Basic Training Course GT10B2 / Turbine Governor

Turbine Governor
Purpose
The purpose of the governor is to control the fuel flow to the gas turbine during acceleration from start to operation, and deceleration to stop in such way that set limits are not exceeded.
Figure Display Turbine Governor (General ilustrations)

Abbreviations used in display111 Island Mode
Synchronizing
03-11

T0 T7

Inlet air temperature to GG Power turb. exhaust temperature Air pressure after compressor Voltage Active power Reactive power Frequence Power factor Ampere

BV1 Open BV2 IGV NGG NGG*

Only for training

NPT
©s

Bleed valve No. 1 Position P3 Bleed valve No. 2 Position U Inlet guide vane Position P Gas generator speed Q Calculated gas generator speed f Power turbine speed PF
I

1 (8)

other feed2 (8) . of the controlled parameters. Pneumatic actuator (6) 5 Fuel 03-11 2 3 4 5 IGV 1 C T PT Only for training ©s 6 BV2 The actual value of the speeds are brought to the governor as a pulse train. these motors actuate the fuel control valves and the inlet guide vanes. Principles of the Function The principal components (see figure below) are: Transducer (1) Set values (2) for sensing governed variables e. speed (actual values). electrical signals from the turbine governor control AC servo motors. Control channels (3) AC Servo motor drivers (4): The drivers transform the output signals from the governor into servo phase currents. i.e.g. All incoming sensed quantities are composed with their setpoint and the deviation is adapted to derive the signals that control the servo motor drivers. The controlled bleed valve 2 is provided with a pneumatic actuator. transform the phase currents into torques that move the valves and positions the the controlled bleed valve 2. AC Servo motors (5) vanes. Positioning is mainly electrical.Basic Training Course GT10B2 / Turbine Governor General The turbine governor is digital and realised in the ADVANT Controller 110 and Master Piece 280/1 Process Stations and set of AC servo driver boards.

Basic Training Course GT10B2 / Turbine Governor backs are transmitted in the form of standard current signals. The difference between actual and set value gives an error signal which is proportional to the governor output signal. PRESSURE GUIDE VANE BLEED VALVE 2 P7 EXHAUST PRESSURE XGCP PRIMARY GAS XGCM MAIN GAS PEL T7 EXHAUST TEMP. the servo motor halts. the fuel control valve is opened by the sequenser at the same time as 3 (8) . An exception to this is the gas generator deceleration control which is connected through a maximum selector. T0 INLET TEMP. Idling fuel is thereby always supplied to the turbine regardless of whether another control channel requires a smaller valve opening. Principle of the function ©s Start up When starting up. The block diagram on last page shows the principles of the control system. When the actual set and real values are equal. In the various control channels the actual values are compared with their respective set values. The control signals from the various control channels are connected to the servo motor drivers via minimum selectors. The channel in control is indicated on the VDU. SPEED FN See page 2 M DT DT M COMBUSTION COMPRESSOR TURBINE POWER TURBIN G Only for training 03-11 Figure. NGG GGT SPEED P3 COMPR. thus the fuel flow is controlled by the channel requiring the smallest valve opening. FG NPT LOAD POWER TURB. The direction of the motor is determined by the sign of the output signal. The output signal (±10V) is proportional to the servo motor speed.

Normal operation The frequency/load control governs the output according to the load set point and the droop setting. the frequency is controlled independently of the load. 03-11 Only for training Gas generator acceleration ©s Surging and transient over temperatures in the gas generator at load pick up are prevented by the gas generator acceleration control. By the droop setting. Synchronizing When the AC-generator has reached nominal voltage. and a frequency reduction provides load increase. For operation on small networks and 0% droop. For operation on larger grid networks the droop setting must be greater than 0%. the grid frequency discriminator is connected to bias the frequency/load control. The setpoint of the temperature control is a function of the pressure drop over the power turbine. a frequency increase provides a load reduction. The maximum servo position possible 4 (8) .Basic Training Course GT10B2 / Turbine Governor the ignition is switched on. At approximately idle speed the gasgenerator speed control takes over and ramps the gas generator speed up to synchronous speed of the power turbine. The output is controlled by means of the load control error signal. Load limitation The gas turbine output is limited by the gas generator exhaust temperature control (limiter). In this way the correct synchronizing speed is achieved. The starting control controls the fuel flow according to a schedule up to gas generator idle speed. Now the frequency/load control takes over.

