SDC

NGEE ANN POLYTECHNIC Diploma in Aerospace Technology System Dynamics & Control EXPERIMENT (SDCEXP-1): POSITION & SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR SYSTEMS OBJECTIVE: To enable the student to understand the following concepts: (a) Open loop and closed-loop control of position and speed (b) Velocity feedback in position control (c) Effects of increasing system gain (d) Effects of load changes on a speed control system EQUIPMENT: Servo Demonstrator SD 155 MS-I 50 Feedback Control System Hand-held tachometer (optional) 220 KOhm resistor block INTRODUCTION: In Position Control, the objective is to maintain (control) the physical position (linear or angular) of the mechanism. For example, an electric motor could be used to change the position of a rudder of an airplane, to operate a lift, to alter the launch angle of a missile or to position a robotic arm. In Speed Control systems, the controlled variable is speed (again, either linear or angular). They are used in continuous processes such as sheet material rewinder systems, synchronisation of shaft rotation in printing and hot rolling mills, and in applications such as missile guidance systems, automatic piloting systems, lifts and overhead hoist control. Control can be achieved either in open or closed loop. In an Open Loop control system, no mechanism for implementing feedback exists. Hence if the actual position deviates from the desired position, no automatic corrective action will take place. In a Closed Loop control system, the system is error actuated. This means that the system’s actuator output depends on the difference between the actual controlled value (feedback) to the desired value (setpoint). With closed loop control, the system can automatically compensate for changes in the load. At higher loads, more energy will be supplied to maintain the controlled variable at the setpoint. Due to system inertia, a position control system with only position feedback, may exhibit an undesirable oscillatory output. This is because the output position tends to overshoot its desired position. Oscillations can be ‘dampened’ out if the system is able to reverse its torque before the position error reaches zero. This can be achieved by adding to the position error signal another signal, which would counter-act the error signal when required, but diminish when the error has been reduced to zero. The velocity signal is normally used as the counteracting signal. Velocity feedback, when applied to a closed-loop position control system will have a dampening effect on oscillations in the position variable.

SDCEXP-1-1/7

Is this possible ? Why? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ SDCEXP-1-2/7 .OPEN LOOP POSITION CONTROL 1. Try to adjust the INPUT potentiometer until the OUTPUT (motor shaft/aileron position ) is in the middle position. Do not plug in Rvel. 4. 5. Connect the wires from the servo panel to the motor (paper roller) according to their respective color codes. 10 KΩ only. 3. Plug in Re. switch on the power supply to the motor and the servo panel. Disconnect the yellow lead (Y) from the position feedback potentiometer.POSITION CONTROL PROCEDURE / OBSERVATION: PROCEDURE/OBSERVATION : A . Lift up the pen-holder.SDC PART 1. Do not activate the paper roller. 2.

It has the effect of increasing the damping in the system. Stop the paper roller and label the resistor values on the response recorded. SDCEXP-1-3/7 . Plug in 5. 4. stop the paper roller and lift up the pen-holder. Plot the response curve on the paper roll. Without switching off the power supply. Lower the pen-holder and switch on the paper roller. Continuous oscillations can wear out the feedback potentiometer. Input a STEP INPUT to the system by quickly turning the INPUT potentiometer to ‘4’ position . Set the input potentiometer to position ‘0’.CLOSED LOOP POSITION CONTROL 1. Hence. 2. [Notice that the motor shaft/aileron is now oscillating. Please cut and paste the response curve here. 3.CLOSED LOOP POSITION CONTROL WITH VELOCITY FEEDBACK In this part of the experiment. Vary the INPUT signal (desired value) by changing the position potentiometer (from 0 to 4 and 0 to -4). Lower the pen-holder and switch on the paper roller. 5. connect the Yellow lead (Y) from the Position Feedback potentiometer. do not leave the system running for more than 10 seconds continuously! Switch off the power after each step is completed] 2. Notice that the motor shaft/aileron follows the changes in the input this time. stick the response curve at the space provided. an additional feedback signal called Velocity Feedback is added. Turn the INPUT potentiometer to ‘0’ position and switch on the power supply. Please cut and paste the response curve here. Plot the response curve on the paper roll. 1. Switch off the power supply.SDC B . C .6 KΩ resistor as the Rvel to provide for velocity feedback. Tear out the response curve. 3. Apply a STEP INPUT to the system by quickly turning the potentiometer from 0 to 4.

