Diploma in Aerospace Technology
System Dynamics and Control

1. To get familiar with some basic concepts in frequency response analysis.
2. To use MATLAB to study the open-loop frequency response of a control system.
3. To analyse the system stability using frequency response.
The change in size of a sinusoidal signal is expressed by the ratio of the output amplitude divided
by the input amplitude. This ratio is known as the gain of the component. Although the ratio is a
scalar number, gain is often expressed in decibel units.

Gain =

Amplitude of output signal
Amplitude of input signal



Decibel Gain = 201og10 (gain)
The phase angle is expressed as the phase difference between the output and input signals:
Phase angle = output phase angle - input phase
angle =-θ
The negative sign indicates that the output signals is lagging the input signal.

The output gain and phase angle will vary when the frequency of the input signal changes. The
frequency response of a control system is a set of values of gains and output phase angles that
occur when the input signal is varied over a range of frequencies.

A diagram showing this set of values on a common input frequency scale on the x-axis is called a
Bode Plot, refer to an example shown in Figure 1. The plot is essentially made up of two graphs
The y-axis of one Bode graph is the decibel gain, the other is the phase angle. Bode plots are
useful when we want to analyse the stability of a control system.

SM3_R3_1/7 (July_2012)

It also gives the designer an idea of the stability safety margin. i. Then GAIN MARGIN = .m−1800 dB 2.SDC GAIN AND PHASE MARGIN The open-loop Bode plot of a control system provides the information necessary to determine the stability of the system. they should be sufficiently large. A control system is stable only if the phase angle. β is -180 degree. Phase Margin: The amount by which the phase angle can decrease before instability occurs. The stability of a control system may be stated in two ways: 1.. A control system is stable only if the open-loop gain is less than 1 (or 0 dB) at the frequency for which phase angle. Gain Margin: The amount by which the gain at β = -180 degree can be increased before instability occurs. Standard practice uses a gain margin of at least 6 dB and a phase margin of at least 40 degree.e. 2. ω odB : Frequency at which gain is 0 dB and read the phase angle β odB from the phase plot. how much can the gain or phase angle change before the system will become unstable. The gain and phase margins can be read directly from the open-loop Bode Plot by the following procedures: Locate the two frequencies: 1. Then PHASE MARGIN = 180 0 + β odB As these two margins are safety margins in the design of control systems. SM3_R3_2/7 (July_2012) . These two ways of viewing the stability requirement suggest a two-way safety margin: 1. β (considering the sign as well). 2. ω −1800 : Frequency at which the phase angle is -180 degree and read the gain m−1800 dB from the magnitude plot. is more than -180 degree at the frequency for which the gain is 1 (or 0 dB).

m−1800 and the phase margin is equal to 180 deg + β odB . The gain margin is equal to . simulate the frequency response for the following system. The control system designer uses m−1800 (the gain at the -180 degree frequency) and β odB (the phase angle at the 0 dB frequency) to determine the gain and phase margin. FREQUENCY RESPONSE AND TIME RESPONSE OF SYSTEM WITH DIFFERENT DAMPING RATIO Task 1: Follow the similar procedure as in the previous task.SDC Figure 1: Determining the gain and phase margin of a control system using the Bode plot The determination of the gain and phase margins using a Bode plot is shown in Figure 1. a) GC(s) = 5. Gp(s) = 25 s + 5s + 25 SM3_R3_3/7 (July_2012) 2 .

Gp(s) = 25 s + 10 s + 25 c) GC(s) = 5. Gp(s) = 25 s + 50s + 25 d) GC(s) = 5. sysB=gc*gp. gp=tf([25]. ……… (repeat the same.SDC b) GC(s) = 5. Gp(s) = 25 s + s + 25 2 2 2 1. gc=5.[1 5 25]).[1 10 25]). gc=5. SM3_R3_4/7 (July_2012) . sysC and sysD. grid on. There are 4 cases in Task 1. remember to change the value in the plant) 2. sysA=gc*gp. sysB. grid on. The frequency response of the open loop transfer function in the previous section could be easily obtained by key in the following in the MATLAB editor Window. hold on. step(sysA). Get a plot for all the cases. step(sysB). gp=tf([25]. Identify each graph by sysA. hold on.

φm (180o + φ ) Gain cross-over frequency. Controller gain Phase angle φ Phase Margin. 2. Enter 5 as the controller gain (Gc1) and s( s 2 + 28s + 52) as the plant transfer function (Gp). grid on. R(s) + E(s) - K = 37 C(s) e -sT s(s + 10) Y(s) SM3_5/7 (July_2012) Figure 2 -Block diagram of the robot arm control Y(s) Aileron position . select ‘characteristics’ then ‘All stability margin’. Gc2=35 sys2=Gc2*Gp bode(sys2) 3.1 sec. Create the Bode Plot for the systems with controller gain of 5 and 35. Click on the figure. Table 1 Paste the figure here. Gc1=5 Gp=tf([52]. Fill in table 1 with the values obtained from the figure. ωm (rad/sec) Phase cross-over frequency.FREQUENCY RESPONSE 52 1. 4. comment on the changes in system performance at the higher gain setting ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ANALYSIS OF SYSTEM STABILITY USING FREQUENCY RESPONSE A robot controller from a space shuttle can be modeled with a block diagram for K = 37 and the dead time T = 0. These will show you all the phase margin and gain margin for various systems.[1 28 52 0]) sys1=Gc1*Gp bode(sys1) hold on. ωm (rad/sec) 5 35 For your results in table 1.

1 sys01=K*sys bode(sys01.(Gain at β = .[1 0]). sys2=tf(1. dead time=0. β when Gain = 0dB Phase margin = (1800 + β) Gain cross over frequency . sys2=tf(1. sys. Controller Gain . sys. Left click on the graph to find the required data and enter into Table 2.2 sec. K=37.1.01:10).outputdelay=0. sys. sys2=tf(1. sys1=tf(1.sys2).180o) Phase cross over frequency . K Phase angle.1800 37 rad/s dB dB rad/s DISCUSSION: A) Change the time delay to T = 0.1. ω at β = . key in the following command. grid on. grid on. sys1=tf(1. 2.sys2). ω at Gain = 0dB Gain at phase angle β = .[1 0]).3:0.outputdelay=0. sys1=tf(1. sys=series(sys1. %system without feedback. sys=series(sys1.[1 0]).[1 10]). sys=series(sys1. %system without feedback. dead time=0. Table 2.sys2).[1 10]). K=42.1800 Gain margin = 0. Open Matlab notebook. hold on. simulate and measure the changes in Gain Margin and Phase Margin.[1 10]). K=42.2.2 sys02=K*sys SM3_6/7 (July_2012) . %system without feedback.1 sys3=K*sys bode(sys3). Paste the bode plot here.1.outputdelay=0. dead time=0.

_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ B).bode(sys02.01:10).1 sec T = 0.3:0. Briefly describe what you have learned at the end of this exercise. State the advantages of using a computer simulation package such as MATLAB in the design of control systems.2 sec Gain margin Phase Margin Comment on your observation. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ SM3_7/7 (July_2012) . T=0.