Idling fuel is thereby always supplied to the turbine regardless of whether another control channel requires a lower servo position. Gas generator deceleration To prevent the combustor flame from extinguishing during a rapid reduction of the turbine load. The gas generator deceleration control ensures that the lowest possible fuel quantity. 5 (8) . One primary valve for start and low load operation and a main valve for high load operation. sufficient for keeping a stable flame. The deceleration control also prevents the gas generator speed from dropping to a too low value. The governor controls these two valves in a way that the desired sequence is obtained. Maximum Selector An exception to this is the gas generator deceleration control which controls through a maximum selector. the turbine governor has a deceleration control. is supplied to the combustor when the gas generator is slowed down. 03-11 Low NOx combustor Only for training ©s When provided with dry low NOx combustor for gas fuel firing the unit is equipped with dual gas fuel control valves. Each controlling channel is provided with an indicator which is lit when the channel is in control. thus the flow is controlled by the channel requiring the lowest servo position. Minimum Selector The control signals from the various control channels are connected to the drive unit controller via minimum selectors.Basic Training Course GT10B2 / Turbine Governor is restricted as a function of the gas generator speed.

Basic Training Course GT10B2 / Turbine Governor Normal stop At a normal stop the governor ramps down the output load to zero.5 sec/full stroke 0% adjustable is optional 10% 0 . Emergency stop At a trip order. The bleed valve has a feed forward to open it quickly at load rejections. then brings the fuel control valve(s) to minimum position. Technical data Fuel servo response Bleed valve response Inlet guide vane response Frequency dead band Frequency adjustment Droop setting 0. the governor quickly closes the fuel control valve(s).35 sec/full stroke 1.2 sec/full stroke 1.10% 03-11 Legend for block diagram BV2 DFN Bleed valve 2 position Grid frequency deviation Gas generator Inlet guide vane position AC servo motor actuator Only for training GG ©s IGV M 6 (8) . Bleed valve 2 and guide vane control Both parameters are controlled as a function of the gas generator speed.

primary valve Energy flow. gas fuel. gas fuel. main valve Only for training 03-11 ©s 7 (8) .Basic Training Course GT10B2 / Turbine Governor MIN MAX NGG NPT P PDP PEL PT DPPT T0 T7 XGCP XGCM Minimum fuel requirements selector Maximum fuel requirements selector Gas generator rotor speed Power turbine rotor speed Proportional control Proportional derivative proportional control Active load Power turbine Pressure drop over the power turbine Ambient temperature Power turbine exhaust temperature Energy flow.

Basic Training Course GT10B2 / Turbine Governor Block Diagram STOP GG DECELERATION CONTROL P GAS FUEL PRIMARY CONTROL VALVE XGCP M A X M I N AC SERVO MOTOR DRIVER M T3 SPLIT RANGE CONTROL XGCP+ XGCM MANUAL STROKE LIMITER P START & FUEL CHANGE CONTROL P GAS FUEL MAIN CONTROL VALVE M I N STOP M I N AC SERVO MOTOR DRIVER M XGCP+ XGCM+ GG ACCELERATION CONTROL P GG SPEED CONTROL PDP PT EXHAUST TEMPERATURE CONTROL PDP FREQUENCY & LOAD CONTROL PDP LOAD LOSS DETECTION D INLET GUIDE VANE CONTROL P BLEED VALVE 2 CONTROL AC SERVO MOTOR DRIVER NGG T7 M I N NPT ∆F N P EL NGG IGV M INLET GUIDE VANES I P BLEED VALVE 2 Only for training 03-11 ©s 8 (8) .