D . 3. 5.6KΩ resistor into the Rvel (for velocity feedback). 1. If the gain of the amplifier is high. Switch on the paper roller.SDC 4. resulting in a faster system response. Decrease the velocity feedback by changing the value of the Rvel resistor to lOO KOhms and repeat step (3). Give the system a step change at the input and take a plot of the system response. the error signal is amplified before reaching the motor. the system will become more sensitive. Increase the gain by changing the value of the Re resistor to 1K (Re= Gain). Switch off the paper roller and label the resistor values on the plot taken. Set the INPUT potentiometer to ‘0’ position. Note the change in speed of response as compared to the plots taken in the previous two steps. Repeat step (3) of this section. Plug in 5. Note the change in the speed of response.CLOSED LOOP POSITION CONTROL WITH INCREASED GAIN In this experiment set-up. Is the speed of response faster or slower? Please paste the response curve here. Increase the velocity feedback by changing the value of the Rvel resistor to l KOhms. SDCEXP-1-4/7 . Is the response faster or slower? Please paste the response curve here. 2.

Switch off all the power supply to the Servo Demonstrator and disconnect all the resistors. Is this response faster or slower than that obtained in the previous step (3)? ___________________________________________________________________________ Please cut and paste the response curve here.SDC 4. SDCEXP-1-5/7 . Note the difference in speed of response between the two gain settings. Decrease the gain by changing the value of the Re resistor to lOOKΩ and take another plot of a step response. 5.

SPEED CONTROL A .OPEN LOOP SPEED CONTROL In this section.loop control. Set up the Speed Control apparatus for the MS-ISO system as shown in figure 2. we shall study the effect of load changes on a speed control system operated under open-loop control. Turn on the power supply and adjust the Attenuator until the motor speed is about 1000 rpm. Initial Speed (rpm) (No Load) Open Loop Closed Loop B . [ not allow the motor current to exceed 2 Amps/ 4. Use the hand-held tachometer to register the speed. Connect the tachogenerator feedback signal back to the Op Amp Unit and swing the magnetic brakes clear from the brake disc. 1.CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL The procedure carried out in the previous section is repeated with the system under closed. 3. 1. 2. Ensure that the feedback selector is turned to External Feedback. SDCEXP-1-6/7 Final Speed (rpm) (With Load) % Speed Reduction . Swing in the magnetic brakes until the edge of the magnets coincides at the 4th mark. Stop the motor by turning off the power supply. Disconnect the tacho feedback signal from the Op Amp Unit and swing the magnetic brakes clear from the brake disc. 5.SDC PART 2 . Set the Input Attenuator to 0. Restart the motor and record again the motor speed in Table 1.

comment on the effect of load change under the open and closed-loop control. c.Position Control 1. Comment on the improvement in position control after velocity feedback is added into the control system. answer the following questions: a. Part 2 . Repeat the steps (3) . From all the plots taken. DISCUSSION: Part 1 .Speed Control Using the results recorded in table 1. Why is the output of the Closed-loop position control system (without velocity feedback) so oscillatory? b. Attach all the plots taken from the Servo Demonstrator into your report. recording your results again in table l. SDCEXP-1-7/7 . CONCLUSION Briefly conclude on the findings of this experiment. Suggest one method to further reduce the percentage drop in speed under closed-loop control. which combination of Re and Rvel would you consider to give the best output for position control? Explain your answer.(5) in the previous section A . Ensure each plot is neatly labeled with their respective resistor values (Re and Rvel). How does the gain setting affect the speed of response? What would you expect if the gain is set too high? d.SDC 2. With reference to these plots.