the motor0 (f the gain of the amplifier is high the system will become more sensiti!e resulting in a faster system response. #0 -lug in $0D. ()e* +ain)0 !witch on the paper roller0 Ei"e the system a step change at the input and take a plot of the system response0 !witch off the paper roller and label the resistor !alues on the plot taken0 !D) 8--#-?9: .CLOSED LOOP POSITION CONTROL /ITH INCREASED GAIN &n this e1periment set-up.SDC ?0 &ncrease the "elocity feedback by changing the "alue of the ="el resistor to l .

SDC ?0 Decrease the gain by changing the "alue of the =e resistor to lOO.&*!+ ) .> and &"4! "'.5 " #&!) +!#).'#!0 @ote the difference in speed of response between the two gain settings0 &s this response faster or slower than that obtained in the pre"ious step (<)B CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC P !"#! $%& "'( )"#&! &*! +!#). $0 !witch off all the power supply to the !er"o Demonstrator and disconnect all the resistors0 !D) 8--#-$9: .& .'#! $%+-! *!+!.

SDC PART 6 ..' .loop control0 #0 )onnect the tachogenerator feedback signal back to the Op Amp Anit and swing the magnetic brakes clear from the brake disc0 !D) 8--#-D9: F2'" S)!!( (+)7) (/2&* L.) B ."() 8 S)!!( R!(%$&2.O.!- D )O@T=O2 &n this section. L..CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL The procedure carried out in the pre"ious section is repeated with the system under closed. we shall study the effect of load changes on a speed control system operated under open-loop control0 #0 !et up the !peed )ontrol apparatus for the %!-&!O system as shown in figure +0 +0 Disconnect the tacho feedback signal from the Op Amp Anit and swing the magnetic brakes clear from the brake disc0 nsure that the feedback selector is turned to 1ternal (eedback0 <0 !et the &nput Attenuator to '0 Turn on the power supply and ad/ust the Attenuator until the motor speed is about #''' rpm0 Ase the hand-held tachometer to register the speed0 F not allow the motor current to e1ceed + Amps9 ?0 !top the motor by turning off the power supply0 !wing in the magnetic brakes until the edge of the magnets coincides at the ?th mark0 $0 =estart the motor and record again the motor speed in Table #0 I'2&2" S)!!( (+)7) (N.) C ."() O)!' L.@ 2OO.SPEED CONTROL A .#!( L.

Asing the results recorded in table #.S)!!( C. which combination of =e and ="el would you consider to gi"e the best output for position controlB 1plain your answer0 P"+& 6 .-osition )ontrol #0 Attach all the plots taken from the !er"o Demonstrator into your report0 nsure each plot is neatly labeled with their respecti"e resistor "alues (=e and ="el)0 4ith reference to these plots. answer the following 6uestions: a0 4hy is the output of the )losed-loop position control system (without "elocity feedback) so oscillatoryB b0 )omment on the impro"ement in position control after "elocity feedback is added into the control system0 c0 *ow does the gain setting affect the speed of responseB 4hat would you e1pect if the gain is set too highB d0 (rom all the plots taken.($) in the pre"ious section A .SDC +0 =epeat the steps (<) . recording your results again in table l0 DISCUSSION: -art # .'&+. comment on the effect of load change under the open and closed-loop control0 !uggest one method to further reduce the percentage drop in speed under closed-loop control0 CONCLUSION Griefly conclude on the findings of this e1periment0 !D) 8--#-:9: .